Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (1/547)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (2/547)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition. (3/547)

Bacteriophage T7 DNA primase recognizes 5'-GTC-3' in single-stranded DNA. The primase contains a single Cys4 zinc-binding motif that is essential for recognition. Biochemical and mutagenic analyses suggest that the Cys4 motif contacts cytosine of 5'-GTC-3' and may also contribute to thymine recognition. Residues His33 and Asp31 are critical for these interactions. Biochemical analysis also reveals that T7 primase selectively binds CTP in the absence of DNA. We propose that bound CTP selects the remaining base G, of 5'-GTC-3', by base pairing. Our deduced mechanism for recognition of ssDNA by Cys4 motifs bears little resemblance to the recognition of trinucleotides of double-stranded DNA by Cys2His2 zinc fingers.  (+info)

Co-expression of gene 31 and 23 products of bacteriophage T4. (4/547)

Folding of the major capsid protein of bacteriophage T4 encoded by gene 23 is aided by Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin and phage co-chaperonin gp31. In the absence of gene product (gp) 31, aggregates of recombinant gp23 accumulate in the cell similar to inclusion bodies. These aggregates can be solubilized with 6 M urea. However, the protein cannot form regular structures in solution. A system of co-expression of gp31 and gp23 under the control of phage T7 promoter in E. coli cells has been constructed. Folding of entire-length gp23 (534 amino acid residues) in this system results in the correctly folded recombinant gp23, which forms long regular structures (polyheads) in the cell.  (+info)

The environment of 5S rRNA in the ribosome: cross-links to 23S rRNA from sites within helices II and III of the 5S molecule. (5/547)

Three contiguous fragments of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA were prepared by T7 transcription from synthetic DNA templates. The central fragment, comprising residues 33-71 of the molecule, was transcribed in the presence of 4-thiouridine triphosphate together with [32P]UTP. The three transcripts were ligated together, yielding a 5S rRNA analogue carrying 4-thiouridine residues at positions 40, 48, 55 and 65 in helices II and III. After ligation, the 4-thiouridine residues were derivatised with p -azidophenacyl bromide. The modified 5S rRNA was reconstituted into 50S subunits and these subunits were used to prepare 70S ribosomes in the presence or absence of tRNA and mRNA. The azidophenyl groups were then photoactivated by mild irradiation at 300 nm and the products of cross-linking analysed by our standard procedures. Multiple cross-links from 5S rRNA to two distinct regions of the 23S rRNA were observed. The first region was located in helix 38 in Domain II of the 23S molecule, with cross-links at sites between nucleotides 885 and 922. The second region covered helices 81-85 in Domain V, with sites between nucleotides 2272 and 2345. Taken together with previous data, these results serve to define the arrangement of the 5S rRNA molecule relative to the 23S rRNA within the 50S subunit.  (+info)

RNA polymerase-specific nucleosome disruption by transcription in vivo. (6/547)

The nucleosomal chromatin structure within genes is disrupted upon transcription by RNA polymerase II. To determine whether this disruption is caused by transcription per se as opposed to the RNA polymerase source, we engineered the yeast chromosomal HSP82 gene to be exclusively transcribed by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in vivo. Interestingly, we found that a fraction of the T7-generated transcripts were 3' end processed and polyadenylated at or near the 3' ends of the hsp82 and the immediately downstream CIN2 genes. Surprisingly, the nucleosomal structure of the T7-transcribed hsp82 gene remained intact, in marked contrast to the disrupted structure generated by much weaker, basal level transcription of the wild type gene by RNA polymerase II under non-heat shock conditions. Therefore, disruption of chromatin structure by transcription is dependent on the RNA polymerase source. We propose that the observed RNA polymerase dependence for transcription-induced nucleosome disruption may be related either to the differential recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes, the rates of histone octamer translocation and nucleosome reformation during polymerase traversal, and/or the degree of transient torsional stress generated by the elongating polymerase.  (+info)

Vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 expression vector for complementation analysis of late gene processes. (7/547)

A vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase hybrid transient expression vector has been developed for complementation analysis of late gene functions in vaccinia virus. The conditionally defective virus ts21 was modified to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The derived virus, vtsT7, was conditionally defective in viral late gene expression but produced high levels of a target protein under the control of a T7 promoter at non-permissive temperatures. The level of beta-galactosidase expression under the control of a T7 promoter was slightly lower in vtsT7 infections than those with the prototypical T7 RNA polymerase vector vTF7.3. However, the levels of expression for the human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene, a protein which undergoes post-translational modification, was slightly higher in vtsT7 infections, suggesting that some proteins may be expressed better in the absence of vaccinia virus late gene expression. Infections using vtsT7 at a low m.o.i. at 39 degrees C resulted in the accumulation of high molecular mass, non-linear replicative intermediates of vaccinia virus DNA replication and high levels of expression of a transfected gene proximal to a T7 promoter. The virus vtsT7 provides a means for the analysis of potential trans-acting factors participating in vaccinia virus late processes such as resolution of DNA replicative intermediates.  (+info)

Preparation of HIV TAR RNA with RNA scissors. (8/547)

Two hammerhead ribozymes derived from plant pathogenic RNAs were used to cut off the HIV TAR RNA from the T7 RNA transcript through a cis cleavage reaction. Stem I of the (+)vLTSV ribozyme comprises 8 nucleotides of the 5' terminus of TAR RNA, but stem III of the (+)sTRSV ribozyme consists of 8 nucleotides of the 3' end of TAR RNA. The construct containing two GUC hammerhead ribozyme target sequences identified the cleavage sites to cut off a required RNA molecule. This method was applied for preparation of 35 nt long TAR RNA. Its activity was proved by the complex formation with the Tat protein. It seems that this approach based on RNA scissors can also be used for the generation of required RNA molecules, RNA decoys or RNA aptamers in vivo.  (+info)

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A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):396-400 ...
Read Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
1DYA: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
1DYB: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays. AU - Shaw, Denise R.. AU - Maurelli, Anthony T.. AU - Goguen, Jon D.. AU - Straley, Susan C.. AU - Curtiss, Roy. PY - 1983/1/14. Y1 - 1983/1/14. N2 - We have utilized lysis from without mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique we describe has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37°C, with a , 103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the ...
Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
Figure 2. -Gene expression of a gene 61.5 mutant in a motA- genetic background. (A) MH1 cells were infected with motA- or 61.5- motA- phage. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled and analyzed as described in materials and methods. Middle-gene products are indicated by arrowheads and late-gene products by arrows. Gp43 forms a highly diffuse band in an 8% polyacrylamide gel (as seen here) for unknown reasons. The rate of synthesis of late-gene (B) or middle-gene products (C) at each time was measured by densitometry of each protein band and expressed in arbitrary units. Open and solid circles represent the rates of synthesis in motA--infected or 61.5- motA-infected cells, respectively. Because the gp23 band was close to other bands in A, the rate for this protein was derived from another experiment (not shown) in which the gp23 band was separated from others.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
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Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating structure to function., Polymerase: T4 G298D, Property: Nucleotide Substitution Rate
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell walls, leaving them susceptible to destruction. - Stock Image F006/9216
DNA primases DNA templates. Bacterial DNA primases (DnaG enzymes) and DNA templates are available for HTS applications.. E. coli primase E. coli DnaG-DnaB complex, 10 µM for 100 assays.. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay, 1000 assays. DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay-1000 assays For other bacterial DNA primases and DNA templates including DNA primases from S. aureus, S. pneumonia. and H. influenza, please contact ProFoldin.. ...
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Sullivan MB, Huang KH, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Berlin AM, Kelly L, Weigele PR, DeFrancesco AS, Kern SE, Thompson LR, Young S, Yandava C, Fu R, Krastins B, Chase M, Sarracino D, Osburne MS, Henn MR, Chisholm SW. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):3035-56 ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repetitive lagging strand DNA synthesis by the bacteriophage T4 replisome. AU - Spiering, Michelle M.. AU - Nelson, Scott W.. AU - Benkovic, Stephen J.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Our studies on the T4 replisome build on the seminal work from the Alberts laboratory. They discovered essentially all the proteins that constitute the T4 replisome, isolated them, and measured their enzymatic activities. Ultimately, in brilliant experiments they reconstituted in vitro a functioning replisome and in the absence of structural information created a mosaic as to how such a machine might be assembled. Their consideration of the problem of continuous leading strand synthesis opposing discontinuous lagging strand synthesis led to their imaginative proposal of the trombone model, an illustration that graces all textbooks of biochemistry. Our subsequent work deepens their findings through experiments that focus on defining the kinetics, structural elements, and protein-protein contacts ...
Bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein, a model for singlestrand specific nucleic acid-binding proteins, consists of three structurally and functionally distinct domains. We have studied the effects of the N and C domains on the protein structure and its nucleic acid-interactive properties. Although the presence of the C domain decreases the proteolytic susceptibility of the core (central) domain, quenching of the core tryptophan fluorescence by iodide is unaltered by the presence of the terminal domains. These results suggest that the overall conformation of the core domain remains largely independent of the flanking domains. Removal of the N or the C terminus does not abolish the DNA renaturation activity of the protein. However, intact protein and its three truncated forms differ in DNA helix-destabilizing activity. The C domain alone is responsible for the kinetic barrier to natural DNA helix destabilization seen with intact protein. Intact protein and core domain potentiate the DNA ...
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
- SS2378646 A bacteriophage, comprising a proteic envelope (called capsid), which contains its nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), and a tail. The tail includes a collar (covered with contractile proteins for the most elaborated bacteriophages, such as the T2 and T4 phages) and ending with tail fibers enabling it to attach to the bacteria it infects.
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
A team of scientists from the United States has recently developed a bioengineered bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle structure using CRISPR technology that can..
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
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Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 ATCC ® 11303-B4™ Designation: T4 TypeStrain=False Application: Testing of aerosol containment on cell sorters
We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav …
Our use of the word TABASCO here refers to a simulator of gene expression systems, or other systems comprised of elementary chemical reaction events that can be ordered along one or more dimensions. The origins of our use of the word were as an acronym, abbreviating the words Transcription And Binding And Serious Computational Overhead. The word Tabasco is also a registered trademark of the [ McIlhenny Company] for use in connection with pepper sauces, clothing, and other consumer products. The TABASCO simulator is neither affiliated with nor sponsored or endorsed by the McIlhenny Company and our use of the TABASCO name is not intended to suggest any such affiliation, sponsorship, or endorsement. Tabasco can also refer to a [ state in Mexico ...
The 44/62 complex mediates the interaction of gp45 with DNA dependent on ATP but not its hydrolysis. ATP hydrolysis causes the 44/62 complex to change the conformation of gp45 which is thought o be DNA loading into the clamp
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called temperate phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
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Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
p.858 left column 3rd paragraph:Table 2 gives the details of the geometry of the phage used in the calculation. See notes beneath table. Rout is the radius of the inner surface of the ...
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
Cited in 6 publications. View Rabbit Polyclonal anti-fd/M13 bacteriophage Antibody (NB100-1633). Validated Applications: ELISA, Flow, LFA. Validated Species: Virus. Sample size available.
Bacteriophages hold great commercial promise in disease prevention and control and in food safety assurance. Rainer Engelhardt and Bruno Rochet explain how Gangagen and Lallemand have joined forces to make the most of this ancient antibacterial.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
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Chan, Leon Y.; Kosuri, Sriram; Endy, Drew (2005). "Refactoring bacteriophage T7". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: 2005.0018. doi: ... In 2003 the 5386 bp genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 was assembled in about two weeks. In 2006, the same team, at the J. ... examples of refactoring including the nitrogen fixation cluster and type III secretion system along with bacteriophages T7 and ... phiX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Some published virus interactomes include Bacteriophage Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7 ... Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... 2011). "The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda". BMC Microbiol. 11: 213. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-213. PMC 3224144 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Dp-1 Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1 The lambda and VZV interactomes are not ...
Tabor, S; Richardson, C. C. (1987). "DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase". Proceedings of the ... "The thioredoxin binding domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase confers processivity on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I". ...
Roeder, Glenna Shirleen (1978). Recombination, maturation and packaging of the bacteriophage T7 chromosome (Thesis). Toronto: [ ...
In 1998, Richardson examined the crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 Å resolution. Before ... Richardson used the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system to control the expression of a phage T7 gene 5 protein (gp5), which is a ... Mark, D. F.; Richardson, C. C. (March 1, 1976). "Escherichia coli thioredoxin: a subunit of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase". ... Crampton, Donald J.; Richardson, Charles C. (January 1, 2003). "Bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein: A hexameric DNA helicase". In ...
In T7 bacteriophages myricetin competitively inhibited DNA template binding to RNA polymerase. Myricetin has been seen to ...
Pribnow, D (1975). "Bacteriophage T7 Early Promoters: Nucleotide Sequences of Two RNA Polymerase Binding Sites". Journal of ... "Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes". Journal of Molecular Biology ... and as a result driving the T7 RNA polymerase instead). The two important mutations are underlined. lacUV5 ...
2003). "The genome of bacteriophage φKMV, a T7-like virus infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Virology. 312 (1): 49-59. doi: ... Although phiKMV phage resembles the well-studied podovirus T7 in overall genome architecture, it was the first known T7-like ... There are currently 16 species in this genus including the type species Pseudomonas virus phiKMV.Bacteriophage phiKMV and its ... of bacteriophage genomes". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 77 (2): 207-13. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2009.02.006. PMID 19232531. ...
Endy, Andrew David (1997). Development and application of a genetically-structured simulation for bacteriophage T7 (PhD thesis ... A genetically structured simulation for bacteriophage T7". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 55 (2): 375-389. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... Endy received his PhD from Dartmouth College in 1997 for his work on genetic engineering using T7 phage. Endy was a junior ...
Perhaps the most widely studied such single-subunit RNAP is bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. ssRNAPs cannot proofread. B. ...
"Roles of Copper and Superoxide Anion Radicals in the Radiation-Induced Inactivation of T7 Bacteriophage". Radiat. Res. 99 (3): ...
FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... Escherichia virus T3, also called bacteriophage T3 and T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial ... This phage is closely related to T7 phage in structure though the two viruses may differ in capsid maturation. ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ...
Bonocora RP, Shub DA (December 2004). "A self-splicing group I intron in DNA polymerase genes of T7-like bacteriophages". J. ... T-even and T7-like bacteriophages. Both intron-early and intron-late theories have found evidences in explaining the origin of ... Lee CN, Lin JW, Weng SF, Tseng YH (December 2009). "Genomic characterization of the intron-containing T7-like phage phiL7 of ... Group I introns are also found inserted into genes of a wide variety of bacteriophages of Gram-positive bacteria. However, ...
... is typically studied in the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in bacteriophages and in E. coli. Abortive initiation ... Martin CT, Muller DK, Coleman JE (1988). "Processivity in early stages of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase". Biochemistry. 27 ...
The GRO exhibited increased resistance to T7 bacteriophage, thus showing that alternative genetic codes do reduce genetic ... Another reason why XB could improve production processes lies in the possibility to reduce the risk of virus or bacteriophage ...
Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes.[citation needed] To ... They found that bacteriophage growing within an infected bacterium could be modified, so that upon their release and re- ... This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). ... infection of a related bacterium the bacteriophage's growth is restricted (inhibited) (also described by Luria in his ...
... is a family of bacteriophage in the order Caudovirales often associated with T-7 like phages. There are 130 species ... Nguyen, Doreen; Ely, Bert (June 2018). "A Genome Comparison of T7-like Podoviruses That Infect Caulobacter crescentus". Current ... Criscuolo, Elena; Spadini, Sara; Lamanna, Jacopo; Ferro, Mattia; Burioni, Roberto (2017). "Bacteriophages and Their ...
... experiment measured the biologically effective ultraviolet dose in the outer space radiation conditions on bacteriophage T7 and ... study of space environment effect on T7 phage, its DNA and of polycristalline uracil. IMBP (Institute of Biomedical Problems), ...
BLISS uses T7 bacteriophage-mediated transcription rather than PCR, reducing errors caused by PCR amplification bias that occur ...
... between different bacteria and viruses where the primase covalently link to helicase in viruses such as the T7 bacteriophage. ... The T7 phage gp4 is a DnaG primase-helicase fusion, and performs both functions in replication. Bocquier AA, Liu L, Cann IK, ...
This concept has been validated by an experimental evolutionary study in which replicate populations of bacteriophage T7 were ... "Independent contrasts succeed where ancestor reconstruction fails in a known bacteriophage phylogeny". Evolution; International ...
In contrast, eukaryotic RNA polymerase I and II as well as single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophage T7 and SP6 are ...
Since the 1990s, the term "T7 supergroup" has been coined for the expanding group of bacteriophages related to coliphage T7, as ... "Genomic analysis of bacteriophages SP6 and K1-5, an estranged subgroup of the T7 supergroup". Journal of Molecular Biology. 335 ... Enterobacteriaceae phages SP6 and K1-5 were the first to be considered as an estranged subgroup of the "T7 supergroup". ...
Upon infection with the bacteriophage T7, E. coli thioredoxin forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase, which results in enhanced ... T7 DNA replication, a crucial step for successful T7 infection. Thioredoxin binds to a loop in T7 DNA polymerase to bind more ... The anti-oxidant function of thioredoxin is fully autonomous and fully independent of T7 DNA replication, in which the protein ...
... s are also found in viruses such as bacteriophages. For example, T7 phages have two operons. The first operon codes for ... "Bacteriophage Use Operons". Prokaryotic Gene Control. Dartmouth College. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. ... "Displacements of prohead protease genes in the late operons of double-stranded-DNA bacteriophages". Journal of Bacteriology. ... various products, including a special T7 RNA polymerase which can bind to and transcribe the second operon. The second operon ...
Producing better protein: the evolution of T7 bacteriophages on a non-evolving E. coli strain that encoded 3-iodotyrosine on ... Hammerling MJ, Ellefson JW, Boutz DR, Marcotte EM, Ellington AD, Barrick JE (March 2014). "Bacteriophages use an expanded ...
"Discrimination between bacteriophage T3 and T7 promoters by the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases depends primarily upon a three base- ... "Specific labelling of the active site of T7 RNA polymerase". Nucleic Acids Research. 15: 8773-81. doi:10.1093/nar/15.21.8773. ...
... it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage (including T7 RNA polymerase), mitochondrial polymerases of ...
... height of a T7 bacteriophage 90 nm - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm ... "Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles". Aerosol Science and ...
Polynucleotide kinase is a T7 bacteriophage (or T4 bacteriophage) enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a gamma-phosphate from ...
The most common bacteriophages used in phage display are M13 and fd filamentous phage, though T4, T7, and λ phage have also ... In T7 phage display, the protein to be displayed is attached to the C-terminus of the gene 10 capsid protein of T7. The ... Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... Malys N, Chang DY, Baumann RG, Xie D, Black LW (2002). "A bipartite bacteriophage T4 SOC and HOC randomized peptide display ...
T7 or T3. These promoters are recognized by DNA dependent RNA polymerases originally characterized from bacteriophages. The ...
... the desired protease cut site is used to link a T7 RNA polymerase and a T7 lysozyme. The T7 lysozyme prevents the T7 polymerase ... It relies on relating the desired activity of a target protein with the fitness of an infectious bacteriophage which carries ... The T7 polymerase can only function when the N-terminus portion can bind to the rest of the polymerase. Since APOBEC1 must be ... To evolve APOBEC1 for better soluble expression, the N-terminus of a T7 polymerase was fused to APOBEC1, with the remaining ...
Hartman, P. S.; Eisenstark, A.; Pauw, P. G. (1979). "Inactivation of phage T7 by near-ultraviolet radiation plus hydrogen ... Eisenstark, Abraham (2014). "Life in Science: Abraham Eisenstark". Bacteriophage. 4 (3): e29009. doi:10.4161/bact.29009. PMC ... the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; and the establishment of the ...
Promoter - commonly used inducible promoters are promoters derived from lac operon and the T7 promoter. Other strong promoters ... Brown TA (2010). "Chapter 2 - Vectors for Gene Cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophages". Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An ...
This RNA thermometer is now thought to encourage entry to a lytic cycle under heat stress in order for the bacteriophage to ... the gene fusion was then transcribed from the T7 promoter in E. coli, and fluorescence was observed at 37 °C but not at 30 °C. ... Altuvia S, Kornitzer D, Teff D, Oppenheim AB (1989-11-20). "Alternative mRNA structures of the cIII gene of bacteriophage ... Altuvia S, Oppenheim AB (July 1986). "Translational regulatory signals within the coding region of the bacteriophage lambda ...
Basal levels of expression of T7 RNA polymerase in the cell are also inhibited by the bacteriophage T7 lysozyme, which results ... T7 RNA polymerase is responsible for beginning transcription at the T7 promoter of the transformed vector. The T7 gene is ... The sequencing and annotating of the genome of the T7 bacteriophage took place in the 1980s at the U.S. Department of Energy's ... This polymerase originates from the T7 phage, a bacteriophage virus which infects E. coli bacterial cells and is capable of ...
Similarly, not all bacteriophages synthesize lysins: some small single-stranded DNA and RNA phages produce membrane proteins ... T7-like, EC γ-D-glutaminyl-L-lysine endopeptidase (EC Peptidoglycan consists of cross-linked amino acids ... Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the ... Baker JR, Liu C, Dong S, Pritchard DG (October 2006). "Endopeptidase and glycosidase activities of the bacteriophage B30 lysin ...
... (Bacteriophage gh-1) is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible strains of Pseudomonas putida. ... Evidence for close relationship to the T7 group". Journal of Virology. 311 (2): 305-315. doi:10.1016/S0042-6822(03)00124-7. ... "Pseudomonas putida bacteriophage gh-1 ATCC ® 12633-B1™". - ATCC database entry for gh-1 "Pseudomonad phage gh-1". - Virus-Host ... Lee, L.; Boezi, J. (1966). "Characterization of bacteriophage gh-1 for Pseudomonas putida". Journal of Bacteriology. American ...
The bacteriophages used for cloning are the λ phage and M13 phage. There is an upper limit on the amount of DNA that can be ... Some commonly used promoters are the T7 and lac promoters. The presence of a promoter is necessary when screening techniques ... Some plasmids contain an M13 bacteriophage origin of replication and may be used to generate single-stranded DNA. These are ... Cosmids are plasmids that incorporate a segment of bacteriophage λ DNA that has the cohesive end site (cos) which contains ...
Amount of T7 exonuclease must be carefully controlled to avoid overly high levels of double-stranded breaks. Step 4: ... "Bacteriophage strain typing by rapid single molecule analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv563. ... Step 3: Gap formation T7 exonuclease is added which uses the nicks in the DNA molecules to expand the gaps in a 5'-3' direction ...
Right hand structure of Bacteriophage RB69, a family B DdRP. Central dogma of molecular biology Exonuclease Ligase Nuclease PCR ... T7 RNA polymerase, POLRMT Primase, PrimPol RNA replicase (RNA-directed RNA polymerase, RdRP) Viral (single-subunit) Eukaryotic ...
T7 depedent effector proteins EsaD is DNA endonuclease toxin secreted by S. aureus, has been shown to inhibit growth of ... The genes encoding the components of PVL are encoded on a bacteriophage found in community-associated MRSA strains.[citation ... There are also T7 effector proteins that play role a in pathogenesis, for example mutational studies of S. aureus have ... Novel treatments for S. aureus biofilm involving nano silver particles, bacteriophages, and plant-derived antibiotic agents are ...
... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ... bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.150.800 ... bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280.090.700.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.280.090.800 ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
Wang, I. N.; Smith, D. L.; Young, R. (2000-01-01). "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of ... San Diego found that the BP-Hol family is most closely related to the T7 holin family (TC# 1.E.6). These proteins are of 60 to ... Some are annotated as type II hollins and may be related to members of the T7 Holin family (TC# 1.E.6), although BP-Hol ...
Helicase Lee SJ, Richardson CC (October 2011). "Choreography of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication". Current Opinion in Chemical ... T7 DNA helicase (gp4) is a hexameric motor protein encoded by T7 phages that uses energy from dTTP hydrolysis to process ... "DNA-induced switch from independent to sequential dTTP hydrolysis in the bacteriophage T7 DNA helicase". Molecular Cell. 21 (2 ... have proposed a mechanism for the ssDNA-dependent hydrolysis of dTTP by T7 DNA helicase as shown in the figure below. In their ...
... bacteriophage, prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA primases. The primase zinc-binding domain is part of the subfamily of zinc- ... "Interaction of ribonucleoside triphosphates with the gene 4 primase of bacteriphage T7". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 ( ...
T7 & Sp6 phage promoters for transcription of inserted genes. BACs are now being utilized to a greater extent in modelling ... A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. BACs are often used to sequence ...
Spiegelman introduced RNA from a simple bacteriophage Qβ (Qβ) into a solution which contained Qβ's RNA replicase, some free ... this time a combination of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and T7 RNA polymerase. Abiogenesis RNA world hypothesis PAH world ... "Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase ...
Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer- ... Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution Nature. 1998 Jan 15;391(6664):251-8. doi: ... Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer- ...
DNA recognition by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7: a structure-function study of the zinc-binding domain. Biochemistry. ... DNA recognition by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7 : a structure-function study of the zinc-binding domain. / Akabayov, ... DNA recognition by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7 : a structure-function study of the zinc-binding domain. In: ... Dive into the research topics of DNA recognition by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7: a structure-function study of the ...
Chan, Leon Y.; Kosuri, Sriram; Endy, Drew (2005). "Refactoring bacteriophage T7". Molecular Systems Biology. 1: 2005.0018. doi: ... In 2003 the 5386 bp genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 was assembled in about two weeks. In 2006, the same team, at the J. ... examples of refactoring including the nitrogen fixation cluster and type III secretion system along with bacteriophages T7 and ... phiX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7 Complex with Atp ... The structure of Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7 ... H.S.Subramanya, A.J.Doherty, S.R.Ashford, D.B.Wigley. Crystal Structure of An Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7. ... Phosphorus binding site 1 out of 3 in the Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7 Complex with Atp. Mono view Stereo ... Phosphorus binding site 2 out of 3 in the Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7 Complex with Atp. Mono view Stereo ...
Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution. ... Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution. Doublié S, Tabor S, Long AM, Richardson CC ... Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer- ...
Two forms of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7., Polymerase: T7 (purified without EDTA), Property: Strand Displacement ... T7 (purified without EDTA) Two forms of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Strand Displacement Yes ... Reference: Two forms of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7., Polymerase: T7 (purified without EDTA), Property: Strand ...
Display of hepatitis B virus PreS1 peptide on bacteriophage T7 and its potential in gene delivery into HepG2 cells. J Virol ...
... osmotic shock of bacteriophage T7 and (b) reaction of bacteriophage T7 with glutaraldehyde. Some of the latter DNA-capsid ... osmotic shock of bacteriophage T7 and (b) reaction of bacteriophage T7 with glutaraldehyde. Some of the latter DNA-capsid ... osmotic shock of bacteriophage T7 and (b) reaction of bacteriophage T7 with glutaraldehyde. Some of the latter DNA-capsid ... osmotic shock of bacteriophage T7 and (b) reaction of bacteriophage T7 with glutaraldehyde. Some of the latter DNA-capsid ...
A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes. ...
Britton, P.; Green, P.; Kottier, S.; Mawditt, K.L.; Penzes, Z.; Cavanagh, D.; Skinner, M.A. Expression of bacteriophage T7 RNA ... Elroy-Stein, O.; Moss, B. Cytoplasmic expression system based on constitutive synthesis of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in ... T7 RNA polymerase, which can be expressed in mammalian cells [51,52], would provide tight control over transcription regulation ... PCR-amplified DNA templates for complementary splits were added 1:1 as 20% final volume with T7 RNA polymerase (80 mM HEPES-KOH ...
Display of hepatitis B virus PreS1 peptide on bacteriophage T7 and its potential in gene delivery into HepG2 cells. J Virol ...
T7 RNA polymerase. 1.Characterization of two types of termination signal for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Macdonald LE, ... 1.Studies on Sex Pili: Mutants of the Sex Factor F in Escherichia coli Defective in Bacteriophage-Adsorbing Function of F Pili ... 2.Crystal structure of an RNA bacteriophage coat protein-operator complex. Karin Valegard, James B. Murray, Peter G. Stockley, ...
Next, the mRNA is synthesized from NTPs by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage (such as T7, SP6, or T3). The ... Briefly, IVT mRNA is produced from a linear DNA template using a T7, a T3 or an Sp6 phage RNA polymerase16. The resulting ...
Structures of T7 bacteriophage portal and tail suggest a viral DNA retention and ejection mechanism ...
keywords = "bacteriophage, phage infection, pseudolysogeny, carrier state, chronic infection, BACTERIOPHAGE T7 DNA, FILAMENTOUS ...
Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued ... Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued ... Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Coliphages [B04.123.205] * Bacteriophage HK022 [B04.123.205.200] * Bacteriophage lambda [B04.123. ... Bacteriophages T Term UI T039960. Date04/16/1979. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ...
1986) Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes Journal of Molecular ...
Brody, R. et al., "Stereochemical coruse of nucleotidyl catalyzed by bacteriophage T7 induced DNA polymerase", Biochemistry ... employed T7 coliphane DNA having seventeen promoters and one termination site for T7 RNA polymerase. In vitro synthesis by T7 ... For synthesis, a T7 promoter and a template containing the complementary target sequence and T7 promoter hybridization sequence ... Due to this requirement, the T7 RNA polymerase was derived from a strain of E. coli that contained a T7 RNA polymerase ...
In the case of a bacteriophage called T7, for instance, previous work has shown that the host cell actually grabs onto the DNA ... The researchers used a fluorescent dye to stain the DNA of two mutants of a bacteriophage known as lambda bacteriophage-one ... And so, when the bacteriophages try to inject their DNA into the cells, the factor that limits the rate of transfer is how jam- ... image: A cartoon schematic (top) and raw data (bottom) showing a lambda bacteriophage attached to an ,I,E. coli ,/I,cell with ...
Bacillus subtilis, bacteriophage T7, and even yeast which is a eukaryote have parts made for them within the registry. But Dev ...
Tabor S, Richardson CC: A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes ... Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 227: 680-685. ... T D, Kuhn A: Hydrophobic forces drive spontaneous membrane insertion of the bacteriophage Pf3 coat protein without topological ... about 109 T7 phages were added, and the mixture was incubated for 30 minutes at 37°C to eliminate remaining E. coli cells. ...
Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes. J Mol Biol. 1986;189(1):113- ... The BL21(DE3) strain had been engineered to expresses a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP), to transcribe a gene of ... Iost I, Guillerez J, Dreyfus M. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase travels far ahead of ribosomes in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1992;174(2 ... mutations in the lacUV5 promoter region upstream from the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase gene distinguish these strains from ...
STUDIER, F.W. and MOFFATT, B.A. Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned ... E. coli S17-1 [RP4-2(Tc::Mu)(Km::T7) TpSmProres-mod+ recA-] was used as the donor strain for conjugal transfer of genes to ... l D69lacUV5-T7 gene1) strain was used for over expression of the alpha and beta polypeptides. This strain is a recA derivative ... They were then subcloned to the T7 promoter of the plasmid pBluescript II KS +/-, resulting in the formation of pBluescript II- ...
Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes. J. Mol. Biol. ... Improved high-level expression system for eukaryotic genes in Escherichia coli using T7 RNA polymerase and rare ArgtRNAs. ... cells were transformed with the construct and the recombinant His-CYC fusion protein was expressed under the control of the T7 ...
Escherichia phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7) reference strain RPOL_BPT7 T7 RNA polymerase (DNA-directed RNA polymerase) (EC ... Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3) HELIC_BPT3 DNA helicase/primase (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC (Gene product 4) (Gp4) ... Enterobacteria phage P4 (Bacteriophage P4) reference strain PRIM_BPP4 Putative P4-specific DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.6. ... Enterobacteria phage N4 (Bacteriophage N4) reference strain RPOLV_BPN4 Virion DNA-directed RNA polymerase (vRNAP) (EC ...
The selective and reversible capture of his-tag T7 bacteriophage, RplL, and GroEL from crude lysates, as well as purified ... The selective and reversible capture of his-tag T7 bacteriophage, RplL, and GroEL from crude lysates, as well as purified ...
  • Here we present a 2.2 A crystal structure of the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 complexed with a primer-template and a nucleoside triphosphate in the polymerase active site. (
  • Gp5 (encoded by gene gp5) is T7 phage's DNA polymerase. (
  • T7 polymerase uses E. coli's endogenous thioredoxin, a REDOX protein, as a sliding DNA clamp during phage DNA replication (though thioredoxin normally has a different function). (
  • T7 DNA polymerase, assisted by E. coli thioredoxin, performs both leading and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. (
  • Results for Reference: Two forms of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. (
  • At the genome level, amongst only a handful of genetic changes, mutations in the lac UV5 promoter region upstream from the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase gene distinguish these strains from BL21(DE3) but do not inform on how the strains have adapted for superior production of recombinant membrane proteins. (
  • The BL21(DE3) strain had been engineered to expresses a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP), to transcribe a gene of interest at high efficiency, thus producing large amounts of the corresponding protein (7, 8). (
  • The reaction is catalyzed by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase that incorporates labeled NTPs (mostly UTP) as substitute for their natural counterpart using linear, RNA probe-encoding DNA as template. (
  • One is mediated by the T7 RNA polymerase supplied either by a constitutively expressing cell line or by transfection of expression plasmids and is thus independent from infection with a helper virus. (
  • Optimization of a T7-RNA polymerase system in Synechococcus sp. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Optimization of a T7-RNA polymerase system in Synechococcus sp. (
  • Initiation by RNA polymerase on UV or x-ray damaged T7 DNA. (
  • T7 promoter.dna ISO/TS 21569-5:2016 specifies a procedure for the detection of a DNA sequence used in genetically modified (GM) plants by means of a real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). (
  • Aliquots of DNA from sectors prepared from high titer phage were subjected to in vitro transcription using T7 polymerase and thereafter RNA was translated in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine. (
  • Although mitochondria and chloroplasts are considered to be descendants of eubacteria-like endo- symbionts, the mitochondrial RNA polymerase of yeast is a nucleus-encoded, single-subunit enzyme homologous to bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases, rather than a multi-component, eubacterial-type alpha 2 beta beta' enzyme, as encoded in chloroplast DNA. (
  • To broaden our knowledge of the mitochondrial transcriptional apparatus, we have used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach designed to amplify an internal portion of phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase genes. (
  • We infer that the T3/T7-like RNA polymerase sequences reported here are likely derived from genes encoding the mitochondrial RNA polymerase in the organisms in which they occur, suggesting a phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase was recruited to act in transcription in the mitochondrion at an early stage in the evolution of this organelle. (
  • 1633 /note='T7 promoter' /note='promoter for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase' protein_bind 1634. (
  • 2455 /note='T7 terminator' /note='transcription terminator for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase' rep_origin 2548. (
  • 4131 /label=T7 terminator /note="transcription terminator for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase" primer_bind complement(4189. (
  • Bacteriophage T7 RNA Polymerase is a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with high specificity for the T7 promoter. (
  • 1X RNA Polymerase Reaction Buffer, supplemented with 0.5 mM each ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP, and DNA template containing the T7 RNA Polymerase promoter. (
  • T7 RNA Polymerase is supplied in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.9), 20 mM KCl, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton® X-100 and 50% (v/v) glycerol. (
  • 3. The volume of T7 RNA Polymerase can be titrated between 1-2 μL in the IVT reaction to optimize your assay. (
  • The T7 tag has been used extensively as a general epitope tag in many expression vectors including the pET system that is based on T7 RNA polymerase expression systems. (
  • Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes. (
  • The method requires a controlable and competitive expression system like the bacteriophage T7 polymerase/promoter in a methionine-auxotrophic host. (
  • We added new information from the literature to the Main Page of an already existing Part T7 RNA Polymerase ( Part:BBa_I2032 ). (
  • T7 RNA Polymerase (T7 RNAP) is a single subunit protein originating from T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes RNA synthesis. (
  • Compared to the RNA polymerase in E. coli T7 has several advantages. (
  • For RNA production, we use the in vitro transcription approach which utilizes the T7 promoter upstream of a DNA template sequence of interest to facilitate highly efficient production of RNA by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP), under appropriate reaction conditions and in the presence of nucleotide triphosphates. (
  • A number of mammalian enzymes have been expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 RNA polymerase in escherichia coli using the T7 RNA polymerase system, but the production of large amounts of these proteins has been limited by the low percentage of active enzyme that is found in the soluble fraction. (
  • We also tested the effect using a host cell strain that contains a plasmid encoding T7 lysozyme, an inhibitor of T7 RNA polymerase. (
  • They are also applicable for nucleic acid purification, and available with a DE3 lysogen encoding the T7 polymerase for expressing recombinant proteins driven by the T7 promoter. (
  • The first operon codes for various products, including a special T7 RNA polymerase which can bind to and transcribe the second operon. (
  • BL21(DE3) is a chemically competent E. coli cell suitable for transformation and high level protein expression using a T7 RNA polymerase-IPTG induction system. (
  • Bacteriophage T7 (or the T7 phage) is a bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. (
  • Before being physically referred to as T7, the phage was used in prior experiments. (
  • The genome of phage T7 was among the first completely sequenced genomes and was published in 1983. (
  • T7 has a life cycle of 17 min at 37˚C, i.e. the time from infection to the lysis of the host cell when new phage are released. (
  • The T7 phage recognizes certain receptors on the surface of E.coli cells, and binds to the cell surface by its viral tail fibers. (
  • The short, stubby tail of the T7-like phage is too short to span the cell envelope and, in order to eject the phage genome into the cell at the initiation of infection, virion proteins must first make a channel from the tip of the tail into the cell cytoplasm. (
  • Once the T7 phage has inserted the viral genome, the process of DNA replication of the host genome is halted and replication of viral genome begins. (
  • citation needed] Under optimal conditions, the T7 phage can complete the lytic process within 25 minutes, leading to the death of the E. coli host cell. (
  • Phage T7 has the simplest known DNA replisome, consisting of a helicase and primase that reside in a single polypeptide chain that forms a hexamer in the presence of DNA and ATP or dTTP. (
  • In phage T7, DNA double-strand breaks are likely repaired by insertion of a patch of donor DNA into a gap at the break site. (
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T4 ), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (
  • The researchers used a fluorescent dye to stain the DNA of two mutants of a bacteriophage known as lambda bacteriophage-one with a short genome and one with a longer genome-while that DNA was still inside the phage. (
  • Here, we created a collection of Escherichia coli strains with type I-E CRISPR-Cas system targeting various positions in the genomes of bacteriophages λ, T5, T7, T4 and R1-37 and investigated the ability of these strains to resist the infection and acquire additional CRISPR spacers from the infecting phage. (
  • Unlike the filamentous systems, peptides or proteins displayed on the surface of T7 do not need to be capable of secretion through the cell membrane, a necessary step in filamentous phage assembly. (
  • It is very easy to grow and replicates more rapidly than either bacteriophage l or filamentous phage. (
  • The T7 phage particle is extremely robust, and is stable to harsh conditions that inactivate other phage. (
  • The T7Select Phage Display System uses the T7 capsid protein to display peptides or proteins on the surface of the phage. (
  • This finding provided the initial suggestion that the T7 capsid shell could accommodate variation, and that the region of the capsid protein unique to 10B might be on the surface of the phage and could be used for phage display. (
  • Using this strategy, we have recovered sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and phage T3/T7 RNA polymerases from a phylogenetically broad range of multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. (
  • T7 RNAP was isolated for the first time in 1969 from E. coli that was infected by T7 phage (Tunitskaya & Kochetkov, 2002). (
  • Among them is the bacteriophage virus T5, which is a lytic phage. (
  • Molineux, I.J. No syringes please, ejection of phage T7 DNA from the virion is enzyme driven. (
  • In contrast, when E. coli was attacked with T7 phage, S. enterica, the nonhost species, reached higher yields compared with no-phage controls. (
  • We carried out plate evolution experiments with individual host colonies and each of 10 phage isolated from each of the bacteriophage strains. (
  • The bacteriophage strains we are using are listed in Table 1 and include eight ssDNA microviruses and two dsDNA phage, T7 and T3. (
  • The results of this experiment will hopefully provide further understanding on how to combat bacterial resistance to bacteriophage and, in turn, help increase the effectivity of phage therapy. (
  • Sillankorva S, Neubauer P, Azeredo J: Isolation and characterization of a T7-like lytic phage for Pseudomonas fluorescens. (
  • Experiments using bacteriophage (phage) to infect bacterial strains have helped define some basic genetic concepts in microbiology, but our understanding of the complexity of bacterium-phage interactions is still limited. (
  • His lab is now working on a range of topics in synthetic biology, microbiology, and virology including improving phage for therapeutic use against uropathogenic E. coli ,_ _and using next-generation CRISPR methods to engineer T4 and T7 phages. (
  • Operons are also found in viruses such as bacteriophage s. [6] [7] For example, T7 phage s have two operons. (
  • After irreversible adsorbing Necrostatin-1 distributor to cellular receptors, the phage T7 (podovirus) ejects the proteins composing. (
  • T7 grows on rough strains of Escherichia coli (i.e. those without full-length O-antigen polysaccharide on their surface) and some other enteric bacteria, but close relatives also infect smooth and even capsulated strains. (
  • From laboratory host Escherichia coli , we have isolated colonies that demonstrated resistance to each of 10 selected types of bacteriophage (Table 1. (
  • Characterization of a T4-like bacteriophage vB_EcoM-Sa45lw as a potential biocontrol agent for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O45 contaminated on Mung Bean seeds. (
  • Mutants in Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho, termed rho(nusD), were previously isolated based on their ability to block the growth of bacteriophage T4. (
  • Transposon insertion sequencing elucidates novel gene involvement in susceptibility and resistance to phages T4 and T7 in Escherichia coli O157. (
  • for example, 84% and 65% of single mutants in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme and the Escherichia coli lac repressor, respectively, were previously shown to be functional [3] , [4] . (
  • E. coli is more resistant to T7 than to some other similar phages. (
  • In that earlier setup, they had essentially tricked the bacteriophages into ejecting their DNA into solution-a task that the phages completed in less than 10 seconds. (
  • Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are a diverse family of viruses capable of infecting bacterial cells, often with single species specificity, rapidly generating 10-1000 progeny per infected cell. (
  • The most studied bacteriophages are those that infect the Gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis mc 2 155, with over 4,800 phages isolated and 690 fully sequenced genomes ( ). (
  • This group of phages has been isolated and sequenced independently from investigators throughout the world and contains many of the well-characterized, historical phages such as Lambda, Mu, T4 and T7. (
  • Lytic bacteriophages isolated and characterized from several MSRA strains play crucial roles in the investigation of the potential use of phages and their products as therapeutic agents against infections caused by biofilm-producing MRSA. (
  • To prove this, the researchers used bacteriophages, which are able to infect bacteria using heads of tightly bundled DNA coated in a protein shell. (
  • The team found that a fabric made with a dye called rose Bengal as the photosensitizer killed 99.9999% of bacteria added to the fabric within 60 minutes of daylight exposure and inactivated 99.9999% of T7 bacteriophage - a virus thought to be more resistant to ROS than some coronaviruses - within 30 minutes. (
  • Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of resolving enzymes from bacteriophages (T7 endonuclease I), bacteria (RuvC), fungi (GEN1) and humans (hMus81-Eme1) showed that both types of HJ dynamics still occur after enzyme binding. (
  • Here, we use a bacterial virus, a bacteriophage, to deliver CRISPR to bacteria, which is ironic because bacteria normally use CRISPR to kill viruses," said Rodolphe Barrangou, the Todd R. Klaenhammer Distinguished Professor of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences at NC State and corresponding author of a paper describing the research published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (
  • The NC State researchers deployed two different engineered bacteriophages to deliver CRISPR-Cas payloads for targeted editing of E. coli , first in a test tube and then within a synthetic soil environment created to mimic soil - a complex environment that can harbor many types of bacteria. (
  • In the context of a society that is confronted with an ever-increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we build on the previously made recommendations and specifically address how the Nagoya Protocol might impact the further development of bacteriophage therapy. (
  • This was achieved by fusing the antibody binding domain to surface proteins of bacteriophages (8-10) or bacteria (11). (
  • Gene 6 protein of bacteriophage T7 is a 5′-3′ exonuclease specific for dsDNA. (
  • T7 gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA binding protein stimulates the exonuclease and also the endonuclease activity. (
  • Here the major capsid gene of the bacteriophage T7 (40-kb dsDNA) was replaced with the homologous gene of either T3 or K11, each 22% different at the protein level from the T7 homolog. (
  • Initial fitness was moderately impaired for the T3 exchange, but the K11 exchange was not viable without a compensatory change in the T7 scaffolding protein. (
  • Berget, P.B. & Poteete, A.R. Structure and functions of the bacteriophage P22 tail protein. (
  • The tree below was made from a gene H (pilot protein) alignment and does not include T7 or T3. (
  • In most cases, sRNA-mediated regulation requires the presence of Hfq, a host protein that is required for Qβ bacteriophage replication ( Vogel and Luisi, 2011 ). (
  • Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. (
  • Here we use single-molecule techniques to visualize, in real time, the formation and release of replication loops by individual replisomes of bacteriophage T7 supporting coordinated DNA replication. (
  • Shedding light on the early stages of infection by this type of virus-a bacteriophage-the scientists have determined that it is the cells targeted for infection, rather than the amount of genetic material within the viruses themselves, that dictate how quickly the bacteriophage's DNA is transferred. (
  • The results also showed that, unlike the viruses that infect humans, bacteriophages transmit only their genetic information into their bacterial targets, leaving their "bodies" behind. (
  • Bacteriophages, like all viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites that need a host to multiply. (
  • It is known for its high processivity and great specificity to the T7 promoter. (
  • Recognition and analysis of genome structure and genes function are the required steps before bacteriophages can be approved as therapeutic agents. (
  • Invitrogen사에서 개발한 Gateway cloning법은 bacteriophage λ가 자신의 genome을 E.coli chromosome에 intergration하거나 excision하는 과정에서 작용하는 효소들을 이용하여 site-specific (att) recombination으로 유전자를 cloning하는 방법입니다. (
  • However, high-fitness strains of T7 have been isolated with a latent period of only ~11 min at 37˚C growing under optimal conditions in rich media results. (
  • In some strains of T7, the tail fibers are replaced with tail-spikes that degrade the O- or K-antigens on the cell surface by way of enzymatic activity. (
  • The objective of this project is to identify mutations in E. Coli C colonies resistant to one of ten different strains of bacteriophage. (
  • The T7 tag is an epitope tag composed of an 11-residue peptide encoded from the leader sequence of the T7 bacteriophage gene 10. (
  • Mild expression of a chromosomally encoded bacteriophage λ R gene, encoding the λ lysozyme, also known as λ endolysin, is induced during growth. (
  • Serwer, P 1978, ' A technique for observing extended DNA in negatively stained specimens: observation of bacteriophage T7 capsid-DNA complexes ', Journal of Ultrasructure Research , vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 112-118. (
  • The selective and reversible capture of his-tag T7 bacteriophage, RplL, and GroEL from crude lysates, as well as purified nanodisc-solubilized his-malFGK2, on these NTA-modified grids with an exceptionally low level of adsorption by non-target proteins has been observed. (
  • Analysis of bacteriophage T7 early RNAs and proteins on slab gels. (
  • The library contains all proteins expressed as overlapping 90mer peptide tiles on the surface of bacteriophages. (
  • Israel, V. E proteins of bacteriophage P22. (
  • Both the engineered bacteriophages, called T7 and lambda, successfully found and then delivered payloads to the E. coli host on the lab bench. (
  • T7 infection increased nonhost yield by releasing consumable cell debris, and by driving evolution of partially resistant E. coli that secreted more carbon. (
  • T: Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophage, ΦJL-1, from a cucumber fermentation. (
  • Carey‒Smith GV, Billington C, Cornelius AJ, Hudson JA, Heinemann JA: Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages infecting Salmonella spp. (
  • The T7 RNAP is a highly robust enzyme and transcription reactions using this enzyme can produce large amounts of functional RNA within a few hours. (
  • These results suggest that it is the RNA-binding ability of Rho rather than its transcription termination function that is important for the inhibition of bacteriophage growth and the shorter bulk mRNA lifetime. (
  • In most organisms, the mitochondrial genes are transcribed by RNA polymerases related to the single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophages like T3 and T7. (
  • RNA synthesis during bacteriophage SPO1 development: six classes of SPO1 RNA. (
  • Name": "Applications" }, { "Language": "en", "Value": "Use the enzyme to digest DNA impurities during the synthesis and purification of RNA. (
  • abstract = "Bacteriophage shape the composition and function of microbial communities. (
  • Abstract: This perspective paper follows up on earlier communications on bacteriophage therapy that we wrote as a multidisciplinary and intercontinental expert-panel when we first met at a bacteriophage conference hosted by the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia in 2015. (
  • Bacteriophage T7 has a lytic life cycle, meaning that it destroys the cell it infects. (
  • Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. (
  • Crystal Structure of An Atp-Dependent Dna Ligase From Bacteriophage T7. (
  • Sequence and structural analysis of DNA ligases has shown that these enzymes are built around a common catalytic core, which is likely to be similar in three-dimensional structure to that of T7-bacteriophage ligase. (
  • Plaque size, transmission electron microscopy, virulence profile, and in vitro lytic activity of bacteriophage isolates were examined. (
  • Bacteriophage therapy is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. (
  • By reviewing a number of recently conducted case studies with bacteriophages involving patients with bacterial infections that could no longer be successfully treated by regular antibiotic therapy, we again stress the urgency and significance of the development of international guidelines and frameworks that might facilitate the legal and effective application of bacteriophage therapy by physicians and the receiving patients. (
  • Name": "Positioning" }, { "Language": "en", "Value": "No animal-derived material is added in fermentation, purification and final formulation of this enzyme. (
  • T7 RNAP and the T7 system are used in a wide array of applications. (
  • The primary structure of T7 RNAP is composed of 883 amino acid residues and its molecular weight is 98 092 Da (Kochetkov et al, 1998). (
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T7 ) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. (
  • Keel C, Ucurum Z, Michaux the P, Adrian M, Haas D: Deleterious impact of a virulent bacteriophage on survival and biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 in natural soil. (
  • CRISPR-Cas systems provide prokaryotes with adaptive defense against bacteriophage infections. (
  • Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the eukaryotic lineage. (
  • Bhardwaj, A., Olia, A.S., Walker-Kopp, N. & Cingolani, G. Domain organization and polarity of tail needle GP26 in the portal vertex structure of bacteriophage P22. (
  • Bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor GP26 is a long triple-stranded coiled-coil. (
  • Cingolani, G., Andrews, D. & Casjens, S. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH. (
  • Random peptide libraries displayed by bacteriophage T7 and M13 were employed to identify mimotopes from 4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Burkholderia pseudomallei. (
  • Furthermore, deletion of the T7 gp4 linker region (located between the primase and helicase domains) results in inefficient loading of the ring-shaped hexamer on DNA [ 8 ], which could also apply to Twinkle. (
  • Most Twinkle homologues are predicted to possess a primase domain N-terminally of their helicase domain, similar to the T7 gp4 primase/helicase [ 10 ]. (
  • They are bacteriophage T1-resistant ( ton A mutation) and also resistant to streptomycin by virtue of rps L mutation. (
  • The length per nucleotide of duplex DNA from bacteriophage πX174 is 0.29 nm. (
  • Individual optimization of labeled NTP/NTP ratio can easily be achieved with the single nucleotide format of our HighYield T7 RNA Labeling Kits . (
  • The above technique has been used to observe complexes of bacteriophage T7 DNA with T7 capsids produced by (a) osmotic shock of bacteriophage T7 and (b) reaction of bacteriophage T7 with glutaraldehyde. (
  • In this project you will Isolate novel bacteriophage and screen them for their diagnostic potential (host range, progeny rate, cycle speed), and characterise them via next generation sequencing. (
  • Choi, Changsun 2017-02-15 00:00:00 The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize Bacillus cereus bacteriophages of various origins. (
  • Transmission electron microscopy confirmed B. cereus bacteriophages belonging to the family Siphoviridae. (
  • T7 bacteriophage has been evolved to override several of the host bacteria's defenses including the peptidoglycan cell wall and the CRISPR system. (
  • Among B. cereus bacteriophages with broad host range, 18 isolates (66.7%) did not harbor any B. cereus virulence factors. (
  • Moak, M. & Molineux, I.J. Peptidoglycan hydrolytic activities associated with bacteriophage virions. (
  • 4131 /regulatory_class="terminator" /note="T7 terminator" terminator 4085. (
  • This resistance remains a barrier to the implementation of bacteriophages as diagnostic tools. (