Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (1/547)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (2/547)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition. (3/547)

Bacteriophage T7 DNA primase recognizes 5'-GTC-3' in single-stranded DNA. The primase contains a single Cys4 zinc-binding motif that is essential for recognition. Biochemical and mutagenic analyses suggest that the Cys4 motif contacts cytosine of 5'-GTC-3' and may also contribute to thymine recognition. Residues His33 and Asp31 are critical for these interactions. Biochemical analysis also reveals that T7 primase selectively binds CTP in the absence of DNA. We propose that bound CTP selects the remaining base G, of 5'-GTC-3', by base pairing. Our deduced mechanism for recognition of ssDNA by Cys4 motifs bears little resemblance to the recognition of trinucleotides of double-stranded DNA by Cys2His2 zinc fingers.  (+info)

Co-expression of gene 31 and 23 products of bacteriophage T4. (4/547)

Folding of the major capsid protein of bacteriophage T4 encoded by gene 23 is aided by Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin and phage co-chaperonin gp31. In the absence of gene product (gp) 31, aggregates of recombinant gp23 accumulate in the cell similar to inclusion bodies. These aggregates can be solubilized with 6 M urea. However, the protein cannot form regular structures in solution. A system of co-expression of gp31 and gp23 under the control of phage T7 promoter in E. coli cells has been constructed. Folding of entire-length gp23 (534 amino acid residues) in this system results in the correctly folded recombinant gp23, which forms long regular structures (polyheads) in the cell.  (+info)

The environment of 5S rRNA in the ribosome: cross-links to 23S rRNA from sites within helices II and III of the 5S molecule. (5/547)

Three contiguous fragments of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA were prepared by T7 transcription from synthetic DNA templates. The central fragment, comprising residues 33-71 of the molecule, was transcribed in the presence of 4-thiouridine triphosphate together with [32P]UTP. The three transcripts were ligated together, yielding a 5S rRNA analogue carrying 4-thiouridine residues at positions 40, 48, 55 and 65 in helices II and III. After ligation, the 4-thiouridine residues were derivatised with p -azidophenacyl bromide. The modified 5S rRNA was reconstituted into 50S subunits and these subunits were used to prepare 70S ribosomes in the presence or absence of tRNA and mRNA. The azidophenyl groups were then photoactivated by mild irradiation at 300 nm and the products of cross-linking analysed by our standard procedures. Multiple cross-links from 5S rRNA to two distinct regions of the 23S rRNA were observed. The first region was located in helix 38 in Domain II of the 23S molecule, with cross-links at sites between nucleotides 885 and 922. The second region covered helices 81-85 in Domain V, with sites between nucleotides 2272 and 2345. Taken together with previous data, these results serve to define the arrangement of the 5S rRNA molecule relative to the 23S rRNA within the 50S subunit.  (+info)

RNA polymerase-specific nucleosome disruption by transcription in vivo. (6/547)

The nucleosomal chromatin structure within genes is disrupted upon transcription by RNA polymerase II. To determine whether this disruption is caused by transcription per se as opposed to the RNA polymerase source, we engineered the yeast chromosomal HSP82 gene to be exclusively transcribed by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in vivo. Interestingly, we found that a fraction of the T7-generated transcripts were 3' end processed and polyadenylated at or near the 3' ends of the hsp82 and the immediately downstream CIN2 genes. Surprisingly, the nucleosomal structure of the T7-transcribed hsp82 gene remained intact, in marked contrast to the disrupted structure generated by much weaker, basal level transcription of the wild type gene by RNA polymerase II under non-heat shock conditions. Therefore, disruption of chromatin structure by transcription is dependent on the RNA polymerase source. We propose that the observed RNA polymerase dependence for transcription-induced nucleosome disruption may be related either to the differential recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes, the rates of histone octamer translocation and nucleosome reformation during polymerase traversal, and/or the degree of transient torsional stress generated by the elongating polymerase.  (+info)

Vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 expression vector for complementation analysis of late gene processes. (7/547)

A vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase hybrid transient expression vector has been developed for complementation analysis of late gene functions in vaccinia virus. The conditionally defective virus ts21 was modified to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The derived virus, vtsT7, was conditionally defective in viral late gene expression but produced high levels of a target protein under the control of a T7 promoter at non-permissive temperatures. The level of beta-galactosidase expression under the control of a T7 promoter was slightly lower in vtsT7 infections than those with the prototypical T7 RNA polymerase vector vTF7.3. However, the levels of expression for the human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene, a protein which undergoes post-translational modification, was slightly higher in vtsT7 infections, suggesting that some proteins may be expressed better in the absence of vaccinia virus late gene expression. Infections using vtsT7 at a low m.o.i. at 39 degrees C resulted in the accumulation of high molecular mass, non-linear replicative intermediates of vaccinia virus DNA replication and high levels of expression of a transfected gene proximal to a T7 promoter. The virus vtsT7 provides a means for the analysis of potential trans-acting factors participating in vaccinia virus late processes such as resolution of DNA replicative intermediates.  (+info)

Preparation of HIV TAR RNA with RNA scissors. (8/547)

Two hammerhead ribozymes derived from plant pathogenic RNAs were used to cut off the HIV TAR RNA from the T7 RNA transcript through a cis cleavage reaction. Stem I of the (+)vLTSV ribozyme comprises 8 nucleotides of the 5' terminus of TAR RNA, but stem III of the (+)sTRSV ribozyme consists of 8 nucleotides of the 3' end of TAR RNA. The construct containing two GUC hammerhead ribozyme target sequences identified the cleavage sites to cut off a required RNA molecule. This method was applied for preparation of 35 nt long TAR RNA. Its activity was proved by the complex formation with the Tat protein. It seems that this approach based on RNA scissors can also be used for the generation of required RNA molecules, RNA decoys or RNA aptamers in vivo.  (+info)

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A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):396-400 ...
Read Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
1DYA: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
1DYB: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays. AU - Shaw, Denise R.. AU - Maurelli, Anthony T.. AU - Goguen, Jon D.. AU - Straley, Susan C.. AU - Curtiss, Roy. PY - 1983/1/14. Y1 - 1983/1/14. N2 - We have utilized lysis from without mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique we describe has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37°C, with a , 103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the ...
Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
Figure 2. -Gene expression of a gene 61.5 mutant in a motA- genetic background. (A) MH1 cells were infected with motA- or 61.5- motA- phage. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled and analyzed as described in materials and methods. Middle-gene products are indicated by arrowheads and late-gene products by arrows. Gp43 forms a highly diffuse band in an 8% polyacrylamide gel (as seen here) for unknown reasons. The rate of synthesis of late-gene (B) or middle-gene products (C) at each time was measured by densitometry of each protein band and expressed in arbitrary units. Open and solid circles represent the rates of synthesis in motA--infected or 61.5- motA-infected cells, respectively. Because the gp23 band was close to other bands in A, the rate for this protein was derived from another experiment (not shown) in which the gp23 band was separated from others.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating structure to function., Polymerase: T4 G298D, Property: Nucleotide Substitution Rate
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell walls, leaving them susceptible to destruction. - Stock Image F006/9216
DNA primases DNA templates. Bacterial DNA primases (DnaG enzymes) and DNA templates are available for HTS applications.. E. coli primase E. coli DnaG-DnaB complex, 10 µM for 100 assays.. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay, 1000 assays. DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay-1000 assays For other bacterial DNA primases and DNA templates including DNA primases from S. aureus, S. pneumonia. and H. influenza, please contact ProFoldin.. ...
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Sullivan MB, Huang KH, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Berlin AM, Kelly L, Weigele PR, DeFrancesco AS, Kern SE, Thompson LR, Young S, Yandava C, Fu R, Krastins B, Chase M, Sarracino D, Osburne MS, Henn MR, Chisholm SW. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):3035-56 ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repetitive lagging strand DNA synthesis by the bacteriophage T4 replisome. AU - Spiering, Michelle M.. AU - Nelson, Scott W.. AU - Benkovic, Stephen J.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Our studies on the T4 replisome build on the seminal work from the Alberts laboratory. They discovered essentially all the proteins that constitute the T4 replisome, isolated them, and measured their enzymatic activities. Ultimately, in brilliant experiments they reconstituted in vitro a functioning replisome and in the absence of structural information created a mosaic as to how such a machine might be assembled. Their consideration of the problem of continuous leading strand synthesis opposing discontinuous lagging strand synthesis led to their imaginative proposal of the trombone model, an illustration that graces all textbooks of biochemistry. Our subsequent work deepens their findings through experiments that focus on defining the kinetics, structural elements, and protein-protein contacts ...
Bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein, a model for singlestrand specific nucleic acid-binding proteins, consists of three structurally and functionally distinct domains. We have studied the effects of the N and C domains on the protein structure and its nucleic acid-interactive properties. Although the presence of the C domain decreases the proteolytic susceptibility of the core (central) domain, quenching of the core tryptophan fluorescence by iodide is unaltered by the presence of the terminal domains. These results suggest that the overall conformation of the core domain remains largely independent of the flanking domains. Removal of the N or the C terminus does not abolish the DNA renaturation activity of the protein. However, intact protein and its three truncated forms differ in DNA helix-destabilizing activity. The C domain alone is responsible for the kinetic barrier to natural DNA helix destabilization seen with intact protein. Intact protein and core domain potentiate the DNA ...
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
- SS2378646 A bacteriophage, comprising a proteic envelope (called capsid), which contains its nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), and a tail. The tail includes a collar (covered with contractile proteins for the most elaborated bacteriophages, such as the T2 and T4 phages) and ending with tail fibers enabling it to attach to the bacteria it infects.
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
A team of scientists from the United States has recently developed a bioengineered bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle structure using CRISPR technology that can..
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 ATCC ® 11303-B4™ Designation: T4 TypeStrain=False Application: Testing of aerosol containment on cell sorters
We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav …
Our use of the word TABASCO here refers to a simulator of gene expression systems, or other systems comprised of elementary chemical reaction events that can be ordered along one or more dimensions. The origins of our use of the word were as an acronym, abbreviating the words Transcription And Binding And Serious Computational Overhead. The word Tabasco is also a registered trademark of the [http://www.tabasco.com/ McIlhenny Company] for use in connection with pepper sauces, clothing, and other consumer products. The TABASCO simulator is neither affiliated with nor sponsored or endorsed by the McIlhenny Company and our use of the TABASCO name is not intended to suggest any such affiliation, sponsorship, or endorsement. Tabasco can also refer to a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabasco state in Mexico ...
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called temperate phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
Cited in 6 publications. View Rabbit Polyclonal anti-fd/M13 bacteriophage Antibody (NB100-1633). Validated Applications: ELISA, Flow, LFA. Validated Species: Virus. Sample size available.
Bacteriophages hold great commercial promise in disease prevention and control and in food safety assurance. Rainer Engelhardt and Bruno Rochet explain how Gangagen and Lallemand have joined forces to make the most of this ancient antibacterial.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
Pechucalco 2a. Sección (Cunduacán, Tabasco, Mexico) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. Spontaneous mutation and mutagenesis by 2-aminopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and thymine deprivation are strongly suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by ethyl methanesulfonate, and at A:T sites by nitrous acid, is moderately suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by hydroxylamine and by nitrous acid is not suppressed. These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. The data also reveal that mutagenic specificities of chemical agents depend as much upon the characteristics of the enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication as they do upon the chemistry of primary mutational lesions.. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Read Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, from the perspective of therapeutic purposes. Elution profiles of phages modified with specific affinity motifs (Figures 3,4,5 and 6) show substantially higher phage concentration in elution fractions compared to final washing samples. This indicates binding of modified phages to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Thus, affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Non-specific binding was also observed: unmodified phages or those modified with the non-specific tag were eluted with the titre 104-105 pfu/ml. Nevertheless, the unspecific binding is 102-105 times weaker than the specific one and importantly it does not interfere with the aim of preparation of purified anti-bacterial active bacteriophages for ...
Caspar and Klug (50) had predicted that, for each of the covalently identical subunits that compose the surface of a virus to have identical environments, it would require that the subunits are organized into an hexagonal array. An icosahedron is formed by substituting a pentagon of subunits for a hexagon of subunits at regular positions. This would then allow each subunit to have at least a quasi-equivalent environment. The total size of the assembly is determined by where the pentamers replace hexamers. This prediction has been found to be true in a large variety of viruses with T numbers varying from 1 for the smallest viruses such a parvoviruses (51) and the ΦX174 bacteriophage (52) to very large dsDNA viruses with T numbers of 169 [PBCV-1 (53⇓-55)] and 972 ≤ T ≤ 1,200 [Mimivirus (56)]. Here we have determined the structure of a virus with a T=13 lattice, which makes it possible to examine how the assembly process has introduced pentamers at specific positions in the hexagonal ...
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere....
The intention is to provide a definitive reference work on the technological and therapeutic applications of bacteriophages. The main areas to be covered are indicated in the subtitles. It is intended to avoid an overdependence on reciting the history of the approach and rather to concentrate on
Francisco I. Madero 1a. Sección (Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
I totally agree, Zouden. I bet the day will come soon. Some group actually did that once in small pieces and then put it together to create an entirely artificial plasmid but that takes a lot of work. That would be awesome to do it all at once!. ...
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bcv:Bcav_0491 no KO assigned , (GenBank) DNA primase small subunit (A) MARAQTPPVELDVAGRTVKVSSPDKVLFAGVGDGVTKLDVVRYFISVGEGILAALKERPT TLERWPQGYADGMKLTTRQGAKGDGFYSKRVPQYAPDWVEPVEITFPSGRTAEEVCPSEL AVVAWAAQQGTLTFHPWPVRRPEVDSPDQLRIDLDPQPGTDYVDSARLAPLVREVAAEAG LTAVPKTSGGRGVHVFAPIEPRWSFVEARRAVIALGREVERRAPEQVTTNWWKEERGERV FIDFNQMARDRTIASAYSIRANVRATVSAPLRWDEVDQVQPDDFTVLTMPDRFAEVGDLF AGANGDADHPAGSLDVLLEWAARDERDHGLGDLPYPPEYPKMPGEPKRVQPSRDRDRPRD D ...
All the formulae and notes needed for Core 2, including those in and out of the formula booklet given. For AS level Maths for OCR
Gabashvili, I.; Khan, S.; Hayes, S.; Serwer, P. (1997). "Polymorphism of bacteriophage T7". Journal of Molecular Biology. 273 ( ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1[41]. The lambda and VZV interactomes are not only relevant for the biology of these ... "The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda". BMC Microbiol. 11: 213. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-213. PMC 3224144. PMID ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda[38]. *Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7[39]. *Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Dp-1 ...
Tabor, S; Richardson, C. C. (1987). "DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase". Proceedings of the ... "The thioredoxin binding domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase confers processivity on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I". ...
In 1998, Richardson examined the crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 Å resolution. Before ... Richardson used the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system to control the expression of a phage T7 gene 5 protein (gp5), which is a ... Mark, D. F.; Richardson, C. C. (March 1, 1976). "Escherichia coli thioredoxin: a subunit of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase". ... Crampton, Donald J.; Richardson, Charles C. (January 1, 2003). "Bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein: A hexameric DNA helicase". In ...
In T7 bacteriophages myricetin competitively inhibited DNA template binding to RNA polymerase. Myricetin has been seen to ...
Pribnow, D (1975). "Bacteriophage T7 Early Promoters: Nucleotide Sequences of Two RNA Polymerase Binding Sites". Journal of ... "Use of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase to direct selective high-level expression of cloned genes". Journal of Molecular Biology ... and as a result driving the T7 RNA polymerase instead). The two important mutations are underlined. lacUV5 ...
2003). "The genome of bacteriophage φKMV, a T7-like virus infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Virology. 312 (1): 49-59. doi: ... Although phiKMV phage resembles the well-studied podovirus T7 in overall genome architecture, it was the first known T7-like ... There are currently 16 species in this genus including the type species Pseudomonas virus phiKMV.Bacteriophage phiKMV and its ... of bacteriophage genomes". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 77 (2): 207-13. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2009.02.006. PMID 19232531. ...
Endy, Andrew David (1997). Development and application of a genetically-structured simulation for bacteriophage T7 (PhD thesis ... A genetically structured simulation for bacteriophage T7". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 55 (2): 375-389. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... Endy received his PhD from Dartmouth College in 1997 for his work on genetic engineering using T7 phage. Endy was a junior ...
... coli B was by Delbrück and Luria in 1942 in their study of bacteriophages T1 and T7.[13] The original E. coli B strain, known ... originated from Félix d'Herelle from the Institut Pasteur in Paris around 1918 who studied bacteriophages,[14] who claimed that ... "Bacteriophage phenomena". J. Bacteriol. 8 (1): 49-101. doi:10.1128/jb.8.1.49-101.1923. PMC 379003. PMID 16558985 ...
... s are also found in viruses such as bacteriophages. For example, T7 phages have two operons. The first operon codes for ... "Bacteriophage Use Operons". Prokaryotic Gene Control. Dartmouth College. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. ... "Displacements of prohead protease genes in the late operons of double-stranded-DNA bacteriophages". Journal of Bacteriology. ... various products, including a special T7 RNA polymerase which can bind to and transcribe the second operon. The second operon ...
Elroy-Stein, Orna; Moss, Bernard (1990). "Cytoplasmic expression system based on constitutive synthesis of bacteriophage T7 RNA ... capping enzyme with a mutant DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the K1E bacteriophage. Such C3P3 enzyme produces mRNA capping ...
"Roles of Copper and Superoxide Anion Radicals in the Radiation-Induced Inactivation of T7 Bacteriophage". Radiat. Res. 99 (3): ...
FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... Escherichia virus T3, also called bacteriophage T3 and T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial ... This phage is closely related to T7 phage in structure though the two viruses may differ in capsid maturation. ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ...
Bonocora RP, Shub DA (December 2004). "A self-splicing group I intron in DNA polymerase genes of T7-like bacteriophages". J. ... T-even and T7-like bacteriophages. Both intron-early and intron-late theories have found evidences in explaining the origin of ... Lee CN, Lin JW, Weng SF, Tseng YH (December 2009). "Genomic characterization of the intron-containing T7-like phage phiL7 of ... Group I introns are also found inserted into genes of a wide variety of bacteriophages of Gram-positive bacteria. However, ...
... is typically studied in the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in bacteriophages and in E. coli. Abortive initiation ... Martin CT, Muller DK, Coleman JE (1988). "Processivity in early stages of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase". Biochemistry. 27 ...
The GRO exhibited increased resistance to T7 bacteriophage, thus showing that alternative genetic codes do reduce genetic ... Another reason why XB could improve production processes lies in the possibility to reduce the risk of virus or bacteriophage ...
Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes. To counteract these ... They found that bacteriophage growing within an infected bacterium could be modified, so that upon their release and re- ... This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). ... infection of a related bacterium the bacteriophage's growth is restricted (inhibited) (also described by Luria in his ...
... experiment measured the biologically effective ultraviolet dose in the outer space radiation conditions on bacteriophage T7 and ... study of space environment effect on T7 phage, its DNA and of polycristalline uracil. IMBP (Institute of Biomedical Problems), ...
BLISS uses T7 bacteriophage-mediated transcription rather than PCR, reducing errors caused by PCR amplification bias that occur ...
... between different bacteria and viruses where the primase covalently link to helicase in viruses such as the T7 bacteriophage. ... The T7 phage gp4 is a DnaG primase-helicase fusion, and performs both functions in replication. Bocquier AA, Liu L, Cann IK, ...
... (Bacteriophage gh-1) is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible strains of Pseudomonas putida. ... Evidence for close relationship to the T7 group". Journal of Virology. 311 (2): 305-315. doi:10.1016/S0042-6822(03)00124-7. ... "Pseudomonas putida bacteriophage gh-1 ATCC ® 12633-B1™". - ATCC database entry for gh-1 "Pseudomonad phage gh-1". - Virus-Host ... Lee, L.; Boezi, J. (1966). "Characterization of bacteriophage gh-1 for Pseudomonas putida". Journal of Bacteriology. American ...
This concept has been validated by an experimental evolutionary study in which replicate populations of bacteriophage T7 were ... "Independent contrasts succeed where ancestor reconstruction fails in a known bacteriophage phylogeny". Evolution. 54 (2): 397- ...
In contrast, eukaryotic RNA polymerase I and II as well as single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophage T7 and SP6 are ...
... is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' ... McAllister WT (1993). "Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity)". Cell. ... T7 polymerase has been crystallised in several forms and the structures placed in the PDB. These explain how T7 polymerase ... T7 polymerase is extremely promoter-specific and transcribes only DNA downstream of a T7 promoter (TAATACGACTCACTATAG, ...
Upon infection with the bacteriophage T7, E. coli thioredoxin forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase, which results in enhanced ... T7 DNA replication, a crucial step for successful T7 infection. Thioredoxin binds to a loop in T7 DNA polymerase to bind more ... The anti-oxidant function of thioredoxin is fully autonomous and fully independent of T7 DNA replication, in which the protein ...
Producing better protein: the evolution of T7 bacteriophages on a non-evolving E. coli strain that encoded 3-iodotyrosine on ... Hammerling MJ, Ellefson JW, Boutz DR, Marcotte EM, Ellington AD, Barrick JE (March 2014). "Bacteriophages use an expanded ...
"Discrimination between bacteriophage T3 and T7 promoters by the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases depends primarily upon a three base- ... "Specific labelling of the active site of T7 RNA polymerase". Nucleic Acids Research. 15: 8773-81. doi:10.1093/nar/15.21.8773. ...
... it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage (including T7 RNA polymerase), mitochondrial polymerases of ...
... height of a T7 bacteriophage 90 nm - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm ... "Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles". Aerosol Science and ...
... fago T7,fagos T7]] teñen dous operóns, o primeiro codifica varios produtos incluíndo unha [[ARN polimerase de T7]] especial, ... Displacements of Prohead Protease Genes in the Late Operons of Double-Stranded-DNA Bacteriophages,journal=Journal of ... Bacteriophage Use Operons,url=http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cbbc/courses/bio4/bio4-lectures/ProkGeneControl.html,work=Prokaryotic ...
Common bacteriophage include T7 and Lamda phage.[17] There are bacteriophages that infect every kind of bacteria including both ... Bacteriophages are viruses, also known as phage, that infect bacteria often leading to the death of the bacteria that was ... "Bacteriophages", in Brenner, Sydney; Miller, Jefferey H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Genetics, Academic Press, pp. 179-186, doi ...
BacteriophageEdit. There are a number of bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas, e.g. ... "Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phages LKD16 and LKA1: Establishment of the KMV Subgroup within the T7 Supergroup" ... Lee, L.; Boezi, J. (1966). "Characterization of bacteriophage gh-1 for Pseudomonas putida". Journal of Bacteriology. American ... "The structural proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage KMV". Microbiology. 152 (2): 529-534. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28431-0 ...
Studies with T4 bacteriophage and E. coli with defective dnaQ genes give evidence that the mutA tRNA may not have any effect on ...
T7 & Sp6. phage promoters for transcription of inserted genes.. Contribution to models of disease[edit]. Inherited disease[edit ... A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. ...
T7 RNA polymerase (blue) producing an mRNA (green) from a DNA template (orange)[93] ... bacteriophages) is to avoid the restriction enzymes present in bacteria. This enzyme system acts at least in part as a ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1 ...
Pulmonary Bacteriophage Therapy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis Strains: First Steps Towards Treatment and Prevention ... Establishment of the KMV Subgroup within the T7 Supergroup". Journal of Bacteriology 188 (19): 6924-6931. doi:10.1128/JB.00831- ... 2006). "The structural proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage KMV". Microbiology 152 (2): 529-534. doi:10.1099/mic. ...
Perhaps the most widely studied such single-subunit RNAP is bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. ssRNAPs cannot proofread.[2] Other ... T7. Taq. II/B α. δ. ε. ζ. Pfu. III/C. IV/X β. λ. μ. TDT. V/Y η. ι. κ. RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Reverse transcriptase ... T7 RNA polymerase producing a mRNA (green) from a DNA template. The protein is shown as a purple ribbon. Image derived from PDB ...
Tyrosine Y701 functions similarly to tyrosine Y567 in the RB69 bacteriophage orthologue as the sugar steric gate that prevents ...
The most common bacteriophages used in phage display are M13 and fd filamentous phage, though T4, T7, and λ phage have also ... In T7 phage display, the protein to be displayed is attached to the C-terminus of the gene 10 capsid protein of T7. The ... Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... Malys N, Chang DY, Baumann RG, Xie D, Black LW (2002). "A bipartite bacteriophage T4 SOC and HOC randomized peptide display ...
... the desired protease cut site is used to link a T7 RNA polymerase and a T7 lysozyme. The T7 lysozyme prevents the T7 polymerase ... It relies on relating the desired activity of a target protein with the fitness of an infectious bacteriophage which carries ... The T7 polymerase can only function when the N-terminus portion can bind to the rest of the polymerase. Since APOBEC1 must be ... To evolve APOBEC1 for better soluble expression, the N-terminus of a T7 polymerase was fused to APOBEC1, with the remaining ...
Hartman, P. S.; Eisenstark, A.; Pauw, P. G. (1979). "Inactivation of phage T7 by near-ultraviolet radiation plus hydrogen ... Eisenstark, Abraham (2014). "Life in Science: Abraham Eisenstark". Bacteriophage. 4 (3): e29009. doi:10.4161/bact.29009. PMC ... the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; and the establishment of the ...
Promoter - commonly used inducible promoters are promoters derived from lac operon and the T7 promoter. Other strong promoters ... Brown TA (2010). "Chapter 2 - Vectors for Gene Cloning: Plasmids and Bacteriophages". Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An ...
This RNA thermometer is now thought to encourage entry to a lytic cycle under heat stress in order for the bacteriophage to ... the gene fusion was then transcribed from the T7 promoter in E. coli, and fluorescence was observed at 37 °C but not at 30 °C. ... Altuvia S, Kornitzer D, Teff D, Oppenheim AB (1989-11-20). "Alternative mRNA structures of the cIII gene of bacteriophage ... Altuvia S, Oppenheim AB (July 1986). "Translational regulatory signals within the coding region of the bacteriophage lambda ...
The bacteriophages used for cloning are the λ phage and M13 phage. There is an upper limit on the amount of DNA that can be ... Some commonly used promoters are the T7 and lac promoters. The presence of a promoter is necessary when screening techniques ... Some plasmids contain an M13 bacteriophage origin of replication and may be used to generate single-stranded DNA. These are ... Cosmids are plasmids that incorporate a segment of bacteriophage λ DNA that has the cohesive end site (cos) which contains ...
Amount of T7 exonuclease must be carefully controlled to avoid overly high levels of double-stranded breaks. Step 4: ... "Bacteriophage strain typing by rapid single molecule analysis". Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (18): e117. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv563. ... Step 3: Gap formation T7 exonuclease is added which uses the nicks in the DNA molecules to expand the gaps in a 5'-3' direction ...
Right hand structure of Bacteriophage RB69, a family B DdRP. Central dogma of molecular biology Exonuclease Ligase Nuclease PCR ... T7 RNA polymerase, POLRMT Primase, PrimPol RNA replicase (RNA-directed RNA polymerase, RdRP) Viral (single-subunit) Eukaryotic ...
Bacteriophage T7-like, protein 6.7 (IPR020134). Short name: Phage_T7-like_6.7 ... Changes in bacteriophage T7 virion structure at the initiation of infection.. Virology 340 307-17 2005 ...
T7]. The phage can also be packaged into λ particles in vivo, in which case it is referred to as T7[λ] (18). T7[λ] productively ... T7 genome from a bacteriophage λ particle results in degradation of the infecting DNA by EcoKI, showing that the normal T7 DNA ... Bacteriophages and Bacteria.. T7 mutants sRK836 and the 0.3 deletion mutant D364 were kindly provided by F. W. Studier ( ... Translocation and specific cleavage of bacteriophage T7 DNA in vivo by EcoKI. L. René García and Ian J. Molineux ...
This thesis is focused on constructing such models for gene expression during bacteriophage T7 infection. T7 gene expression is ... First, can we address deficiencies in past simulations and measurements of bacteriophage T7 to improve models of gene ... Simulation, Models, and Refactoring of Bacteriophage T7. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ... To construct surrogates of T7 that are easier to understand and model, I began the process of refactoring the T7 genome to ...
Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA. J L Campbell, C C Richardson ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ...
... bacteriophage t7 include Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins, ... Synthesis of Infectious Bacteriophages in an E. coli-based Cell-free Expression System, Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle ... Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family Podoviridae, that infects ... Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins. Alfredo J. Hernandez1, Charles ...
The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded ... Crystal structure of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase at 3.3 A resolution Nature. 1993 Aug 12;364(6438):593-9. doi: 10.1038/ ... The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded ...
Coordination of leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7.. Debyser Z1, Tabor S, ... Lagging strand DNA synthesis by a complex of gene 4 protein and T7 DNA polymerase decreases the rate of leading strand ... We propose that leading and lagging strand synthesis at a T7 replication fork are coupled and that the replication proteins are ... We have used the T7 DNA replication system to examine coordination of leading and lagging strand synthesis at a replication ...
... Nucleic Acids Research 38(13): 4372- ... Mechanism of Sequence-Specific Template Binding by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7. ... Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance and biochemical assays, we show that T7 DNA primase has only a slightly higher ...
35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target ... was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav … ... Transcriptional inhibition of the bacteriophage T7 early promoter region by oligonucleotide triple helix formation Biochem ... 35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target ...
Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the ... The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the ... TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and ... VL - 66 IS - 5 N2 - The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory ...
bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Known as: T7 RNA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 induced RNA polymerase, polymerase rna t7 ... To make messenger RNA transcripts, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) undergoes a transition from an initiation phase… ( ... Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-based expression in Pichia pastoris.. *Birgit Hobl, Bjoern Hock, Sandra Schneck, Reinhard ... Transcription of DNA containing the 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesion by human RNA polymerase II and bacteriophage T7 RNA ...
... ... "Flap endonuclease of bacteriophage T7: Possible roles in RNA primer removal, recombination and host DNA breakdown." ... Gene 6 protein of bacteriophage T7 has 5′-3′-exonuclease activity specific for duplex DNA. We have found that gene 6 protein ... The single-stranded DNA binding protein of T7 overcomes this inhibition. Other Sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles ...
Structures of T7 bacteriophage portal and tail suggest a viral DNA retention and ejection mechanism ...
Entire Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid. Entire. Name: Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid / Number of components: 1. ... Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid Details. Source. Enterobacteria phage T7 / virus. Map data. Reconstruction of ... Bacteriophage T7 / Maturation / DNA packaging / Procapsid / Non-covalent topological linking / Single particle cryo-EM. Sample ... Component #1: virus, Enterobacteria phage T7. Virus. Name: Enterobacteria phage T7 / Class: VIRION / Empty: No / Enveloped: No ...
Enterobacteria phage T7 (bacteriophage). Method. single particle reconstruction / cryo EM / 8.6 Å resolution Details. Authors. ... Enterobacteria phage T7 (bacteriophage). Source (engineered). Expression System: Escherichia coli (E. coli). ... Using bacteriophage T7 as a model .... >>. Visualization in atomic detail of the replisome that performs concerted leading- and ... Structure of two bacteriophage T7 lagging-strand DNA polymerase (D5A/E7A )/Trx interacting with primase domains, one Pol with ...
Partial purification and properties of a bacteriophage T7 inhibitor of the host exonuclease V activity.. R Pacumbaba, M S ... Infection of Escherichia coli with bacteriophage T7 results in an inhibition of the host exonuclease V (recB, C DNase) activity ... Partial purification and properties of a bacteriophage T7 inhibitor of the host exonuclease V activity. ... Partial purification and properties of a bacteriophage T7 inhibitor of the host exonuclease V activity. ...
T7 without tail fiber (T7Δgp17) and T7 Acceptor phages (T7 Acc) cannot visibly plaque, but wildtype T7 (T7 WT), and T7 with ... T7 bacteriophage. ATCC. ATCC:BAA-1025-B2. Strain, strain background (T7 bacteriophage). T7 bacteriophage variants. This paper. ... Limit of detection (LOD) for T7 acceptor phages (T7 Acc) and T7 lacking a tail fiber (T7Δgp17) was established based on the ... Bacteriophage T7 is a podovirus that infects E. coli. T7 has a short non-contractile tail made up of three proteins, including ...
Bacteriophage T3 and bacteriophage T7 virus-host cell interactions. Microbiol. Rev. 45:9-51. ... Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J. Bacteriol. ... Outer Membrane Proteins Ail and OmpF of Yersinia pestis Are Involved in the Adsorption of T7-Related Bacteriophage Yep-phi. ... Yep-phi is a T7-related bacteriophage specific to Yersinia pestis, and it is routinely used in the identification of Y. pestis ...
A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. ... A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. ...
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the ...
... which is a member of the T7 group of phages. The largest open reading frame corres ... Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1983) The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 dNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. J ... The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison with the homologous genes of phages T7, T3, ... Moffatt BA, Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol 173:265- ...
T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on ... Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Burkaltseva, M.; Pleteneva, E. ... The Genome Sequence of Yersinia pestis Bacteriophage ΦA1122 Reveals an Intimate History with the Coliphage T3 and T7 Genomes ...
Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for ... Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 ... lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. ... This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in ...
Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens, is a member of the viral ... The quantitative nature of the relationships between Kvp1 and the other members of the T7-like virus genus (T7, T3, φA1122, ... At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 ... The genome of Kvp1, the first Kluyvera cryocrescens-specific bacteriophage, was sequenced using pyrosequencing (454 technology ...
Dunn J. J., Studier F. W., Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements, J. ... Promoters of T7 bacteriophage are recognized by the two forms of RNA-polymerase - the major form of RNA-polymerase (Es70) of ... During the first few minutes after infection of E. coli by the bacteriophage T7, transcription is dependent on the hosts RNA ... Electrostatic Potential Map of the Whole Genome DNA of T7 Bacteriophage. Electrostatic Properties and Function of its Promoter ...
... By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on Wednesday 1st February, 2006. updated 12th May, 2018. ... The conclusion: Gene 1 encodes a T7-specific RNAP responsible for transcribing Class II and Class III genes. ... T7 good model organism for gene expression....dsDNA....simply 55 gene 40kb genome....infect many viral DNAs per cell...isolate ... The temporal order of T7 gene expression is in the same order as the genes themselves, from left to right. There is a ...
The bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction-based methods and cloned into a T7 promoter- ... The bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction-based methods and cloned into a T7 promoter- ... Bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase. Overexpression, purification, crystallization, and characterization.. @article{ ... Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its ...
From studies of T7-directed protein synthesis ( Studier and Maizel, 1969), it is estimated that not more than another 10 or so ... Nineteen genes have been identified in T7 by isolation and characterization of amber mutants. Representative mutants from each ... The genetics and physiology of bacteriophage T7. Author. Studier F.William. Journal. * Virology SCI(E) SCOPUS ... Inactivation of bacteriophage T7 by mono- and difunctional sulphur mustards in relation to cross-linking and depurination of ...
Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of ... Reporter bacteriophage T7NLC utilizes a novel NanoLuc::CBM fusion for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli in water ... Reporter bacteriophage T7NLC utilizes a novel NanoLuc::CBM fusion for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli in water ... Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of ...
Bacteriophages -- Growth -- Computer simulation. ; Recombinant viruses. ; Bacteriophage T7. College Thayer School of ... DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A GENETICALLY-STRUCTURED SIMULATION FOR BACTERIOPHAGE T7 A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in ... DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A GENETICALLY-STRUCTURED SIMULATION FOR BACTERIOPHAGE T7 A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in ...
  • some plasmids and the phages T7 and T3 synthesize a direct inhibitor of type I restriction-modification systems ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Such cloned fragments are able to recombine with infecting phages, thus providing a means to integrate the physical and genetic maps of T7 DNA. (pnas.org)
  • At least some cloned segments can supply T7 functions to infecting phages. (pnas.org)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7 -like phages, in the family Podoviridae , that infects E. coli. (jove.com)
  • Bacteriophages (or 'phages') shape microbial ecosystems by infecting and killing targeted bacterial species. (elifesciences.org)
  • We determined the nucleotide sequence of gene 1 of Klebsiella phage K11, which is a member of the T7 group of phages. (springer.com)
  • Fifteen T7-like phages have been sequenced and deposited with GenBank. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The total genome is 39,472 bp with 194 bp terminal direct repeats, and a base composition of 48.6 mol%G+C - characteristics remarkably consistent with other T7-like phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By comparison, the genomes of T7-like phages range from 37.4 kb ( Pseudomonas phage gh-1) to 45.4 kb ( Erwinia phage Era103) while the reported terminal repeats range from Yersinia phage φA1122 at 148 bp to Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage LKD16 at 428 bp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the relationship of two Serratia phages to coli-dysentery phages T3, T7, and D44. (naver.com)
  • Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial species. (rsc.org)
  • E. coli is more resistant to T7 than to some other similar phages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages (referred to hereafter as phages) are among the simplest and most abundant types of microorganisms [ 2 ], and have been used therapeutically for close to a century. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Phages were discovered to be antibacterial agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia (pioneered there by Giorgi Eliava with help from the co-discoverer of bacteriophages, Félix d'Herelle) during the 1920s and 1930s for treating bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. (osti.gov)
  • Infection of Escherichia coli containing the type I restriction enzyme Eco KI by bacteriophage T7 0.3 mutants leads to restriction during the late stages of genome entry and during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • Frafments of phage T7 DNA have been cloned in Escherichia coli by using the plasmid pMB9. (pnas.org)
  • The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the Escherichia coli lac operon to construct an inducible vaccinia virus expression system consisting entirely of prokaryotic transcriptional machinery. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the Escherichia coli lac repressor. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Infection of Escherichia coli with bacteriophage T7 results in an inhibition of the host exonuclease V (recB, C DNase) activity. (asm.org)
  • For instance, the T7 bacteriophage preys on various strains of Escherichia coli , a type of bacteria often found in the human gut. (elifesciences.org)
  • Promoters of T7 bacteriophage are recognized by the two forms of RNA-polymerase - the major form of RNA-polymerase (Es70) of Escherichia coli serves the early genes, while RNA-polymerase of the phage itself takes care of the late genes. (jbsdonline.com)
  • ompT encodes the Escherichia coli outer membrane protease that cleaves T7 RNA polymerase during purification. (naver.com)
  • T7 grows on rough strains of Escherichia coli (i.e. those without full-length O-antigen polysaccharide on their surface) and some other enteric bacteria, but close relatives also infect smooth and even capsulated strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single-stranded DNA-binding protein encoded by Escherichia coli (SSB protein) and phage T4 (gene 32 protein) also have acidic COOH-terminal domains, but neither protein can substitute for T7 gene 2.5 protein in vivo. (neb.com)
  • Here we characterise in silico the predicted interaction of gene protein 0.4 (GP0.4) from the Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) phage T7 with E. coli filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z division protein (FtsZ). (beds.ac.uk)
  • One such protein from the Escherichia coli phage T7 is gene protein (GP) 0.4. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It consists of T7 DNAP (gp5 protein), T7 helicase-primase (gp4), processivity factor Escherichia coli thioredoxin (trx), and the single strand binding protein (gene 2.5 protein). (nature.com)
  • One of these proteins, produced by the Escherichia coli phage T7, is gene product (Gp) 0.4. (duke.edu)
  • We propose that leading and lagging strand synthesis at a T7 replication fork are coupled and that the replication proteins are recycled. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first report to demonstrate that membrane-bound proteins are involved in the adsorption of a T7-related bacteriophage. (asm.org)
  • At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 early proteins S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (0.3) and protein kinase (0.7). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify Class I proteins, proteins in T7-infected cells are pulse-labeled at various time post-infection. (studentreader.com)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The short, stubby tail of the T7-like phage is too short to span the cell envelope and, in order to eject the phage genome into the cell at the initiation of infection, virion proteins must first make a channel from the tip of the tail into the cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of the two chimeric proteins can substitute for T7 gene 2.5 protein to support the growth of phage T7. (neb.com)
  • The two chimeric proteins, like gene 2.5 protein, form dimers and interact with T7 DNA polymerase and helicase/primase to stimulate their activities. (neb.com)
  • In contrast, chimeric proteins in which the COOH terminus of T7 gene 2.5 protein replaced the COOH terminus of E. coli SSB protein or T4 gene 32 protein cannot support the growth of phage T7. (neb.com)
  • T7 gene 4, which is required for DNA replication, specifies two proteins whose coding sequences overlap in the same reading frame: the 4A protein, a 566-amino acid primase/helicase, and the 4B protein, a 503-amino acid helicase whose initiation codon is the 64th codon of the 4A protein. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Proteins produced by bacteriophages can have potent antimicrobial activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have structures that are either simple or elaborate. (wikipedia.org)
  • T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. (osti.gov)
  • Bacteriophages take over host resources primarily via the activity of proteins expressed early in infection. (duke.edu)
  • The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacteriophage lambda DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs and codes for about 60 proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • Compared to the T3 and T7 bacteriophage polymerases, POLRMT requires auxiliary proteins to recognize the promoter. (news-medical.net)
  • This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. (energy.gov)
  • Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. (energy.gov)
  • The mechanism of autocatalytic amplification of RNA by T7 RNA polymerase proved to be analogous to that observed with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (replicases): only single-stranded templates are accepted and complementary replica strands are synthesized. (naver.com)
  • It is structurally similar to both the T3 and T7 bacteriophage RNA polymerases, and all three have a conserved catalytic core at the C-terminus. (news-medical.net)
  • We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. (nih.gov)
  • Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions favoring specific initiation from this promoter. (nih.gov)
  • An expression cassette containing a T7 promoter-controlled beta-galactosidase reporter gene was recombined into a different region of the viral genome containing T7gene1. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. (energy.gov)
  • Here we calculated the electrostatic potential profile of the whole genome DNA of bacteriophage T7 and draw electrostatic potential map of the whole genome and its promoter regions. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Class II and Class III promoters are transcribed by the T7-encoded RNAP, which recognizes its own promoter sequence. (studentreader.com)
  • The bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction-based methods and cloned into a T7 promoter-based expression vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A tandem of recombinant mouse/human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes was constructed and inserted into the plasmid pGEM1 under the control of T7 phage RNA polymerase promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • It follows from these data that transcription in the transfected cells is controlled mainly by the T7 phage polymerase promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • T7 RNAP is an attractive tool for orthogonal protein expression in bacteria owing to its compact single subunit structure and orthogonal promoter specificity. (caltech.edu)
  • Using this method, we investigated the effects of the tetracycline operator's proximity to the T7 promoter on the regulation of T7 RNAP-driven expression. (caltech.edu)
  • T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. (osti.gov)
  • The primer used in the hybridization contains a T7 promoter sequence at its 5'-end. (google.ca)
  • transcribing said template by incubating it with an RNA polymerase that recognizes the T7 promoter sequence to obtain RNA. (google.ca)
  • T7, promoter FT 3. (stanford.edu)
  • 72 FT /note="bacteriophage T7 transcription initiation FT site" FT promoter 67. (stanford.edu)
  • CC The order of the major features in this plasmid is: TRP1 - f1 ori CC (NaeI) - T7 promoter - lacZ'/MCS - T3 promoter - pMB1 ori - bla - CC CEN6 - ARSH4. (stanford.edu)
  • 0 FT /note="ORI bacteriophage f1" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
  • 0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T3" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
  • Moffatt BA, Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (osti.gov)
  • Construction and expression of a modular gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • not be allowed without my ABSTRACT The r e s t r i c t i o n endonuclease Hpa I cleaves wild type T7 DNA into nineteen fragments. (ubc.ca)
  • Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance and biochemical assays, we show that T7 DNA primase has only a slightly higher affinity for DNA containing the primase recognition sequence (5′-TGGTC-3′) than for DNA lacking the recognition site. (harvard.edu)
  • Using bacteriophage T7 as a model system, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures up to 3.2-angstroms resolution of helicase translocating along DNA and of helicase-polymerase-primase complexes engaging in synthesis of both DNA strands. (pdbj.org)
  • A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. (harvard.edu)
  • Phage T7 has the simplest known DNA replisome, consisting of a helicase and primase that reside in a single polypeptide chain that forms a hexamer in the presence of DNA and ATP or dTTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earlier studies have shown that the COOH-terminal 21 amino acids of the gene 2.5 protein are essential for specific protein-protein interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and T7 DNA helicase/primase. (neb.com)
  • A truncated gene 2.5 protein, in which the acidic COOH-terminal 21 amino acid residues are deleted no longer supports T7 growth, forms dimers, or interacts with either T7 DNA polymerase or T7 helicase/primase in vitro. (neb.com)
  • We report a crystal structure of bacteriophage T7 primase that reveals its two domains and the presence of two Mg 2+ ions bound to the active site. (elsevier.com)
  • We report a crystal structure of bacteriophage T7 primase that reveals its two domains and the presence of two Mg2+ ions bound to the active site. (elsevier.com)
  • set to map out and modify this structure in T7 bacteriophage so the virus is more efficient and specific about which strain of E. coli it kills. (elifesciences.org)
  • Monitoring the bacteriophages that survived and multiplied the most after infecting different strains of E. coli revealed which RBP building blocks are important for efficiency and specificity. (elifesciences.org)
  • This was then confirmed by engineering highly active T7 bacteriophage variants against an E. coli strain that causes urinary tract infections. (elifesciences.org)
  • During the first few minutes after infection of E. coli by the bacteriophage T7, transcription is dependent on the host's RNA polymerase and is confined to the "early" operon at the "left" end of the genome. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Class I genes are transcribed by E.coli RNAP which recognizes three promoters (A1-A3, B and C) positioned near the leading end of T7 DNA. (jbsdonline.com)
  • It was shown that during the phage infection pH becomes higher and that T7 RNAP has higher pH optimum then that of E.coli. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Thus, termination efficiency of phage T7 RNA polymerase at the T7 terminator $T\phi$ varies upon both terminator-proximal and -distal upstream sequences not only in vitro, but also within E. coli cells. (ndsl.kr)
  • Signal to noise ratio of Alkaline phosphatase over-expressed by E. coli BL21 after 4 h of enrichment in TSB ( a ), coconut water ( b ), and apple juice ( c ) after infection with phage T7-ALP for 30 min. (springeropen.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether silencing WecD expression increased resistance to bacteriophage T7 in E. coli by (1) silencing wecD expression using antisense technology and (2) genomic deletion of wecD from the Keio strain collection. (ubc.ca)
  • Counter to our hypothesis, both wecD asRNA knockdown and wecD genomic deletion appeared to sensitize E. coli to bacteriophage T7 infection. (ubc.ca)
  • Additionally, and in line with our expectation that genomic deletion is a more effective means of mitigating gene expression as compared to using an asRNA knockdown, wecD genomic deletion was observed to increase E. coli sensitivity to bacteriophage T7 infection to a greater extent than wecD asRNA knockdown. (ubc.ca)
  • The T7 phage recognizes certain receptors on the surface of E.coli cells, and binds to the cell surface by its viral tail fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under optimal conditions, the T7 phage can complete the lytic process within 25 minutes, leading to the death of the E. coli host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • T7 DNA polymerase, assisted by E. coli thioredoxin, performs both leading and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An origin story for synthetic biology goes like this: in 1997, Drew Endy, one of the founders of synthetic biology and now a professor of bioengineering at Stanford University in California, was trying to create a computational model of the simplest life form he could find: the bacteriophage T7, a virus that infects E coli bacteria. (singularityhub.com)
  • The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. (rsc.org)
  • Amber mutants of bacteriophage can be reverted by ionizing radiation to pseudo wild type particles, i.e. particles able to propagate in a suppressorless host. (tudelft.nl)
  • Changes in bacteriophage T7 virion structure at the initiation of infection. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This thesis is focused on constructing such models for gene expression during bacteriophage T7 infection. (mit.edu)
  • The model displayed significant discrepancies from new system-wide measurements of absolute T7 mRNA levels during infection. (mit.edu)
  • Korsten KH, Tomkiewicz C, Hausmann R (1979) The strategy of infection as a criterion for phylogenetic relationships of noncoliphages morphologically similar to phage T7. (springer.com)
  • T7-infect cells are pulse-labeled at various times post-infection. (studentreader.com)
  • Based on our observations, we propose that the presence of antibiotics and the silencing of wecD may induce cellular and membrane stress in the OM and compromise the physical protection of the mutant cells to bacteriophage T7 infection, therefore contributing to this increased sensitization to phage infections observed in wecD-silenced cells. (ubc.ca)
  • T7 has a life cycle of 17 min at 37˚C, i.e. the time from infection to the lysis of the host cell when new phage are released. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of replication during normal T7 infection appears to be limited by the amount of gene 4 protein, but too high a level of either 4A or 4B protein is inhibitory to growth. (researchwithnj.com)
  • I used Tabasco to construct a model of T7 gene expression that encodes our mechanistic understanding. (mit.edu)
  • The resulting chimeric genome encodes a viable bacteriophage that appears to maintain key features of the original while being simpler to model and easier to manipulate. (mit.edu)
  • The conclusion is that gene 1 encodes a T7-specific RNAP responsible for transcribing Class II and Class III promoters. (studentreader.com)
  • Approximately 65% of the T7 DNA molecule has been found in clones so far, and analysis of these clones has mapped genes 12-17 with an accuracy of about 1% the total length of T7 DNA. (pnas.org)
  • Three classes of T7 genes have been recognized according to their expression time. (jbsdonline.com)
  • the only essential phage gene is gene 1, coding for the T7 RNA polymerase, which transcribes the class II genes, mainly involved in phage DNA metabolism, and the class III genes, whose functions are predominantly morphogenetic. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The temporal order of T7 gene expression is in the same order as the genes themselves, from left to right. (studentreader.com)
  • Nineteen genes have been identified in T7 by isolation and characterization of amber mutants. (naver.com)
  • From studies of T7-directed protein synthesis ( Studier and Maizel, 1969), it is estimated that not more than another 10 or so genes remain to be discovered. (naver.com)
  • Marker rescue "spot tests" were developed as a fast screening procedure for T7 genes and rely on generalized recombination between the T7 segment carried by the plasmid and the infecting phage DNA. (ubc.ca)
  • The 40-kb linear genome of bacteriophage T7 contains only one terminator $T\phi$ for the phage T7 RNA polymerase that is located between genes 10 and 11. (ndsl.kr)
  • Polanovsky, Oleg L. / Expression of immunoglobulin genes tandem in eukaryotic cells under the control of T7 bacteriophage RNA polymerase . (elsevier.com)
  • Besides, Dunn and Studier (1983) have exhaustively analyzed the genome structure of T7, giving the full sequence of the 39,936 base pairs of its DNA and a complete survey of its 50-odd genes and its functions (where known), in addition to a full analysis of its signal sequences, such as the terminal repeats, promoters, terminators, processing sequences for RNase III, and origins of DNA replication. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophage T7 has only 56 genes, and Endy thought it might be possible to create a model that accounted for every part of the phage and how those parts worked together: a perfect representation that would predict how the phage would change if any one of its genes were moved or deleted. (singularityhub.com)
  • Endy built a series of bacteriophage T7 mutants, systematically knocking out genes or scrambling their location in the tiny T7 genome. (singularityhub.com)
  • Bacteriophage T7 helicase functions as a hexameric ring to drive the replication complex by separating the DNA strands during genome replication. (elsevier.com)
  • Our studies show that T7 helicase unwinds DNA with a low processivity, and the results indicate that the low processivity is due to ring opening and helicase dissociating from the DNA during unwinding. (elsevier.com)
  • The comparison of the unwinding properties of T7 helicase with its translocation properties on single-stranded (ss)DNA has provided insights into the mechanism of strand separation that is likely to be general for ring helicases. (elsevier.com)
  • T7 helicase unwinds DNA with a rate of 15 bp/s, which is 9-fold slower than the translocation speed along ssDNA. (elsevier.com)
  • T7 helicase is therefore primarily an ssDNA translocase that does not directly destabilize duplex DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • We propose that T7 helicase achieves DNA unwinding by its ability to bind ssDNA because it translocates unidirectionally, excluding the complementary strand from its central channel. (elsevier.com)
  • The results also imply that T7 helicase by itself is not an efficient helicase and most likely becomes proficient at unwinding when it is engaged in a replication complex. (elsevier.com)
  • Jeong, YJ, Levin, MK & Patel, SS 2004, ' The DNA-unwinding mechanism of the ring helicase of bacteriophage T7 ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 101, no. 19, pp. 7264-7269. (elsevier.com)
  • Using single-molecule and ensemble methods, we find that T7 helicase interacts strongly with a non-replicating T7 DNA polymerase (DNAP) at a replication fork. (nature.com)
  • Such a direct lesion bypass event occurred in only about 28% of the T7 replisomes, while the remaining population continued helicase unwinding without DNA synthesis beyond the lesion. (nature.com)
  • In this report, we address the questions of whether and how a non-replicating T7 DNAP in the presence of helicase could use a nascent RNA transcript from an RNAP polymerase (RNAP) as a primer to re-initiate DNA replication. (nature.com)
  • Gene 6 protein of bacteriophage T7 has 5′-3′-exonuclease activity specific for duplex DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Reference: Role of the acidic carboxyl-terminal domain of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 in specific protein-protein interactions. (neb.com)
  • The gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein of bacteriophage T7 is essential for T7 DNA replication and recombination. (neb.com)
  • Cellular internalization of T7 DNA is coupled to transcription ( 16 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • After T7 RNA polymerase is synthesized, internalization of the remaining phage DNA is coupled to transcription by this enzyme. (pnas.org)
  • It is suggested that triplex formation along this target interferes with transcriptional initiation, and this mechanism may hold potential to disrupt bacteriophage T7 early transcription in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription of DNA containing the 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesion by human RNA polymerase II and bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transcription reinitiation properties of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effect of 8-oxoguanine on transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural basis for the transition from initiation to elongation transcription in T7 RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When both DNA and RNA templates were present, transcription and replication competed, but T7 RNA polymerase preferred DNA as a template. (naver.com)
  • 1997) 272, 21±30 Positioning of the Start Site in the Initiation of Transcription by Bacteriophage T7 RNA Polymerase Benjamin F. Weston, Iaroslav Kuzmine and Craig T. Martin* Department of Chemistry University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA , USA *Corresponding author The determination of various polymerase structures has sparked interest in understanding how the polynucleotide template interacts with the active site. (docplayer.net)
  • Recent studies in the model RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 demonstrate that upstream duplex contacts provide at least some of the binding speci city and suggest that the enzyme interacts with the template strand in a melted context near the start site for transcription. (docplayer.net)
  • T7 RNA polymerase presents an ideal model system in which to study fundamental mechanistic questions in transcription. (docplayer.net)
  • Understanding the mechanisms underlying T7 RNAP regulation is important to the design of engineered T7-based transcription factors, which can be used in gene circuit design. (caltech.edu)
  • To explore regulatory mechanisms for T7 RNAP-driven expression, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to characterize engineered T7-based transcription factors using cell-free protein synthesis and an acoustic liquid handler. (caltech.edu)
  • Our results reveal a mechanism for regulation that functions by interfering with the transition of T7 RNAP from initiation to elongation and validates the use of the method described here to engineer future T7-based transcription factors. (caltech.edu)
  • eer future T7-based transcription factors. (caltech.edu)
  • DNA mimicry Ocr protein, a well-studied T7 phage protein that inhibits host restriction enzymes, can also inhibit host transcription through competing with sigma factors in binding to RNA polymerase. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1 FT /note="bacteriophage Sp6 transcription initiation FT site" FT misc_feature 7. (stanford.edu)
  • The single-stranded DNA binding protein of T7 overcomes this inhibition. (harvard.edu)
  • The protein responsible for the inhibition of exonuclease V has been partially purified from T7-infected cells. (asm.org)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage T7 (or the T7 phage) is a bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/ˈfeɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T7 bacteriophage RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) serves as a model for understanding RNA synthesis, as a tool for protein expression, and as an actuator for synthetic gene circuit design in bacterial cells and cell-free extract. (caltech.edu)
  • Nevertheless, stocks of T7 0.3 mutants can be made on restricting cells, although lysates have low titers and progeny genomes are modified only partially. (pnas.org)
  • Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different genomes, and lifestyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of phage T7 was among the first completely sequenced genomes and was published in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cell lines contained in their genomes a T7 RNA polymerase gene modified with a nuclear-located signal derived from SV40 large T-antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • Head morphogenesis of complex double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid bacteriophages. (naver.com)
  • Results for Reference: Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication invitro. (neb.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of this polypeptide shows 71% homology to the T7 RNA polymerase (the product of T7 gene 1 ), 72% homology to the T3 RNA polymerase and 27% homology to the SP6 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1983) The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 dNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. (springer.com)
  • Kotani H, Ishizaki Y, Hiraoka N, Obayashi A (1987) Nucleotide sequence and expression of the cloned gene of bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Eleven clones derived from Alu I or Hae III digestion of the viral DNA were sequenced, by these authors, revealing strong sequence similarity to coliphage T7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A study in evolution: the DNA base sequence homology between coliphages T7 and T3. (naver.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of T7 RNA polymerase (GenBank accession number ( M38308 ). (cuny.edu)
  • Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Analysis of bacteriophage T5 by cryo-electron microscopy and protein sequence analysis reveals analogies with HK97 and T4 that suggest a mosaic of such connections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have achieved site-specific conjugation of several haloacetamide derivatives into designated cysteines on bacteriophage T7-displayed peptides, which are fused to T7 capsid protein gp10. (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, post-translational chemical modification of bacteriophage (referred to hereafter as phage) -displayed peptides is attracting attention for drug discovery [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Very recently, we have constructed a non-natural peptide library by the post-translational chemical modification of T7 phage-displayed peptides, namely gp10 based-thioetherification (10BASE d -T) [ 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Escape of T7 DNA from Eco KI restriction in vivo depends on the synthesis of sufficient gp0.3 before the viral genome becomes cleaved. (pnas.org)
  • Coordination of leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. (nih.gov)
  • We have used the T7 DNA replication system to examine coordination of leading and lagging strand synthesis at a replication fork. (nih.gov)
  • Lagging strand DNA synthesis by a complex of gene 4 protein and T7 DNA polymerase decreases the rate of leading strand synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis of a mRNA begins before the entire region of DNA coding for that mRNA has entered the cell and entry of ~97 percent of T7 DNA is driven by transcribing RNA polymerase. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Synthesis of small RNAs using T7 RNA polymerase. (naver.com)
  • Following the hybridization step, the 3'-ends of the resultant hybrid DNA molecule are extended with DNA polymerase to generate a template suitable for T7 RNA polymerase mediated RNA synthesis. (google.ca)
  • Studier FW, Dunn JJ (1983) Organization and expression of bacteriophage T7 DNA. (springer.com)
  • To construct surrogates of T7 that are easier to understand and model, I began the process of refactoring the T7 genome to construct an organism that is a more direct representation of the models that we build. (mit.edu)
  • T7 good model organism for gene expression. (studentreader.com)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the T7 coliphage was genetically engineered to express the newly developed luceriferase, NanoLuc (NLuc), as an indicator of bacterial contamination. (rsc.org)
  • The crystal structure of T7 RNA polymerase reveals a molecule organized around a cleft that can accommodate a double-stranded DNA template. (nih.gov)
  • The anatomy of the T5 bacteriophage DNA molecule (1966) Abelson John et al. (naver.com)
  • Bacteriophage T7 has a lytic life cycle, meaning that it destroys the cell it infects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJH, Roe BA (1980) Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. (energy.gov)
  • A unique recognition site inserted at the genomic left end allows Eco KI to function as a molecular motor and to translocate the remaining 39 kilobases of T7 DNA into the cell. (pnas.org)
  • Viscosity and sedimentation of the DNA from bacteriophages T2 and T7 and the relation to molecular weight (1965) Crothers D.M et al. (naver.com)
  • To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens , is a member of the viral family Podoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once the T7 phage has inserted the viral genome, the process of DNA replication of the host genome is halted and replication of viral genome begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigate this replication re-initiation pathway using the bacteriophage T7 replisome. (nature.com)
  • Genetic requirements for sensitivity of bacteriophage t7 to dideoxythymidine. (harvard.edu)
  • this generated the knowledge required to genetically engineer a large number of different T7 bacteriophages, each with a slightly variation in their RBP. (elifesciences.org)
  • Development and application of a genetically-structured simulation for bacteriophage T7. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. (uthscsa.edu)
  • PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA packaging. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In vitro evidence for the ability of the t-loop to prime telomere extension using the T7 replication factors is presented. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2014. "Flap endonuclease of bacteriophage T7: Possible roles in RNA primer removal, recombination and host DNA breakdown. (harvard.edu)
  • Template-free generation of RNA species that replicate with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (naver.com)
  • In some strains of T7, the tail fibers are replaced with tail-spikes that degrade the O- or K-antigens on the cell surface by way of enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of translation of mRNA synthesized in eukaryotic cells by T7 phage RNA polymerase is discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • It was D'Herelle who conducted much research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this background established, the review then explores the potential for use of bacteriophage (phage) therapy as an alternative to antibiotics during the antenatal period. (frontiersin.org)