Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of filamentous phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE. They are specific for enterobacteria that contain an IncN plasmid.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of bacteriophages of the family MICROVIRIDAE. The genome consists of isometric single-stranded DNA.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.

Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms. (1/735)

In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms following PCR amplification of the coa hypervariable and spa repeat regions. Coa gene RFLPs produced a total of 38 distinct combined patterns after digestion with HaeIII and AluI and identified the predominant epidemic (EMRSA) types 15 and 16. A unique HaeIII restriction site was identified by RFLP and sequence analysis in the coa gene for EMRSA 15 but not EMRSA 16. The spa gene PCR yielded a total of 14 different profiles ranging from 3-18 repeats with the 2 predominant EMRSA types falling into 2 distinct groups. PCR detection of coa and spa polymorphisms offer a rapid preliminary strain identification and discriminatory subtyping information for surveillance of MRSA.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (2/735)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (3/735)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (4/735)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104. (5/735)

Salmonella typhimurium phage type DT104 has become an important emerging pathogen. Isolates of this phage type often possess resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT resistance). The mechanism by which DT104 has accumulated resistance genes is of interest, since these genes interfere with treatment of DT104 infections and might be horizontally transferred to other bacteria, even to unrelated organisms. Previously, several laboratories have shown that the antibiotic resistance genes of DT104 are chromosomally encoded and involve integrons. The antibiotic resistance genes conferring the ACSSuT-resistant phenotype have been cloned and sequenced. These genes are grouped within two district integrons and intervening plasmid-derived sequences. This sequence is potentially useful for detection of multiresistant DT104.  (+info)

Identification of four phage resistance plasmids from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2. (6/735)

The bacteriophage-host sensitivity patterns of 16 strains of Lactococcus lactis originally isolated from a mixed strain Cheddar cheese starter culture were determined. Using phages obtained from cheese factory whey, four of the strains were found to be highly phage resistant. One of these isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2, was studied in detail to determine the mechanisms responsible for the phage insensitivity phenotypes. Conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA from strain HO2 allowed a function to be assigned to four of its six plasmids. A 46-kb molecule, designated pCI646, was found to harbor the lactose utilization genes, while this and plasmids of 58 kb (pCI658), 42 kb (pCI642), and 4.5 kb (pCI605) were shown to be responsible for the phage resistance phenotypes observed against the small isometric-headed phage phi712 (936 phage species) and the prolate-headed phage phic2 (c2 species). pCI658 was found to mediate an adsorption-blocking mechanism and was also responsible for the fluffy pellet phenotype of cells containing the molecule. pCI642 and pCI605 were both shown to be required for the operation of a restriction-modification system.  (+info)

Subtyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the North-West of England: a comparison of standardised pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with bacteriophage typing including an inter-laboratory reproducibility study. (7/735)

Bacteriophage typing is currently the recognised methodology for the typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the UK. Bacteriophage typing is less discriminatory and does not type all isolates compared with some molecular methods for typing MRSA. Chromosomal genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is increasingly recognised as an improved method for typing MRSA, providing increased discrimination and typability. In this study the results of a comparison of bacteriophage typing and PFGE typing and subtyping are presented for a large collection of isolates from the North-West of England. Isolates belonging to the most frequently isolated epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) bacteriophage types 15 and 16 were typed by PFGE with further discrimination of common PFGE types possible into a number of subtypes. These results for a large collection of isolates demonstrate the improved typing of MRSA with PFGE. The widespread acceptance of PFGE for typing MRSA isolates has been hampered by the lack of standardised methodologies. Recently, a standardised PFGE strain typing system, known as the GenePath system has become available. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison of PFGE typing for a collection of isolates demonstrated good reproducibility with this system.  (+info)

Phages for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an international trial. (8/735)

An internationally agreed and validated set of phages is used worldwide for the typing of strains of Staphylococcus aureus of human origin. However, because of the sometimes reduced susceptibility of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) to these phages, some of the national typing centres use locally isolated and characterized sets of experimental phages. In this trial, 42 such phages were distributed to 6 centres and tested against 744 isolates of MRSA with the intention of defining a phage set to augment the international set. The use of these experimental phages increased the percentage typability from 75% with the international set to 93% and the number of identifiable lytic patterns from 192 to 424. A subset of 10 experimental phages was selected. When this subset was compared with the experimental panel, the typability rate was 91% and 370 distinct patterns were obtained. This subset of phages has been distributed for international trial.  (+info)

The more noticeable epidemics of Salmonellosis tend to occur in species of northern birds, particularly the Common Redpoll, that periodically appear in more southern regions during the winter months. These birds breed in the boreal forest and feed primarily on conifer seeds. In years in which the seed crop is not sufficient, the redpolls and other associated species of birds (e.g. siskins, crossbills) move south in large numbers and are seen at bird feeders. In some of these eruption years, there is significant mortality at bird feeders due to Salmonellosis. A number of different phage types have been found in common redpolls. For a number of years PT 40 was the predominant strain. This same phage type has been seen in related species of birds in Great Britain and Scandinavia. More recently, phage types, including U284 and PT51 have been found. The latter is the phage type that has predominated in the years 2009-2013. These bacteria are highly adapted to their hosts and it is quite likely that ...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30, No 4, December 2006 contains information on an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 gastroenteritis.
Definition of routine test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is routine test? Meaning of routine test as a legal term. What does routine test mean in law?
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen responsible for both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The ability to rapidly and reliably identify relatedness between clinical isolates is crucial for the investigation of outbreaks and also for the epidemiological surveillance of strain dissemination. To date, several methods for the genotyping of S. aureus isolates have been reported. These methods are based on either phenotypic characterization or molecular techniques (for reviews, see references 38 and 43). Phenotyping usually relies on (i) antimicrobial susceptibility panels, (ii) arrays of specific antibodies directed against bacterial surface components, or (iii) phage susceptibility patterns (38, 48). These techniques may suffer from poor discriminatory power, time consumption, or low throughput (38, 48). Most molecular techniques employ PCR amplification but use different analytical methods for characterization of the amplified DNA fragments. This includes gel electrophoresis for ...
Citation: Shah, D.H., Casavant, C., Hawley, Q., Addwebi, T., Call, D.R., Guard, J.Y. 2012. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry show differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress and survival in the egg albumen. Food Borne Diseases. 9(3):258-264. Interpretive Summary: Expression of genes that facilitate the ability of a bacterium to cause disease can have multiple layers of control. Sometimes a mutation in the gene producing the protein alters disease potential, but other times the mutation might be in a different region that alters the regulation of the gene in question. Regardless of where the mutation is, the way the bacteria acts on the host can look the same if the ultimate outcome is a change in the gene most immediately responsible for causing disease. This research shows that the gene rpoS, a stress regulatory gene producing a factor referred to as sS, is a gene likely to be mutated in Salmonella Enteritidis either directly at the site of the gene or indirectly at the ...
Phage therapy is a promising alternative to chemotherapeutic antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, despite recent clinical uses of combinations of phages to treat multidrug resistant infections, a mechanistic understanding of how bacteria evolve resistance against multiple phages is lacking, limiting our ability to deploy phage combinations optimally. Here we show, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pairs of phages targeting shared or distinct surface receptors, that the timing and order of phage exposure determines the strength, cost and mutational basis of resistance. Whereas sequential exposure allowed bacteria to acquire multiple resistance mutations effective against both phages, this evolutionary trajectory was prevented by simultaneous exposure, resulting in quantitatively weaker resistance. The order of phage exposure determined the fitness costs of sequential resistance, such that certain sequential orders imposed much higher fitness costs than the same phage ...
Tests for Antenatal Care - Antenatal Care is the routine care for the healthy pregnant women. The routine test for the antenatal care includes blood test, urine test and ultrasound test.
08/08/1990 - Laboratory Standard does not cover routine tests supporting production but non-routine, non-production-related tests are covered
During 2002-2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological ...
Phages infecting Staphylococcus aureus can be used as therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. However, there is limited information about the mechanism of genome delivery of phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we present the structures of native S. aureus phage P68, genome ejection intermediate, and empty particle. The P68 head contains 72 subunits of inner core protein, 15 of which bind to and alter the structure of adjacent major capsid proteins and thus specify attachment sites for head fibers. Unlike in the previously studied phages, the head fibers of P68 enable its virion to position itself at the cell surface for genome delivery. The unique interaction of one end of P68 DNA with one of the 12 portal protein subunits is disrupted before the genome ejection. The inner core proteins are released together with the DNA and enable the translocation of phage genome across the bacterial membrane into the cytoplasm. ...
The phage group started around 1940, after Delbrück and Luria had met at a physics conference. Delbrück and Luria began a series of collaborative experiments on the patterns of infection for different strains of bacteria and bacteriophage. They soon established the mutual exclusion principle that an individual bacterium can only be infected by one strain of phage. In 1943, their fluctuation test, later dubbed the Luria-Delbrück experiment, showed that genetic mutations for phage resistance arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.[4][5] The traditional wisdom among bacteriologists prior to 1943 was that bacteria had no chromosomes and no genes. The Luria-Delbrück experiment showed that bacteria, like other established model genetic organisms, have genes, and that these can spontaneously mutate to generate mutants that may then reproduce to form clonal lineages. That year, they also began working with Alfred Hershey, another phage experimenter.[6] (The ...
Glutamic acid producing strains collected from factories were identified by the host specificity of phage. For the 7338 strain, one was sensitive to the phages of T6-13 strain and insensitive to 7338 strain phages In order to prevent the invading by the phages factories took turn to use different strains. According to the evidence presented here, it is suggested that the strain must be known in their sensitivity to the different phages so as to avoid infection.
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Capsules provide a clean algebraic representation of the state of a computation in higherorder functional and imperative languages. They play the same role as closures or heap- or stack-allocated environments but are much simpler. A capsule is essentially a finite coalgebraic representation of a regular closed λ-coterm. One can give an operational semantics based on capsules for a higher-order programming language with functional and imperative features, including mutable bindings. Lexical scoping is captured purely algebraically without stacks, heaps, or closures. All operations of interest are typable with simple types, yet the language is Turing complete. Recursive functions are represented directly as capsules without the need for unnatural and untypable fixpoint combinators. 1
My Phage is from a soil sample from Karen Kadels chicken coop compost. I shared the bag with one other student in the learning community, but we found different phages. The sample was filtered and used for spot test(s). The sample was mostly dry and consisted of big chunks of mulch and soil ...
In a bid to cut treatment costs, US doctors urge fewer tests for people with mild health conditions and less aggressive treatment for those with advanced cancers.
Many people participate in biomedical research and it is estimated that one in 30 of us is enrolled in a cohort study at any one time. These studies contribute to, and enhance, our understanding of health…
Foodborne general outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 infection, England and Wales, 1992-2002: where are the risks? - Volume 133 Issue 5 - I. A. GILLESPIE, S. J. OBRIEN, G. K. ADAK, L. R. WARD, H. R. SMITH
BACKGROUND: Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. METHODS: We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. RESULTS: Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b) became one of the most
Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use.
Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 2, June 2003 describes an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135a in a child care centre.
There is a low risk that eggs will become infected with Salmonella Enteritidis Phage type 4 at the point of laying, she explains. If this happens the bacterial cells present in low numbers will be trapped in the white (Albumen). In fresh eggs the albumen is too viscous to allow salmonellae to move from the point of infection. As the egg is stored it absorbs moisture from the air diluting the albumen. It takes approximately three weeks for the albumen to be liquid enough to allow Salmonella to swim from the albumen into the yolk, where they can use the surrounding nutrients to increase in numbers. ...
In July 2001, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Folkehelseinstituttet, FHI) reported a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis of phage type 14b infections in Norwegian travellers returning from Greece. An increase in the same uncommon phage type was also registered in Sweden and Finland at the same time. Cases of S. Enteritidis PT 14b in patients returning from Greece were reported in these three Nordic countries in 2001 (303 cases), 2002 (164 cases) and 2003 (199 cases). Case-control studies performed in 2001 in Norway and Sweden indicated that consumption of chicken was associated with illness. In 2002 and 2003, continuing case reports indicated that this uncommon phage type had probably become established in the Greek food chain. Tour operators were informed and contacts were made with Greek public health authorities. Because place of infection is not systematically included in most Salmonella notification systems, the S. Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak reported here may represent only part of
A. hydrophila represents a group of bacteria pathogenic to fish. Recently the same bacteria have been increasingly implicated in human infections, particularly as a secondary invader, and are now being recognized as a serious pathogen under these circumstances. As little is known of the biochemical basis of pathogenicity of this species, interest in the structure and immunological properties of the cell surface polysaccharides of the different chemotypes of this gram-negative bacterium has increased. - The three bacterial colonies used for this investigation were selected from a biochemically pure culture of A. hydrophila. One represented the overall strain, whereas the other two, mutants, were isolated as morphologically different clones. The original strain and one of the clones were sensitive to phage while the other clone was resistant to the same phage. - Lipopolysaccharides were extracted from all three variants, and the basic structures of the polysaccharide portion from each of the three ...
A two-stage typing scheme in routine use in this laboratory is described. The strains of group B streptococci (GBS) are first serotyped and then, if necessary, phage-typing is performed. Serotyping...
Despite recent advances in vivo directed evolution techniques and the interest they have attracted so far, their impact in applied biotechnology is limited because of their limitations in programmability, selective drivers, cost and scalability.. Here, we propose to construct a general-purpose programmable evolution machine able to quickly evolve new biomolecules or phenotypes in bacterial cells. The proposed device will use existing phage technology and synthetic regulation to engineer a programmable directed evolution machine able to produce biomolecules or biocomputational functionality two orders of magnitude faster than conventional techniques, while consuming fewer consumables.. In its core, living matter will be subject to combinatorial search algorithms that will exploit large numbers of small, separate, bacterial populations. Each one will contain phage that evolve under different custom fitness selections. The different phage will then be recombined according to combinatorial ...
Phage typing of 741 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis from the Slovak Republic in 1995 has been carried out using the scheme of Ward and colleagues 1987. 202 strains 51 isolated from food were from 9 outbreaks, 536 isolates were from sporadic cases and 3 isolates were from nosocomial infections of new-born babies. 704...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of subtyping methods against a whole-genome-sequencing standard for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. AU - Deng, Xiangyu. AU - Shariat, Nikki. AU - Driebe, Elizabeth M.. AU - Roe, Chandler C.. AU - Tolar, Beth. AU - Trees, Eija. AU - Keim, Paul S. AU - Zhang, Wei. AU - Dudley, Edward G.. AU - Fields, Patricia I.. AU - Engelthaler, David M.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A retrospective investigation was performed to evaluate whole-genome sequencing as a benchmark for comparing molecular subtyping methods for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and survey the population structure of commonly encountered S. enterica serotype Enteritidis outbreak isolates in the United States. A total of 52 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates representing 16 major outbreaks and three sporadic cases collected between 2001 and 2012 were sequenced and subjected to subtyping by four different methods: (i) whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism typing ...
Involvement of ISCR3 and ISCR1 with the Salmonella genomic island 1 genetic element.SGI1 is a genetic element of approximately 43 kb (15). It has been associated mainly with MDR isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 that are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. This pathogen emerged in the last decade as a global animal and human health problem (15). Outbreaks of MDR S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have occurred in poultry, beef, and pigs and their food products, as well as in dairy products and salad ingredients. MDR salmonellae are very common in the United Kingdom and increasingly prevalent in many other countries (15).. Since its initial discovery in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104, SGI1 has also been found in other S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types, i.e., DT120, DT12, DT1, and U302, and in other serovars such as Agona, Paratyphi B, Albany, Meleagridis, Newport, Emek, Cerro, Derby, Dusseldorf, ...
We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35-2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29-3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A
A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 with multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 2-9-7-3-2 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least July 2015. Since May 2016, 16 confirmed and 132 probable cases have been reported to ECDC by six EU/EEA countries. ...
A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 with multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 2-9-7-3-2 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least July 2015. Since May 2016, 16 confirmed and 132 probable cases have been reported to ECDC by six EU/EEA countries. ...
OBJECTIVE--To determine the source of indigenous sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. DESIGN--Case-control study of primary sporadic cases identified by the Public Health Laboratory Service between 1 August and 30 September 1988. SETTING--PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Division of Enteric Pathogens, 11 PHLS laboratories, and 42 local authority environmental health departments in England. SUBJECTS--232 Patients (cases) with confirmed primary sporadic infection, for 160 of whom (88 female) (median age 30 years, age range 4 months to 85 years) data were obtained by questionnaire about consumption of fresh eggs, egg products, precooked chicken, and minced meat in the three days and one week before onset of the symptoms. Up to three controls, matched for neighbourhood, age, and sex (if aged greater than 11 years), were asked the same questions for the same calendar period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Association of primary sporadic infection with consumption of ...
This is the first BCAA RTD of its kind. The first RTD worthy of the XTEND name and the critically convenient way to get the most out of your next workout.
Routine tests for diabetics should not only including blood tests, but also physical examination and assessment for overall health and screening for cancer
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, PackageDescription -, c PackageDescription #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c PackageDescription #. toConstr :: PackageDescription -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: PackageDescription -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, PackageDescription -, PackageDescription #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) ...
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, SourcePos -, c SourcePos #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c SourcePos #. toConstr :: SourcePos -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: SourcePos -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, SourcePos -, SourcePos #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos #. gmapMp :: MonadPlus m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos ...
Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Elicits Cross-Immunity against a Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Strain Expressing LP Fimbriae from the lac ...
In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. AU - Winter, Sebastian E.. AU - Raffatellu, Manuela. AU - Wilson, Paul R.. AU - Rüssmann, Holger. AU - Bäumler, Andreas J.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Unlike non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, S. enterica serotype Typhi does not elicit neutrophilic infiltrates in the human intestinal mucosa. The Vi capsule-encoding tviABCDEvexABCDE operon (viaB locus) is a S. Typhi-specific DNA region preventing production of interleukin (IL)-8 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells. We elucidated the mechanism by which the viaB locus reduces IL-8 production in human colonic epithelial (T84) cells. A S. Typhi tviABCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, but not a tviBCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, elicited increased IL-8 production, which could be reduced to wild-type levels by introducing the cloned tviA regulatory gene. Thus, IL-8 expression ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is increasingly reported worldwide. The presence of a pattern of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphe
TY - JOUR. T1 - Foodborne disease in our global village. T2 - A multinational investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4) infections in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. AU - Roels, T. H.. AU - Shane, A.. AU - Goldoft, M.. AU - Herikstad, H.. AU - Hedberg, C.. AU - Angulo, F.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Background: In late 1996, a multinational investigation was launched following an outbreak of diarrheal illness which caused the early termination of an international scientific conference at a first-class hotel in Mexico. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all American and selected international attendees. A case was defined as an illness with ≥3 loose stools during a 24-hour period in a conference attendee or accompanying family member, with illness lasting ,2 days and onset between November 6 and 9, 1996. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 81% (232/288) of American attendees, 47% (18/38) of international attendees, and 25 family members; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular typing reveals a unique clone of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi among Indian strains [2]. AU - Chandel, Dinesh S.. AU - Chaudhry, Rama. AU - Dey, Aparajit B.. AU - Malhotra, Pawan. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. M3 - Letter. C2 - 16825414. AN - SCOPUS:33746216084. VL - 44. SP - 2673. EP - 2675. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 7. ER - ...
Manuela Raffatellu; Yao-Hui Sun; R. Paul Wilson; Quynh T. Tran; Daniela Chessa; Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis; Sara D. Lawhon; Josely F. Figueiredo; Renée M. Tsolis; L. Garry Adams; Andreas J. Bäumler (2005). Host Restriction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Is Not Caused by Functional Alteration of SipA, SopB, or SopD. Infection and Immunity. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /182814. ...
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Eggs from a Victorian farm have been recalled and the farm quarantined after five cases of illness to the salmonella enteritidis strain were identified by the Department of Health.. Quarantine is in place at Bridgewater Poultry, a farm at Bridgewater, north-west of Melbourne, and strict biosecurity measures have been put in place to protect neighbouring farms.. Dr Brett Sutton, Chief Health Officer of Victoria told Tom Elliott the recall is widespread, as both major supermarkets distribute eggs from this farm.. Its a really quite extensive list because its a pretty significant producer and distributor, he said.. Theyre found in both Woolies and Coles and there might be some other smaller outlets identified in coming days. ...
Summary The type strains of Vi-phage type E1, M1 and A of Salmonella typhi, together with drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of phage types E1 and M1 isolated in 1992 from patients associated with India or Pakistan, and a drug-resistant strain of phage type A isolated in South Africa in 1991, were characterised with respect to the presence of plasmids conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs and their chromosomal insertion sequence IS200 profiles. The three type strains, the drug-sensitive strains of Vi-phage types E1 and M1, and a strain of phage type M1 resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim but not to chloramphenicol, did not contain plasmids. In contrast, for strains of phage types E1 and M1 resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, and for the drug-resistant strain of phage type A, the complete spectrum of resistance was encoded by high molecular mass plasmids belonging to the H1 incompatibility group. Characterisation of IS200 profiles demonstrated that at least 13
Characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the Czech Republic: Phage types, antimicrobial and plasmid profilesKARPISKOVA, R; KOLACKOVA, I; DEDICOVA, D et al.Central european journal of public health. 2003, Vol 11, Num 3, pp 160-162, issn 1210-7778, 3 p.Article ...
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
During a national surveillance program on Group B streptococci (GBS) maternal carriage and neonatal infections, a GBS strain isolated from a pregnant womans vagino-rectal swab was non typable by either serological or molecular methods. Further molecular characterization demonstrated that the strain …
Procedures ordered for people with no symptoms - like routine blood screening and cardiac stress tests - may be useless and even harmful, says the Choosing Wisely Canada campaign.
Boken Idrottens olösta gåtor (2009) säljs av SISU Idrottsböcker, from: 2010-02-05 Created: 2010-02-05 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved ...
C4 ON THE GOGoing Places Powder Can’t (a matter of convenience)We’ve all been there… We’re ready to go hit a workout only to find we&rsquo
Lesley SM (1982). "A bacteriophage typing system for Rhizobium meliloti". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 28 (2): 180-189. ... Systematic naming of bacteriophages is rarely followed in the scientific literature. Thus, a variety of phages end up sharing ... Several bacteriophages that infect Sinorhizobium meliloti have been described: Φ1, Φ1A, Φ2A, Φ3A, Φ4 (=ΦNM8), Φ5t (=ΦNM3), Φ6 ... and Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1973). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ...
"Bacteriophage strain typing by rapid single molecule analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv563. ... the reaction mixture contains a single type of FdNTP and allows for multiple additions of that nucleotide type. Various washes ...
... bacteriophage typing, spa locus typing, and SCCmec typing are often conducted more than others. With these methods, it can be ... SAINT-MARTIN, M.; CHAREST, G.; DESRANLEAU, J. M. (1951). "Bacteriophage Typing in Investigations of Staphylococcal Food- ... Spa locus typing is also considered a popular technique that uses a single locus zone in a polymorphic region of S. aureus to ... Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for ...
Ackermann, H.W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Pseudomonas virus 42, formerly Pseudomonas phage 42, is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria. ...
"A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329-2345. doi:10.1007/s007050050246. PMID 9672598. ... Vibrio virus nt1 (formerly Vibrio phage nt-1) is a bacteriophage known to infect Vibrio bacteria. It infects Vibrio natriegens ... "Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity". BMC Microbiology. 9 (1): 224. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
His part was naming the bacteriophages into Type 1(T1), Type 2 (T2), Type 3 (T3), etc. The specific time and place of T4 virus ... Ackermann HW, Krisch HM (1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329-45. doi:10.1007/ ... Snustad DP (August 1968). "Dominance interactions in Escherichia coli cells mixedly infected with bacteriophage T4D wild-type ... "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (35 ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
Microbial ecology Filee, J.; Tetart, F.; Suttle, C. A.; Krisch, H. M. (2005). "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous ...
Bacteriophage λ is able to undergo a type of recombinational repair called prophage reactivation. Prophage reactivation can ... A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA ... Menouni R, Hutinet G, Petit MA, Ansaldi M (2015). "Bacterial genome remodeling through bacteriophage recombination". FEMS ... doi:10.1016/0027-5107(73)90001-8. PMID 4688367 Bernstein C. Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage. Microbiol Rev. 1981; ...
"Shigella dysenteriae Type 1-Specific Bacteriophage from Environmental Waters in Bangladesh". Applied and Environmental ... B subunits of the AB5 toxins have the affinity towards binding glycan which some type of tumors seem to possess making it an ... For these experiments, different types of AB5 toxins can be used to induce the fast formation of tCDR in E.Coli cells. The ... strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Examples include Bacteriophage ...
This peptidoglycan-binding type 2 amidase domain is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases. PGRP domain has ... and not present in bacteriophage amidases. Invertebrate PGRPs can be small secreted proteins (e.g., PGRP-SB, -SA, -SD, and -LB ... type I diabetes, infectious complications in hemodialysis, and thrombosis, consistent with pro-inflammatory effects of PGLYRP1 ... "Analysis of potential hub genes involved in the pathogenesis of Chinese type 1 diabetic patients". Annals of Translational ...
Typing of Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. The Bacteriological Hygienical Department of the Royal Veterinary ... Bacteriophages. Interscience, New York. OCLC 326505 Ho, N. B., Z. T. Si, and M. X. Yu. 1959. Bacteriophages from China. An ... French; The Bacteriophage and its Behavior] OCLC 11981307 d'Hérelle, F., and G. H. Smith. 1926. The Bacteriophage and Its ... The Bacteriophages. Volume I Plenum Press, New York. OCLC 18686137 Calendar, R. 1988. The Bacteriophages. Volume II Plenum ...
Some types of coliphages (a type of bacteriophage) are inactive in an of air-water-solid interface. This is due to the ... viruses on the other hand can colonize either the upper respiratory tract or the lower respiratory tract depending on the type ...
Type III toxin-antitoxin (AbiQ) systems have been shown to protect bacteria from bacteriophages altruistically. During an ... Type IV toxin-antitoxin systems are similar to type II systems, because they consist of two proteins. Unlike type II systems, ... Similar protective effects have been observed with type I, type II, and type IV (AbiE) toxin-antitoxin systems. Abortive ... Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are generally better-understood than type I. In this system a labile proteic antitoxin tightly ...
"Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein". mBio. 8 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.01751 ... Furthermore, the locus of the genes codifying these type I-E proteins was really close to the one responsible for the type I-F ... The first inhibitors of a type II CRISPR-Cas system were then discovered: AcrIIC1, AcrIIC2 and AcrIIC3, that block the type II‑ ... the type of mechanism used in the genetic edition of human cells). A year later, a study confirmed the presence of type II-A ...
Prophages are genomes of bacteriophages (a type of virus) that are inserted into bacterial chromosomes; prophages can then be ... Prophages can loop out of bacterial chromosomes to produce bacteriophages that go on to infect other bacteria with the ... and plasmids and prophages being the major types in prokaryotes. Virophages contribute to the viral mobilome. Transposable ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) gene from Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage ... Bacteriophages were discovered in 1915 by Frederick Twort. His work was overlooked and bacteriophages were later rediscovered ... This type of rash is accompanied by a prodromal period of cough and runny nose in addition to a fever, indicative of a viral ... Specifically, Bacteriophage T12 is responsible for the production of speA.[21] Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A, speA, is the ...
"The structural organization of DNA packaged within the heads of T4 wild-type, isometric and giant bacteriophages". Cell. 14 (3 ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ...
... bacteriophage typing, chemistry and virology. Josland continued to specialize in research into Leptospirosis and Salmonella, ... Josland, S. W. and Norris, D. M., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. V. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 58, August ... This contrasted with overseas results where many types of Salmonella had been found. In the 1950s, Josland prepared killed ... Josland, S. W., Salmonella Types in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 283, June 1952, pp180-184. Josland, ...
The reaction catalyzed by P35 holin is: autolysin (in) → autolysin (out) Bacteriophage Phage typing Holin Lysin Transporter ... Rydman, Pia S.; Bamford, Dennis H. (2003-07-01). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein ...
In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these ... In the case where the mutations are in different genes, each strain's genome supplies the wild-type allele to "complement" the ... The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ...
Bacteriophage display is the most common type of display system used although bacterial display is becoming increasingly ... when peptides were genetically fused with proteins displayed on the M13 bacteriophage. Bacteriophage display is a commonly used ... There are two types of live bacterial vaccines that can be made: Normally pathogenic bacteria are weakened so they are no ... Many types of bacteria have cell surface proteins such as the enteropathogenic E. coli intimin protein which is involved in ...
The bacteriophage (phage) T4 gyrase (type II topoismerase) is a multisubunit protein consisting of the products of genes 39, 52 ... There are two types or families of this enzyme; type I family and type II family. Type I family passes one strand of the DNA ... type IB and type IC topoisomerases change the linking number by any integer, whereas type IIA and type IIB topoisomerases ... Both type IA and type IB topoisomerases, within the Type I family, have very distinct differences in their properties. Type II ...
Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial ... Two other types of bacterial motion are called twitching motility that relies on a structure called the type IV pilus, and ... There are many types of antibiotics, and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage[edit]. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ... In this case, each strain's genome supplies the wild-type allele to "complement" the mutated allele of the other strain's ...
This system allowed them to vary both the length of bacteriophage and the type of inorganic material through genetic ... This type of white light as the backlight of an LCD panel allows for the best color gamut at lower cost than an RGB LED ... A widely used type of quantum dots grown with this method are In(Ga)As quantum dots in GaAs. Such quantum dots have the ... As their toxicity may also be dynamic depending on the environmental factors such as pH level, light exposure and cell type, ...
... "bacteriophage".[23][24] Between 1918 and 1921 d'Herelle discovered different types of bacteriophages that could infect several ... He was the first to describe a type of cancer that now bears his name Burkitt's lymphoma. This type of cancer was endemic in ... Numerous other types of bacteriophages were quickly discovered and were shown to infect bacteria wherever they are found. Early ... the first electron micrograph of a bacteriophage was published and this silenced sceptics who had argued that bacteriophages ...
"Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of ... ecologists have tested various types of ecological control mechanisms. For example, herbivores generally have an abundance of ... comparing and investigating the nature of non-random patterns in the structure of food web networks among many different types ...
Hedtke B, Börner T, Weihe A (August 1997). "Mitochondrial and chloroplast phage-type RNA polymerases in Arabidopsis". Science. ... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4.[ ...
... acnes bacteriophage (PA6). The authors proposed applying this research toward the development of bacteriophage therapy as an ... Many over-the-counter treatments in many forms are available, which are often known as cosmeceuticals.[168] Certain types of ... Ablative lasers (such as CO2 and fractional types) have also been used to treat active acne and its scars. When ablative lasers ... Atrophic acne scars have lost collagen from the healing response and are the most common type of acne scar (account for ...
... coli bacteriophage T3, which reduced the levels of S-adenosylmethionine, a precursor to ACC.[11] Endless Summer was briefly ...
Fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, type of Puffer fish 3.85×108 Smallest vertebrate genome known ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ... 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-695.. ...
A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... Principal cancer types under study: breast, prostate, blood (leukemia, lymphoma); melanoma; liver; ovarian and cervical; lung; ... Louis, sought to discover the nature of genes through study of viruses called bacteriophages that infect bacteria. ...
... for this type of forest in the Amazon (though generally spelled varzea when used in English). Igapó, another word used in ...
"An Escherichia coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic intermediate of bacteriophage T4 proline ... *Irwin H. Segel. Enzyme Kinetics: Behavior and Analysis of ...
Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... Genus Epsilonretrovirus; type species: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency ... Genus Felispumavirus; type species: Feline foamy virus. *Genus Prosimiispumavirus; type species: Brown greater galago prosimian ... Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T-lymphotropic virus ...
Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new type of bacillus, not only able to proliferate and abundantly ... Félix d'Herelle discovered in 1917 the bacteriophage, a virus that spread only inside bacteria; ... Both Roux and Metchnikoff, consequent to the discovery that this type of ape can be contaminated with the illness, contributed ... a type of streptococcus, cannot be found in the lymphatic glands. However it is Paul-Louis Simond who was the first to ...
Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ... Inductions of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus type III". The Journal of ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... Lobo, Ingrid; Shaw, Kelly (2008). "Discovery and Types of Genetic Linkage". Nature Education Knowledge. SciTable (Nature ...
... see type theory and type system), and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics.[290] ... She was a pioneer in the genetic analysis of bacteriophages and contributed to the early development of molecular biology.[181] ... Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E. "Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer". Bacteriophage. 6 (2): 1-12. doi: ...
RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed ... Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can ... Influenza virus, whose genome consists of 8 physically separated single-stranded RNA segments,[80] is an example of this type ... One version of the hypothesis is that a different type of nucleic acid, termed pre-RNA, was the first one to emerge as a self- ...
Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense and a cell's ... such as bacteriophages. In this system, bacteria produce enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, that attack and destroy ... Le Bon A, Tough DF (August 2002). "Links between innate and adaptive immunity via type I interferon". Current Opinion in ... Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in the mucous membranes. They are intimately ...
A type of undifferentiated or partially undifferentiated cell that is capable of differentiating into other types of ... bacteriophage. A virus that infects and multiplies within bacteria.. Barr body. The inactive X chromosome in a female somatic ... A type of organism which does not have a true nucleus.. protein. A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building ... A type of fertilization in which a sperm unites with an egg external to the body or bodies of the parent organisms. Contrast ...
The type species, Enterobacteria phage T5, and several other species have been fully sequenced. The genomes range between ... and TonB-Dependent Bacteriophage H8: Receptor Binding and Genomic Sequence". Journal of Bacteriology. 189 (15): 5658-5674. doi: ... There are currently eight species in this genus, including the type species Enterobacteria phage T5. Group: dsDNA Order: ... type IV) T5likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. The head is icosahedral (T=13) and is about 90 nm in diameter. ...
Bacteriophages are usually between 20 and 200 nanometers in size.. Phage genomes may code for as few as four genes,[10] and as ... Transposons are only one of several types of mobile genetic elements. Retrotransposons copy themselves in two stages: first ...
PSI+ and URE3, discovered in yeast in 1965 and 1971, are the two best studied of this type of prion.[76][77] Prions can have a ... packaging of bacteriophage, transposase activity and regulation of gene expression.[110][116] There exists a genetic switch ... Several types of epigenetic inheritance systems may play a role in what has become known as cell memory,[44] note however that ... A variety of epigenetic mechanisms can be perturbed in different types of cancer. Epigenetic alterations of DNA repair genes or ...
"Long term trends in the evolution of H(3) HA1 human influenza type A". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
Chloroplasts, like other types of plastid, contain a genome separate from that in the cell nucleus. The existence of ... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4.[ ... Hedtke B, Börner T, Weihe A (August 1997). "Mitochondrial and chloroplast phage-type RNA polymerases in Arabidopsis". Science. ...
Talk:Bacteriophage Mu. *Talk:Bacteriophage P2. *Talk:Bacteriophage PBC1. *Talk:Bacteriophage Qβ ... Talk:B type inclusion. *Talk:B13R (virus protein). *Talk:Babanki virus. *Talk:Baboon lymphocryptovirus ...
Restriction enzymes also enable the detection of other types of methylation, such as 6mA with DpnI.[35] Nanopore-based ... Reagents required for MDA reactions include: random primers and DNA polymerase from bacteriophage phi29. In 30 degree ... This can uncover the existence of rare cell types within a cell population that may never have been seen before. For example, ... The stochastic component may be addressed by pooling single-cell MDA reactions from the same cell type, by employing ...
... is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others.[2] It is ... Non-toxic strains can acquire toxicity through a temperate bacteriophage.[25] Susceptibility. About 100 million bacteria must ... susceptibility to cholera is also affected by their blood type, with those with type O blood being the most susceptible.[14] ... This type of toilet stops transmission of disease via the fecal-oral route due to water pollution. ...
Lastly, the abundance of introduced species in an ecotone can reveal the type of biome or efficiency of the two communities ...
Frank W. Preston, an early investigator of the theory of the species-area relationship, divided it into two types: samples (a ... It is rarely, if ever, constructed for all types of organisms if simply because of the prodigious data requirements. It is ... Authors have classified the species-area relationship according to the type of habitats being sampled and the census design ... Regardless of census design and habitat type, species-area relationships are often fit with a simple function. Frank Preston ...
Nutritional types in protist metabolism Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Examples ... "Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris-specific antibody fragments from a bacteriophage antibody display library". Experimental ... Two separate types of slime molds exist, the cellular and acellular forms.. Some protists, sometimes called ambiregnal protists ... Nutrition can vary according to the type of protist. Most eukaryotic algae are autotrophic, but the pigments were lost in some ...
Martineau, B., Acree, T.E. and Henick-Kling, T "Effect of wine type on the detection threshold for diacetyl" Food Research ... Some experimentation with the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) has been conducted to limit malolactic ... to another type of acid, L+ lactic acid. This can occur naturally. However, in commercial winemaking, malolactic conversion ... but disappointing results in the cheesemaking industry have led to skepticism about the practical use of bacteriophages in ...
Both types of fish contain strong toxins, but the difference is in the way the toxin is delivered. Venomous fish deliver their ... Carnivores are the most diverse of feeding types among coral reef fishes. There are many more carnivore species on the reefs ... given the huge variety in the types of prey on offer around coral reefs.[14] ... generalized feeders with more standard jaw and mouth structures that allow them to forage on a wide range of animal prey types ...
Each type of the nucleotide blocks the ion flow through the pore for a different period of time. The method does not require ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... The benefit of this sequencing type is its ability to capture a large number of targets with a homogenous coverage.[108] A ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ...
Connerton, P.L.; Timms, A.R.; Connerton, I.F. (2011). "Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy". Journal of ... since this type of medication inhibits normal gastric acid. ... Bacteriophages specific to the species now known as C. coli and ... Bacteriophage[edit]. The confusing taxonomy of Campylobacter over the past decades make identifying the earliest reports of ... Firehammer, BD; Border, M (1968). "Isolation of temperate bacteriophages from Vibrio fetus". American Journal of Veterinary ...
Kil protein, bacteriophage P22-type (IPR020298). Short name: Kil_phage_P22-type ... The bacteriophage P22 kil gene, like lambda kil, kills the host cell when it is expressed. The two kil genes, although ... Genetic structure of the bacteriophage P22 PL operon.. J. Mol. Biol. 207 1-13 1989 ...
Phage Types and Genotypes of Shiga Toxin-ProducingEscherichia coli O157 in Finland Marjut Saari, Thomas Cheasty, Kirsikka Leino ... Phage-Based Typing Scheme for Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg, a Causative Agent of Food Poisonings in Canada Walter ... Reaction Difference Rule for Phage Typing of Staphylococcus aureus at 100 Times the Routine Test Dilution Hazel M. Aucken, Kate ... Emergence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Phage Type DT191a Tansy Peters, Katie L. Hopkins, ...
A new type of host-dependent mutant, azure mutant, of bacteriophage f2 has been isolated. Growth of these mutants was ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ... Azure Mutants: A Type of Host-Dependent Mutant of the Bacteriophage f2 ...
Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium ... Our data suggest that horizontal transfer of type III dependent effector proteins by lysogenic infection with bacteriophages ( ...
All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including ... Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field. Authors. *. Zhongjun Jia,. Corresponding author. * ... Christopher M. Bellas, Alexandre M. Anesio, High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of ... Vita Ratri Cahyani, Jun Murase, Susumu Asakawa, Makoto Kimura, Change in T4-type bacteriophage communities during the ...
H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing.. U Krause, F M Thomson-Carter, T H ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ... H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. ...
Purification and characterization of a hyaluronidase associated with a temperate bacteriophage of group A, type 49 streptococci ... Purification and characterization of a hyaluronidase associated with a temperate bacteriophage of group A, type 49 streptococci ... Purification and characterization of a hyaluronidase associated with a temperate bacteriophage of group A, type 49 streptococci ... Purification and characterization of a hyaluronidase associated with a temperate bacteriophage of group A, type 49 streptococci ...
Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain. Structure 15:789-798. ... A) The wild-type HIV-1 gp160 glycoprotein is represented at the top, with the helical N36 and C34 regions and transmembrane (TM ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization is determined by epitope exposure on the gp120 oligomer. J. Exp. Med. 182: ... Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a 160-kDa envelope glycoprotein (gp160) precursor, which is proteolytically ...
The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids. ... The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids ... This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element ... Previous studies have shown that certain serological group B bacteriophages of S. aureus are capable of generalized ...
Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. Intervirology 32 1991 2 9 ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ... Analysis of the Genetic Switch and Replication Region of a P335-Type Bacteriophage with an Obligate Lytic Lifestyle on ...
Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food contact surfaces and foods prepared by ... Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food contact surfaces and foods prepared by ... coagulase and DNase production tests and later phage typed by group I, II, III and IV phage sets at RTD (routine test dilution ...
Staphylococcus aureus of canine nostril origin : bacteriophage typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biochemical characteristics ... Staphylococcus aureus of canine nostril origin : bacteriophage typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biochemical characteristics ...
Definition of Bacteriophage typing with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... bacteriophage plaque. bacteriophage resistance. bacteriophage t3. bacteriophage t4. bacteriophage t7. bacteriophage typing ( ... bacteriophage omicron x174. bacteriophage p1. bacteriophage p2. bacteriophage p22. bacteriophage phi 6. bacteriophage phi x 174 ... Bacteriophage Typing Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Bacteriophage Typing. bacteriophage immunity. bacteriophage lambda. ...
... ,italic,Salmonella typhimurium,/italic, in Australia ... A comparative investigation of the occurence of type A bacteriophages of ,italic,Salmonella typhimurium,/italic, in Australia ... A comparative investigation of the occurence of type A bacteriophages of Salmonella typhimurium. in Australia and California. ... A comparative investigation of the occurence of type A bacteriophages of Salmonella typhimurium. in Australia and California - ...
The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most ... Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) ... A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is ... prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle ...
An interesting modification of lytic cycle occurs when a certain type of bacteriophage, termed temperate, infects certain types ... 2 Types of Cycle that occurs in Bacteriophage Virus - Discussed!. Article shared by : ... 2 most important Types of Cycle that occurs in Bacteriophage Virus are Lytic-cycle and Lysogenic Cycle. ... Bacteriophages are the best understood viruses in terms of their gene structure and expression. For example T2-bacteriophage ...
... cloacae and their lytic reactions were used to select phages for a typing set. Numerical analysis by the Jaccard coefficient ... Isolation and selection of a bacteriophage-typing set for Enterobacter cloacae * M. A. Gaston ... cloacae and their lytic reactions were used to select phages for a typing set. Numerical analysis by the Jaccard coefficient ...
Life cycles of bacteriophages: …one of two life cycles, lytic (virulent) or lysogenic (temperate). Lytic phages take over the ... type of bacteriophage. *. In bacteriophage: Life cycles of bacteriophages. …one of two life cycles, lytic (virulent) or ...
Two types of recombination hotspots in bacteriophage T4: one requires DNA damage and a replication origin and the other does ... Two types of recombination hotspots in bacteriophage T4: one requires DNA damage and a replication origin and the other does ... Recombination hotspots have previously been discovered in bacteriophage T4 by two different approaches, marker rescue ...
Serotypes and phage types of group-B streptococci isolated from healthy and diseased human subjects and from cattle in ... f Serotyping and bacteriophage typing of human and bovine group-B streptococci MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the ... Serotyping and bacteriophage typing of human and bovine group-B streptococci, Page 1 of 1 ... Serotypes and phage types of group-B streptococci isolated from healthy and diseased human subjects and from cattle in ...
A brief overview to the different types of phages that have been discovered to date. ... bacteriophagebacteriophage classificationbacteriophage typesbacteriophageslysogeniclyticphagephage classificationphage types ... Temperate bacteriophages - Lysogenic cycle. Temperate bacteriophages are the bacteriophage type that use the lysogenic cycle ... Virulent bacteriophages happen to be those that play in our interest, as well as theirs. This bacteriophage type uses the lytic ...
Bacteriophage typing results indicate that most of the isolates were unrelated, with only a few isolates being clonal in origin ... Bacteriophage typing of these isolates readily resolved the ambiguity encountered in serotyping of these isolates. I also used ... I used a bacteriophage typing system to supplement serotyping in differentiating capsular cross-reactivity between isolates and ... Overall, bacteriophage typing proved to be an effective, inexpensive, and clinically practical adjunct to serotyping in ...
The genome of the Vi phage E1 is significantly related to other bacteriophages belonging to the same serovar Typhi phage-typing ... The genome of the Vi phage E1 is significantly related to other bacteriophages belonging to the same serovar Typhi phage-typing ... The genome of the Vi phage E1 is significantly related to other bacteriophages belonging to the same serovar Typhi phage-typing ... The genome of the Vi phage E1 is significantly related to other bacteriophages belonging to the same serovar Typhi phage-typing ...
Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1951 ... Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. ...
Bacteriophages have three main structure types. Since bacteriophages are viruses, they consist of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) ... Treating this type of infection with bacteriophages provides a way to preserve the good gut bacteria while destroying only the ... Bacteriophages help to transfer genes between bacteria by means of genetic recombination. This type of gene transfer is known ... Bacteriophages play a significant role in the worlds carbon cycle Bacteriophages are the most abundant virus in the ocean. ...
Different Types of Bacteriophages ... Lysogenic- infect the cell and integrates its genetic material into the ... - A free ... eat (greek) Two major types: Lytic and Lysogenic. ... T4 Bacteriophage. Description:. ... eat (greek) Two major types ... Two major types Lytic and Lysogenic 3. Different Types of Bacteriophages*Lytic- infect the cell and force the replication of ... T4 Bacteriophage. 1. T4 Bacteriophage 2. What is a Bacteriophage?*A small virus that only infects bacteria wikipedia ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
See also Bacterial ultrastructure; Bacteriophage and bacteriophage typing; Molecular biology and molecular genetics; Viral ... which are specifically targeted by certain types of bacteriophage.. There are two types of transduction: generalized ... Unlike the other mechanisms, however, transduction requires the participation of a type of virus called a bacteriophage in ... 1. The transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another by means of a bacteriophage.. 2. The conversion of ...
Bacteriophage Typing * Cattle / microbiology* * Ceftriaxone* / therapeutic use * Cephalosporin Resistance* * Cephalosporins* / ...
See also Bacteriophage and bacteriophage typing; Molecular biology and molecular genetics; Viral genetics ... Bacteriophages-known simply as phages-had been discovered in 1915, only nineteen years before Hershey began his career. Phages ... This type of reproduction is known as replication. Little was known about the particulars of this process when Hershey was a ... Hersheys work with bacteriophages, the viruses that prey on bacteria , was often carried out in loose collaboration with other ...
  • Therefore, we also investigated the possible involvement of these transducing phages in the transmission of the large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element of S. aureus UMCG-M4. (
  • This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element, which may lead to its transfer to other staphylococci. (
  • Lactococcal phages are classified into 12 different species based on morphology, DNA homology, and protein profiles ( 35 ), but only three phage species, the prolate-headed c2 species and the isometric-headed 936 and P335 species represent the major virulent types responsible for problems in dairy plants. (
  • However, the increasing appearance of new lytic phages belonging to the P335 species, supported by DNA homology studies showing extensive homology between lytic and temperate P335 phage species, indicates that temperate phages or a phage remnant constitutes an important source for the development of new lytic bacteriophages ( 1 , 19 , 49 , 69 ). (
  • They were tested at RTD on 92 selected strains of E. cloacae and their lytic reactions were used to select phages for a typing set. (
  • Lysis or lytic cycle is a cytoplasmic viral replication process in which the bacteriophage injects its genetic material into a host cell, which allows this genetic material to replica, producing many new phages. (
  • Once the host cell is filled with new bacteriophages, the host cell raptures from within, releasing the newly formed phages. (
  • It is important to note that the bacteriophages that are used for phage products and phage therapy are all virulent phages. (
  • However, when a lysogenic bacteriophage feels under a certain amount of pressure, or its survival is placed at risk, it has the ability to switch from the lysogenic cycle to the lytic cycle, which results in rapid replication of newly formed phages which burst out of the host cell. (
  • Bacteriophages-known simply as phages-had been discovered in 1915, only nineteen years before Hershey began his career. (
  • The immunity profiles of the different Stx phages did not conform to the model established for bacteriophage lambda, in that the pattern of individual Stx phage infection of various lysogens was neither expected nor predicted. (
  • The data demonstrate that, although Stx phages are members of the lambdoid family, their replication and infection control strategies are not necessarily identical to the archetypical bacteriophage λ, and this could be responsible for the widespread occurrence of stx genes across a diverse range of E. coli serotypes. (
  • Phages were discovered to be antibacterial agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia (pioneered there by Giorgi Eliava with help from the co-discoverer of bacteriophages, Félix d'Herelle) during the 1920s and 1930s for treating bacterial infections. (
  • Traditionally, bacteriophages (phages) have been regarded as a nuisance in industrial processes that rely on bacterial fermentation. (
  • 1991) Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. (
  • Shaburova, O. 2006-03-15 00:00:00 A study was made of several bacteriophages (including phages U2 and LB related to T-even phages of Escherichia coli) that grow both on E. coli K12 and on some Salmonella strains. (
  • U2 and LB are similar to canonical E. coli-specific T-even phages in morphological type and size of the phage particle and in reaction with specific anti-T4 serum. (
  • Ambivalent bacteriophages were found in species other than T-even phages and were similar in morphotype to lambdoid and other E. coli phages. (
  • Ambivalent phages can be used to develop a new set for phage typing in Salmonella. (
  • Consequently, the resulting typing phage preparation is devoid of an admixture of temperate phages, which are common in Salmonella. (
  • The presence of temperate phages in phage-typing preparations may cause false-positive results in identifying specific Salmonella strains isolated from the environment or salmonellosis patients. (
  • Some studies deal with their use in strain typing ( 10 , 32 ), but extensive studies of the molecular biology of C. difficile phages are lacking. (
  • R- and F-type pyocins are defective prophages ancestrally related to P2 and lambda phages, respectively, which have differentiated into bacteriocins ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-converting bacteriophages induced from 49 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated during a recent outbreak of enterocolitis in Spain were examined in an attempt to identify the variability due to the stx 2 -converting phages. (
  • Bacteriophages, sometimes simply referred to as phages, are considered the most abundant biological entities on the planet [ 8 ]. (
  • The downside is, if a doctor doesn't know exactly which species of bacteria is infecting a patient, he or she must create a cocktail of many different types of phages to ensure effectiveness. (
  • And with a near-limitless supply of different phages (no two identical phages have ever been identified), bacterial resistance isn't such a problem: if a bug develops resistance to one type of phage, researchers can just add different phages to the cocktail. (
  • Bacteriophages (phages) and bacteria are the most abundant organisms on Earth ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are specialized viruses that infect bacteria. (
  • Because each type of phage can infect and lyse only specific types of bacteria, phages represent a highly specific form of anti-bacterial treatment. (
  • Bacteriophages, or phages for short, are viruses that infect bacteria, take over the molecular machinery inside the bacterial cells and use it to make more copies of themselves. (
  • Some of the most common among these viruses in the open ocean are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages (phages) that infect many abundant and biogeochemically important groups of bacterioplankton, such as Prochlorococcus , Synechococcus , and numerous heterotrophic bacterial species in common genera such as Roseobacter , Alteromonas , Pelagibacter , and Puniceispirillum ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • Two types of bacteriophages threaten bacteria: lytic phages and lysogenic (or temperate) phages. (
  • Bacteriophages (that is, phages: viruses that infect bacteria) are highly abundant and are known to play critical roles in bacterial mortality, biogeochemical cycling and horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Salmonella typhimurium employs the specialized type III secretion system encoded in pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) to translocate effector proteins into host cells and to modulate host cell signal transduction. (
  • Our data suggest that horizontal transfer of type III dependent effector proteins by lysogenic infection with bacteriophages (lysogenic conversion) may provide an efficient mechanism for fine-tuning the interaction of Salmonella spp. (
  • Evidence from tissue culture experiments indicates that the SPI1 type III system of Salmonella spp. (
  • The type III secretion apparatus as well as most effector proteins are highly conserved among all Salmonella spp. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. (
  • Bacteriophage types of Salmonella typhi in Haryana. (
  • The substrates inositol, rhamnose, d-tartrate and m-tartrate used in fermentation tests with 338 cultures of Salmonella paratyphi B differentiated strains in some phage types to give information that could be used in epidemiological investigations. (
  • Phage types of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from clinical and food samples, and from broiler carcasses in southern Brazil. (
  • 272 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis (111 isolated from frozen broiler chicken carcasses, 126 from human food and other biological materials involved in food poisoning outbreaks and 35 from different poultry materials) were selected for phage typing. (
  • This study was focused on the isolation of bacteriophages that are specific to some of commonly human pathogens namely E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. (
  • Lilleengen K. Typing Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. (
  • The type species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 is Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, with the type strain LT2T, and conservation of the epithet enterica in Salmonella enterica over all earlier epithets that may be applied to this species. (
  • Ambivalent bacteriophages of different species active on Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella sp. (
  • Salmonella Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 40, DT56 variant(v), and DT160 accounted for the majority of isolates. (
  • Anderson ES, Ward LR, de Saxe MJ, De Sa JDH (1977) Bacteriophage-typing designations of Salmonella typhimurium . (
  • Alle eerste isolaten bij de mens van Salmonella, Bordetella, Legionella, Shigella, Listeria, Yersinia, Streptococcus pyogenes (zowel invasief als oppervlakkig) en invasieve Haemophilus influenzae worden door middel van meldingsformulieren gerapporteerd. (
  • Salmonella-, Bordetella-, en Streptococcus pyogenes-isolaten dienen opgestuurd te worden naar het Laboratorium voor Infectieziektenscreening en Diagnostiek (RIVM) voor serotypering en faagtypering. (
  • Salmonella, Bordetella and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates should be sent to the Laboratory of Bacteriology (RIVM) for serotyping and phage typing. (
  • Comparative genomic analysis of 142 bacteriophages infecting Salmonella enterica subsp. (
  • A majority of the phamilies, 4330 out of 5796 (74.7%), occurred in just one prophage underscoring the high degree of diversity among Salmonella bacteriophages. (
  • The Salmonella riboswitch is the first to sense and respond to a metal ion, substantially expanding the types of molecules that riboswitches can detect to help cells assess and react to their environment. (
  • The identification of a characteristic genetic switch including two divergent promoters and two cognate repressor genes strongly indicates that φ31 was derived from a temperate bacteriophage. (
  • These bacteriophages use cytoplasmic viral replication, lytic and lack the genes to become lysogenic. (
  • Bacteriophages help to transfer genes between bacteria by means of genetic recombination . (
  • Some bacteria species including E. coli , Streptococcus pyogenes (causes flesh-eating disease), Vibrio cholerae (causes cholera), and Shigella (causes dysentery) become harmful when genes that produce toxic substances are transferred to them via bacteriophages. (
  • However, genetic variation within the virulence genes of wild-type strains appears to be limited and could not be directly linked to differences in pathogenicity ( 30 ) or environmental distribution. (
  • The genes encoding the Shiga-like toxins are carried by temperate bacteriophages. (
  • The bacteriophage regions flanking the sltII genes will be amplified by IPCR and subsequently the nucleotide sequence of these flanking regions will be determined. (
  • The pathogenicity of Shiga-like toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), notably serotype O157, the causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, is based partly on the presence of genes (stx1 and/or stx2) that are known to be carried on temperate lambdoid bacteriophages. (
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (
  • Bacteriophages also carry what are known as auxiliary metabolic genes in their DNA. (
  • They use this memory, plus a DNA-slicing enzyme known as a Cas to recognize and chop up the genes of invading bacteriophage. (
  • The genes encoding Shiga toxins ( stx ) are located in the genomes of temperate lambdoid bacteriophages ( 21 ). (
  • This gene is part of a system that defends against bacteriophage attack called the PLE, which consists of several genes of previously unknown function. (
  • Both bacteriophages contained a large number of radical S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) genes, presumably involved in boosting host metabolism during infection, as well as evidence that many genes had been acquired from a wide range of bacterial species. (
  • Further bacteriophages, from the UK Campylobacter typing set, were screened for the presence of bacteriophage structural genes, DNA methylases, mobile genetic elements and regulatory genes identified from the genome sequences. (
  • The bacteriophages show adaptations to their host and possess genes that may enhance Campylobacter metabolism, potentially advantaging both the bacteriophage and its host. (
  • Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. (
  • Bacteriophages are 'bacteria eaters' in that they are viruses that infect and destroy bacteria . (
  • In addition to infecting bacteria, bacteriophages also infect other microscopic prokaryotes known as archaea . (
  • Since bacteriophages do not infect human cells , they have been used in medical therapies to treat bacterial diseases . (
  • In this study, the researchers concentrated on bacteriophages that infect blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria. (
  • As the probiotic bacteria pass through a person's intestinal tract, the bacteriophage would burst forth and infect any nearby C. difficile , causing them to hack up their own DNA. (
  • That's because each type tends to infect only specific bacteria. (
  • Some types of viruses called bacteriophages, or bacteria eaters, only infect bacteria cells. (
  • The bacteriophages then break open, or "lyse", the bacterial cell, releasing the viral copies into the environment, ready to infect more bacteria nearby. (
  • Purification and characterization of a hyaluronidase associated with a temperate bacteriophage of group A, type 49 streptococci. (
  • Among other indications, ceftriaxone tional Microbiology Laboratory (NML), PHAC, for phage is the drug of choice for treating severe or invasive sal- type characterization and antimicrobial resistance testing. (
  • Furthermore, we show that the bacteriophage induction event is mediated by a pharyngeal cell soluble factor for which we provide an initial characterization. (
  • Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. (
  • Controlling injection: regulation of type III secretion in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. (
  • Shiga toxin of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli type O157:H7 promotes intestinal colonization. (
  • For example T 2 -bacteriophage infects Escherichia coli and causes lytic cycle. (
  • Epidemiological typing of enterhemorragic Escherichia coli strains by characterizing their plasmids and studying their bacteriophages. (
  • We will purify and characterize the temperate bacteriophages present in human and bovine enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains. (
  • A virulent double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, ΦK1-5, has been isolated and found to be capable of infecting Escherichia coli strains that possess either the K1 or the K5 polysaccharide capsule. (
  • Recombination hotspots have previously been discovered in bacteriophage T4 by two different approaches, marker rescue recombination from heavily damaged phage genomes and recombination during co-infection by two undamaged phage genomes. (
  • Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different genomes, and lifestyles. (
  • The genomes of six Listeria bacteriophages were sequenced and analyzed. (
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that bacteriophages have an important role in bacterial biology, diversity, and evolution, as indicated by the advances in genome sequencing which revealed a high incidence of phage-related sequences in bacterial genomes. (
  • The comparative analysis of bacteriophage genome sequences has greatly enhanced our understanding of their diversity, revealing relationships between phage genomes often infecting distantly related host bacteria. (
  • Five S. meliloti genomes have been sequenced to date: Rm1021, AK83, BL225C, Rm41, and SM11 with 1021 considered to be the wild type. (
  • Desiere F, Lucchini S and Brussow H (1998) Evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage genomes by modular exchanges followed by point mutations and small deletions and insertions. (
  • It should be noted that bacteriophage can shape the evolution of Campylobacter genomes as they do in other bacterial genera. (
  • Temperate bacteriophages are major players in the evolution of bacterial genomes. (
  • The results indicate that many of these bacteriophages are related, with 10 out of 15 showing some relationship to the sequenced genomes. (
  • Genetic conservation has been shown to extend to other Campylobacter bacteriophages, forming a highly conserved lineage of bacteriophages that predate upon campylobacters and indicating that highly adapted bacteriophage genomes can be stable over prolonged periods of time. (
  • Virulent bacteriophages happen to be those that play in our interest, as well as theirs. (
  • Two large virulent Campylobacter bacteriophages were found to show very high levels of sequence conservation despite separation in time and place of isolation. (
  • 2 most important Types of Cycle that occurs in Bacteriophage Virus are Lytic-cycle and Lysogenic Cycle. (
  • An interesting modification of lytic cycle occurs when a certain type of bacteriophage, termed temperate, infects certain types of bacteria. (
  • This bacteriophage type uses the lytic cycle for replication. (
  • In the bacteriophage lytic cycle , the virus replicates within the host. (
  • All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. (
  • I used a bacteriophage typing system to supplement serotyping in differentiating capsular cross-reactivity between isolates and to type serologically non-typable clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. (
  • I evaluated the ability of these bacteriophages to differentiate 17 serologically cross-reacting K. pneumoniae isolates from human, animal, and environmental sources. (
  • Bacteriophage typing of these isolates readily resolved the ambiguity encountered in serotyping of these isolates. (
  • I also used 13 multiply cross-infecting bacteriophages to type 30 serologically untypable hospital isolates of K. pneumoniae. (
  • Bacteriophage typing results indicate that most of the isolates were unrelated, with only a few isolates being clonal in origin. (
  • Overall, bacteriophage typing proved to be an effective, inexpensive, and clinically practical adjunct to serotyping in distinguishing serologically cross-reactive and serologically nontypable isolates of K. pneumoniae. (
  • This analysis will allow to detect if there is a link between bacteriophages isolated from bovine strains and from human clinical isolates. (
  • S. Typhimurium isolates were typed at the Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Weybridge, and the Health Protection Agency, Colindale. (
  • SCCmec types I and IV were the most common types among the PJI isolates. (
  • However, for over half (57 %) of the isolates, it was not possible to assign an SCCmec type. (
  • The characterisation of the SCCmec elements revealed a large heterogeneity, with a high frequency of isolates carrying more than one type of the ccr gene complex. (
  • The DNA sequence of the replication module, part of the lysis module, and remnants of a lysogenic module from the lytic P335 species lactococcal bacteriophage φ31 was determined, and its regulatory elements were investigated. (
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria selectively: each type of bacteriophage is active only to the certain bacterial species. (
  • Bacteriophages (from Ancient Greek meaning 'bacteria-eaters') - viruses that kill bacteria selectively: each type of bacteriophage is active only to the certain bacterial species and neutral with normal microbial flora of humans and don't interact with their organs and systems. (
  • Treating this type of infection with bacteriophages provides a way to preserve the good gut bacteria while destroying only the C. diff germs. (
  • The aim of the present study was to characterise the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and, if possible, assign them to any of the presently known SCCmec types. (
  • Naturally occurring viruses called bacteriophages attack specific types of bacteria. (
  • In fact, the system is an immune defense bacteria use to fend off invading viruses called bacteriophage. (
  • Not only must they constantly compete against their comrades for resources and living space, they re also subject to infection by pathogens viruses called bacteriophages which can affect their ability to survive and prosper. (
  • Furthermore, there is no evidence on bacteriophage therapy in the treatment of acne in humans. (
  • Employing a technology called phage-typing, researchers affiliated with Britain's Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) warned that resistance selection on farms could also harm humans. (
  • The bacteriophages applied in clinical practice destroy pathogenic bacteria, don't affect the normal microbial flora of humans and don't interact with their organs and systems. (
  • Since the early 20th century, researchers have recognized the potential value of lytic bacteriophages in combating bacterial infections in crops, humans, and agricultural animals. (
  • Two types of recombination hotspots in bacteriophage T4: one requires DNA damage and a replication origin and the other does not. (
  • Temperate bacteriophages are the bacteriophage type that use the lysogenic cycle for replication. (
  • These bacteriophages use cytoplasmic viral replication. (
  • Bacteriophages were able to generate reducing sugars in capsular polysaccharine from the isolating host and from hosts in which replication could not occur. (
  • This type of reproduction is known as replication. (
  • Lysogenisation of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage represses cell motility. (
  • These sequences, determined for different bacteriophages, will be compared with know bacteriophage sequences and with each other. (
  • Some bacteriophages target potentially pathogenic bacteria by exploiting surface-associated virulence factors as receptors. (
  • The bacteriophage P22 kil gene, like lambda kil, kills the host cell when it is expressed. (
  • Ook een weekoptelling van de isolaten en een weektotaal van Campylobacter. (
  • This chapter discusses efforts to exploit Campylobacter -specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of C. jejuni and C. coli colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. (
  • Bacteriophage Therapy and Campylobacter , p 679-693. (
  • Transmission electron micrographs of Campylobacter bacteriophage. (
  • Campylobacter , a food-borne pathogen, is one of the organisms for which the use of bacteriophage is being considered to reduce human exposure to this organism. (
  • Sequencing and genome analysis was performed for two Campylobacter bacteriophages. (
  • The SPI1 type III system and the effector proteins are conserved among all salmonellae and are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Experiments using a derivative of SopEΦ implicate lysogenic conversion as an important mechanism facilitating horizontal transfer of type III-dependent effector proteins. (
  • The envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) function as a trimer composed of three gp120 exterior glycoproteins and three gp41 transmembrane proteins. (
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have structures that are either simple or elaborate. (
  • Bacteriophages typically have what type of attachment proteins? (
  • Enveloped viruses, like influenza, typically have what type of attachment proteins? (
  • Non-enveloped (naked) viruses can have what two types of attachment proteins? (
  • As research on new antibiotic agents is decreasing due to cost and difficulty, the development of new, natural, and non-conventional alternatives-such as antimicrobial peptides, natural engineered antibodies, and bacteriophages-is becoming critical. (
  • Bacteriophages are bacterial parasites and are considered the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet. (
  • Bacteriophages are numerically the most abundant DNA-containing entities in the oligotrophic ocean, yet how specific phage populations vary over time and space remains to be fully explored. (
  • The spatiotemporal distributions of the most abundant open-ocean bacteriophages that we report here provide new insight into viral temporal persistence, life history, and virus-host-environment interactions throughout the open-ocean water column. (
  • However, researchers have previously shown that using bacteriophages to trigger CRISPR can efficiently kill skin bacteria and might also help combat Shigella sonnei , a diarrheal infection common in the developing world. (
  • Now that researchers know that ICP1 bacteriophages also delay lysis in Vibrio cholerae , this might lead to more studies exploring this process in samples from cholera patients. (
  • Sanders ME (1987) Bacteriophage of industrial importance. (
  • Ackermann, H.W. and DuBow, M.S. ( 1987 ) Viruses of Prokaryotes: Natural Groups of Bacteriophages Vol. 2. (
  • Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. (
  • Common themes among bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors and diversity among the bacteriophages involved. (
  • Since bacteriophages are viruses, they consist of a nucleic acid ( DNA or RNA ) enclosed within a protein shell or capsid . (
  • A bacteriophage may also have a protein tail attached to the capsid with tail fibers extending from the tail. (
  • RNA bacteriophages, plant viruses, and animal viruses have a self-folding mechanism that enables the viral genome to fit within the capsid container. (
  • B) Bacteriophage CP220 empty capsid after DNA insertion. (
  • It was D'Herelle who conducted much research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy. (
  • The aim of this study, therefore, was to isolate and characterize bacteriophages specific for C. difficile as a preliminary step to assessing their potential as novel therapeutic agents. (
  • Gindreau E and Lonvaud‐Funel A (1999) Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC. (
  • and a glycine residue is also found in the same position in the closely related bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase ( S hamoo and S teitz 1999 ). (
  • 1. A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages. (
  • Coffey A and Ross RP (2002) Bacteriophage‐resistance systems in dairy starter strains: molecular analysis to application. (
  • Daly C, Fitzgerald GF and Davis R (1996) Biotechnology of the lactic acid bacteria with special reference to bacteriophage resistance. (
  • Hill C, Miller LA and Klaenhammer TR (1990) Cloning, expression and sequence determination of a bacteriophage fragment encoding bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis. (
  • It highlights the role that individual experts using bacteriophage typing played in warning about the mass selection for bacterial resistance on farms and the response of a corporatist system, whose traditional laissez-faire arrangements struggled to cope with the risk posed by bacterial resistance. (
  • Wide spread resistance against antibiotics has prompted a renewed surge of interest in bacteriophages which are viruses capable of infecting and sometimes killing bacteria, as safe and effective therapy alternatives [ 7 ]. (
  • Here we have characterized the Vi-associated E1-typing bacteriophage using a number of molecular approaches. (
  • Molecular tools and enzymes derived from the study of bacteriophage (see text for details). (
  • 1997) Molecular ecology of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage infections in a cheese factory. (
  • We propose that a β-turn-β structure, which plays a critical role in exonucleolytic proofreading in the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase, is also present in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA pol δ. (
  • Phage morphology and DNA hybridization, as well as partial sequence information, suggest that this phage (SopEΦ) is a new member of the P2 family of bacteriophages. (
  • In the present studies, we observed that the clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate UMCG-M4 with the sequence type 398 contains four prophages belonging to the serological groups A, B and Fa. (
  • Bacteriophages are the best understood viruses in terms of their gene structure and expression. (
  • This type of gene transfer is known as transduction. (
  • Hays and Seed saw that the lidI gene disrupts lysis inhibition, speeding up the bursting of infected bacterial cells, which in turn decreases the number of bacteriophages produced from each infected cell. (
  • Our understanding of the dynamics of genome stability versus gene flux within bacteriophage lineages is limited. (
  • we could introduce a genetic material into indigenous bugs via a bacteriophage - a virus that infects bacteria - to give local microbes DNA that would allow them to break down oil . (
  • As well, I set out to examine whether the bacteriophage endoglycosidase determines capsular specificity. (
  • Using sewage as starting material, I isolated 91 bacteriophages to the 77 capsular serotypes of Klebsiella. (
  • Finally, I evaluated whether the bacteriophage endoglycosidase is involved in determining capsular specificity. (
  • I measured endoglycosidase activity in the presence of partially purified capsular polysaccharide of K. pneumoniae serotypes upon which the bacteriophage could or could not replicate. (
  • This was observed with both specific and multiply cross-infective bacteriophages, suggesting that the bacteriophage endoglycosidase does not determine capsular specificity. (
  • Scientists have isolated bacteriophages that destroy the superbug Clostridium difficile (C. diff) . (
  • The lack of information on bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile prompted this study. (
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (
  • A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/ˈfeɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. (
  • The possession of a specific type of outer-membrane protein receptor for colicin M or bacteriophage ES18 and the particular type of ribosomal ribonucleic acid present, defined three groups among the phage-typed and biotyped cultures. (
  • One of the predominant reasons for fermentation failures is infection of the starter culture by bacteriophages, resulting in slow acid formation and a product of inferior value. (