Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.TritiumBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.ThymineOpen Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Microviridae: A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.UracilModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacteriophage HK022: A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Corticoviridae: A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.ThymidineReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cytosine NucleotidesDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.PolynucleotidesPhosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.AcridinesMicroscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteriophage IKe: A species of filamentous phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE. They are specific for enterobacteria that contain an IncN plasmid.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Microvirus: A genus of bacteriophages of the family MICROVIRIDAE. The genome consists of isometric single-stranded DNA.Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms. (1/735)

In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms following PCR amplification of the coa hypervariable and spa repeat regions. Coa gene RFLPs produced a total of 38 distinct combined patterns after digestion with HaeIII and AluI and identified the predominant epidemic (EMRSA) types 15 and 16. A unique HaeIII restriction site was identified by RFLP and sequence analysis in the coa gene for EMRSA 15 but not EMRSA 16. The spa gene PCR yielded a total of 14 different profiles ranging from 3-18 repeats with the 2 predominant EMRSA types falling into 2 distinct groups. PCR detection of coa and spa polymorphisms offer a rapid preliminary strain identification and discriminatory subtyping information for surveillance of MRSA.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (2/735)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (3/735)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (4/735)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104. (5/735)

Salmonella typhimurium phage type DT104 has become an important emerging pathogen. Isolates of this phage type often possess resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT resistance). The mechanism by which DT104 has accumulated resistance genes is of interest, since these genes interfere with treatment of DT104 infections and might be horizontally transferred to other bacteria, even to unrelated organisms. Previously, several laboratories have shown that the antibiotic resistance genes of DT104 are chromosomally encoded and involve integrons. The antibiotic resistance genes conferring the ACSSuT-resistant phenotype have been cloned and sequenced. These genes are grouped within two district integrons and intervening plasmid-derived sequences. This sequence is potentially useful for detection of multiresistant DT104.  (+info)

Identification of four phage resistance plasmids from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2. (6/735)

The bacteriophage-host sensitivity patterns of 16 strains of Lactococcus lactis originally isolated from a mixed strain Cheddar cheese starter culture were determined. Using phages obtained from cheese factory whey, four of the strains were found to be highly phage resistant. One of these isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2, was studied in detail to determine the mechanisms responsible for the phage insensitivity phenotypes. Conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA from strain HO2 allowed a function to be assigned to four of its six plasmids. A 46-kb molecule, designated pCI646, was found to harbor the lactose utilization genes, while this and plasmids of 58 kb (pCI658), 42 kb (pCI642), and 4.5 kb (pCI605) were shown to be responsible for the phage resistance phenotypes observed against the small isometric-headed phage phi712 (936 phage species) and the prolate-headed phage phic2 (c2 species). pCI658 was found to mediate an adsorption-blocking mechanism and was also responsible for the fluffy pellet phenotype of cells containing the molecule. pCI642 and pCI605 were both shown to be required for the operation of a restriction-modification system.  (+info)

Subtyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the North-West of England: a comparison of standardised pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with bacteriophage typing including an inter-laboratory reproducibility study. (7/735)

Bacteriophage typing is currently the recognised methodology for the typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the UK. Bacteriophage typing is less discriminatory and does not type all isolates compared with some molecular methods for typing MRSA. Chromosomal genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is increasingly recognised as an improved method for typing MRSA, providing increased discrimination and typability. In this study the results of a comparison of bacteriophage typing and PFGE typing and subtyping are presented for a large collection of isolates from the North-West of England. Isolates belonging to the most frequently isolated epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) bacteriophage types 15 and 16 were typed by PFGE with further discrimination of common PFGE types possible into a number of subtypes. These results for a large collection of isolates demonstrate the improved typing of MRSA with PFGE. The widespread acceptance of PFGE for typing MRSA isolates has been hampered by the lack of standardised methodologies. Recently, a standardised PFGE strain typing system, known as the GenePath system has become available. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison of PFGE typing for a collection of isolates demonstrated good reproducibility with this system.  (+info)

Phages for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an international trial. (8/735)

An internationally agreed and validated set of phages is used worldwide for the typing of strains of Staphylococcus aureus of human origin. However, because of the sometimes reduced susceptibility of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) to these phages, some of the national typing centres use locally isolated and characterized sets of experimental phages. In this trial, 42 such phages were distributed to 6 centres and tested against 744 isolates of MRSA with the intention of defining a phage set to augment the international set. The use of these experimental phages increased the percentage typability from 75% with the international set to 93% and the number of identifiable lytic patterns from 192 to 424. A subset of 10 experimental phages was selected. When this subset was compared with the experimental panel, the typability rate was 91% and 370 distinct patterns were obtained. This subset of phages has been distributed for international trial.  (+info)

The more noticeable epidemics of Salmonellosis tend to occur in species of northern birds, particularly the Common Redpoll, that periodically appear in more southern regions during the winter months. These birds breed in the boreal forest and feed primarily on conifer seeds. In years in which the seed crop is not sufficient, the redpolls and other associated species of birds (e.g. siskins, crossbills) move south in large numbers and are seen at bird feeders. In some of these eruption years, there is significant mortality at bird feeders due to Salmonellosis. A number of different phage types have been found in common redpolls. For a number of years PT 40 was the predominant strain. This same phage type has been seen in related species of birds in Great Britain and Scandinavia. More recently, phage types, including U284 and PT51 have been found. The latter is the phage type that has predominated in the years 2009-2013. These bacteria are highly adapted to their hosts and it is quite likely that ...
Citation: Shah, D.H., Casavant, C., Hawley, Q., Addwebi, T., Call, D.R., Guard, J.Y. 2012. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry show differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress and survival in the egg albumen. Food Borne Diseases. 9(3):258-264. Interpretive Summary: Expression of genes that facilitate the ability of a bacterium to cause disease can have multiple layers of control. Sometimes a mutation in the gene producing the protein alters disease potential, but other times the mutation might be in a different region that alters the regulation of the gene in question. Regardless of where the mutation is, the way the bacteria acts on the host can look the same if the ultimate outcome is a change in the gene most immediately responsible for causing disease. This research shows that the gene rpoS, a stress regulatory gene producing a factor referred to as sS, is a gene likely to be mutated in Salmonella Enteritidis either directly at the site of the gene or indirectly at the ...
During 2002-2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological ...
Phages infecting Staphylococcus aureus can be used as therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. However, there is limited information about the mechanism of genome delivery of phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we present the structures of native S. aureus phage P68, genome ejection intermediate, and empty particle. The P68 head contains 72 subunits of inner core protein, 15 of which bind to and alter the structure of adjacent major capsid proteins and thus specify attachment sites for head fibers. Unlike in the previously studied phages, the head fibers of P68 enable its virion to position itself at the cell surface for genome delivery. The unique interaction of one end of P68 DNA with one of the 12 portal protein subunits is disrupted before the genome ejection. The inner core proteins are released together with the DNA and enable the translocation of phage genome across the bacterial membrane into the cytoplasm. ...
The phage group started around 1940, after Delbrück and Luria had met at a physics conference. Delbrück and Luria began a series of collaborative experiments on the patterns of infection for different strains of bacteria and bacteriophage. They soon established the "mutual exclusion principle" that an individual bacterium can only be infected by one strain of phage. In 1943, their "fluctuation test", later dubbed the Luria-Delbrück experiment, showed that genetic mutations for phage resistance arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.[4][5] The traditional wisdom among bacteriologists prior to 1943 was that bacteria had no chromosomes and no genes. The Luria-Delbrück experiment showed that bacteria, like other established model genetic organisms, have genes, and that these can spontaneously mutate to generate mutants that may then reproduce to form clonal lineages. That year, they also began working with Alfred Hershey, another phage experimenter.[6] (The ...
Glutamic acid producing strains collected from factories were identified by the host specificity of phage. For the 7338 strain, one was sensitive to the phages of T6-13 strain and insensitive to 7338 strain phages In order to prevent the invading by the phages factories took turn to use different strains. According to the evidence presented here, it is suggested that the strain must be known in their sensitivity to the different phages so as to avoid infection.
My Phage is from a soil sample from Karen Kadels chicken coop compost. I shared the bag with one other student in the learning community, but we found different phages. The sample was filtered and used for spot test(s). The sample was mostly dry and consisted of big chunks of mulch and soil ...
In a bid to cut treatment costs, US doctors urge fewer tests for people with mild health conditions and less aggressive treatment for those with advanced cancers.
Many people participate in biomedical research and it is estimated that one in 30 of us is enrolled in a cohort study at any one time. These studies contribute to, and enhance, our understanding of health…
Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use.
There is a low risk that eggs will become infected with Salmonella Enteritidis Phage type 4 at the point of laying," she explains. "If this happens the bacterial cells present in low numbers will be "trapped" in the white (Albumen). In fresh eggs the albumen is too viscous to allow salmonellae to move from the point of infection. As the egg is stored it absorbs moisture from the air diluting the albumen. It takes approximately three weeks for the albumen to be liquid enough to allow Salmonella to swim from the albumen into the yolk, where they can use the surrounding nutrients to increase in numbers." ...
A two-stage typing scheme in routine use in this laboratory is described. The strains of group B streptococci (GBS) are first serotyped and then, if necessary, phage-typing is performed. Serotyping...
Despite recent advances in vivo directed evolution techniques and the interest they have attracted so far, their impact in applied biotechnology is limited because of their limitations in programmability, selective drivers, cost and scalability.. Here, we propose to construct a general-purpose programmable evolution machine able to quickly evolve new biomolecules or phenotypes in bacterial cells. The proposed device will use existing phage technology and synthetic regulation to engineer a programmable directed evolution machine able to produce biomolecules or biocomputational functionality two orders of magnitude faster than conventional techniques, while consuming fewer consumables.. In its core, living matter will be subject to combinatorial search algorithms that will exploit large numbers of small, separate, bacterial populations. Each one will contain phage that evolve under different custom fitness selections. The different phage will then be recombined according to combinatorial ...
Phage typing of 741 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis from the Slovak Republic in 1995 has been carried out using the scheme of Ward and colleagues 1987. 202 strains 51 isolated from food were from 9 outbreaks, 536 isolates were from sporadic cases and 3 isolates were from nosocomial infections of new-born babies. 704...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of subtyping methods against a whole-genome-sequencing standard for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. AU - Deng, Xiangyu. AU - Shariat, Nikki. AU - Driebe, Elizabeth M.. AU - Roe, Chandler C.. AU - Tolar, Beth. AU - Trees, Eija. AU - Keim, Paul S. AU - Zhang, Wei. AU - Dudley, Edward G.. AU - Fields, Patricia I.. AU - Engelthaler, David M.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A retrospective investigation was performed to evaluate whole-genome sequencing as a benchmark for comparing molecular subtyping methods for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and survey the population structure of commonly encountered S. enterica serotype Enteritidis outbreak isolates in the United States. A total of 52 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates representing 16 major outbreaks and three sporadic cases collected between 2001 and 2012 were sequenced and subjected to subtyping by four different methods: (i) whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism typing ...
Involvement of ISCR3 and ISCR1 with the Salmonella genomic island 1 genetic element.SGI1 is a genetic element of approximately 43 kb (15). It has been associated mainly with MDR isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 that are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. This pathogen emerged in the last decade as a global animal and human health problem (15). Outbreaks of MDR S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have occurred in poultry, beef, and pigs and their food products, as well as in dairy products and salad ingredients. MDR salmonellae are very common in the United Kingdom and increasingly prevalent in many other countries (15).. Since its initial discovery in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104, SGI1 has also been found in other S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types, i.e., DT120, DT12, DT1, and U302, and in other serovars such as Agona, Paratyphi B, Albany, Meleagridis, Newport, Emek, Cerro, Derby, Dusseldorf, ...
We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35-2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29-3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A
A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 with multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 2-9-7-3-2 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least July 2015. Since May 2016, 16 confirmed and 132 probable cases have been reported to ECDC by six EU/EEA countries. ...
OBJECTIVE--To determine the source of indigenous sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. DESIGN--Case-control study of primary sporadic cases identified by the Public Health Laboratory Service between 1 August and 30 September 1988. SETTING--PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Division of Enteric Pathogens, 11 PHLS laboratories, and 42 local authority environmental health departments in England. SUBJECTS--232 Patients (cases) with confirmed primary sporadic infection, for 160 of whom (88 female) (median age 30 years, age range 4 months to 85 years) data were obtained by questionnaire about consumption of fresh eggs, egg products, precooked chicken, and minced meat in the three days and one week before onset of the symptoms. Up to three controls, matched for neighbourhood, age, and sex (if aged greater than 11 years), were asked the same questions for the same calendar period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Association of primary sporadic infection with consumption of ...
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Routine tests for diabetics should not only including blood tests, but also physical examination and assessment for overall health and screening for cancer
Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Elicits Cross-Immunity against a Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Strain Expressing LP Fimbriae from the lac ...
In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. AU - Winter, Sebastian E.. AU - Raffatellu, Manuela. AU - Wilson, Paul R.. AU - Rüssmann, Holger. AU - Bäumler, Andreas J.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Unlike non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, S. enterica serotype Typhi does not elicit neutrophilic infiltrates in the human intestinal mucosa. The Vi capsule-encoding tviABCDEvexABCDE operon (viaB locus) is a S. Typhi-specific DNA region preventing production of interleukin (IL)-8 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells. We elucidated the mechanism by which the viaB locus reduces IL-8 production in human colonic epithelial (T84) cells. A S. Typhi tviABCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, but not a tviBCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, elicited increased IL-8 production, which could be reduced to wild-type levels by introducing the cloned tviA regulatory gene. Thus, IL-8 expression ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is increasingly reported worldwide. The presence of a pattern of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphe
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular typing reveals a unique clone of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi among Indian strains [2]. AU - Chandel, Dinesh S.. AU - Chaudhry, Rama. AU - Dey, Aparajit B.. AU - Malhotra, Pawan. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33746216084&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33746216084&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. M3 - Letter. C2 - 16825414. AN - SCOPUS:33746216084. VL - 44. SP - 2673. EP - 2675. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 7. ER - ...
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Eggs from a Victorian farm have been recalled and the farm quarantined after five cases of illness to the salmonella enteritidis strain were identified by the Department of Health.. Quarantine is in place at Bridgewater Poultry, a farm at Bridgewater, north-west of Melbourne, and strict biosecurity measures have been put in place to protect neighbouring farms.. Dr Brett Sutton, Chief Health Officer of Victoria told Tom Elliott the recall is widespread, as both major supermarkets distribute eggs from this farm.. "Its a really quite extensive list because its a pretty significant producer and distributor," he said.. "Theyre found in both Woolies and Coles and there might be some other smaller outlets identified in coming days. ...
Summary The type strains of Vi-phage type E1, M1 and A of Salmonella typhi, together with drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of phage types E1 and M1 isolated in 1992 from patients associated with India or Pakistan, and a drug-resistant strain of phage type A isolated in South Africa in 1991, were characterised with respect to the presence of plasmids conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs and their chromosomal insertion sequence IS200 profiles. The three type strains, the drug-sensitive strains of Vi-phage types E1 and M1, and a strain of phage type M1 resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim but not to chloramphenicol, did not contain plasmids. In contrast, for strains of phage types E1 and M1 resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, and for the drug-resistant strain of phage type A, the complete spectrum of resistance was encoded by high molecular mass plasmids belonging to the H1 incompatibility group. Characterisation of IS200 profiles demonstrated that at least 13
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
Procedures ordered for people with no symptoms - like routine blood screening and cardiac stress tests - may be useless and even harmful, says the Choosing Wisely Canada campaign.
Boken Idrottens olösta gåtor (2009) säljs av SISU Idrottsböcker, www.idrottsbokhandeln.se.Available from: 2010-02-05 Created: 2010-02-05 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. AU - Chessa, Daniela. AU - Winter, Maria G.. AU - Nuccio, Sean Paul. AU - Tükel, Çagla. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the ...
1998) Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Microbiology, Veterinary Sciences, MICROBIOLOGY, VETERINARY SCIENCES, Salmonella enterica, lipopolysaccharide, colonisation, invasion, persistence, chick, ESCHERICHIA-COLI, SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS, INTESTINAL-TRACT, BROILER CHICKS, PEYERS-PATCHES, IN-VIVO, M-CELLS, TYPHIMURIUM, LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE, INVASION ...
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol/florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline, has disseminated worldwide. The resistance genes reside on the 43-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which is transferable. Drug-resistant variants of SGI1 have been identified in numerous serotypes. Strains harboring SGI1 may be more virulent and have a tendency to rapidly disseminate.
0036] Disclosed methods may be utilized to simultaneously detect a plurality of different pathogens. For instance, a plurality of recombinant bacteriophages specific for different bacterial pathogens may be located at a potential infection site or in an in vitro environment in which the pathogenic bacteria may exist. The recombinant bacteriophages may be engineered to encode for the same detectable markers or for different detectable markers, as desired. For instance, a plurality of different phages may all encode the same detectable marker. Upon detection of the marker, a medical professional may be alerted to the presence of a pathogen at the site of interest, signaling the need for further investigation to determine the specific bacteria involved. In another embodiment, different phages may encode different markers. According to this embodiment, determination of the characteristics of a detected signal may provide information regarding the specific bacteria involved in the infection. ...
Ten cases of typhoid fever occurred between 24 August and 1 September 1986 in the vicinity of Silver Spring, Md. Shrimp salad served in a fast-food restaurant was implicated as the source of infection. Stool cultures were obtained from 104 employees, and serum Vi antibodies were assayed in 97 of the employees. Salmonella typhi was isolated from stool cultures of an 18-year-old asymptomatic female employee, who was a food handler. A high level of Vi antibodies (79.0 micrograms/ml), measured by radioimmunoassay, was found in her serum. She had emigrated from an endemic area at the age of 14 years and had visited that endemic area 2 years previously. The causal relation between the carrier and the 10 cases of typhoid fever was confirmed by a common bacteriophage type, denoted "degraded Vi resembling O," in the S. typhi isolates. This phage type is rare in the western hemisphere but common in the endemic area from which the carrier had emigrated. The high level of Vi antibody in the asymptomatic ...
One 45 minute test equals 4.5 hours in the hospital. Ah, the electroretinography (ERG). a routine test you are supposed to have done every three months while taking Sabril (vigabatrin). You are also required to have an eye exam every three months because this particular drug carries a risk of loss of peripheral vision. Sabril…
Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify chromosomally integrated genes conferring multidrug resistance to a Salmonella enterica (S.) serotype Typhimurium isolate, phage type DT193, isolated in Ireland and to compare them with resistance genes conferring plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance to a S. Enteritidis isolate from Italy.. Methods: A complete DNA sequence of the regions containing the resistance genes was obtained from the chromosome of the S. Typhimurium DT193 isolate and from the IncI plasmid of the S. Enteritidis isolate. The plasmid was also characterized by conjugation and incompatibility grouping.. Results: Two 10 kb multidrug resistance non-Salmonella Genomic Island 1 type clusters were independently identified in the S. Enteritidis plasmid and in the chromosome of the S. Typhimurium isolate. Detailed characterization identified an IP-type 2 integron containing a dfrA1-aadA1 gene cassette and other common resistance determinants derived from the RSF1010 ...
CIDRAP News) A Salmonella outbreak that was first publicized this week has expanded to 388 cases in 42 states, but the cause remains unknown, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said today. News reports yesterday put the outbreak, involving Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, at 336 cases in 34 states. ...
Your Family Doctor can complete the online form for you. Alternatively, you can download the PDF form and bring it to your Family Doctor to complete and send in to us.. ...
Distribution of S. Enteritidis 147 wild-type strain and SPI mutants in the spleen of orally infected chickens. S. Enteritidis counts in the liver correlated wit
If you want to make a claim for a hospital infection, or another infection suffered in hospital, read this guide for information, including average payout amounts.
Viral load is a routine test that measures the concentration HIV-1 RNA in the patients blood. CD4+ counts measures the concentration of CD4+ immune cells, that are a standard indicator for disease progression. The lower the CD4+ counts, the more advanced the stage of the infection. ...
Infections in U.S. hospitals kill tens of thousands of people each year, and many institutions fight back by screening new patients to see if they carry a dangerous germ, and isolating those who do. But a big study suggests a far more effective approach:
A strategy to combat multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in ground beef is urgently needed. A national multi-disciplinary meeting reviewed the epidemiology of MDR Salmonella infection and contamination in humans, animals, and retail meat. In spite of a recent overall decrease in human MDR Salmonella isolates, certain types, such as Salmonella enterica serotype Newport multidrug-resistant-AmpC strain and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type (DT) 104, have persisted, and several recent large outbreaks of human infection have occurred. Key agencies that contribute to a safe ground beef supply were represented at the meeting and contributed to the discussion of possible control strategies from the farm to the table. Several of the control strategies suggested are unpopular to some, including restricting the use of antimicrobial agents in food animals, designation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella as an adulterant in ground beef, and improving the mechanisms for product ...
Infect Immun. 2009 Jan;77(1):387-98. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00933-08. Epub 2008 Oct 27. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Definition of salmonella enteritidis in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of salmonella enteritidis. What does salmonella enteritidis mean? Information and translations of salmonella enteritidis in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Denmark is currently experiencing an unusually large outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by Salmonella Typhimurium, phage type U292. The outbreak was discovered in early April by molecular typing (MLVA typing) of S. Typhimurium isolates at the Statens Serum Institut (SSI); the first patients reported onset on illness in February, but the number of reported cases has been particularly high in May and June (Figure 1). There are currently (as of 7 July) 366 confirmed cases, effectively making this the largest outbreak of salmonella infections in Denmark since 1993 [1].
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Someone emailed me this photo. Seems to sum up my week. Recall information: The Aug. 18 recall includes eggs with Julian dates ranging from 136 to 22
Research in Medicine, پژوهش در پزشکی The Quarterly journal of School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی دانشکده پزشکي دانشگاه علوم پزشکي و خدمات بهداشتي درماني شهيد بهشتي
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Early detection of lung cancer through breath tests Breathing into a machine to deliver a breath sample for early detection of lung cancer is a routine test that is non invasive, safe and simple to do, so likely to be a preventive screening test voluntarily accepted by the patients and will be a mean to detect lung cancer in a very early stage. November 2010 ...
Improvement in Symptoms and QuantiFERON TB-2G Test Results after Isoniazid Administration in a Patient with Normal Routine Tests Results (2010 ...
In the last 20 years, hospital infections have increased nearly 40 percent. Nearly 100,000 people die from these infections every year, which is more
NAHMS Salmonella. Dairy 2007: Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on U.S. Dairy Operations, 1996-2007 (pdf 1.3mb 3/11). Salmonella and Campylobacter on U.S. Dairy Operations, 1996-2007 (pdf 47kb 7/09). Prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in Bulk Tank Milk and In-line Filters on U.S. Dairies, 2007 (pdf 56kb 7/09). Salmonella on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08 (pdf 29kb 6/09). Salmonella on U.S. Swine Sites--Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility (pdf 59kb 1/09). Salmonella and Campylobacter on U.S. Dairy Operations (pdf 32kb 12/03). Salmonella and Listeria in Bulk Tank Milk on U.S. Dairies (pdf 40kb 12/03). What Veterinarians and Producers Should Know About Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Newport (pdf 172kb 9/02). Salmonella in United States Feedlots (pdf 56kb 10/01). Salmonella and the U.S. Horse Population (pdf 292kb 5/01). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (pdf 184kb 10/00). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in Table Egg Layers in the U.S. (pdf 1.8mb ...
High-Quality Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of 162 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Isolated from Diverse Sources in Canada ...
SUMMARY. Serotypes and phage types of group-B streptococci isolated from healthy and diseased human subjects and from cattle in different parts of Norway have been compared. The phage set used was found to be suitable for the study of strains from cows as well as from man.
Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile of bacteria from door knobs of female restrooms in BRAC University, ...
A VDRL test is a blood test for syphilis, and you didnt have it when you were tested. It has nothing at all to do with HIV, and HIV would not have shown up in any routine tests for STDs. To be...
I was just wondering how common is a false positive result for trichomonas, Would it be a routine test done 6 years ago during pregnancy
Not all cases are life-threatening. In people who arent immunocompromised, the disease is extremely difficult to detect. Unless a patient has an infection, or is specifically tested for the disease, they could show no signs until months or years later. In fact, 10 percent of people who check in to the hospital will unknowingly leave with an infection they didnt have upon arrival. Some people live for years with the disease, before they find out that they have it ...
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Lesley, S. M. (1982). "A bacteriophage typing system for Rhizobium meliloti". Can. J. Microbiol. 28 (2): 180-189. doi:10.1139/ ... Several bacteriophages that infect Sinorhizobium meliloti have been described: Φ1, Φ1A, Φ2A, Φ3A, Φ4 (=ΦNM8), Φ5t (=ΦNM3), Φ6 ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Systematic naming of bacteriophages is rarely followed in the scientific ... "A Study of 33 Bacteriophages of Rhizobium meliloti". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54 (1): 188-196. PMC 202420 . PMID 16347525. CS1 ...
"Bacteriophage strain typing by rapid single molecule analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117-e117. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... the reaction mixture contains a single type of FdNTP and allows for multiple additions of that nucleotide type. Various washes ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (35 ... "Phylogeny of the major head and tail genes of the wide-ranging T4-type bacteriophages". J. Bacteriol. 183 (1): 358-366. doi: ... "The diversity and evolution of the T4-type bacteriophages". Res. Microbiol. 154 (4): 259-67. doi:10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00069-X ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Vibrio phage nt-1 is a bacteriophage known to infect Vibrio bacteria. It infects Vibrio natriegens and was originally isolated ... "Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity". BMC Microbiology. 9 (1): 224. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
Ackermann, H.W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Pseudomonas phage 42 is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria. ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. Examples include Bacteriophage lambda and Leviviridae. ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
"Shigella dysenteriae Type 1-Specific Bacteriophage from Environmental Waters in Bangladesh". Applied and Environmental ... For these experiments, different types of AB5 toxins can be used to induce the fast formation of tCDR in E.Coli cells. The ... Cancer treatment B subunits of the AB5 toxins have the affinity towards binding glycan which some type of tumors seem to ... strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin ...
Microbial ecology Filee, J.; Tetart, F.; Suttle, C. A.; Krisch, H. M. (2005). "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous ...
This peptidoglycan-binding type 2 amidase domain is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases. Insects generate ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) gene from Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage ... Bacteriophages were discovered in 1915 by Frederick Twort. His work was overlooked and bacteriophages were later rediscovered ... This type of rash is accompanied by a prodromal period of cough and runny nose in addition to a fever, indicative of a viral ... Specifically, Bacteriophage T12 is responsible for the production of speA.[21] Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A, speA, is the ...
"The structural organization of DNA packaged within the heads of T4 wild-type, isometric and giant bacteriophages". Cell. 14 (3 ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ...
Numerous other types of bacteriophages were quickly discovered and were shown to infect bacteria wherever they are found. But ... He was the first to describe a type of cancer that now bears his name Burkitt's lymphoma. This type of cancer was endemic in ... Between 1918 and 1921 d'Herelle discovered different types of bacteriophages that could infect several other species of ... the first electron micrograph of a bacteriophage was published and this silenced sceptics who had argued that bacteriophages ...
... bacteriophage typing, chemistry and virology. Josland continued to specialize in research into Leptospirosis and Salmonella, ... Josland, S. W. and Norris, D. M., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. V. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 58, August ... This contrasted with overseas results where many types of Salmonella had been found. In the 1950s, Josland prepared killed ... Josland, S. W., Salmonella Types in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 283, June 1952, pp180-184. Josland, ...
The reaction catalyzed by P35 holin is: autolysin (in) → autolysin (out) Bacteriophage Phage typing Holin Lysin Transporter ... Rydman, Pia S.; Bamford, Dennis H. (2003-07-01). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein ...
In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these ... The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ... In this case, each strain's genome supplies the wild-type allele to "complement" the mutated allele of the other strain's ...
In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage[edit]. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ... In this case, each strain's genome supplies the wild-type allele to "complement" the mutated allele of the other strain's ...
Bacteriophage display is the most common type of display system used although bacterial display is becoming increasingly ... when peptides were genetically fused with proteins displayed on the M13 bacteriophage. Bacteriophage display is a commonly used ... There are two types of live bacterial vaccines that can be made: Normally pathogenic bacteria are weakened so they are no ... Many types of bacteria have cell surface proteins such as the enteropathogenic E. coli intimin protein which is involved in ...
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host ... This environmentally important trait can be found in most bacteria of the metabolic types listed above. Regardless of the type ... There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
This system allowed them to vary both the length of bacteriophage and the type of inorganic material through genetic ... Energy states in rectangular dots are more s-type and p-type. However, in a triangular dot the wave functions are mixed due to ... This type of white light as the backlight of an LCD panel allows for the best color gamut at lower cost than a RGB LED ... Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these ...
... on the classification of certain rapidly growing mycobacteria and led to research on the development of bacteriophage typing of ...
... in the gut found a significant relationship between diet and the type of bacteriophages present. This was done by comparing the ... "bacteriophage - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-15. Wylie, Kristine M.; Weinstock, George M.; Storch, ... The results were that the distance between the bacteriophage gut communities of individuals on the same diet was significantly ... For instance, many viruses (the bacteriophages) actually infect bacteria. Some viruses cause infections, while others may be ...
Bacteriophages were discovered in 1915 by Frederick Twort. His work was overlooked and bacteriophages were later rediscovered ... This type of rash is accompanied by a prodromal period of cough and runny nose in addition to a fever, indicative of a viral ... Specifically, Bacteriophage T12 is responsible for the production of speA. Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A, speA, is the one ... The characteristic rash is due to the erythrogenic toxin, a substance produced by some types of the bacterium. The diagnosis is ...
Weeks, C. R.; Ferretti, J. J. (1986). "Nucleotide sequence of the type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) gene from ... Yu, C. E.; Ferretti, J. J. (1991). "Molecular characterization of new group A streptococcal bacteriophages containing the gene ... "The role of temperate bacteriophage in the production of erythrogenic toxin by Group A Streptococci". Journal of Experimental ... Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage T12". Infect Immun 52 (1): 144-150. PMID 262210. ...
... bacteriophage typing, spa locus typing, and SCCmec typing are often conducted more than others. With these methods, it can be ... Spa locus typing is also considered a popular technique that uses a single locus zone in a polymorphic region of S. aureus to ... Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for ... Other strains of S. aureus can produce an enterotoxin that is the causative agent of a type of gastroenteritis. This form of ...
... a type of plasmid gene-cloning vector that is packageable in vitro in bacteriophage lambda heads". Proceedings of the National ... Selection against wild type cosmid DNA is simply done via size exclusion. Cosmids, however, always form colonies and not ... A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence. Cosmids (cos sites + plasmid = cosmids) DNA ... Cosmids can contain 37 to 52 (normally 45) kb of DNA, limits based on the normal bacteriophage packaging size. They can ...
"Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of ... ecologists have tested various types of ecological control mechanisms. For example, herbivores generally have an abundance of ... comparing and investigating the nature of non-random patterns in the structure of food web networks among many different types ...
... echovirus type 12 and bacteriophages in an intermittently operated 2 household-scale slow sand filter.Water Research, Volume 42 ... In tests for one type of protozoa, Giardia lamblia, the filter removed 100% over 29 days of use. It removed 99.98% of the ... In a study using bacteriophages, virus removal ranged between 85% and 95% after 45 days of usage. A recent study has suggested ... Concrete filters, of concrete, are the most widespread type of biosand filter. Concrete is generally preferable to other ...
Study Type:. Observational Official Title:. The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. This study has been ...
Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of C. jejuni infections in the United States Patrick Kwan, PhD Multi-locus sequence typing ( ... Personal Injury TYPES OF HOLIDAY ILLNESSES. www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200 TYPES OF HOLIDAY ILLNESSES Whilst ... Data shows that bacteriophage isolated from pig slurry is a lytic bacteriophage capable to killing strains of E. coli O157: H7 ... Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages life cycle Learning objectives: Characteristics of Virus Lecture 17 Viruses Bacteriophages ...
Kil protein, bacteriophage P22-type (IPR020298). Short name: Kil_phage_P22-type ... The bacteriophage P22 kil gene, like lambda kil, kills the host cell when it is expressed. The two kil genes, although ... Genetic structure of the bacteriophage P22 PL operon.. J. Mol. Biol. 207 1-13 1989 ...
A new type of host-dependent mutant, azure mutant, of bacteriophage f2 has been isolated. Growth of these mutants was ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ...
Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Our data suggest that horizontal transfer of type III dependent effector proteins by lysogenic infection with bacteriophages ( ...
All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including ... Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field. Authors. *. Zhongjun Jia,. Corresponding author. * ... Christopher M. Bellas, Alexandre M. Anesio, High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of ... Vita Ratri Cahyani, Jun Murase, Susumu Asakawa, Makoto Kimura, Change in T4-type bacteriophage communities during the ...
H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing.. U Krause, F M Thomson-Carter, T H ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ...
Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain. Structure 15:789-798. ... A) The wild-type HIV-1 gp160 glycoprotein is represented at the top, with the helical N36 and C34 regions and transmembrane (TM ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization is determined by epitope exposure on the gp120 oligomer. J. Exp. Med. 182: ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a 160-kDa envelope glycoprotein (gp160) precursor, which is proteolytically ...
Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. Intervirology 32 1991 2 9 ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ...
Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food contact surfaces and foods prepared by ... Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food contact surfaces and foods prepared by ... coagulase and DNase production tests and later phage typed by group I, II, III and IV phage sets at RTD (routine test dilution ...
Staphylococcus aureus of canine nostril origin : bacteriophage typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biochemical characteristics ... Staphylococcus aureus of canine nostril origin : bacteriophage typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biochemical characteristics ...
Definition of Bacteriophage typing with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... bacteriophage plaque. bacteriophage resistance. bacteriophage t3. bacteriophage t4. bacteriophage t7. bacteriophage typing ( ... bacteriophage omicron x174. bacteriophage p1. bacteriophage p2. bacteriophage p22. bacteriophage phi 6. bacteriophage phi x 174 ... Bacteriophage Typing Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Bacteriophage Typing. bacteriophage immunity. bacteriophage lambda. ...
The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most ... Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) ... A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is ... prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle ...
An interesting modification of lytic cycle occurs when a certain type of bacteriophage, termed temperate, infects certain types ... 2 Types of Cycle that occurs in Bacteriophage Virus - Discussed!. Article shared by : ... 2 most important Types of Cycle that occurs in Bacteriophage Virus are Lytic-cycle and Lysogenic Cycle. ... Bacteriophages are the best understood viruses in terms of their gene structure and expression. For example T2-bacteriophage ...
Life cycles of bacteriophages: …one of two life cycles, lytic (virulent) or lysogenic (temperate). Lytic phages take over the ... type of bacteriophage. *. In bacteriophage: Life cycles of bacteriophages. …one of two life cycles, lytic (virulent) or ...
Serotypes and phage types of group-B streptococci isolated from healthy and diseased human subjects and from cattle in ... f Serotyping and bacteriophage typing of human and bovine group-B streptococci MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the ... Serotyping and bacteriophage typing of human and bovine group-B streptococci, Page 1 of 1 ... Serotypes and phage types of group-B streptococci isolated from healthy and diseased human subjects and from cattle in ...
Bacteriophage typing results indicate that most of the isolates were unrelated, with only a few isolates being clonal in origin ... Bacteriophage typing of these isolates readily resolved the ambiguity encountered in serotyping of these isolates. I also used ... I used a bacteriophage typing system to supplement serotyping in differentiating capsular cross-reactivity between isolates and ... Overall, bacteriophage typing proved to be an effective, inexpensive, and clinically practical adjunct to serotyping in ...
Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1951 ... Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. ...
Bacteriophages have three main structure types. Since bacteriophages are viruses, they consist of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) ... Treating this type of infection with bacteriophages provides a way to preserve the good gut bacteria while destroying only the ... Bacteriophages help to transfer genes between bacteria by means of genetic recombination. This type of gene transfer is known ... Bacteriophages play a significant role in the worlds carbon cycle Bacteriophages are the most abundant virus in the ocean. ...
See also Bacterial ultrastructure; Bacteriophage and bacteriophage typing; Molecular biology and molecular genetics; Viral ... which are specifically targeted by certain types of bacteriophage.. There are two types of transduction: generalized ... Unlike the other mechanisms, however, transduction requires the participation of a type of virus called a bacteriophage in ... 1. The transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another by means of a bacteriophage.. 2. The conversion of ...
Different Types of Bacteriophages ... Lysogenic- infect the cell and integrates its genetic material into the ... - A free ... eat (greek) Two major types: Lytic and Lysogenic. ... T4 Bacteriophage. Description:. ... eat (greek) Two major types ... Two major types Lytic and Lysogenic 3. Different Types of Bacteriophages*Lytic- infect the cell and force the replication of ... T4 Bacteriophage. 1. T4 Bacteriophage 2. What is a Bacteriophage?*A small virus that only infects bacteria wikipedia ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
See also Bacteriophage and bacteriophage typing; Molecular biology and molecular genetics; Viral genetics ... Bacteriophages-known simply as phages-had been discovered in 1915, only nineteen years before Hershey began his career. Phages ... This type of reproduction is known as replication. Little was known about the particulars of this process when Hershey was a ... Hersheys work with bacteriophages, the viruses that prey on bacteria , was often carried out in loose collaboration with other ...
Microbiology - Viruses (Structure, Types and Bacteriophage Replication) Published in : 2013-08-06 , by Armando Hasudungan ...
  • As research on new antibiotic agents is decreasing due to cost and difficulty, the development of new, natural, and non-conventional alternatives-such as antimicrobial peptides, natural engineered antibodies, and bacteriophages-is becoming critical. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophages were able to generate reducing sugars in capsular polysaccharine from the isolating host and from hosts in which replication could not occur. (usask.ca)
  • This type of reproduction is known as replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) function as a trimer composed of three gp120 exterior glycoproteins and three gp41 transmembrane proteins. (asm.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a 160-kDa envelope glycoprotein (gp160) precursor, which is proteolytically cleaved into the exterior (gp120) and transmembrane (gp41) glycoproteins ( 1 , 21 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • This is a T4 bacteriophage virus. (thoughtco.com)
  • This type of virus is called bacteriophage. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bacteriophages are a type of virus that targets, you guessed it, bacterial cells. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • The spatiotemporal distributions of the most abundant open-ocean bacteriophages that we report here provide new insight into viral temporal persistence, life history, and virus-host-environment interactions throughout the open-ocean water column. (asm.org)
  • Induction of Bean PR-4d-Type Protein in Divergent Plant Species After Infection with Tobacco Ringspot Virus and Its Relationship with Tobacco PR-5. (apsnet.org)
  • These unique peptides were displayed on the outer surface of a harmless type of virus called a bacteriophage that was purchased commercially. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To make certain that something else on the outer surface of the bacteriophage virus wasn't responsible for its perceived stickiness, the researchers demonstrated that T59 by itself could attach to immobilized polypyrrole, using synthetic copies of it made at the university's Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The first man-made infectious viruses generated without any natural template were of the Polio virus and the φX174 bacteriophage . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) First synthetic Polio virus (2002) - http://www.sciencemag.org/content/297/5583/1016 2) First synthetic Bacteriophage φX174 (2003) - http://www.pnas.org/content/100/26/15440.full 3) Codagenix - Synthetic Virology technology to investigate novel vaccine strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages are numerically the most abundant DNA-containing entities in the oligotrophic ocean, yet how specific phage populations vary over time and space remains to be fully explored. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, there is no evidence on bacteriophage therapy in the treatment of acne in humans. (springer.com)
  • Employing a technology called phage-typing, researchers affiliated with Britain's Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) warned that resistance selection on farms could also harm humans. (jhu.edu)
  • Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S . Typhimurium-definitive phage types (DTs) 40, 56 variant, and 160-are host adapted to passerines and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. (asm.org)
  • We found that bacteriophage induction does occur, resulting in the release of ∼10 5 phage particles during the 3-h coculture. (asm.org)
  • As well, I set out to examine whether the bacteriophage endoglycosidase determines capsular specificity. (usask.ca)
  • Finally, I evaluated whether the bacteriophage endoglycosidase is involved in determining capsular specificity. (usask.ca)
  • I measured endoglycosidase activity in the presence of partially purified capsular polysaccharide of K. pneumoniae serotypes upon which the bacteriophage could or could not replicate. (usask.ca)
  • This was observed with both specific and multiply cross-infective bacteriophages, suggesting that the bacteriophage endoglycosidase does not determine capsular specificity. (usask.ca)
  • New alternatives to traditional therapy are emerging, including antimicrobial peptides, natural engineered antibodies, and bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. (rsc.org)
  • The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. (rsc.org)
  • Toxigenic strains of S. aureus were screened by the cat toxicity (emetic response), coagulase and DNase production tests and later phage typed by group I, II, III and IV phage sets at RTD (routine test dilution). (ajol.info)
  • We found that (i) each strain produced only one R-pyocin type, but the number of S-pyocins varied between strains, (ii) R-pyocins were generally important for strain dominance during competition assays in planktonic cultures and biofilm communities in strains with both disparate R- and S-pyocin subtypes, and (iii) purified R-pyocins demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against established biofilms. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 does not propagate in the traditional gels used for bacteriophage plaque formation and also does not produce visible lysis of liquid cultures. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophage typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures from incidents of suspected laboratory cross-contamination. (asmscience.org)
  • Bacteriophages are also being used to destroy other superbugs including drug-resistant E. coli and MRSA . (thoughtco.com)
  • ΦK5 is a related bacteriophage specific for E. coli strains that display the K5 antigen, a polymer consisting of a repeating structure of 4-linked α- N -acetylglucosamine and β-glucuronic acid ( N -acetyl heparosin). (asm.org)