Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of filamentous phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE. They are specific for enterobacteria that contain an IncN plasmid.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of bacteriophages of the family MICROVIRIDAE. The genome consists of isometric single-stranded DNA.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.

Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms. (1/735)

In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms following PCR amplification of the coa hypervariable and spa repeat regions. Coa gene RFLPs produced a total of 38 distinct combined patterns after digestion with HaeIII and AluI and identified the predominant epidemic (EMRSA) types 15 and 16. A unique HaeIII restriction site was identified by RFLP and sequence analysis in the coa gene for EMRSA 15 but not EMRSA 16. The spa gene PCR yielded a total of 14 different profiles ranging from 3-18 repeats with the 2 predominant EMRSA types falling into 2 distinct groups. PCR detection of coa and spa polymorphisms offer a rapid preliminary strain identification and discriminatory subtyping information for surveillance of MRSA.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (2/735)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (3/735)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX). (4/735)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reported in the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104. (5/735)

Salmonella typhimurium phage type DT104 has become an important emerging pathogen. Isolates of this phage type often possess resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT resistance). The mechanism by which DT104 has accumulated resistance genes is of interest, since these genes interfere with treatment of DT104 infections and might be horizontally transferred to other bacteria, even to unrelated organisms. Previously, several laboratories have shown that the antibiotic resistance genes of DT104 are chromosomally encoded and involve integrons. The antibiotic resistance genes conferring the ACSSuT-resistant phenotype have been cloned and sequenced. These genes are grouped within two district integrons and intervening plasmid-derived sequences. This sequence is potentially useful for detection of multiresistant DT104.  (+info)

Identification of four phage resistance plasmids from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2. (6/735)

The bacteriophage-host sensitivity patterns of 16 strains of Lactococcus lactis originally isolated from a mixed strain Cheddar cheese starter culture were determined. Using phages obtained from cheese factory whey, four of the strains were found to be highly phage resistant. One of these isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2, was studied in detail to determine the mechanisms responsible for the phage insensitivity phenotypes. Conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA from strain HO2 allowed a function to be assigned to four of its six plasmids. A 46-kb molecule, designated pCI646, was found to harbor the lactose utilization genes, while this and plasmids of 58 kb (pCI658), 42 kb (pCI642), and 4.5 kb (pCI605) were shown to be responsible for the phage resistance phenotypes observed against the small isometric-headed phage phi712 (936 phage species) and the prolate-headed phage phic2 (c2 species). pCI658 was found to mediate an adsorption-blocking mechanism and was also responsible for the fluffy pellet phenotype of cells containing the molecule. pCI642 and pCI605 were both shown to be required for the operation of a restriction-modification system.  (+info)

Subtyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the North-West of England: a comparison of standardised pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with bacteriophage typing including an inter-laboratory reproducibility study. (7/735)

Bacteriophage typing is currently the recognised methodology for the typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the UK. Bacteriophage typing is less discriminatory and does not type all isolates compared with some molecular methods for typing MRSA. Chromosomal genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is increasingly recognised as an improved method for typing MRSA, providing increased discrimination and typability. In this study the results of a comparison of bacteriophage typing and PFGE typing and subtyping are presented for a large collection of isolates from the North-West of England. Isolates belonging to the most frequently isolated epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) bacteriophage types 15 and 16 were typed by PFGE with further discrimination of common PFGE types possible into a number of subtypes. These results for a large collection of isolates demonstrate the improved typing of MRSA with PFGE. The widespread acceptance of PFGE for typing MRSA isolates has been hampered by the lack of standardised methodologies. Recently, a standardised PFGE strain typing system, known as the GenePath system has become available. The results of an inter-laboratory comparison of PFGE typing for a collection of isolates demonstrated good reproducibility with this system.  (+info)

Phages for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an international trial. (8/735)

An internationally agreed and validated set of phages is used worldwide for the typing of strains of Staphylococcus aureus of human origin. However, because of the sometimes reduced susceptibility of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) to these phages, some of the national typing centres use locally isolated and characterized sets of experimental phages. In this trial, 42 such phages were distributed to 6 centres and tested against 744 isolates of MRSA with the intention of defining a phage set to augment the international set. The use of these experimental phages increased the percentage typability from 75% with the international set to 93% and the number of identifiable lytic patterns from 192 to 424. A subset of 10 experimental phages was selected. When this subset was compared with the experimental panel, the typability rate was 91% and 370 distinct patterns were obtained. This subset of phages has been distributed for international trial.  (+info)

The more noticeable epidemics of Salmonellosis tend to occur in species of northern birds, particularly the Common Redpoll, that periodically appear in more southern regions during the winter months. These birds breed in the boreal forest and feed primarily on conifer seeds. In years in which the seed crop is not sufficient, the redpolls and other associated species of birds (e.g. siskins, crossbills) move south in large numbers and are seen at bird feeders. In some of these eruption years, there is significant mortality at bird feeders due to Salmonellosis. A number of different phage types have been found in common redpolls. For a number of years PT 40 was the predominant strain. This same phage type has been seen in related species of birds in Great Britain and Scandinavia. More recently, phage types, including U284 and PT51 have been found. The latter is the phage type that has predominated in the years 2009-2013. These bacteria are highly adapted to their hosts and it is quite likely that ...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30, No 4, December 2006 contains information on an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 64 gastroenteritis.
Definition of routine test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is routine test? Meaning of routine test as a legal term. What does routine test mean in law?
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen responsible for both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The ability to rapidly and reliably identify relatedness between clinical isolates is crucial for the investigation of outbreaks and also for the epidemiological surveillance of strain dissemination. To date, several methods for the genotyping of S. aureus isolates have been reported. These methods are based on either phenotypic characterization or molecular techniques (for reviews, see references 38 and 43). Phenotyping usually relies on (i) antimicrobial susceptibility panels, (ii) arrays of specific antibodies directed against bacterial surface components, or (iii) phage susceptibility patterns (38, 48). These techniques may suffer from poor discriminatory power, time consumption, or low throughput (38, 48). Most molecular techniques employ PCR amplification but use different analytical methods for characterization of the amplified DNA fragments. This includes gel electrophoresis for ...
Citation: Shah, D.H., Casavant, C., Hawley, Q., Addwebi, T., Call, D.R., Guard, J.Y. 2012. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry show differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress and survival in the egg albumen. Food Borne Diseases. 9(3):258-264. Interpretive Summary: Expression of genes that facilitate the ability of a bacterium to cause disease can have multiple layers of control. Sometimes a mutation in the gene producing the protein alters disease potential, but other times the mutation might be in a different region that alters the regulation of the gene in question. Regardless of where the mutation is, the way the bacteria acts on the host can look the same if the ultimate outcome is a change in the gene most immediately responsible for causing disease. This research shows that the gene rpoS, a stress regulatory gene producing a factor referred to as sS, is a gene likely to be mutated in Salmonella Enteritidis either directly at the site of the gene or indirectly at the ...
Phage therapy is a promising alternative to chemotherapeutic antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, despite recent clinical uses of combinations of phages to treat multidrug resistant infections, a mechanistic understanding of how bacteria evolve resistance against multiple phages is lacking, limiting our ability to deploy phage combinations optimally. Here we show, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pairs of phages targeting shared or distinct surface receptors, that the timing and order of phage exposure determines the strength, cost and mutational basis of resistance. Whereas sequential exposure allowed bacteria to acquire multiple resistance mutations effective against both phages, this evolutionary trajectory was prevented by simultaneous exposure, resulting in quantitatively weaker resistance. The order of phage exposure determined the fitness costs of sequential resistance, such that certain sequential orders imposed much higher fitness costs than the same phage ...
Tests for Antenatal Care - Antenatal Care is the routine care for the healthy pregnant women. The routine test for the antenatal care includes blood test, urine test and ultrasound test.
08/08/1990 - Laboratory Standard does not cover routine tests supporting production but non-routine, non-production-related tests are covered
During 2002-2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological ...
Phages infecting Staphylococcus aureus can be used as therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. However, there is limited information about the mechanism of genome delivery of phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we present the structures of native S. aureus phage P68, genome ejection intermediate, and empty particle. The P68 head contains 72 subunits of inner core protein, 15 of which bind to and alter the structure of adjacent major capsid proteins and thus specify attachment sites for head fibers. Unlike in the previously studied phages, the head fibers of P68 enable its virion to position itself at the cell surface for genome delivery. The unique interaction of one end of P68 DNA with one of the 12 portal protein subunits is disrupted before the genome ejection. The inner core proteins are released together with the DNA and enable the translocation of phage genome across the bacterial membrane into the cytoplasm. ...
The phage group started around 1940, after Delbrück and Luria had met at a physics conference. Delbrück and Luria began a series of collaborative experiments on the patterns of infection for different strains of bacteria and bacteriophage. They soon established the mutual exclusion principle that an individual bacterium can only be infected by one strain of phage. In 1943, their fluctuation test, later dubbed the Luria-Delbrück experiment, showed that genetic mutations for phage resistance arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.[4][5] The traditional wisdom among bacteriologists prior to 1943 was that bacteria had no chromosomes and no genes. The Luria-Delbrück experiment showed that bacteria, like other established model genetic organisms, have genes, and that these can spontaneously mutate to generate mutants that may then reproduce to form clonal lineages. That year, they also began working with Alfred Hershey, another phage experimenter.[6] (The ...
Glutamic acid producing strains collected from factories were identified by the host specificity of phage. For the 7338 strain, one was sensitive to the phages of T6-13 strain and insensitive to 7338 strain phages In order to prevent the invading by the phages factories took turn to use different strains. According to the evidence presented here, it is suggested that the strain must be known in their sensitivity to the different phages so as to avoid infection.
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Capsules provide a clean algebraic representation of the state of a computation in higherorder functional and imperative languages. They play the same role as closures or heap- or stack-allocated environments but are much simpler. A capsule is essentially a finite coalgebraic representation of a regular closed λ-coterm. One can give an operational semantics based on capsules for a higher-order programming language with functional and imperative features, including mutable bindings. Lexical scoping is captured purely algebraically without stacks, heaps, or closures. All operations of interest are typable with simple types, yet the language is Turing complete. Recursive functions are represented directly as capsules without the need for unnatural and untypable fixpoint combinators. 1
My Phage is from a soil sample from Karen Kadels chicken coop compost. I shared the bag with one other student in the learning community, but we found different phages. The sample was filtered and used for spot test(s). The sample was mostly dry and consisted of big chunks of mulch and soil ...
In a bid to cut treatment costs, US doctors urge fewer tests for people with mild health conditions and less aggressive treatment for those with advanced cancers.
Many people participate in biomedical research and it is estimated that one in 30 of us is enrolled in a cohort study at any one time. These studies contribute to, and enhance, our understanding of health…
Foodborne general outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 infection, England and Wales, 1992-2002: where are the risks? - Volume 133 Issue 5 - I. A. GILLESPIE, S. J. OBRIEN, G. K. ADAK, L. R. WARD, H. R. SMITH
BACKGROUND: Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. METHODS: We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. RESULTS: Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b) became one of the most
Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use.
Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 2, June 2003 describes an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135a in a child care centre.
There is a low risk that eggs will become infected with Salmonella Enteritidis Phage type 4 at the point of laying, she explains. If this happens the bacterial cells present in low numbers will be trapped in the white (Albumen). In fresh eggs the albumen is too viscous to allow salmonellae to move from the point of infection. As the egg is stored it absorbs moisture from the air diluting the albumen. It takes approximately three weeks for the albumen to be liquid enough to allow Salmonella to swim from the albumen into the yolk, where they can use the surrounding nutrients to increase in numbers. ...
In July 2001, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Folkehelseinstituttet, FHI) reported a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis of phage type 14b infections in Norwegian travellers returning from Greece. An increase in the same uncommon phage type was also registered in Sweden and Finland at the same time. Cases of S. Enteritidis PT 14b in patients returning from Greece were reported in these three Nordic countries in 2001 (303 cases), 2002 (164 cases) and 2003 (199 cases). Case-control studies performed in 2001 in Norway and Sweden indicated that consumption of chicken was associated with illness. In 2002 and 2003, continuing case reports indicated that this uncommon phage type had probably become established in the Greek food chain. Tour operators were informed and contacts were made with Greek public health authorities. Because place of infection is not systematically included in most Salmonella notification systems, the S. Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak reported here may represent only part of
A. hydrophila represents a group of bacteria pathogenic to fish. Recently the same bacteria have been increasingly implicated in human infections, particularly as a secondary invader, and are now being recognized as a serious pathogen under these circumstances. As little is known of the biochemical basis of pathogenicity of this species, interest in the structure and immunological properties of the cell surface polysaccharides of the different chemotypes of this gram-negative bacterium has increased. - The three bacterial colonies used for this investigation were selected from a biochemically pure culture of A. hydrophila. One represented the overall strain, whereas the other two, mutants, were isolated as morphologically different clones. The original strain and one of the clones were sensitive to phage while the other clone was resistant to the same phage. - Lipopolysaccharides were extracted from all three variants, and the basic structures of the polysaccharide portion from each of the three ...
A two-stage typing scheme in routine use in this laboratory is described. The strains of group B streptococci (GBS) are first serotyped and then, if necessary, phage-typing is performed. Serotyping...
Despite recent advances in vivo directed evolution techniques and the interest they have attracted so far, their impact in applied biotechnology is limited because of their limitations in programmability, selective drivers, cost and scalability.. Here, we propose to construct a general-purpose programmable evolution machine able to quickly evolve new biomolecules or phenotypes in bacterial cells. The proposed device will use existing phage technology and synthetic regulation to engineer a programmable directed evolution machine able to produce biomolecules or biocomputational functionality two orders of magnitude faster than conventional techniques, while consuming fewer consumables.. In its core, living matter will be subject to combinatorial search algorithms that will exploit large numbers of small, separate, bacterial populations. Each one will contain phage that evolve under different custom fitness selections. The different phage will then be recombined according to combinatorial ...
Phage typing of 741 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis from the Slovak Republic in 1995 has been carried out using the scheme of Ward and colleagues 1987. 202 strains 51 isolated from food were from 9 outbreaks, 536 isolates were from sporadic cases and 3 isolates were from nosocomial infections of new-born babies. 704...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of subtyping methods against a whole-genome-sequencing standard for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. AU - Deng, Xiangyu. AU - Shariat, Nikki. AU - Driebe, Elizabeth M.. AU - Roe, Chandler C.. AU - Tolar, Beth. AU - Trees, Eija. AU - Keim, Paul S. AU - Zhang, Wei. AU - Dudley, Edward G.. AU - Fields, Patricia I.. AU - Engelthaler, David M.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - A retrospective investigation was performed to evaluate whole-genome sequencing as a benchmark for comparing molecular subtyping methods for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and survey the population structure of commonly encountered S. enterica serotype Enteritidis outbreak isolates in the United States. A total of 52 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates representing 16 major outbreaks and three sporadic cases collected between 2001 and 2012 were sequenced and subjected to subtyping by four different methods: (i) whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism typing ...
Involvement of ISCR3 and ISCR1 with the Salmonella genomic island 1 genetic element.SGI1 is a genetic element of approximately 43 kb (15). It has been associated mainly with MDR isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 that are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. This pathogen emerged in the last decade as a global animal and human health problem (15). Outbreaks of MDR S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have occurred in poultry, beef, and pigs and their food products, as well as in dairy products and salad ingredients. MDR salmonellae are very common in the United Kingdom and increasingly prevalent in many other countries (15).. Since its initial discovery in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104, SGI1 has also been found in other S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types, i.e., DT120, DT12, DT1, and U302, and in other serovars such as Agona, Paratyphi B, Albany, Meleagridis, Newport, Emek, Cerro, Derby, Dusseldorf, ...
We report on a salmonellosis-outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b resistant to nalidixic acid (S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx) among residents and employees of a student residence in Austria, September 2010. The outbreak was described and analysed by a retrospective cohort study, and microbiological environmental investigations were conducted to identify the outbreak source(s) and the reservoir of the outbreak strain. A total of 66 persons fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 14 laboratory-confirmed cases. Food specific cohort-analyses by day revealed that consumption of potato salad (RR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.35-2.01, p=0.001) and a cheese-sausage cold plate (RR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.29-3.88, p=0.002) on 14 September was associated with being an outbreak case. We hypothesised that cross-contamination with S. Enteritidis PT14b Nx positive eggs had occurred during preparation of the potato salad and cold plate as a result of preparing in parallel egg-containing breaded cutlets on 14 September. A
A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 with multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 2-9-7-3-2 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least July 2015. Since May 2016, 16 confirmed and 132 probable cases have been reported to ECDC by six EU/EEA countries. ...
A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 with multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 2-9-7-3-2 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least July 2015. Since May 2016, 16 confirmed and 132 probable cases have been reported to ECDC by six EU/EEA countries. ...
OBJECTIVE--To determine the source of indigenous sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4. DESIGN--Case-control study of primary sporadic cases identified by the Public Health Laboratory Service between 1 August and 30 September 1988. SETTING--PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Division of Enteric Pathogens, 11 PHLS laboratories, and 42 local authority environmental health departments in England. SUBJECTS--232 Patients (cases) with confirmed primary sporadic infection, for 160 of whom (88 female) (median age 30 years, age range 4 months to 85 years) data were obtained by questionnaire about consumption of fresh eggs, egg products, precooked chicken, and minced meat in the three days and one week before onset of the symptoms. Up to three controls, matched for neighbourhood, age, and sex (if aged greater than 11 years), were asked the same questions for the same calendar period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Association of primary sporadic infection with consumption of ...
We analyze the computational complexity of type inference for untyped lambda-terms in the second-order polymorphic typed lambda-calculus (F2) invented by Gi- rard and Reynolds, as well as higher-order extensions F3, F4, . . . . Fw proposed by Girard. We prove that recognizing the F2-typable terms requires exponential time, and for Fw the problem is nonelementary. We show as well a sequence of lower bounds on recogniz- ing the Fk-typable terms, where the bound for Fk+1 is exponentially larger than that for Fk. The lower bounds are based on generic simulation of Turing Machines, where computation is simulated at the expression and type level simultaneously. Nonaccepting computations are mapped to non-normalizing reduction sequences, and hence non-typable terms. The accepting computations are mapped to typable terms, where higher-order types encode reduction sequences, and first-order types encode the entire computation as a circuit, based on a unification simulation of Boolean logic. A primary ...
This is the first BCAA RTD of its kind. The first RTD worthy of the XTEND name and the critically convenient way to get the most out of your next workout.
Routine tests for diabetics should not only including blood tests, but also physical examination and assessment for overall health and screening for cancer
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, PackageDescription -, c PackageDescription #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c PackageDescription #. toConstr :: PackageDescription -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: PackageDescription -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, PackageDescription -, PackageDescription #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) ...
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, SourcePos -, c SourcePos #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c SourcePos #. toConstr :: SourcePos -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: SourcePos -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, SourcePos -, SourcePos #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos #. gmapMp :: MonadPlus m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos ...
Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Elicits Cross-Immunity against a Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Strain Expressing LP Fimbriae from the lac ...
In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. AU - Winter, Sebastian E.. AU - Raffatellu, Manuela. AU - Wilson, Paul R.. AU - Rüssmann, Holger. AU - Bäumler, Andreas J.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Unlike non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, S. enterica serotype Typhi does not elicit neutrophilic infiltrates in the human intestinal mucosa. The Vi capsule-encoding tviABCDEvexABCDE operon (viaB locus) is a S. Typhi-specific DNA region preventing production of interleukin (IL)-8 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells. We elucidated the mechanism by which the viaB locus reduces IL-8 production in human colonic epithelial (T84) cells. A S. Typhi tviABCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, but not a tviBCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, elicited increased IL-8 production, which could be reduced to wild-type levels by introducing the cloned tviA regulatory gene. Thus, IL-8 expression ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is increasingly reported worldwide. The presence of a pattern of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphe
TY - JOUR. T1 - Foodborne disease in our global village. T2 - A multinational investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4) infections in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. AU - Roels, T. H.. AU - Shane, A.. AU - Goldoft, M.. AU - Herikstad, H.. AU - Hedberg, C.. AU - Angulo, F.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Background: In late 1996, a multinational investigation was launched following an outbreak of diarrheal illness which caused the early termination of an international scientific conference at a first-class hotel in Mexico. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all American and selected international attendees. A case was defined as an illness with ≥3 loose stools during a 24-hour period in a conference attendee or accompanying family member, with illness lasting ,2 days and onset between November 6 and 9, 1996. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 81% (232/288) of American attendees, 47% (18/38) of international attendees, and 25 family members; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular typing reveals a unique clone of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi among Indian strains [2]. AU - Chandel, Dinesh S.. AU - Chaudhry, Rama. AU - Dey, Aparajit B.. AU - Malhotra, Pawan. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. M3 - Letter. C2 - 16825414. AN - SCOPUS:33746216084. VL - 44. SP - 2673. EP - 2675. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 7. ER - ...
Manuela Raffatellu; Yao-Hui Sun; R. Paul Wilson; Quynh T. Tran; Daniela Chessa; Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis; Sara D. Lawhon; Josely F. Figueiredo; Renée M. Tsolis; L. Garry Adams; Andreas J. Bäumler (2005). Host Restriction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Is Not Caused by Functional Alteration of SipA, SopB, or SopD. Infection and Immunity. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /182814. ...
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Eggs from a Victorian farm have been recalled and the farm quarantined after five cases of illness to the salmonella enteritidis strain were identified by the Department of Health.. Quarantine is in place at Bridgewater Poultry, a farm at Bridgewater, north-west of Melbourne, and strict biosecurity measures have been put in place to protect neighbouring farms.. Dr Brett Sutton, Chief Health Officer of Victoria told Tom Elliott the recall is widespread, as both major supermarkets distribute eggs from this farm.. Its a really quite extensive list because its a pretty significant producer and distributor, he said.. Theyre found in both Woolies and Coles and there might be some other smaller outlets identified in coming days. ...
Summary The type strains of Vi-phage type E1, M1 and A of Salmonella typhi, together with drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of phage types E1 and M1 isolated in 1992 from patients associated with India or Pakistan, and a drug-resistant strain of phage type A isolated in South Africa in 1991, were characterised with respect to the presence of plasmids conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs and their chromosomal insertion sequence IS200 profiles. The three type strains, the drug-sensitive strains of Vi-phage types E1 and M1, and a strain of phage type M1 resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim but not to chloramphenicol, did not contain plasmids. In contrast, for strains of phage types E1 and M1 resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, and for the drug-resistant strain of phage type A, the complete spectrum of resistance was encoded by high molecular mass plasmids belonging to the H1 incompatibility group. Characterisation of IS200 profiles demonstrated that at least 13
Characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the Czech Republic: Phage types, antimicrobial and plasmid profilesKARPISKOVA, R; KOLACKOVA, I; DEDICOVA, D et al.Central european journal of public health. 2003, Vol 11, Num 3, pp 160-162, issn 1210-7778, 3 p.Article ...
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
During a national surveillance program on Group B streptococci (GBS) maternal carriage and neonatal infections, a GBS strain isolated from a pregnant womans vagino-rectal swab was non typable by either serological or molecular methods. Further molecular characterization demonstrated that the strain …
Procedures ordered for people with no symptoms - like routine blood screening and cardiac stress tests - may be useless and even harmful, says the Choosing Wisely Canada campaign.
Boken Idrottens olösta gåtor (2009) säljs av SISU Idrottsböcker, from: 2010-02-05 Created: 2010-02-05 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved ...
C4 ON THE GOGoing Places Powder Can’t (a matter of convenience)We’ve all been there… We’re ready to go hit a workout only to find we&rsquo
Ackermann HW, Krisch HM (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329-45. doi: ... The largest bacteriophage genomes reach a size of 735 kb. Bacteriophage genomes can be highly mosaic, i.e. the genome of many ... Snustad DP (August 1968). "Dominance interactions in Escherichia coli cells mixedly infected with bacteriophage T4D wild-type ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ...
... is a phenotypic method that uses bacteriophages ("phages" for short) for detecting and identifying single strains ... Furthermore, bacteriophages mutate so reference phages must be maintained. Phages used for phage typing are generally isolated ... Anderson, E. S.; Ward, Linda R.; de Saxe, Maureen J.; de Sa, J. D. H. (1977). "Bacteriophage-Typing Designations of Salmonella ... Anderson, E. S.; Williams, R. E. (May 1, 1956). "Bacteriophage typing of enteric pathogens and staphylococci and its use in ...
Lesley SM (1982). "A bacteriophage typing system for Rhizobium meliloti". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 28 (2): 180-189. ... Several bacteriophages that infect Sinorhizobium meliloti have been described: Φ1, Φ1A, Φ2A, Φ3A, Φ4 (=ΦNM8), Φ5t (=ΦNM3), Φ6 ... This finding indicates that the desiccation tolerance of wild-type E. meliloti depends on the repair of DNA damages that can be ... and Krsmanovi-Simic D, Werquin M (1973). "Etude des bactériophages de Rhizobium meliloti" [Study of bacteriophages of Rhizobium ...
"Bacteriophage strain typing by rapid single molecule analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv563. ... the reaction mixture contains a single type of FdNTP and allows for multiple additions of that nucleotide type. Various washes ...
... bacteriophage typing, spa locus typing, and SCCmec typing are often conducted more than others. With these methods, it can be ... Saint-Martin M, Charest G, Desranleau JM (September 1951). "Bacteriophage typing in investigations of staphylococcal food- ... Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for ... Other strains of S. aureus can produce an enterotoxin that is the causative agent of a type of gastroenteritis. This form of ...
Ackermann, H.W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Pseudomonas virus 42, formerly Pseudomonas phage 42, is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria. ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Vibrio virus nt1 (formerly Vibrio phage nt-1) is a bacteriophage known to infect Vibrio bacteria. It infects Vibrio natriegens ... "Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity". BMC Microbiology. 9 (1): 224. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
His part was naming the bacteriophages into Type 1(T1), Type 2 (T2), Type 3 (T3), etc.[citation needed] The specific time and ... Ackermann HW, Krisch HM (1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329-45. doi:10.1007/ ... Snustad DP (August 1968). "Dominance interactions in Escherichia coli cells mixedly infected with bacteriophage T4D wild-type ... "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102 (35 ...
"Shigella dysenteriae Type 1-Specific Bacteriophage from Environmental Waters in Bangladesh". Applied and Environmental ... B subunits of the AB5 toxins have the affinity towards binding glycan which some type of tumors seem to possess making it an ... For these experiments, different types of AB5 toxins can be used to induce the fast formation of tCDR in E.Coli cells. The ... strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin ...
ISBN 0-7900-0130-6. France, Diana Rae (1965). Observations on the distribution and bacteriophage typing of the genus proteus ( ... with a thesis titled Observations on the distribution and bacteriophage typing of the genus proteus. She worked for the ...
Brunet YR, Hénin J, Celia H, Cascales E (March 2014). "Type VI secretion and bacteriophage tail tubes share a common assembly ... The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport ... While most of the early studies of Type VI secretion focused on its role in the pathogenesis of higher organisms, it is now ... Cell Press:Type VI Secretion Counterattack During Bacterial Cell-Cell Interactions (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, ...
Type III toxin-antitoxin (AbiQ) systems have been shown to protect bacteria from bacteriophages altruistically. During an ... Type IV toxin-antitoxin systems are similar to type II systems, because they consist of two proteins. Unlike type II systems, ... Similar protective effects have been observed with type I, type II, and type IV (AbiE) toxin-antitoxin systems. Abortive ... Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are generally better-understood than type I. In this system a labile proteic antitoxin tightly ...
Microbial ecology Filee, J.; Tetart, F.; Suttle, C. A.; Krisch, H. M. (2005). "Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Coliphage originate almost ... Grabow WO (2001-04-01). "Bacteriophages : update on application as models for viruses in water". Water SA. 27 (2): 251-268. doi ...
"Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein". mBio. 8 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.01751 ... Furthermore, the locus of the genes codifying these type I-E proteins was really close to the one responsible for the type I-F ... The first inhibitors of a type II CRISPR-Cas system were then discovered: AcrIIC1, AcrIIC2 and AcrIIC3, that block the type II‑ ... the type of mechanism used in the genetic edition of human cells). A year later, a study confirmed the presence of type II-A ...
... toxin (DT) is produced only by C. diphtheriae infected with a certain type of bacteriophage. Toxinogenicity is ... The three main types of C. diphtheriae cause different severities of disease. The symptoms are due to a toxin produced by the ... Freeman VJ, Morse IU; Morse (1953). "Further Observations on the Change to Virulence of Bacteriophage-Infected Avirulent ... "Studies on the Virulence of Bacteriophage-Infected Strains of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae". Journal of Bacteriology. 61 (6): ...
This peptidoglycan-binding type 2 amidase domain is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases. PGRP domain has ... and not present in bacteriophage amidases. Invertebrate PGRPs can be small secreted proteins (e.g., PGRP-SB, -SA, -SD, and -LB ... type I diabetes, infectious complications in hemodialysis, and thrombosis, consistent with pro-inflammatory effects of PGLYRP1 ... "Analysis of potential hub genes involved in the pathogenesis of Chinese type 1 diabetic patients". Annals of Translational ...
Bacteriophage λ is able to undergo a type of recombinational repair called prophage reactivation. Prophage reactivation can ... A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome that is integrated into the circular bacterial chromosome or ... Menouni, R; Hutinet, G; Petit, MA; Ansaldi, M (2015). "Bacterial genome remodeling through bacteriophage recombination". FEMS ... doi:10.1016/0027-5107(73)90001-8. PMID 4688367 Bernstein C. Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage. Microbiol Rev. 1981; ...
Typing of Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. The Bacteriological Hygienical Department of the Royal Veterinary ... Bacteriophages. Interscience, New York. OCLC 326505 Ho, N. B., Z. T. Si, and M. X. Yu. 1959. Bacteriophages from China. An ... French; The Bacteriophage and its Behavior] OCLC 11981307 d'Hérelle, F., and G. H. Smith. 1926. The Bacteriophage and Its ... The Bacteriophages. Volume I Plenum Press, New York. OCLC 18686137 Calendar, R. 1988. The Bacteriophages. Volume II Plenum ...
Some types of coliphages (a type of bacteriophage) are inactive in an of air-water-solid interface. This is due to the ... viruses on the other hand can colonize either the upper respiratory tract or the lower respiratory tract depending on the type ...
Prophages are genomes of bacteriophages (a type of virus) that are inserted into bacterial chromosomes; prophages can then be ... Prophages can loop out of bacterial chromosomes to produce bacteriophages that go on to infect other bacteria with the ... and plasmids and prophages being the major types in prokaryotes. Virophages contribute to the viral mobilome. Transposable ...
In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these ... In the case where the mutations are in different genes, each strain's genome supplies the wild-type allele to "complement" the ... The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ...
Many types of bacteriophage exist, some infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome ... Two other types of bacterial motion are called twitching motility that relies on a structure called the type IV pilus, and ... There are many types of antibiotics, and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ...
Cloning vectors: These are types of hybrid plasmids with bacteriophages, used to transfer and replicate DNA . Fragments of DNA ... One type of MGEs, namely the Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are central to horizontal gene transfer shaping the ... Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) sometimes called selfish genetic elements are a type of genetic material that can move around ... Retrotransposons consist of two major types, long terminal repeats (LTRs) and Non-LTR transposons. Non-LTR transposons can be ...
"The structural organization of DNA packaged within the heads of T4 wild-type, isometric and giant bacteriophages". Cell. 14 (3 ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ...
Weeks CR, Ferretti JJ (1984). "The gene for type a streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) is located in bacteriophage T12 ... Bacteriophage T12 is a bacteriophage that infects the bacterial species Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a proposed species of the ... NCBI: Bacteriophage T12 (species) W. M. McShan; Y. F. Tang; J. J. Ferretti (1997). "Bacteriophage T12 of Streptococcus pyogenes ... Bacteriophage T12, proposed member of family Siphoviridae including related speA-carrying bacteriophages, is also a prototypic ...
... bacteriophage typing, chemistry and virology. Josland continued to specialize in research into Leptospirosis and Salmonella, ... Josland, S. W. and Norris, D. M., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. V. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 58, August ... Josland, S. W., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. IV. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 57, No. 318, April 1958, pp. ... This contrasted with overseas results where many types of Salmonella had been found. In the 1950s, Josland prepared killed ...
The reaction catalyzed by P35 holin is: autolysin (in) → autolysin (out) Bacteriophage Phage typing Holin Lysin Transporter ... Rydman, Pia S.; Bamford, Dennis H. (2003-07-01). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein ...
This system allowed them to vary both the length of bacteriophage and the type of inorganic material through genetic ... This type of white light as the backlight of an LCD panel allows for the best color gamut at lower cost than an RGB LED ... A widely used type of quantum dots grown with this method are indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) quantum dots in gallium arsenide ... As their toxicity may also be dynamic depending on the environmental factors such as pH level, light exposure and cell type, ...
Bacteriophage display is the most common type of display system used although bacterial display is becoming increasingly ... when peptides were genetically fused with proteins displayed on the M13 bacteriophage. Bacteriophage display is a commonly used ... There are two types of live bacterial vaccines that can be made: Normally pathogenic bacteria are weakened so they are no ... Many types of bacteria have cell surface proteins such as the enteropathogenic E. coli intimin protein which is involved in ...
Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is divided into types II, V, and VI. The 6 system types are divided into ... The trial intends to evaluate LBP-EC01, a CRISPR Cas3-enhanced bacteriophage against Escherichia coli bacteria which cause ... Deng L, Garrett RA, Shah SA, Peng X, She Q (March 2013). "A novel interference mechanism by a type IIIB CRISPR-Cmr module in ... In 2018, Locus acquired a high-throughput bacteriophage discovery platform from San Francisco-based phage therapy company ...
Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... "In vitro evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to enhance affinity and broaden ... The most common bacteriophages used in phage display are M13 and fd filamentous phage, though T4, T7, and λ phage have also ... Malys N, Chang DY, Baumann RG, Xie D, Black LW (2002). "A bipartite bacteriophage T4 SOC and HOC randomized peptide display ...
The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the host cells are not lysed after the induction of ... November 2011). "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Mol. Microbiol. 82 (4 ... "The nomenclatural types of the orders Acholeplasmatales, Halanaerobiales, Halobacteriales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales ...
This genetic map was constructed from 121 progeny of a cross between two wild type isolates and involved 134 markers. The ... when Delbrück decided to switch from research on bacteriophage and bacteria to P. blakesleeanus. A genetic linkage map was ...
The homing endonucleases are a special type of restriction enzymes encoded by introns or inteins. They act on the cellular DNA ... Goodrich-Blair H, Shub DA (September 1994). "The DNA polymerase genes of several HMU-bacteriophages have similar group I ... bacteriophage. Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme. The enzyme is specifically bound to this ... "A self-splicing group I intron in the DNA polymerase gene of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1". Cell. 63 (2): 417-24. doi: ...
Some types of bacteria can only grow in the presence of certain additives. This can also be used when creating engineered ... For bacteriophages, cultures are grown by infecting bacterial cells. The phage can then be isolated from the resulting plaques ... There are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use ... Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of ...
With the development and application of precise methods of pure culture, it became apparent that different types of bacteria ... Microbial genetics Ebola virus genetics Birge EA (1994). Bacteria and Bacteriophage Genetics. New York: Springer-Verlag. James ...
With this type of genetic analysis, a meiosis indicator is assigned to each position of the genome for each meiosis in a ... Benzer S. Fine structure of a genetic region in bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955;41(6):344-354. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... In bacteriophage T4, mutations that reduce expression of the replicative DNA polymerase [gene product 43 (gp43)] increase ... "Discovery and Types of Genetic Linkage". Scitable. Nature Education. Retrieved 21 January 2017. Bateson, W; Saunders, ER; ...
Various types of selection have been imposed on experimental populations and are indicated by the selection type column. ... "Ecological speciation of bacteriophage lambda in allopatry and sympatry", Science, 354 (6317): 1301-1304, doi:10.1126/science. ...
This has led to the identification of mutation combinations that form tumorigenic cells in a variety of cell types. While the ... viral RNA replicases and bacteriophage B-family DNA polymerases. TERT proteins from many eukaryotes have been sequenced. By ... Telomerase activity is necessary to preserve many cancer types and is inactive in somatic cells, creating the possibility that ... It is associated with many cancer types. Various cancer cells and fibroblasts transformed with hTERT cDNA have high telomerase ...
Once the cell is lysed, the bacteriophage is able to release progeny virions into the environment which in turn infect more ... but several types of antibiotic misuse, including self-medication and over-prescription of antibiotics in elderly communities ... Bacteriophage endolysins have been successful in preventing neonatal infections of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus ... Endolysins are derived from bacteriophages and are highly efficient at lysing bacterial cells. Enzybiotics are being researched ...
PGLYRP3, similar to PGLYRP4, has two peptidoglycan-binding type 2 amidase domains (also known as PGRP domains), which are not ... β-sheet composed of five β-strands and three α-helices and N-terminal segment unique to PGRPs and not found in bacteriophage ... PGLYRP3-deficient mice are more sensitive than wild type mice to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, which indicates ... PGLYRP3-deficient mice are more sensitive than wild type mice to experimentally induced atopic dermatitis. These results ...
Second, the wild-type gene is never removed from the chromosome. This means that PCR screening is able to more quickly identify ... The bacteriophage λ-red operon consists of the exo, bet, and gam genes which, together, are responsible for recombineering. ... In this process, a mutant PCR primer is used to select for the mutant over the wild-type genotype. If the mutant genotype is ... The mismatch between the 3' end of the primer and wild-type prevents primer extension and thus, only the mutant genotype ...
Bacteriophages were discovered in 1915 by Frederick Twort. His work was overlooked and bacteriophages were later rediscovered ... This type of rash is accompanied by a prodromal period of cough and runny nose in addition to a fever, indicative of a viral ... Specifically, bacteriophage T12 is responsible for the production of speA. Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A, speA, is the one ... A vaccine that will protect against the 180 to 200 types of bacteria causing the disease has been worked on for over 20 years, ...
Louis, sought to discover the nature of genes through study of viruses called bacteriophages that infect bacteria.[citation ... Cancer research Principal cancer types under study: breast, prostate, blood (leukemia, lymphoma); myelodysplastic syndrome; ... "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General Physiology (September 20, 1952 ...
Type IV LTA from Streptococcus pneumoniae represents a special case where both types intersect: after the tail is synthesized ... Lipoteichoic acids may also act as receptor molecules for some Gram-positive bacteriophage; however, this has not yet been ... Four types of WTA repeats have been named, as of 2013. Lipoteichoic acids follow a similar pattern of putting most variation in ... the repeats, although the set of enzymes used are different, at least in the case of Type I LTA. The repeats are anchored onto ...
Polysaccharide lyases (PL) are a type of enzyme that is found in numerous microorganisms including bacteriophages that break ...
October 2004). "Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes". Science. 306 (5695): 457-61. ... "Affinity panning of a library of peptides displayed on bacteriophages reveals the binding specificity of BiP". Cell. 75 (4): ... an individual becomes very likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscles are sensitive to physiological stress, as ...
It relies on relating the desired activity of a target protein with the fitness of an infectious bacteriophage which carries ... Using this system, they evolved a deoxyadenosine deaminase with 590 fold activity compared to wild type. Esvelt, K.; Carlson, J ... The central component of PACE is a fixed-volume vessel known as the "lagoon". The lagoon contains M13 bacteriophage vectors ... Brödel, A.K.; Isalan, M.; Jaramillo, A. (2018). "Engineering of biomolecules by bacteriophage directed evolution". Curr. Opin. ...
The two most common types of genetically modified mice are knockout mice and oncomice. Knockout mice are a type of mouse model ... the bacteriophage ΦC31 has recently been utilized. Recent breakthrough studies involve the microinjection of the bacteriophage ...
Two types of anti-RNP antibodies are closely related to Sjögren's syndrome: SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La). Autoantibodies against ... "Forces during Bacteriophage DNA Packaging and Ejection". Biophysical Journal. 88 (2): 851-866. arXiv:q-bio/0406022. Bibcode: ...
One version of the hypothesis is that a different type of nucleic acid, termed pre-RNA, was the first one to emerge as a self- ... Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can ... Because it can carry out the types of tasks now performed by proteins and DNA, RNA is believed to have once been capable of ... Influenza virus, whose genome consists of 8 physically separated single-stranded RNA segments, is an example of this type of ...
Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells, play a central role in antiviral host defense and a cell's ... such as bacteriophages. In this system, bacteria produce enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, that attack and destroy ... Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that resides in connective tissue and in mucous membranes. They are intimately ... Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of defensive response that renders the entire plant resistant to a broad spectrum ...
Analysis of bacteriophage T4 mutants that were altered in the rIIB cistron (gene) revealed that certain pairwise combinations ... For a two locus, two allele system, there are eight independent types of gene interaction. This can be the case when multiple ... Two bacteriophage T4 mutants defective at different locations in the same gene can undergo allelic complementation during a ... Geneticists often refer to wild type and mutant alleles where the mutation is implicitly deleterious and may talk in terms of ...
ISBN 978-1-9821-1585-2. Rotman, David (2013). "Genomic research may finally help dispel the ignorance shrouding many types of ... "The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA". Nature. 468 (7320): 67-71. Bibcode:2010Natur.468 ...
Although the majority of research has focused on type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes appears to have an identical effect on the ... "Bacteriophages in Dentistry-State of the Art and Perspectives". Dent J. 7 (1): 6. 2019. doi:10.3390/dj7010006. PMC 6473837. ... Polymorphisms in Genes of Lipid Metabolism Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis, as Comorbidities, ...
In 2006, it was shown that this rule applies to four of the five types of double stranded genomes; specifically it applies to ... Wacław Szybalski, in the 1960s, showed that in bacteriophage coding sequences purines (A and G) exceed pyrimidines (C and T). ... genomes or any type of RNA genome. The basis for this rule is still under investigation, although genome size may play a role. ...
Clothing, plastics, and most types of glass (but not fused silica) are effective in blocking UVC. Another potential danger is ... This involves testing the UV reactor's disinfection performance with either MS2 or T1 bacteriophages at various flow rates, UV ... The radiation profile is developed from inputs such as water quality, lamp type (power, germicidal efficiency, spectral output ...
The third type of DNA damage reversed by cells is certain methylation of the bases cytosine and adenine. When only one of the ... The basic processes of DNA repair are highly conserved among both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and even among bacteriophages ( ... Another type of DNA double-strand breaks originates from the DNA heat-sensitive or heat-labile sites. These DNA sites are not ... These mechanisms do not require a template, since the types of damage they counteract can occur in only one of the four bases. ...
Mukerjee, S. (‎1963)‎. Bacteriophage typing of cholera. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 28 (‎3)‎, 337 - 345. https ...
The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids. ... The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids ... This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element ... Previous studies have shown that certain serological group B bacteriophages of S. aureus are capable of generalized ...
Committee on Bacteriophage Typing, Communicable Disease Center (U.S.). Laboratory Branch. ; American Public Health Association ... Title : CDC becomes sole national reference center for bacteriophage typing of staphylococci Corporate Authors(s) : ... Committee on Bacteriophage Typing,; Published Date : May 1965 Source : Public Health Rep. 80(5):400 URL : https://stacks.cdc. ...
Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein ... Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein MBio , vol. 8 , nº 6: e01751-17. DOI ... In this work, we determined the structure of type I-E anti-CRISPR protein AcrE1 by X-ray crystallography. We show that AcrE1 ... Over 20 different families of anti-CRISPR proteins have been described, each of which inhibits a particular type of CRISPR-Cas ...
Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1951 ... Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. ...
Bacteriophage typing of cholera  Mukerjee, S. (‎1963)‎ * Baisse de la mortalité de l enfant : nouvelle évaluation / Omar B ...
Bacteriophage types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982;125:640-3. ... The index case had been excreting phage type 2. The same phage type was found in the sputum of five other residents, the one ... had phage type 5. The remaining two residents were infected with phage type 7. Reported by R Munger, MD, Chelan-Douglas Health ... Phage typing of M. tuberculosis can be performed at CDC when circumstances suggest it may be useful in investigating a ...
The immunity profiles of the different Stx phages did not conform to the model established for bacteriophage lambda, in that ... that are known to be carried on temperate lambdoid bacteriophages. Stx phages were isolated from different STEC strains and ... their replication and infection control strategies are not necessarily identical to the archetypical bacteriophage lambda, and ... Immunity profiles of wild-type and recombinant shiga-like toxin-encoding bacteriophages and characterization of novel double ...
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a replacement for bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33: ... The biotype, as determined for 12 metabolic reactions, was expressed as a 4-digit code (35). The serotype and phage type of ... Characterization of FOX-3, an AmpC-type plasmid-mediated β-lactamase from an Italian isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca. Antimicrob ... Nineteen (86%) of the acute-phase stool samples yielded S. enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4, which was susceptible to ...
R-factor co-integrate formation in S. typhimurium bacteriophage type 201 strains. J. Bacteriol. 146:444-452.) contain a highly ... R-factor co-integrate formation in S. typhimurium bacteriophage type 201 strains. J. Bacteriol. 146:444-452. ... Assembly of the type III secretion needle complex of Salmonella typhimurium. Microbes Infect. 4:75-82.). The SopE1 and SopB ... During this phase, the SPI 1-encoded type III protein secretion system and the binding of SipB to caspase-1 would be involved. ...
One of the most common types is the bacteriophage (or simply phage) which infects bacteria. It consists of an infectious ... 2 They analysed the bacteriophage T4 (above right)-a virus that infects E. coli bacteria, the type that inhabit human ... This is an accurate science animation of the T4 bacteriophage virus that shows how it packs DNA into the head/capsid of the ...
1.Characterization of two types of termination signal for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Macdonald LE, Durbin RK, Dunn JJ and ... 1.Studies on Sex Pili: Mutants of the Sex Factor F in Escherichia coli Defective in Bacteriophage-Adsorbing Function of F Pili ... 2.Crystal structure of an RNA bacteriophage coat protein-operator complex. Karin Valegard, James B. Murray, Peter G. Stockley, ...
6. Major Types of Distributors. 7. Market Segmentation. X. Potential Market Entry Barriers and Risks. A. Market Maturity. B. ... Bacteriophage, Streptococcus, E.Coli, Others), By Product (Oral Consumption, External Consumption, Surgical Treatment), By ... 6. Major Types of Distributors. 7. Market Segmentation. X. Potential Market Entry Barriers and Risks. A. Market Maturity. B. ... Venom Based Drugs Market - Global Industry Size, Share, Trends, Opportunity, and Forecast, 2017-2027 Segmented By Animal Type ( ...
P. aeruginosa Type I-C Cascade-Cas3 (PaeCas3c) facilitates rapid strain manipulation with applications in synthetic biology, ... This work repurposes the Type I-C Cascade-Cas3 system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to achieve large deletions in bacterial ... Here, we used the processive nuclease Cas3, together with a minimal Type I-C Cascade-based system for targeted genome ... Kiro, R., Shitrit, D. & Qimron, U. Efficient engineering of a bacteriophage genome using the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system. RNA ...
Shedding light on the early stages of infection by this type of virus-a bacteriophage-the scientists have determined that it is ... The researchers used a fluorescent dye to stain the DNA of two mutants of a bacteriophage known as lambda bacteriophage-one ... Phillips is interested in using the methods he and his team have developed to study different types of bacteriophages. He also ... And so, when the bacteriophages try to inject their DNA into the cells, the factor that limits the rate of transfer is how jam- ...
If a bacterium is able to survive an attack from a bacteriophage, it will store some of its DNA; if the same type of ... The doctors involved with the procedure say that there is little risk for the patient in this case, because the type of cells ... If it matches the bacteriophage DNA "on file," the protein "clips" it out of the bacteriums genome, rendering it harmless. ... Essentially, CRISPR is the defense mechanism that a bacterium uses to guard against bacteriophages, or viruses that attack ...
The bacteriophage (a type of virus that targets bacteria) kills 99.997 percent of the cells in these biofilms, which are very ... In the late 1980s, he read a paper by Yale physicist Harold Morowitz, who proposed studying a type of bacteria known as ... "When I say I can program stem cells to differentiate into particular cell types using these elaborate, sophisticated rules and ... the insulin-producing cells that type 1 diabetics lack. "We have a complex genetic program that steps these cells through a ...
... they had investigated bacteriophages, a type of virus that infects bacteria, rather than ordinary cells. These offered as ... Because of the short reproduction time, further information came from bacteriophages more quickly than work with other virus ... He designed many fonts, and created italic type (which he named from Italy).. ...
Bacteriophage PRD1 Preferred Concept UI. M0375355. Registry Number. txid10658. Scope Note. Bacteriophage and type species in ... Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Coliphages [B04.123.205] * Bacteriophage HK022 [B04.123.205.200] * Bacteriophage lambda [B04.123. ... Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.. ... Bacteriophage PRD1 Preferred Term Term UI T431952. Date12/27/2000. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2002). ...
Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer- ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt * Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S. ... Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution Nature. 1998 Jan 15;391(6664):251-8. doi: ... Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer- ...
Which type of bacteriophage is a potential candidate for phage therapy and why? ... What a bacteriophage is and why they are useful?. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria but are harmless to humans. ... What is a bacteriophage and what does it do?. Can bacteriophage therapy be used to treat antibiotic resistant bacteria? ... What is bacteriophage therapy of resistant infections?. Phage therapy (PT) is also called bacteriophage therapy. It uses ...
The third is a bacteriophage virus that only affects bacteria. A few other types of viruses exist but their functions are less ... While most types of viruses are too large to be transmitted through air. However, some types of complex viruses are so small ... There are generally two types of viruses: retroviruses and bacteriophages. Retroviruses are enveloped capsids that insert ... Types of Secondary School Aug 31, 2021 by adminbyr A school is a place where pupils (students) are taught subjects offered by a ...
E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage Typing E1.370.225.875.150.125.150 Balloon Occlusion E2.926.500.74 Basophil Degranulation Test ... E1.370.225.880 Molecular Typing E1.370.225.875.150.125.457 Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis C14.907.137.126.834 C18.452. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques ... 174.130.780.500 Monitoring, Immunologic E1.450.495.505 E1.370.225.812.505 E5.200.812.505 Multilocus Sequence Typing E1.370. ...
And lastly, transduction is an exchange of DNA through bacteriophages, a type of virus that is specific to bacteria. The ... This type of variation can be important within the current studies as will be seen later within this paper. Image source : ... The impact of this type of growth within a suitable environment or within a host organism (e.g., a human body) is obviously of ... Two types of cells exist : prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are non-nucleated and, in general, single celled organisms ...
... and bacteriophage typing [5].. Results. Screening tests. Among the studied cattle, 31.5% of herds were positive for brucellosis ... antibodies of the IgM and IgG types and is more effective in detecting antibodies of the IgG1 type than IgM and IgG2 types. ... CFT measures more antibodies of the IgG1 type than antibodies of the IgM type, as the latter are partially destroyed during ... The typing of Brucella isolates was made according to CO2 requirement, H2S production, growth in the presence of dyes (thionine ...
... aerosols of a male-specific bacteriophage (MS2), human adenovirus type 1 (HAdV-1), and avian influenza virus (AIV) were sampled ...
Novel isolates of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages from group 5093 identified with an improved multiplex PCR typing ... Novel isolates of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages from group 5093 identified with an improved multiplex PCR typing ... Investigation of the bacteriophage community in induced lysates of undefined mesophilic mixed-strain DL-cultures using ... 2018). Cell wall glycans mediate recognition of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus by bacteriophages. Appl. Environ ...
  • We further show that AcrE1 can convert the endogenous type I-E CRISPR system into a programmable transcriptional repressor.IMPORTANCE The CRISPR-Cas immune system provides bacteria with resistance to invasion by potentially harmful viruses, plasmids, and other foreign mobile genetic elements. (
  • This interaction also allows the repurposing of the endogenous type I-E CRISPR system into a programmable transcriptional repressor, providing a new biotechnological tool for genetic studies of bacteria encoding this type I-E CRISPR-Cas system. (
  • One of the most common types is the bacteriophage (or simply 'phage') which infects bacteria. (
  • 2 They analysed the bacteriophage T4 (above right)-a virus that infects E. coli bacteria, the type that inhabit human intestines-using 'laser tweezers' to hold onto a single molecule of DNA, and measure the force on it by the virus's packaging motor . (
  • Here, we used the processive nuclease Cas3, together with a minimal Type I-C Cascade-based system for targeted genome engineering in bacteria. (
  • To prove this, the researchers used bacteriophages, which are able to infect bacteria using heads of tightly bundled DNA coated in a protein shell. (
  • Essentially, CRISPR is the defense mechanism that a bacterium uses to guard against bacteriophages, or viruses that attack bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages (BPs) are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria without any negative effect on human or animal cells. (
  • Bacteriophages are natural antibiotics that are able to work against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Recently it has been recognized that bacteriophages, the natural predators of bacteria can be used efficiently in modern biotechnology. (
  • Although bacteriophages cannot infect and replicate in human cells, they are an important part of the human microbiome and a critical mediator of genetic exchange between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria [5][6]. (
  • Bacteriophages, viruses that only infect bacteria, can prevent bacteria from sharing antibiotic resistance genes. (
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria but are harmless to humans. (
  • Therefore, bacteriophages kill bacteria. (
  • This historic 1963 photograph depicted laboratorian, Gail Wathen, as she was performing an examination of an agar culture Petri dish, which had been inoculated with Salmonella typhi bacteria, and typed using bacteriophage methods. (
  • While bacteria are the most studied portion of the microbiome, scientists are working on a better understanding of the other types of microbes especially bacteriophage. (
  • Phage - ( bacteriophage ) is a virus that attacks a specific type of bacteria. (
  • This method detects more types of bacteria with greater accuracy. (
  • A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages. (
  • They're typically produced by two types of bacteria, known as Shiga toxin- producing E. coli and a specific type of Shigella known as Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. (
  • Katherine Lamba] What was unusual was the type of bacteria that were producing the Shiga toxins, rather than the toxins themselves. (
  • The genes that code for Shiga toxins are generally carried by bacteriophages, which are viruses that can infect bacteria. (
  • These bacteriophages can transfer the Shiga toxin genes back and forth between different types of bacteria, such as between Shigella and E. coli . (
  • Bacteriophage is a type of virus that eats bacteria. (
  • The most promising alternative is the use of bacteriophages, highly specific natural parasites that infect and destroy only the target bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages, or phages for short, are viruses that specifically infect and kill bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) are a promising therapeutic option against Clostridium infections, but there are some limitations that need to be considered. (
  • Bacteriophages are a type of virus that infect bacteria. (
  • This Silicibacter is a type of marine bacteria that lives on a specific host dinoflagellate. (
  • It makes sense, then, that the types and numbers of bacteria present at the surface are often tied to location and the season-they take advantage of when the temperature and sunlight are just right. (
  • About 90% of the viruses found in the feces are bacterial viruses, aka bacteriophages, which have bacteria as their hosts and don't attack the children's cells, so they don't cause disease. (
  • Bacterial biofilms are slime that may consist of several types of bacteria. (
  • Common sense suggests that viruses or bacteria are collected differently from engineered nanoparticles, silica dusts, oil mists or other types of workplace aerosols. (
  • These bacteria don't even have to be the same type of bacteria. (
  • Over the course of the first semester, students will take soil samples to discover and isolate phages, which is short for bacteriophage, a virus that attacks bacteria. (
  • Therefore, we also investigated the possible involvement of these transducing phages in the transmission of the large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element of S. aureus UMCG-M4. (
  • This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element, which may lead to its transfer to other staphylococci. (
  • This study presents the first structural and mechanistic insight into a phage-encoded protein that inactivates the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa The interaction of this anti-CRISPR protein with the CRISPR-associated helicase/nuclease proteins Cas3 shuts down the CRISPR-Cas system and protects phages carrying this gene from destruction. (
  • The immunity profiles of the different Stx phages did not conform to the model established for bacteriophage lambda, in that the pattern of individual Stx phage infection of various lysogens was neither expected nor predicted. (
  • The data demonstrate that, although Stx phages are members of the lambdoid family, their replication and infection control strategies are not necessarily identical to the archetypical bacteriophage lambda, and this could be responsible for the widespread occurrence of stx genes across a diverse range of E. coli serotypes. (
  • In that earlier setup, they had essentially tricked the bacteriophages into ejecting their DNA into solution-a task that the phages completed in less than 10 seconds. (
  • Bacterial viruses are called phages or bacteriophages. (
  • The resulting mutants on this procedure could be grown on wild-type E. coli strains, which is convenient for the production and use of these phages in therapy. (
  • Max Ludwig Henning Delbrick applied his knowledge of theoretical physics to biological systems such as bacterial viruses called bacteriophages, or phages, and gene replication during the twentieth century in Germany and the US. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Typing of locally isolated cultures of Salmonella typhi by means of Vi-bacteriophage. (
  • In this way, our company intends to isolate specific bacteriophages from nature to combat the species Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (
  • Traditionally, Salmonella species were named in accordance with the Kaufmann-White typing system, defined by different combinations of somatic O, surface Vi, and flagellar H antigens. (
  • In 2005, Salmonella enterica finally gained official approval as the type species of the genus Salmonella. (
  • Testing bacteriophages as a treatment option for Salmonella-infected chickens in Kenya. (
  • 1985 probably represents the earliest isolate of MR-DT104 in Molecular characterization of S. Typhimurium DT104 R-type the United States. (
  • Immunity profiles of wild-type and recombinant shiga-like toxin-encoding bacteriophages and characterization of novel double lysogens. (
  • Hidalgo-Cantabrana, C. & Barrangou, R. Characterization and applications of Type I CRISPR-Cas systems. (
  • 2016. A Novel Bifunctional Alkylphenol Anesthetic Allows Characterization of gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA), Receptor Subunit Binding Selectivity in Synaptosomes. . (
  • The study was conducted of their ability to phage transduction, the molecular-genetic characterization and biotechnological parameters of selected bacteriophages. (
  • In Vitro Activity, Stability and Molecular Characterization of Eight Potent Bacteriophages Infecting Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae. (
  • Marker rescue between a plasmid carrying T₇⁺ DNA and a mutant bacteriophage was used to study the role of replication in genetic recombination. (
  • In the present studies, we observed that the clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate UMCG-M4 with the sequence type 398 contains four prophages belonging to the serological groups A, B and Fa. (
  • There is need to isolate more bacteriophages using the APEC as the host strain, in order to improve on their efficacy and their antibacterial spectrum. (
  • Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer-template and a nucleoside triphosphate in the polymerase active site. (
  • Functional importance of bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase residue Tyr148 in primer-terminus stabilisation at the 3'-5' exonuclease active site. (
  • The bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase. (
  • Insights into strand displacement and processivity from the crystal structure of the protein-primed DNA polymerase of bacteriophage phi29. (
  • Bacteriophage phi6 is the type member of the family Cystoviridae and infects Gram-negative Pseudomonas syringae cells. (
  • The type I-F CRISPR-Cas system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the crRNA-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to recognize the invading DNA. (
  • Bacteriophage binding sites in Pseudomonas aeruginosa / by John Charles Kiboko Enyaru. (
  • Search for destruction factors of bacterial biofilms: Comparison of phage properties in a group of Pseudomonas putida bacteriophages and specificity of their halo-formation products. (
  • The researchers used a fluorescent dye to stain the DNA of two mutants of a bacteriophage known as lambda bacteriophage-one with a short genome and one with a longer genome-while that DNA was still inside the phage. (
  • Multiple mutants show smaller overall structural changes from wild-type than M102L or V111I alone. (
  • A method of obtaining insertion mutants for the hoc gene, which encodes for the main phage antigen, was developed on the model of bacteriophage T4. (
  • The construction of insertion bacteriophage mutants was carried out in two stages. (
  • A number of stages of purification of the bacteriophage mutants obtained were performed. (
  • T4 related bacteriophages of the family Myoviridae, for example, T-even, have the significant homology amongst their genomes, which makes possible to produce similar mutants. (
  • Thus, our method was developed to obtain mutants with reduced antigenicity which can be used for both the treatment of systemic infections, and diarrhea in the case, when, bacteriophages penetrate into the bloodstream. (
  • serotypes and phage types. (
  • Enterotoxins have many serotypes (A- E, G- I, R-T, and V). Type A is causing food poisoning and serotypes F causing toxic shock syndrome. (
  • The pathogenicity of Shiga-like toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), notably serotype O157, the causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, is based partly on the presence of genes (stx(1) and/or stx(2)) that are known to be carried on temperate lambdoid bacteriophages. (
  • Studied the investigation of the therapeutic effect of experimental mixture of four non-transducing E. coli bacteriophages and it combinations with probiotic, designed on the basis of the endemic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from pigs in this age of the local population in the state, the survival rate and laboratory parameters of pigs with post-weaning diarrhea. (
  • The influence of four experimental phage preparations, designed based on non-transducing E. coli bacteriophages on pigs with post-weaning diarrhea studied. (
  • It is established, that the best survival rate and the clinical condition showed animals treated with the E. coli phage T4-type with lab. (
  • The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. (
  • They provide sequence-specific detection and neutralization of foreign nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. (
  • c) In addition to these, there is another group of Enterobacte-riaceae organisms, which are found as normal commensals in humans but become pathogenic when they acquire virulence factor genes through plasmids, bacteriophages, or pathogenicity islands. (
  • Shedding light on the early stages of infection by this type of virus-a bacteriophage-the scientists have determined that it is the cells targeted for infection, rather than the amount of genetic material within the viruses themselves, that dictate how quickly the bacteriophage's DNA is transferred. (
  • The results also showed that, unlike the viruses that infect humans, bacteriophages transmit only their genetic information into their bacterial targets, leaving their "bodies" behind. (
  • The genetic information of the small bacteriophage MS2 is stored in a single-stranded RNA molecule. (
  • if the same type of bacteriophage attacks the bacterium, the latter uses a protein to check the new attacker's DNA. (
  • How could bacteriophages be used in treating antimicrobial resistant infections? (
  • The multilocus sequence type, multiantigen sequence type, presence of determinants of antimicrobial resistance and relatedness among the isolates were all derived from the sequence data. (
  • Recombination was monitored by the production of wild-type phage. (
  • How does a bacteriophage contributes to the bacterial cell's acquisition of an antibiotic-resistant trait? (
  • These bacteriophages are active against certain clinical isolates, or viral strains and can be used against multi-drug resistant or MDR infections. (
  • They are also a good way to check out which strains and types of marijuana are selling the best. (
  • One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage). (
  • Which describes the benefit of using bacteriophages to control microbes? (
  • The following is a step by step guide of how a typical bacteriophage (a virus that infects a bacterial cell) takes control of its host cell and reproduces itself. (
  • Advantage of phage therapy over antibiotics Bacteriophages are very specific to their hosts, so this minimizes the chance of secondary infections, but antibiotics do target both pathogens and normal flora of patients, which can cause the secondary infections or sometimes superinfections. (
  • What is bacteriophage therapy of resistant infections? (
  • Applications of Bacteriophages in the Treatment of Localized Infections in Humans. (
  • In this review, the (clinical) impact of clostridium infections in intestinal diseases is recapitulated, followed by an analysis of the current knowledge and applicability of bacteriophages and phage-derived endolysins in this disease indication. (
  • In order to evaluate the survivability of airborne viruses and the sampling performance of an eight-stage non-viable Andersen impactor in typical indoor environments featuring low viral aerosol concentrations, aerosols of a male-specific bacteriophage (MS2), human adenovirus type 1 (HAdV-1), and avian influenza virus (AIV) were sampled size-selectively using the impactor in an environmental chamber. (
  • Previous studies have shown that certain serological group B bacteriophages of S. aureus are capable of generalized transduction. (
  • M. tuberculosis isolates from the index patient and the 11 other patients were phage-typed at CDC. (
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the sequence types (STs) of the selected isolates. (
  • A total of 32 PFGE clonal types were obtained by PFGE, with 10 predominant patterns (types A to J). Twenty-five different STs including ST398 and three novel STs were found among 51 selected isolates. (
  • Forty-six isolates (88.5%) were resistant to at least three classes of drugs (multi drug resistance) and these were tested for sensitivity to 20 stock bacteriophages. (
  • 2] Individual isolates can then be distinguished with serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and bacteriophage serotyping techniques. (
  • Despite the small number of isolates studied, they were genetically diverse, as shown by the sequence types, the N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing types and the tree. (
  • Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein MBio , vol. 8 , nº 6: e01751-17. (
  • Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE . (
  • The literature cited in this Science Blog suggest that it is not necessary to test a respirator filter with a biological aerosol, but rather to focus on "worse-case" type test conditions. (
  • In addition, they have demonstrated that the transmission of a pool of small RNAs antisense to histone genes into wild-type worms epigenetically affects their fertility. (
  • Bacteriophages stimulate the immune system to more accurately detect and destroy pathogens. (
  • Over 20 different families of anti-CRISPR proteins have been described, each of which inhibits a particular type of CRISPR-Cas system. (
  • Our findings support the convergent consequence of inhibiting degradation of invading DNA by these Acr proteins, albeit with different modes of interactions with the type I-F CRISPR-Cas system. (
  • Proteins can unfold during heat and other types of stress and tend to aggregate with subsequent loss of function. (
  • Reliable data from clinical trials for phage-derived products are needed for the future success of bacteriophage therapy. (
  • The most common type of infection is the carrier state, in which infected animals carry the pathogen for a variable period of time without showing any clinical signs. (
  • This ensures that filters in NIOSH certified respirators will collect all types of workplace aerosols - including emerging hazards such as airborne infectious organisms ( 15 ) and engineered nanoparticles ( 7 ) - with very high efficiency. (
  • When properly selected and used, respirators tested using these types of filter tests should provide expected levels of protection against all types of workplace aerosols. (
  • Bacteriophages are found abundantly in nature and are completely harmless to humans, animals, plants and the environment. (
  • Bacteriophage T7 and T3 promoters are located upstream of MCS A and downstream of MCS B, respectively. (
  • By several periodic cultivations of the mutant bacteriophages, it was shown that mutations of this type are stably maintained during more than 50 generations. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (
  • It is thought-provoking that all children run around with 10-20 of these virus types that infect human cells. (
  • Proceso de identificación y distinción de especies de BACTERIAS o VIRUS basándose en los ANTÍGENOS que comparten. (
  • The viruses studied at the Department are either major pathogens ( rabies virus, herpesvirus, rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus ) or excellent models for the precise dissection of the different stages of the viral cycle ( bacteriophages SPP1 and T5, virus of vesicular stomatitis ). (
  • Weekly activity of influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI) + proxy) of a) influenza A(H3N2), b) influenza A(H1N1), c) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and d) influenza B (black lines) along with the 44 predefined epidemics (grey bars) of these virus type and subtypes, and e) the weekly smoothed average of ozone (O 3 ) concentrations in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2013. (
  • The index case had been excreting phage type 2. (
  • The same phage type was found in the sputum of five other residents, the one employee, and one visitor. (
  • For the preceding year, this visitor had spent 2-3 hours per day in the room of one of the residents with phage type 2. (
  • Two other visitors, a husband and wife, had phage type 5. (
  • The remaining two residents were infected with phage type 7. (
  • Refers to the type of specific immunity that develops after exposure to a suitable antigen or is produced after antibodies are transferred from one individual to another. (
  • Our findings revealed variety of different bacteriophages, which have specific bactericidal characteristics," Dr. S. Mayilraj told Indian Science Journal. (
  • The doctors involved with the procedure say that there is little risk for the patient in this case, because the type of cells affected do not divide. (
  • P. aeruginosa Type I-C Cascade-Cas3 ( Pae Cas3c) facilitates rapid strain manipulation with applications in synthetic biology, genome minimization and the removal of large genomic regions. (
  • If it matches the bacteriophage DNA "on file," the protein "clips" it out of the bacterium's genome, rendering it harmless. (
  • Why are scientists trying to use bacteriophages as antibacterial drugs? (
  • Study of bacteriophage types and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococci isolated from dental students and faculty members. (
  • How bacteriophages are used as alternative therapy for antibiotics? (
  • All these methods have nearly the same type of approach for the classification of bacte-ria. (
  • In this work, we determined the structure of type I-E anti-CRISPR protein AcrE1 by X-ray crystallography. (