Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.TritiumDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ThymidineCapsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Cytosine NucleotidesViral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.ThymineElectrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.UracilCryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.PolynucleotidesCytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.DCMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.AcridinesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ribonucleotide ReductasesShigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.

Efficient synthesis of nucleic acids heavily modified with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups using a mutantT7 RNA polymerase (RNAP). (1/547)

A T7 RNAP mutant (Y639F) which eliminates discrimination of the chemical character of the NTP ribose 2'-group, facilitates incorporation of non-canonicalsubstrates into nucleic acids. However, transcripts containing a high percentage of non-canonical NMPs are poorly extended due to effects of the 2'-substituents on the transcript:template hybrid conformation. We tested the addition of compounds that stabilize A-type helix geometry to the reaction. High concentrations of polyamines, together with other changes in reaction conditions, greatly increased the synthesis of transcripts heavily substituted with non-canonical ribose 2'-groups. Template structures that facilitate promoter opening increased the efficiency of reactions where non-canonical substrates were incorporated during transcription of +1 to +6.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (2/547)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition. (3/547)

Bacteriophage T7 DNA primase recognizes 5'-GTC-3' in single-stranded DNA. The primase contains a single Cys4 zinc-binding motif that is essential for recognition. Biochemical and mutagenic analyses suggest that the Cys4 motif contacts cytosine of 5'-GTC-3' and may also contribute to thymine recognition. Residues His33 and Asp31 are critical for these interactions. Biochemical analysis also reveals that T7 primase selectively binds CTP in the absence of DNA. We propose that bound CTP selects the remaining base G, of 5'-GTC-3', by base pairing. Our deduced mechanism for recognition of ssDNA by Cys4 motifs bears little resemblance to the recognition of trinucleotides of double-stranded DNA by Cys2His2 zinc fingers.  (+info)

Co-expression of gene 31 and 23 products of bacteriophage T4. (4/547)

Folding of the major capsid protein of bacteriophage T4 encoded by gene 23 is aided by Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin and phage co-chaperonin gp31. In the absence of gene product (gp) 31, aggregates of recombinant gp23 accumulate in the cell similar to inclusion bodies. These aggregates can be solubilized with 6 M urea. However, the protein cannot form regular structures in solution. A system of co-expression of gp31 and gp23 under the control of phage T7 promoter in E. coli cells has been constructed. Folding of entire-length gp23 (534 amino acid residues) in this system results in the correctly folded recombinant gp23, which forms long regular structures (polyheads) in the cell.  (+info)

The environment of 5S rRNA in the ribosome: cross-links to 23S rRNA from sites within helices II and III of the 5S molecule. (5/547)

Three contiguous fragments of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA were prepared by T7 transcription from synthetic DNA templates. The central fragment, comprising residues 33-71 of the molecule, was transcribed in the presence of 4-thiouridine triphosphate together with [32P]UTP. The three transcripts were ligated together, yielding a 5S rRNA analogue carrying 4-thiouridine residues at positions 40, 48, 55 and 65 in helices II and III. After ligation, the 4-thiouridine residues were derivatised with p -azidophenacyl bromide. The modified 5S rRNA was reconstituted into 50S subunits and these subunits were used to prepare 70S ribosomes in the presence or absence of tRNA and mRNA. The azidophenyl groups were then photoactivated by mild irradiation at 300 nm and the products of cross-linking analysed by our standard procedures. Multiple cross-links from 5S rRNA to two distinct regions of the 23S rRNA were observed. The first region was located in helix 38 in Domain II of the 23S molecule, with cross-links at sites between nucleotides 885 and 922. The second region covered helices 81-85 in Domain V, with sites between nucleotides 2272 and 2345. Taken together with previous data, these results serve to define the arrangement of the 5S rRNA molecule relative to the 23S rRNA within the 50S subunit.  (+info)

RNA polymerase-specific nucleosome disruption by transcription in vivo. (6/547)

The nucleosomal chromatin structure within genes is disrupted upon transcription by RNA polymerase II. To determine whether this disruption is caused by transcription per se as opposed to the RNA polymerase source, we engineered the yeast chromosomal HSP82 gene to be exclusively transcribed by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in vivo. Interestingly, we found that a fraction of the T7-generated transcripts were 3' end processed and polyadenylated at or near the 3' ends of the hsp82 and the immediately downstream CIN2 genes. Surprisingly, the nucleosomal structure of the T7-transcribed hsp82 gene remained intact, in marked contrast to the disrupted structure generated by much weaker, basal level transcription of the wild type gene by RNA polymerase II under non-heat shock conditions. Therefore, disruption of chromatin structure by transcription is dependent on the RNA polymerase source. We propose that the observed RNA polymerase dependence for transcription-induced nucleosome disruption may be related either to the differential recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes, the rates of histone octamer translocation and nucleosome reformation during polymerase traversal, and/or the degree of transient torsional stress generated by the elongating polymerase.  (+info)

Vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 expression vector for complementation analysis of late gene processes. (7/547)

A vaccinia virus-bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase hybrid transient expression vector has been developed for complementation analysis of late gene functions in vaccinia virus. The conditionally defective virus ts21 was modified to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The derived virus, vtsT7, was conditionally defective in viral late gene expression but produced high levels of a target protein under the control of a T7 promoter at non-permissive temperatures. The level of beta-galactosidase expression under the control of a T7 promoter was slightly lower in vtsT7 infections than those with the prototypical T7 RNA polymerase vector vTF7.3. However, the levels of expression for the human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene, a protein which undergoes post-translational modification, was slightly higher in vtsT7 infections, suggesting that some proteins may be expressed better in the absence of vaccinia virus late gene expression. Infections using vtsT7 at a low m.o.i. at 39 degrees C resulted in the accumulation of high molecular mass, non-linear replicative intermediates of vaccinia virus DNA replication and high levels of expression of a transfected gene proximal to a T7 promoter. The virus vtsT7 provides a means for the analysis of potential trans-acting factors participating in vaccinia virus late processes such as resolution of DNA replicative intermediates.  (+info)

Preparation of HIV TAR RNA with RNA scissors. (8/547)

Two hammerhead ribozymes derived from plant pathogenic RNAs were used to cut off the HIV TAR RNA from the T7 RNA transcript through a cis cleavage reaction. Stem I of the (+)vLTSV ribozyme comprises 8 nucleotides of the 5' terminus of TAR RNA, but stem III of the (+)sTRSV ribozyme consists of 8 nucleotides of the 3' end of TAR RNA. The construct containing two GUC hammerhead ribozyme target sequences identified the cleavage sites to cut off a required RNA molecule. This method was applied for preparation of 35 nt long TAR RNA. Its activity was proved by the complex formation with the Tat protein. It seems that this approach based on RNA scissors can also be used for the generation of required RNA molecules, RNA decoys or RNA aptamers in vivo.  (+info)

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Read "Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
1DYA: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
1DYB: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same ...
Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
Figure 2. -Gene expression of a gene 61.5 mutant in a motA- genetic background. (A) MH1 cells were infected with motA- or 61.5- motA- phage. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled and analyzed as described in materials and methods. Middle-gene products are indicated by arrowheads and late-gene products by arrows. Gp43 forms a highly diffuse band in an 8% polyacrylamide gel (as seen here) for unknown reasons. The rate of synthesis of late-gene (B) or middle-gene products (C) at each time was measured by densitometry of each protein band and expressed in arbitrary units. Open and solid circles represent the rates of synthesis in motA--infected or 61.5- motA-infected cells, respectively. Because the gp23 band was close to other bands in A, the rate for this protein was derived from another experiment (not shown) in which the gp23 band was separated from others.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Numerous authors have noted the difficulty in obtaining mutants of E. coli B that are resistant to bacteriophage T2 using standard procedures of plating large numbers of cells in the presence of excess phage. Yet, T2-resistant mutants appear in continuous culture at rates inconsistent with this difficulty. This paradoxical result derives from the fact that resistance to T2 usually arises as a consequence of two nonindependent mutations. Mutant bacteria resistant to phage T4 are very common and increase rapidly in continuous culture with phage T2 owing to an approximate halving of the rate at which T2 adsorbs to and kills these partially resistant mutants. The rate at which these partially resistant mutants then give rise to fully resistant mutants is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the rate obtained by direct selection. These results are consistent with biochemical evidence that T2 adsorption to E. coli B involves both the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (to which phage T4 ...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating structure to function., Polymerase: T4 G298D, Property: Nucleotide Substitution Rate
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell walls, leaving them susceptible to destruction. - Stock Image F006/9216
DNA primases DNA templates. Bacterial DNA primases (DnaG enzymes) and DNA templates are available for HTS applications.. E. coli primase E. coli DnaG-DnaB complex, 10 µM for 100 assays.. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay. DNA template for E. coli DNA primase assay, 1000 assays. DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay DNA template for S. aureus DNA primase assay-1000 assays For other bacterial DNA primases and DNA templates including DNA primases from S. aureus, S. pneumonia. and H. influenza, please contact ProFoldin.. ...
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Sullivan MB, Huang KH, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Berlin AM, Kelly L, Weigele PR, DeFrancesco AS, Kern SE, Thompson LR, Young S, Yandava C, Fu R, Krastins B, Chase M, Sarracino D, Osburne MS, Henn MR, Chisholm SW. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):3035-56 ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav …
Our use of the word TABASCO here refers to a simulator of gene expression systems, or other systems comprised of elementary chemical reaction events that can be ordered along one or more dimensions. The origins of our use of the word were as an acronym, abbreviating the words "Transcription And Binding And Serious Computational Overhead." The word "Tabasco" is also a registered trademark of the [http://www.tabasco.com/ McIlhenny Company] for use in connection with pepper sauces, clothing, and other consumer products. The TABASCO simulator is neither affiliated with nor sponsored or endorsed by the McIlhenny Company and our use of the TABASCO name is not intended to suggest any such affiliation, sponsorship, or endorsement. "Tabasco" can also refer to a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabasco state in Mexico ...
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called "temperate" phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
Bacteriophages hold great commercial promise in disease prevention and control and in food safety assurance. Rainer Engelhardt and Bruno Rochet explain how Gangagen and Lallemand have joined forces to make the most of this ancient antibacterial.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. Spontaneous mutation and mutagenesis by 2-aminopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and thymine deprivation are strongly suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by ethyl methanesulfonate, and at A:T sites by nitrous acid, is moderately suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by hydroxylamine and by nitrous acid is not suppressed. These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. The data also reveal that mutagenic specificities of chemical agents depend as much upon the characteristics of the enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication as they do upon the chemistry of primary mutational lesions.. ...
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Read "Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, from the perspective of therapeutic purposes. Elution profiles of phages modified with specific affinity motifs (Figures 3,4,5 and 6) show substantially higher phage concentration in elution fractions compared to final washing samples. This indicates binding of modified phages to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Thus, affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Non-specific binding was also observed: unmodified phages or those modified with the non-specific tag were eluted with the titre 104-105 pfu/ml. Nevertheless, the unspecific binding is 102-105 times weaker than the specific one and importantly it does not interfere with the aim of preparation of purified anti-bacterial active bacteriophages for ...
Caspar and Klug (50) had predicted that, for each of the covalently identical subunits that compose the surface of a virus to have identical environments, it would require that the subunits are organized into an hexagonal array. An icosahedron is formed by substituting a pentagon of subunits for a hexagon of subunits at regular positions. This would then allow each subunit to have at least a quasi-equivalent environment. The total size of the assembly is determined by where the pentamers replace hexamers. This prediction has been found to be true in a large variety of viruses with T numbers varying from 1 for the smallest viruses such a parvoviruses (51) and the ΦX174 bacteriophage (52) to very large dsDNA viruses with T numbers of 169 [PBCV-1 (53⇓-55)] and 972 ≤ T ≤ 1,200 [Mimivirus (56)]. Here we have determined the structure of a virus with a T=13 lattice, which makes it possible to examine how the assembly process has introduced pentamers at specific positions in the hexagonal ...
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere....
Francisco I. Madero 1a. Sección (Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
I totally agree, Zouden. I bet the day will come soon. Some group actually did that once in small pieces and then put it together to create an entirely artificial plasmid but that takes a lot of work. That would be awesome to do it all at once!. ...
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bcv:Bcav_0491 no KO assigned , (GenBank) DNA primase small subunit (A) MARAQTPPVELDVAGRTVKVSSPDKVLFAGVGDGVTKLDVVRYFISVGEGILAALKERPT TLERWPQGYADGMKLTTRQGAKGDGFYSKRVPQYAPDWVEPVEITFPSGRTAEEVCPSEL AVVAWAAQQGTLTFHPWPVRRPEVDSPDQLRIDLDPQPGTDYVDSARLAPLVREVAAEAG LTAVPKTSGGRGVHVFAPIEPRWSFVEARRAVIALGREVERRAPEQVTTNWWKEERGERV FIDFNQMARDRTIASAYSIRANVRATVSAPLRWDEVDQVQPDDFTVLTMPDRFAEVGDLF AGANGDADHPAGSLDVLLEWAARDERDHGLGDLPYPPEYPKMPGEPKRVQPSRDRDRPRD D ...
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While I can find a wealth of information on the theory of bacteriophages, I cant seem to find anything useful on their actual use(though I hear theyre used with frequency in Georgia[the country]). Ever since Ive known what they are, Ive thought that bacteriophages would be perfect to treat acne. When I saw this article, I was slightly hopeful that I might find a clinical trial(at clinicaltrials.gov), but I found exactly bupkis ...
Bacteriophage phig1e Cng protein: a phage phi gle protein; amino acid sequence in first source; do not confuse with CNG channel (rod)
(2005) Matsuda et al. Surgery. Background. Lysis-deficient (LyD) bacteriophages (phages) kill bacteria without endotoxin (Et) release. This may minimize systemic cytokine responses and limit inflammation in bacterial sepsis. We ...
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The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. These purified proteins have been used to reconstitute DNA synthesis in vitro and are a well-characterized model system. Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the replication fork. Since the leading and lagging strands are synthesized in opposite directions, coordination of DNA synthesis as well as priming and unwinding is accomplished by several protein complexes. These protein complexes serve to link catalytic activities and physically tether proteins to the replication fork. Essential to both leading and lagging strand synthesis is the formation of a holoenzyme complex composed of the polymerase and a processivity clamp. The two holoenzymes form a dimer allowing the lagging strand polymerase to be retained within the replisome after completion of each Okazaki fragment. The helicase and primase
Food treated with bacteriophage, as to reduce or prevent the growth of undesirable bacteria. The food treated comprises: a food product; a first, fatty or waxy coating layer on the food product; and a second coating layer comprising one or more bacteriophage strains, wherein the fatty or waxy coating layer is distinct from the coating layer comprising the one or more bacteriophage strains. The food may be coated with bacteriophage and rubbed to distribute the phage on the food surface. The food may be preferably a pet food. The food may be coated in two or more layers. A process for treating food with bacteriophage comprises contacting the food with the bacteriophage and rubbing the coated food surface. The coating and/or rubbing may be performed in vibratory conveyor.
Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. It was found that g23 sequences obtained from the rice field were quite distinctive from those obtained in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. ...
Antibody-like structures present on cell surfaces may be detected by means of an assay using chemically modified bacteriophages. Guinea pig spleen and peritoneal cells bound specifically the chemically modified bacteriophage T4. The reaction occurred at low temperatures and in the presence of inhibitors of protein biosynthesis and of pinocytosis. Upon exposure to the corresponding hapten, the dinitrophenyl (DNP)-phages or the penicilloyl (Pen)-phages could be released from cells and subsequently counted. The specific binding of DNP-bacteriophage T4 was almost abolished after prior treatment of cells with an affinity labeling reagent.. The ability of peritoneal macrophage cells to bind the modified phage was due to the cytophilic antibodies passively adsorbed in vivo or in vitro. No such reaction occurred when cells from normal guinea pigs were used. In the spleen suspension, most of the modified phages were bound to non-adhering lymphocytes. Spleen cells from both normal and immunized guinea ...
Association between reduced quality of life and depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study in a Mexican population Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop,1 Carlos Mario Fortuny-Falconi,2 Thelma Beatriz González-Castro,3 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate,2 Mario Villar-Soto,4 Ester Rodríguez Sanchez,4 Yazmín Hernández-Díaz,3 María Lilia López-Narvaez,5 Jorge L Ble-Castillo,1 Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández,6 José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez6 1Multidisciplinary Academic Division of Health Sciences; Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco. Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico; 2Multidisciplinary Academic Division of Comalcalco; Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco. Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico; 3Multidisciplinary Academic Division of Jalpa de Méndez; Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Jalpa de Méndez, Tabasco, Mexico; 4Psychiatric Care Services, Hospital of high specialty
The middle surface antigen (M-sAg) of hepadnaviruses is one of three envelope proteins that share a common C-terminal S domain. Two-component nature of bacteriophage T4 receptor activity in Escherichia coli K-12. Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa ...
For those molecular geneticists out there, you will appreciate the new discovery of using a genetically modified M13 phage as a source for making hydrogen fuel out of water! The M13 bacteriophage is often used in molecular genetics work as a cloning vector. The phage contains a single strand circular DNA genome of 6407 nucleotides…
Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria. They were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in England in 1915 and by Felix d Herelle
... eat (greek) Two major types: Lytic and Lysogenic. Different Types of Bacteriophages ... Lysogenic- infect the cell and integrates its genetic material into the ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 25bd85-ZDc1Z
PRACTICAL4IntroductionThe purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate viral specificity. In this practical viral specificity is used as a tool to determine the unknown bacteria. Known bacteriophages can be used to determine unknown bacteriophages by o...
Pels, E; Groot, J W.; Mullink, R; Unnik, J A.; Otter, D W.; and Exudate, F O., "Cells with ring-shaped nuclei." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3014 ...
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Gabashvili, I.; Khan, S.; Hayes, S.; Serwer, P. (1997). "Polymorphism of bacteriophage T7". Journal of Molecular Biology. 273 ( ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1[41]. The lambda and VZV interactomes are not only relevant for the biology of these ... "The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda". BMC Microbiol. 11: 213. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-213. PMC 3224144. PMID ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda[38]. *Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7[39]. *Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Dp-1 ...
Tabor, S; Richardson, C. C. (1987). "DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase". Proceedings of the ... "The thioredoxin binding domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase confers processivity on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I". ...
In T7 bacteriophages myricetin competitively inhibited DNA template binding to RNA polymerase. Myricetin has been seen to ...
Pribnow, D (1975). "Bacteriophage T7 Early Promoters: Nucleotide Sequences of Two RNA Polymerase Binding Sites". Journal of ...
Endy, Andrew David (1997). Development and application of a genetically-structured simulation for bacteriophage T7 (PhD thesis ... A genetically structured simulation for bacteriophage T7". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 55 (2): 375-389. doi:10.1002/(SICI ... Endy received his PhD from Dartmouth College in 1997 for his work on Genetic engineering using T7 phage. Endy was a junior ...
2003). "The genome of bacteriophage φKMV, a T7-like virus infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Virology. 312 (1): 49-59. doi: ... Although phiKMV phage resembles the well-studied podovirus T7 in overall genome architecture, it was the first known T7-like ... Bacteriophage phiKMV and its relatives are known to be highly virulent phages, producing large (3-15 mm (0.12-0.59 in) diameter ... of bacteriophage genomes". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 77 (2): 207-13. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2009.02.006. PMID 19232531. ...
Perhaps the most widely studied such single-subunit RNAP is bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Other viruses use a RNA-dependent ...
"Roles of Copper and Superoxide Anion Radicals in the Radiation-Induced Inactivation of T7 Bacteriophage". Radiat. Res. 99 (3): ...
FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... Bacteriophage T3, or T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells, including strains of ... This phage is closely related to T7 phage in structure though the two viruses may differ in capsid maturation. ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ...
Bonocora RP, Shub DA (December 2004). "A self-splicing group I intron in DNA polymerase genes of T7-like bacteriophages". J. ... T-even and T7-like bacteriophages. Both intron-early and intron-late theories have found evidences in explaining the origin of ... Lee CN, Lin JW, Weng SF, Tseng YH (December 2009). "Genomic characterization of the intron-containing T7-like phage phiL7 of ... Group I introns are also found inserted into genes of a wide variety of bacteriophages of Gram-positive bacteria. However, ...
... is typically studied in the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in bacteriophages, and in E. coli. Abortive ... Martin CT, Muller DK, Coleman JE (1988). "Processivity in early stages of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase". Biochemistry. 27 ...
The GRO exhibited increased resistance to T7 bacteriophage, thus showing that alternative genetic codes do reduce genetic ... Another reason why XB could improve production processes lies in the possibility to reduce the risk of virus or bacteriophage ...
Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes. To counteract these ... They found that bacteriophage growing within an infected bacterium could be modified, so that upon their release and re- ... This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). ... infection of a related bacterium the bacteriophage's growth is restricted (inhibited) (also described by Luria in his ...
... between different bacteria and viruses where the primase covalently link to helicase in viruses such as the T7 bacteriophage. ...
This concept has been validated by an experimental evolutionary study in which replicate populations of bacteriophage T7 were ... "Independent contrasts succeed where ancestor reconstruction fails in a known bacteriophage phylogeny". Evolution. 54 (2): 397. ...
Since the 1990s, the term "T7 supergroup" has been coined for the expanding group of bacteriophages related to coliphage T7, as ... Other bacteriophages like Bacteriophage SIO1 and VpV262 are evolutionary related to the Autographivirinae, but do not contain a ... "Genomic analysis of bacteriophages SP6 and K1-5, an estranged subgroup of the T7 supergroup". Journal of Molecular Biology. 335 ... Enterobacteriaceae phages SP6 and K1-5 were the first to be considered as an estranged subgroup of the "T7 supergroup". ...
In contrast, eukaryotic RNA polymerase I and II as well as single-subunit RNA polymerases of bacteriophage T7 and SP6 are ...
... s are also found in viruses such as bacteriophages. For example, T7 phages have two operons. The first operon codes for ... "Bacteriophage Use Operons". Prokaryotic Gene Control. Dartmouth College. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Jacob, F.; Perrin, D.; ... "Displacements of Prohead Protease Genes in the Late Operons of Double-Stranded-DNA Bacteriophages". Journal of Bacteriology. 1 ... various products, including a special T7 RNA polymerase which can bind to and transcribe the second operon. The second operon ...
Upon infection with the bacteriophage T7, E. coli thioredoxin forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase, which results in enhanced ... T7 DNA replication, a crucial step for successful T7 infection. Thioredoxin binds to a loop in T7 DNA polymerase to bind more ... The anti-oxidant function of thioredoxin is fully autonomous and fully independent of T7 DNA replication, in which the protein ...
... the best-studied bacteriophage of the family Cystoviridae T7 phage, phage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells In ... temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli M13 phage, filamentous bacteriophage composed of circular single stranded ... Phage is the shortened form of bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. Phage (from Greek φαγεῖν phagein, 'to eat') may ... the study of the interaction of bacteriophage with their environments Phage monographs, books published on the topic of ...
Producing better protein: the evolution of T7 bacteriophages on a non-evolving E. coli strain that encoded 3-iodotyrosine on ... Hammerling, M. J.; Ellefson, J. W.; Boutz, D. R.; Marcotte, E. M.; Ellington, A. D.; Barrick, J. E. (2014). "Bacteriophages use ...
Polynucleotide kinase is a T7 bacteriophage (or T4 bacteriophage) enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a gamma-phosphate from ...
... coli B was by Delbrück and Luria in 1942 in their study of bacteriophages T1 and T7. The original E. coli B strain, known then ... Kuttner A. G. (1923). "Bacteriophage phenomena". J. Bacteriol. 8 (1): 49-101. PMC 379003 . PMID 16558985. Wollman E (1925). " ... as Bacillus coli, originated from Félix d'Herelle from the Institut Pasteur in Paris around 1918 who studied bacteriophages, ...
The following bacteriophages are extensively studied: λ phage T2 phage T4 phage (169 kbp genome, 200 nm long) T7 phage T12 ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... Gabashvili, I.; Khan, S.; Hayes, S.; Serwer, P. (1997). "Polymorphism of bacteriophage T7". Journal of Molecular Biology. 273 ( ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ...
... is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' ... McAllister WT (1993). "Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity)". Cell. ... T7 polymerase has been crystallised in several forms and the structures placed in the PDB. These explain how T7 polymerase ... T7 polymerase is extremely promoter-specific and transcribes only DNA downstream of a T7 promoter (TAATACGACTCACTATAG, ...
Bacteriophage T7-like, protein 6.7 (IPR020134). Short name: Phage_T7-like_6.7 ... Changes in bacteriophage T7 virion structure at the initiation of infection.. Virology 340 307-17 2005 ...
T7]. The phage can also be packaged into λ particles in vivo, in which case it is referred to as T7[λ] (18). T7[λ] productively ... T7 genome from a bacteriophage λ particle results in degradation of the infecting DNA by EcoKI, showing that the normal T7 DNA ... Bacteriophages and Bacteria.. T7 mutants sRK836 and the 0.3 deletion mutant D364 were kindly provided by F. W. Studier ( ... Translocation and specific cleavage of bacteriophage T7 DNA in vivo by EcoKI. L. René García and Ian J. Molineux ...
This thesis is focused on constructing such models for gene expression during bacteriophage T7 infection. T7 gene expression is ... First, can we address deficiencies in past simulations and measurements of bacteriophage T7 to improve models of gene ... Simulation, Models, and Refactoring of Bacteriophage T7. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ... To construct surrogates of T7 that are easier to understand and model, I began the process of refactoring the T7 genome to ...
Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA. J L Campbell, C C Richardson ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ...
... bacteriophage t7 include Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins, ... Synthesis of Infectious Bacteriophages in an E. coli-based Cell-free Expression System, Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle ... Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family Podoviridae, that infects ... Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins. Alfredo J. Hernandez1, Charles ...
1983) Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. J Mol Biol 166(4):477-535. ... Inside some bacteriophages, which include T7 (19, 21, 22), P-SSP7 (11), and ε15 (17), a roughly cylindrical, multilayered ... 2003) A second symmetry mismatch at the portal vertex of bacteriophage T7: 8-fold symmetry in the procapsid core. J Mol Biol ... 2010) Gp15 and gp16 cooperate in translocating bacteriophage T7 DNA into the infected cell. Virology 398(2):176-186. ...
DNA coding for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase was ligated to a vaccinia virus transcriptional promoter and integrated within ... Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. T ... Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase ... Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase ...
Coordination of leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7.. Debyser Z1, Tabor S, ... Lagging strand DNA synthesis by a complex of gene 4 protein and T7 DNA polymerase decreases the rate of leading strand ... We propose that leading and lagging strand synthesis at a T7 replication fork are coupled and that the replication proteins are ... We have used the T7 DNA replication system to examine coordination of leading and lagging strand synthesis at a replication ...
Interactions of the RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter during binding and initiation of transcription. R A ... Interactions of the RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter during binding and initiation of transcription ... Interactions of the RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter during binding and initiation of transcription ... Interactions of the RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 with its promoter during binding and initiation of transcription ...
... Nucleic Acids Research 38(13): 4372- ... Mechanism of Sequence-Specific Template Binding by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7. ... Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance and biochemical assays, we show that T7 DNA primase has only a slightly higher ...
35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target ... was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav … ... Transcriptional inhibition of the bacteriophage T7 early promoter region by oligonucleotide triple helix formation Biochem ... 35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target ...
Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the ... The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the ... TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and ... VL - 66 IS - 5 N2 - The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory ...
bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Known as: T7 RNA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 induced RNA polymerase, polymerase rna t7 ... To make messenger RNA transcripts, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) undergoes a transition from an initiation phase… ( ... Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-based expression in Pichia pastoris.. *Birgit Hobl, Bjoern Hock, Sandra Schneck, Reinhard ... Transcription of DNA containing the 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesion by human RNA polymerase II and bacteriophage T7 RNA ...
Structures of T7 bacteriophage portal and tail suggest a viral DNA retention and ejection mechanism ...
Entire Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid. Entire. Name: Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid / Number of components: 1. ... Bacteriophage T7 mature phage capsid Details. Source. Enterobacteria phage T7 / virus. Map data. Reconstruction of ... Bacteriophage T7 / Maturation / DNA packaging / Procapsid / Non-covalent topological linking / Single particle cryo-EM. Sample ... Component #1: virus, Enterobacteria phage T7. Virus. Name: Enterobacteria phage T7 / Class: VIRION / Empty: No / Enveloped: No ...
Enterobacteria phage T7 (bacteriophage). Method. single particle reconstruction / cryo EM / 8.6 Å resolution Details. Authors. ... Enterobacteria phage T7 (bacteriophage). Source (engineered). Expression System: Escherichia coli (E. coli). ... Using bacteriophage T7 as a model .... >>. Visualization in atomic detail of the replisome that performs concerted leading- and ... Structure of two bacteriophage T7 lagging-strand DNA polymerase (D5A/E7A )/Trx interacting with primase domains, one Pol with ...
Bacteriophage T3 and bacteriophage T7 virus-host cell interactions. Microbiol. Rev. 45:9-51. ... Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J. Bacteriol. ... Outer Membrane Proteins Ail and OmpF of Yersinia pestis Are Involved in the Adsorption of T7-Related Bacteriophage Yep-phi. ... Yep-phi is a T7-related bacteriophage specific to Yersinia pestis, and it is routinely used in the identification of Y. pestis ...
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the ...
... which is a member of the T7 group of phages. The largest open reading frame corres ... Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1983) The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 dNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. J ... The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison with the homologous genes of phages T7, T3, ... Moffatt BA, Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol 173:265- ...
T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on ... Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Burkaltseva, M.; Pleteneva, E. ... The Genome Sequence of Yersinia pestis Bacteriophage ΦA1122 Reveals an Intimate History with the Coliphage T3 and T7 Genomes ...
Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for ... Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 ... lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. ... This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in ...
Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens, is a member of the viral ... The quantitative nature of the relationships between Kvp1 and the other members of the T7-like virus genus (T7, T3, φA1122, ... At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 ... The genome of Kvp1, the first Kluyvera cryocrescens-specific bacteriophage, was sequenced using pyrosequencing (454 technology ...
Dunn J. J., Studier F. W., Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements, J. ... Promoters of T7 bacteriophage are recognized by the two forms of RNA-polymerase - the major form of RNA-polymerase (Es70) of ... During the first few minutes after infection of E. coli by the bacteriophage T7, transcription is dependent on the hosts RNA ... Electrostatic Potential Map of the Whole Genome DNA of T7 Bacteriophage. Electrostatic Properties and Function of its Promoter ...
The bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction-based methods and cloned into a T7 promoter- ... The bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction-based methods and cloned into a T7 promoter- ... Bacteriophage T7 DNA ligase. Overexpression, purification, crystallization, and characterization.. @article{ ... Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its ...
Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of ... Reporter bacteriophage T7NLC utilizes a novel NanoLuc::CBM fusion for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli in water ... Reporter bacteriophage T7NLC utilizes a novel NanoLuc::CBM fusion for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli in water ... Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of ...
  • Eleven clones derived from Alu I or Hae III digestion of the viral DNA were sequenced, by these authors, revealing strong sequence similarity to coliphage T7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, the T7 coliphage was genetically engineered to express the newly developed luceriferase, NanoLuc (NLuc), as an indicator of bacterial contamination. (rsc.org)
  • Since the 1990s, the term "T7 supergroup" has been coined for the expanding group of bacteriophages related to coliphage T7, as members of the family Podoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • I used Tabasco to construct a model of T7 gene expression that encodes our mechanistic understanding. (mit.edu)
  • The resulting chimeric genome encodes a viable bacteriophage that appears to maintain key features of the original while being simpler to model and easier to manipulate. (mit.edu)
  • To construct surrogates of T7 that are easier to understand and model, I began the process of refactoring the T7 genome to construct an organism that is a more direct representation of the models that we build. (mit.edu)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • For bacteriophages, such dissections of genomic sequences reveal fundamental flaws in the Linnaean paradigm that necessitate a new view of viral evolution, classification, and taxonomy. (asm.org)
  • In genetics, pBluescript (pBS) or pBluescript II is a commercially available phagemid containing several useful sequences for use in cloning with bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccinia/T7 hybrid virus forms the basis of a simple, rapid, widely applicable, and efficient mammalian expression system. (pnas.org)
  • Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. (diva-portal.org)