Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.TritiumDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ThymidineCapsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Cytosine NucleotidesViral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.ThymineElectrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.UracilCryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Chronic Periodontitis: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.PolynucleotidesCytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.DCMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.AcridinesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Cytoplasmic Structures: Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ribonucleotide ReductasesShigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.E2F7 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F7 has two separate DNA-binding domains and binds to DNA independently of a dimerization partner.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.

Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (1/780)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex. (2/780)

Bacteriophage T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase (EC 2.1.2.8), a homodimer of 246-residue subunits, catalyzes hydroxymethylation of the cytosine base in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) to produce 5-hydroxymethyl-dCMP. It forms part of a phage DNA protection system and appears to function in vivo as a component of a multienzyme complex called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthetase. We have determined its crystal structure in the presence of the substrate dCMP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a subunit fold and a dimerization pattern in common with thymidylate synthases, despite low (approximately 20%) sequence identity. Among the residues that form the dCMP binding site, those interacting with the sugar and phosphate are arranged in a configuration similar to the deoxyuridylate binding site of thymidylate synthases. However, the residues interacting directly or indirectly with the cytosine base show a more divergent structure and the presumed folate cofactor binding site is more open. Our structure reveals a water molecule properly positioned near C-6 of cytosine to add to the C-7 methylene intermediate during the last step of hydroxymethylation. On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP-synthesizing complex has been built.  (+info)

X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease VII: a DNA junction resolvase with a novel fold and unusual domain-swapped dimer architecture. (3/780)

Phage T4 endonuclease VII (Endo VII), the first enzyme shown to resolve Holliday junctions, recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA substrates ranging from branched DNAs to single base mismatches. We have determined the crystal structures of the Ca2+-bound wild-type and the inactive N62D mutant enzymes at 2.4 and 2.1 A, respectively. The Endo VII monomers form an elongated, highly intertwined molecular dimer exhibiting extreme domain swapping. The major dimerization elements are two pairs of antiparallel helices forming a novel 'four-helix cross' motif. The unique monomer fold, almost completely lacking beta-sheet structure and containing a zinc ion tetrahedrally coordinated to four cysteines, does not resemble any of the known junction-resolving enzymes, including the Escherichia coli RuvC and lambda integrase-type recombinases. The S-shaped dimer has two 'binding bays' separated by approximately 25 A which are lined by positively charged residues and contain near their base residues known to be essential for activity. These include Asp40 and Asn62, which function as ligands for the bound calcium ions. A pronounced bipolar charge distribution suggests that branched DNA substrates bind to the positively charged face with the scissile phosphates located near the divalent cations. A model for the complex with a four-way DNA junction is presented.  (+info)

The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg. (4/780)

The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed.  (+info)

Computational studies on mutant protein stability: The correlation between surface thermal expansion and protein stability. (5/780)

Thermal stability of mutant proteins has been investigated using temperature dependent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in vacuo. The numerical modeling was aimed at mimicking protein expansion upon heating. After the conditions for an expanding protein accessible surface area were established for T4 lysozyme and barnase wild-type proteins, MD simulations were carried out under the same conditions using the crystal structures of several mutant proteins. The computed thermal expansion of the accessible surface area of mutant proteins was found to be strongly correlated with their experimentally measured stabilities. A similar, albeit weaker, correlation was observed for model mutant proteins. This opens the possibility of obtaining stability information directly from protein structure.  (+info)

T4 RNA ligase catalyzes the synthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates. (6/780)

T4 RNA ligase has been shown to synthesize nucleoside and dinucleoside 5'-polyphosphates by displacement of the AMP from the E-AMP complex with polyphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Displacement of the AMP by tripolyphosphate (P3) was concentration dependent, as measured by SDS/PAGE. When the enzyme was incubated in the presence of 0.02 mm [alpha-32P] ATP, synthesis of labeled Ap4A was observed: ATP was acting as both donor (Km, microm) and acceptor (Km, mm) of AMP from the enzyme. Whereas, as previously known, ATP or dATP (but not other nucleotides) were able to form the E-AMP complex, the specificity of a compound to be acceptor of AMP from the E-AMP complex was very broad, and with Km values between 1 and 2 mm. In the presence of a low concentration (0.02 mm) of [alpha-32P] ATP (enough to form the E-AMP complex, but only marginally enough to form Ap4A) and 4 mm of the indicated nucleotides or P3, the relative rate of synthesis of the following radioactive (di)nucleotides was observed: Ap4X (from XTP, 100); Ap4dG (from dGTP, 74); Ap4G (from GTP, 49); Ap4dC (from dCTP, 23); Ap4C (from CTP, 9); Ap3A (from ADP, 5); Ap4ddA, (from ddATP, 1); p4A (from P3, 200). The enzyme also synthesized efficiently Ap3A in the presence of 1 mm ATP and 2 mm ADP. The following T4 RNA ligase donors were inhibitors of the synthesis of Ap4G: pCp > pAp > pA2'p.  (+info)

The C-terminal fragment of the precursor tail lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 stays as a structural component of the baseplate after cleavage. (7/780)

Tail-associated lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 (tail lysozyme), the product of gene 5 (gp 5), is an essential structural component of the hub of the phage baseplate. It is synthesized as a 63-kDa precursor, which later cleaves to form mature gp 5 with a molecular weight of 43,000. To elucidate the role of the C-terminal region of the precursor protein, gene 5 was cloned and overexpressed and the product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, analytical ultracentrifugation, and circular dichroism. It was shown that the precursor protein tends to be cleaved into two fragments during expression and that the cleavage site is close to or perhaps identical to the cleavage site in the infected cell. The two fragments, however, remained associated. The lysozyme activity of the precursor or the nicked protein is about 10% of that of mature gp 5. Both the N-terminal mature tail lysozyme and the C-terminal fragment were then isolated and characterized by far-UV circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation. The latter remained trimeric after dissociation from the N-terminal fragment and is rich in beta-structure as predicted by an empirical method. To trace the fate of the C-terminal fragment, antiserum was raised against a synthesized peptide of the last 12 C-terminal residues. Surprisingly, the C-terminal fragment was found in the tail and the phage particle by immunoblotting. The significance of this finding is discussed in relation to the molecular assembly and infection process.  (+info)

Bacteriophage T4 rnh (RNase H) null mutations: effects on spontaneous mutation and epistatic interaction with rII mutations. (8/780)

The bacteriophage T4 rnh gene encodes T4 RNase H, a relative of a family of flap endonucleases. T4 rnh null mutations reduce burst sizes, increase sensitivity to DNA damage, and increase the frequency of acriflavin resistance (Acr) mutations. Because mutations in the related Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 gene display a remarkable duplication mutator phenotype, we further explored the impact of rnh mutations upon the mutation process. We observed that most Acr mutants in an rnh+ strain contain ac mutations, whereas only roughly half of the Acr mutants detected in an rnhDelta strain bear ac mutations. In contrast to the mutational specificity displayed by most mutators, the DNA alterations of ac mutations arising in rnhDelta and rnh+ backgrounds are indistinguishable. Thus, the increase in Acr mutants in an rnhDelta background is probably not due to a mutator effect. This conclusion is supported by the lack of increase in the frequency of rI mutations in an rnhDelta background. In a screen that detects mutations at both the rI locus and the much larger rII locus, the r frequency was severalfold lower in an rnhDelta background. This decrease was due to the phenotype of rnh rII double mutants, which display an r+ plaque morphology but retain the characteristic inability of rII mutants to grow on lambda lysogens. Finally, we summarize those aspects of T4 forward-mutation systems which are relevant to optimal choices for investigating quantitative and qualitative aspects of the mutation process.  (+info)

*Bacteriophage

Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Animation by Hybrid Animation Medical for a T4 Bacteriophage targeting E. coli bacteria. ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ...

*Gisela Mosig

From there, she was recruited to Vanderbilt University to study bacteriophage T4, a topic for which she became a leading ... Miller, ES; Kutter, E; Mosig, G; Arisaka, F; Kunisawa, T; Rüger, W (March 2003). "Bacteriophage T4 genome". Microbiology and ... Luder, A; Mosig, G (February 1982). "Two alternative mechanisms for initiation of DNA replication forks in bacteriophage T4: ... Mathews, Christoper K.; Kutter, Elizabeth M.; Mosig, Gisela; Berget, Peter B. (1983). Bacteriophage T4. Washington, D.C.: ...

*Virus

The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2004;14(2):171-80. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2004.02 ... Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a ... Main article: Bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of ... The viral genome is then known as a "provirus" or, in the case of bacteriophages a "prophage".[113] Whenever the host divides, ...

*Suppressor mutation

Floor E (1970). "Interaction of morphogenetic genes of bacteriophage T4". J. Mol. Biol. 47 (3): 293-306. doi:10.1016/0022-2836( ... To create a viable phage T4 virus (see image), a balance of structural components is required. An amber mutant of phage T4 ... an amber mutant defective in a gene encoding a needed structural component of phage T4 is weakly suppressed (in an E. coli host ...

*Virus

Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a ... The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2004;14(2):171-80. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2004.02 ... Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of biological entity in aquatic ... The host range of some bacteriophages is limited to a single strain of bacteria and they can be used to trace the source of ...

*Phage group

Edgar B (2004). "The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. ... Ellis E.L. "Bacteriophage: One-step growth curve" in Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology (2007) Edited by John Cairns, ... Benzer S. FINE STRUCTURE OF A GENETIC REGION IN BACTERIOPHAGE. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955 Jun 15;41(6):344-54. PMID ... Luria S. E. "Reactivation of Irradiated Bacteriophage by Transfer of Self-Reproducing Units". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1947 ...

*Human reproduction

Baltz RH, Bingham PM, Drake JW (1976). Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4: The transition pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...

*Ramamirtha Jayaraman

E.B. Goldberg, R. Jayaraman (1971). Transcription of Bacteriophage T4 Genome In Vivo. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on ... T4 rII system India portal Biology portal "Brief Profile of the Awardee". Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize. 2016. Retrieved ...

*Scleroprotein

"Engineering trimeric fibrous proteins based on bacteriophage T4 adhesins". Protein Eng. 11 (4): 329-32. doi:10.1093/protein/ ...

*Richard L. Thompson

Thompson, Richard L.; Narendra S. Goel (1985). "A Simulation of T4 Bacteriophage Assembly and Operation". Biosystems. 18: 23-45 ... Bacteriophage Assembly and Operation". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 131: 351-385. doi:10.1016/s0022-5193(88)80230-3. Goel, ...

*DNA codon table

"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817 . PMID 15514035. see pages 580- ...

*Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol (May 1989). "Bacteriophage T4 genetic homologies with bacteria and eucaryotes". Journal of ...

*Mammalian reproduction

Baltz, RH; Bingham, PM; Drake, JW (1976). "Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4: The transition pathway". Proceedings of the ...

*Genetic code

"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817 . PMID 15514035. "The book at the ... "The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817 . PMID 15514035. see pages 580- ...

*Glutaredoxin

Bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin seems to be evolution-related. In position 5 of the pattern T4, thioredoxin has Val instead of Pro ...

*Timeline of natural history

"Bacteriophage T4 genetic homologies with bacteria and eucaryotes". J. Bacteriol. 171 (5): 2265-70. PMC 209897 . PMID 2651395. ... Bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) emerge before, or soon after, the divergence of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. c. ...

*Sean Eddy

Tuerk, C.; Eddy, S.; Parma, D.; Gold, L. (1990). "Autogenous translational operator recognized by bacteriophage T4 DNA ... Eddy, S. R.; Gold, L. (1991). "The phage T4 nrdB intron: A deletion mutant of a version found in the wild". Genes & Development ... Sean Eddy publications indexed by Google Scholar Eddy, Sean Roberts (1991). Introns in the T-even bacteriophages (PhD thesis). ... of Philosophy in molecular biology at the University of Colorado under the supervision of Larry Gold in 1991 studying the T4 ...

*Bruce Alberts

This enabled him to purify T4 Bacteriophage Gene 32. In 1966, Alberts joined the Department of Biochemical Sciences at ... ALBERTS, BRUCE M.; FREY, LINDA (26 September 1970). "T4 Bacteriophage Gene 32: A Structural Protein in the Replication and ... Epstein and his students had shown that there were at least seven different proteins needed for replication of T4 DNA. Alberts ... Epstein on genes involved in DNA replication of phage T4. ...

*RNA ligase (ATP)

Silber R, Malathi VG, Hurwitz J (1972). "Purification and properties of bacteriophage T4-induced RNA ligase". Proc. Natl. Acad ...

*Vibrio phage nt-1

Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Vibrio phage nt-1 is a bacteriophage known to infect Vibrio bacteria. It infects Vibrio natriegens and was originally isolated ... "Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity". BMC Microbiology. 9 (1): 224. doi:10.1186/1471- ...

*Pseudomonas phage 42

Ackermann, H.W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Pseudomonas phage 42 is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria. ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 24

Matthews BW, Weaver LH (1987). "Structure of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme refined at 1.7 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol. 193 (1): 189 ... The T4 lysozyme structure contains 2 domains, the interface between which forms the active-site cleft. The N-terminus of the 2 ... Matthews BW, Faber HR (1990). "A mutant T4 lysozyme displays five different crystal conformations". Nature. 348 (6298): 263-266 ...

*Chloroplast DNA

... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4.[ ...

*Alec Broers, Baron Broers

"High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of bacteriophages 3C and T4". Science. 189 (4203): 637-9. doi:10.1126/science. ... Initially this high resolution low-loss mode was used to examine bacteriophage and blood cells in collaboration with ...

*DNA sequencing

"Chemical Synthesis of a Primer and Its Use in the Sequence Analysis of the Lysozyme Gene of Bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ...
The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an ...
Principal Investigator:MASAI Hisao, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. Spontaneous mutation and mutagenesis by 2-aminopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and thymine deprivation are strongly suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by ethyl methanesulfonate, and at A:T sites by nitrous acid, is moderately suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by hydroxylamine and by nitrous acid is not suppressed. These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. The data also reveal that mutagenic specificities of chemical agents depend as much upon the characteristics of the enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication as they do upon the chemistry of primary mutational lesions.. ...
... -Towering nearly 3 feet tall, this highly visible DNA molecule is ideally suited to lecture hall presentations. But your students will find it is even more effective for hands-on investigations into the functional unit of heredity. Mag
Numerous authors have noted the difficulty in obtaining mutants of E. coli B that are resistant to bacteriophage T2 using standard procedures of plating large numbers of cells in the presence of excess phage. Yet, T2-resistant mutants appear in continuous culture at rates inconsistent with this difficulty. This paradoxical result derives from the fact that resistance to T2 usually arises as a consequence of two nonindependent mutations. Mutant bacteria resistant to phage T4 are very common and increase rapidly in continuous culture with phage T2 owing to an approximate halving of the rate at which T2 adsorbs to and kills these partially resistant mutants. The rate at which these partially resistant mutants then give rise to fully resistant mutants is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the rate obtained by direct selection. These results are consistent with biochemical evidence that T2 adsorption to E. coli B involves both the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (to which phage T4 ...
1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN THR157 (RIGHT ARROW) ILE
Read "Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
Double-strand break of giant DNA: Protection by glucosyl-hesperidin as evidenced through direct observation on individual DNA molecules ...
Dramatic Change in the Tertiary Structure of Giant DNA without Distortion of the Secondary Structure Caused by Pteridine - Polyamine Conjugates ...
1DYA: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
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That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
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Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
Features This machine integrates functions such as feeding bottles, sorting&placing&screwing caps, and delivering bottles. It automatically sorts pump type caps, and adjusts positions of pump type caps; and it automatically placing&screwing caps. Its automation is as advan ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
Traditionally, recombination reactions promoted by RecA-like proteins initiate by forming a nucleoprotein filament on a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which then pairs with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In this paper, we describe a novel pairing process that occurs in an unconventional manner: RecA protein polymerizes along dsDNA to form an active nucleoprotein filament that can pair and exchange strands with homologous ssDNA. Our results demonstrate that this inverse reaction is a unique, highly efficient DNA strand exchange reaction that is not due to redistribution of RecA protein from dsDNA to the homologous ssDNA partner. Finally, we demonstrate that the RecA protein-dsDNA filament can also pair and promote strand exchange with ssRNA. This inverse RNA strand exchange reaction is likely responsible for R-loop formation that is required for recombination-dependent DNA replication.
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0010] A vertical bag-manufacturing and packaging machine according to a first aspect includes a feeding unit configured and arranged to convey an article supplied from an upstream portion downwardly to a downstream portion. The feeding unit includes an upstream tube portion, an opening/closing mechanism, and a downstream tube portion. The upstream tube portion is configured and arranged to downwardly convey the article. The opening/closing mechanism is disposed on a downstream side of the upstream tube portion with a gap being formed between a downstream end of the upstream tube portion and an upstream end of the opening/closing mechanism, and configured and arranged to selectively open or close to selectively discharge or hold the article discharged by the upstream tube portion. The downstream tube portion is disposed on a downstream side of the opening/closing mechanism, and configured and arranged to downwardly convey the article discharged by the opening/closing mechanism, the downstream ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 2ntg: Structure of Spin-Labeled T4 Lysozyme Mutant T115R7
A Megaplasmid-Borne Anaerobic Ribonucleotide Reductase in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16: The conjugative 450-kb megaplasmid pHG1 is essential for the anaerobic grow
MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. About 56% are base pair substitutions, about 30% are frameshift mutations, and the remainder is a miscellaneous set of rapidly reverting or leaky mutants of unknown composition; but deletions were not detected. MMS-induced forward mutation is sharply reduced by the mutations px and y, which also reduce ultraviolet, photodynamic and γ-ray mutagenesis and increase killing by all of these agents. Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. The induction of G:C → A:T transitions was detected even in a px or y background using sensitive reversion tests, and the few forward rII mutations that were induced from this background also behaved like transition mutations. Thus, some MMS-induced mutations arise independently of the WXY system, perhaps as a result of the (rather weak) ability of MMS to alkylate the O6 position of guanine.. ...
Read "Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Sullivan MB, Huang KH, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Berlin AM, Kelly L, Weigele PR, DeFrancesco AS, Kern SE, Thompson LR, Young S, Yandava C, Fu R, Krastins B, Chase M, Sarracino D, Osburne MS, Henn MR, Chisholm SW. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):3035-56 ...
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Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
The middle surface antigen (M-sAg) of hepadnaviruses is one of three envelope proteins that share a common C-terminal S domain. Two-component nature of bacteriophage T4 receptor activity in Escherichia coli K-12. Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa ...
For those molecular geneticists out there, you will appreciate the new discovery of using a genetically modified M13 phage as a source for making hydrogen fuel out of water! The M13 bacteriophage is often used in molecular genetics work as a cloning vector. The phage contains a single strand circular DNA genome of 6407 nucleotides…
Bacteriophages benefit to human health and are useful in numerous other fields. Focus on this biological microentity discovered at the end of 19th century
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Amber mutations were introduced into every codon (except the initiating AUG) of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. The amber alleles were introduced into a bacteriophage P22 hybrid, called P22 e416, in which the normal P22 lysozyme gene is replaced by its T4 homologue, and which consequently depends upon T4 lysozyme for its ability to form a plaque. The resulting amber mutants were tested for plaque formation on amber suppressor strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Experiments with other hybrid phages engineered to produce different amounts of wild-type T4 lysozyme have shown that, to score as deleterious, a mutation must reduce lysozyme activity to less than 3% of that produced by wild-type P22 e416. Plating the collection of amber mutants covering 163 of the 164 codons of T4 lysozyme, on 13 suppressor strains that each insert a different amino acid substitutions at every position in the protein (except the first). Of the resulting 2015 single amino acid substitutions in T4 lysozyme, 328 were found to
The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. These purified proteins have been used to reconstitute DNA synthesis in vitro and are a well-characterized model system. Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the replication fork. Since the leading and lagging strands are synthesized in opposite directions, coordination of DNA synthesis as well as priming and unwinding is accomplished by several protein complexes. These protein complexes serve to link catalytic activities and physically tether proteins to the replication fork. Essential to both leading and lagging strand synthesis is the formation of a holoenzyme complex composed of the polymerase and a processivity clamp. The two holoenzymes form a dimer allowing the lagging strand polymerase to be retained within the replisome after completion of each Okazaki fragment. The helicase and primase
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Food treated with bacteriophage, as to reduce or prevent the growth of undesirable bacteria. The food treated comprises: a food product; a first, fatty or waxy coating layer on the food product; and a second coating layer comprising one or more bacteriophage strains, wherein the fatty or waxy coating layer is distinct from the coating layer comprising the one or more bacteriophage strains. The food may be coated with bacteriophage and rubbed to distribute the phage on the food surface. The food may be preferably a pet food. The food may be coated in two or more layers. A process for treating food with bacteriophage comprises contacting the food with the bacteriophage and rubbing the coated food surface. The coating and/or rubbing may be performed in vibratory conveyor.
Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. It was found that g23 sequences obtained from the rice field were quite distinctive from those obtained in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. ...
DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7-12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control ...
Summary The effects of amber mutations in the 24 known essential genes of phage T1 on phage-directed protein synthesis were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of radiolabelled polypeptides from infected non-permissive cells. Mutations in nine genes (genes 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 5, 7-8, 10, 13.3 and 15) each resulted in the failure to synthesize a single polypeptide. Since the synthesis of each of these polypeptides was at least partially restored in permissive infections and wholly restored in am + revertant infections we conclude that the affected polypeptide is the primary gene product. Mutations in genes 13.7, 16 and 17, which are required for head formation, are all defective in the synthesis of a 68000 mol. wt. non-structural polypeptide. Mutants in the head genes 13 and 14 fail to cleave P7p to P7, the major structural component of proheads. Gene 14 mutants also fail to make a 45000 mol. wt. non-structural polypeptide which appears to be involved with the gene 13 product in the P7p cleavage
Details: Particles were selected from scanned micrograph images, first automatically by the ethan method and then by manual screening with the boxer program in EMAN. The TEM instrument contrast transfer function parameters were determined automatically using fitctf2.py and were then visually validated using the EMAN ctfit program. The datasets were then divided into two subsets (even and odd) and processed completely independently, including both initial models and refinements. For 3D reconstructions, the whole datasets were divided into even-odd halves and the initial de novo models and subsequent iterative refinements were all independently performed for each half dataset. The images were first binned 4x to obtain initial models and particle parameters assuming icosahedral symmetry. De novo initial models were built using the random model approach. Random subsets of particles were assigned random initial orientations and iteratively refined until convergence. Consistent icosahedral capsid ...
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Bacteriophage phig1e Cng protein: a phage phi gle protein; amino acid sequence in first source; do not confuse with CNG channel (rod)
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere....
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
The ATCC Bacteriology Collection holds more than 3,600 type cultures of validly described species, forming the basis for systematic bacteriology, and nearly 500 bacteriophages.
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PRACTICAL4IntroductionThe purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate viral specificity. In this practical viral specificity is used as a tool to determine the unknown bacteria. Known bacteriophages can be used to determine unknown bacteriophages by o...
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In Chapter 1, "The Old Man of La Chapelle: The Patriarch of Paleo," author Lydia Pyne explains the publics evolving conception of the first complete Neanderthal skeleton found and described by scientists.. 1 Comment. ...
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The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, from the perspective of therapeutic purposes. Elution profiles of phages modified with specific affinity motifs (Figures 3,4,5 and 6) show substantially higher phage concentration in elution fractions compared to final washing samples. This indicates binding of modified phages to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Thus, affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Non-specific binding was also observed: unmodified phages or those modified with the non-specific tag were eluted with the titre 104-105 pfu/ml. Nevertheless, the unspecific binding is 102-105 times weaker than the specific one and importantly it does not interfere with the aim of preparation of purified anti-bacterial active bacteriophages for ...
Members of the RecA family of recombinases from bacteriophage T4, Escherichia coli, yeast, and higher eukaryotes function in recombination as higher-order oligomers assembled on tracts of single-strand DNA (ssDNA). Biochemical studies have shown that assembly of recombinase involves accessory factors. These studies have identified a class of proteins, called recombination mediator proteins, that act by promoting assembly of recombinase on ssDNA tracts that are bound by ssDNA-binding protein (ssb). In the absence of mediators, ssb inhibits recombination reactions by competing with recombinase for DNA-binding sites. Here we briefly review mediated recombinase assembly and present results of new in vivo experiments. Immuno-double-staining experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that Rad51, the eukaryotic recombinase, can assemble at or near sites containing ssb (replication protein A, RPA) during the response to DNA damage, consistent with a need for mediator activity. Correspondingly, mediator
Antibody-like structures present on cell surfaces may be detected by means of an assay using chemically modified bacteriophages. Guinea pig spleen and peritoneal cells bound specifically the chemically modified bacteriophage T4. The reaction occurred at low temperatures and in the presence of inhibitors of protein biosynthesis and of pinocytosis. Upon exposure to the corresponding hapten, the dinitrophenyl (DNP)-phages or the penicilloyl (Pen)-phages could be released from cells and subsequently counted. The specific binding of DNP-bacteriophage T4 was almost abolished after prior treatment of cells with an affinity labeling reagent.. The ability of peritoneal macrophage cells to bind the modified phage was due to the cytophilic antibodies passively adsorbed in vivo or in vitro. No such reaction occurred when cells from normal guinea pigs were used. In the spleen suspension, most of the modified phages were bound to non-adhering lymphocytes. Spleen cells from both normal and immunized guinea ...
Author SummaryCampylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Predation of C. jejuni by virulent bacteriophage offers the prospect of controlling bacterial populations at source in poultry. We report that in chickens, bacteriophage resistance is infrequent because the mutants that escape bacteriophage are not proficient in poultry colonisation but readily revert back to colonisation-proficient phage-sensitive types. Bacteriophage resistance is generated by reversible genomic scale inversions, leading to the activation of an unrelated bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial genome. These data not only suggest that bacteriophage therapy of C. jejuni would remain a sustainable measure to reduce poultry contamination but also demonstrate how bacterial genomes can evolve under the strong and widespread pressure of bacteriophage predation in the environment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genes within genes. T2 - independent expression of phage T4 intron open reading frames and the genes in which they reside.. AU - Gott, J. M.. AU - Zeeh, A.. AU - Bell-Pedersen, D.. AU - Ehrenman, Karen. AU - Belfort, M.. AU - Shub, D. A.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - The td, nrdB, and sunY introns of bacteriophage T4 each contain a long open reading frame (ORF). These ORFs are preceded by functional T4 late promoters and, in the case of the nrdB intron ORF, a functional middle promoter. Expression of phage-encoded intron ORF-lacZ fusions indicates that these T4 genes are highly regulated. The lack of translation of these ORFs from early pre-mRNAs can be accounted for by the presence of secondary structures that are absent from the late RNAs. Because translation of the intron ORFs could disrupt core structural elements required for pre-mRNA splicing, such regulation may be necessary to allow expression of the genes in which they reside.. AB - The td, nrdB, and sunY introns ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Models of bacteriophage DNA packaging motors. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - An ATP-dependent motor drives a DNA genome into a bacteriophage capsid during morphogenesis of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages both in vivo and in vitro. The DNA molecule enters the capsid through a channel in the center of a symmetric protein ring called a connector. Mechanisms in two classes have been proposed for this motor: (1) An ATP-driven rotating connector pulls a DNA molecule via serial power strokes. (2) The connector rectifies DNA motion that is either thermal, biased thermal, or oscillating electrical field-induced (motor-ratchet hypothesis). Mechanisms in the first class have previously been proposed to explain the detailed structure of DNA packaging motors. The present study demonstrates that the motor-ratchet hypothesis also explains the current data, including data in the following categories: biochemical genetics, energetics, structure, and packaging ...
My laboratory studies the structure and function of protein-DNA complexes required for the initiation and movement of DNA replication forks, for homologous recombination, and for DNA repair processes including double-strand break repair (DSBR). Our model systems include the bacteriophage T4, the extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and humans. Our experimental approaches include steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy, site-directed mutagenesis, single-molecule enzmology, X-ray crystallography, and others. Current projects in the lab include: Mechanisms of DNA helicase assembly and translocation at DNA replication forks. DNA helicase enzymes unwind double-stranded DNA at replication forks, allowing leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to occur. Studies of two DNA helicases, Gp41 and Dda, in the bacteriophage T4 replication system have provided important insights on the roles of helicase in ...
Today, consumers demand foods that are minimally processed, as natural as possible, and yet are convenient to use. Complicating these factors is a consumer preference toward cured and smoked foods that are processed with lower salt, lower nitrate and higher moisture levels. These parameters have a tremendous impact on the safety of a given cured/smoked food or process. Preferences for low fat and low sugar have less impact on the safety, but these factors can change the traditional curing and smoking process. It will be difficult to completely eliminate the use of nitrite, as there is no known substitute for it as a curing agent for meat. Nonetheless, the demand for fewer chemicals added to foods has put pressure on the industry and the scientific community to seek new alternatives. In-home vacuum packaging machines have become popular in recent years. It is important to realize that in-home vacuum packaging is not a substitution for cooking or any form of food preservation, e.g., ...

METHYL METHANESULFONATE MUTAGENESIS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 | GeneticsMETHYL METHANESULFONATE MUTAGENESIS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 | Genetics

MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. About 56% are base pair substitutions, about ... Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. The induction of G:C → A:T transitions was detected even in a px or y ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/102/4/639

Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.

Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region containing imm ... Abstract : Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region ...
more infohttp://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA186463

Bacteriophage T4 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystBacteriophage T4 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Bacteriophage T4" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacteriophage T4" was a major or minor topic of ... Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the ... "Bacteriophage T4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Crystal structure of the bacteriophage T4 late-transcription coactivator gp33 with the ß-subunit flap domain of Escherichia ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Bacteriophage%20T4

Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases | PNASSuppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases | PNAS

Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases. John W. Drake and Elaine O. ... These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the ... Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens ... Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/66/3/823?ijkey=5653edd85d5ec694e6d74310ade1f6f5c1ef3095&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Viruses | Free Full-Text | Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 ReplisomeViruses | Free Full-Text | Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome

Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... Noble, E.; Spiering, M.M.; Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. Viruses 2015, 7, 3186- ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/6/3186

Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme molecule - Stock Image F006/9216 - Science Photo LibraryBacteriophage T4 lysozyme molecule - Stock Image F006/9216 - Science Photo Library

Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell ... Keywords: alpha helix, artwork, bacteriophage, bacteriophage t4, bacteriophage t4 lysozyme, beta sheet, biochemical, ... Caption: Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/525490/view

Bacteriophage T4 viruses, illustration - Stock Image C024/7526 - Science Photo LibraryBacteriophage T4 viruses, illustration - Stock Image C024/7526 - Science Photo Library

3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. ... Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material ... forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of ... Caption: Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/660139/view

CiteSeerX - Citation Query Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4.CiteSeerX - Citation Query Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4.

Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. ... Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (1970) by U K Laemmli ...
more infohttp://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/showciting?cid=52905

A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague | mBioA Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague | mBio

Schematic of the bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle platform. (A) Structural model of phage T4. The enlarged capsomer shows the ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... Phage RB69 is closely related to T4, and its Soc protein binds to phage T4 capsid as well as the T4 Soc protein does (34). As ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/9/5/e01926-18

Biosorption of Heavy Metals onto the Surface of Bacteriophage T4 by Zheng Huan Tan"Biosorption of Heavy Metals onto the Surface of Bacteriophage T4" by Zheng Huan Tan

Here we conducted a series of experiments to assess the biosorption potential of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4. Adsorption ... The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn2+ onto the surface of phage T4. Zn2+ ... The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 ... Zeta potential analysis demonstrated phage T4 (1010 VLPs mL-1) not exposed to zinc at pH 7.0 to be approximately -11.48 ± 1.16 ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.unl.edu/bioscidiss/64/

In vivo restriction. Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA.In vivo restriction. Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA.

Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. ... We have located seven major endonuclease II-dependent restriction sites in the T4 genome, of which three were analyzed in ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/In-vivo-restriction-Sequence-structure/1744134.html

RCSB PDB 









- 1OCY: Structure of the receptor-binding domain of the bacteriophage T4 short tail fibre Macromolecule...RCSB PDB - 1OCY: Structure of the receptor-binding domain of the bacteriophage T4 short tail fibre Macromolecule...

The Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Bacteriophage T4 Short Tail Fibre Reveals a Knitted Trimeric Metal-Binding ... receptor-binding domain of the bacteriophage t4 short tail fibre, domain 2 receptor-binding domain of the bacteriophage t4 ... heat- and protease-stable fragment of the bacteriophage t4 short fibre, domain 3 heat- and protease-stable fragment of the ... Structure of the receptor-binding domain of the bacteriophage T4 short tail fibre. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1OCY

T4 Bacteriophage Cell-Puncturing DeviceT4 Bacteriophage Cell-Puncturing Device

... Clint Priestley 03 and Matt Schefft 04. Contents:. I. Introduction II. General ... The T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device consists of two proteins that form a stable complex which makes up the hub of the ... The T4 bacteriophage consists of a head, phage tail, and baseplate. The head contains double stranded viral DNA, which is ... The lytic cycle allows the T4 bacteriophage to transform a host cell into a replication machine. Phages exhibit chracteristics ...
more infohttp://biology.kenyon.edu/BMB/Chime2/2002/T4injector/FRAMES/start.htm

RCSB PDB - 1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN...RCSB PDB - 1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN...

STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN THR157 (RIGHT ARROW ... Structure of Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme Refined at 1.7 Angstroms Resolution. Weaver, L.H.,Matthews, B.W.. (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 193 ... Crystallographic Data for Lysozyme from Bacteriophage T4. Matthews, B.W.,Dahlquist, F.W.,Maynard, A.Y.. (1973) J.Mol.Biol. 78: ... Common Precursor of Lysozymes of Hen Egg-White and Bacteriophage T4. Matthews, B.W.,Gruetter, M.G.,Anderson, W.F.,Remington, S. ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/1L10

Sandwalk: Green T4 Bacteriophage EarringsSandwalk: Green T4 Bacteriophage Earrings

I worked on bacteriophage T4 as a graduate student and she helped me type my thesis. Its the perfect gift. [NEW - Green T4 ... I dunno, my wife would be totally into T4 earrings (but only if they were purple).. ...
more infohttp://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2012/08/green-t4-bacteriophage-earrings.html

Expression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli. | Journal of VirologyExpression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli. | Journal of Virology

Expression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli.. J K DeVries, S S Wallace ... Expression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli. ... Expression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli. ... Expression of cloned bacteriophage T4 uvsW and uvsY genes in rec+ and rec- Escherichia coli. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/47/3/406?ijkey=5155c1ab4b5cfeca725bdbf953f37f315741c361&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. | Infection and ImmunityDisplay of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. | Infection and Immunity

Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.. J Jiang, L Abu-Shilbayeh, V B ... The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; ... Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. ... Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/65/11/4770?ijkey=c3223917521a9c8f9e418903097f2c71c61a26b3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

ULTRAVIOLET-INDUCED MUTATION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 - The University of Arizona Campus RepositoryULTRAVIOLET-INDUCED MUTATION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 - The University of Arizona Campus Repository

ULTRAVIOLET-INDUCED MUTATION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4. Author:. Yarosh, Daniel Bruce. Issue Date:. 1978 Publisher:. The University ... ULTRAVIOLET-INDUCED MUTATION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 Persistent Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10150/290477. Title:. ...
more infohttp://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/290477

Bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase translocates in a unidirectional fashion on single-stranded DNA<...Bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase translocates in a unidirectional fashion on single-stranded DNA<...

N2 - The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been shown to ... AB - The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been shown to ... The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been shown to ... abstract = "The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/bacteriophage-t4-dda-helicase-translocates-in-a-unidirectional-fa

Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its...Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its...

Maturation of bacteriophage T4 lagging strand fragments depends on interaction of T4 RNase H with T4 32 protein rather than the ... Bacteriophage T4 DNA primase-helicase. Characterization of the DNA synthesis primed by T4 61 protein in the absence of T4 41 ... Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its ... Bacteriophage T4 DNA primase-helicase. Characterization of oligomer synthesis by T4 61 protein alone and in conjunction with T4 ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3012046/

PPT - T4 Bacteriophage PowerPoint presentation | free to view  - id: 25bd85-ZDc1ZPPT - T4 Bacteriophage PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 25bd85-ZDc1Z

T4 Bacteriophage. 1. T4 Bacteriophage 2. What is a Bacteriophage?*A small virus that only infects bacteria wikipedia ... Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview - Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview Viral Replication Dependent on hosts organelles ... DNA Bacteriophage Structure and Assembly: - ... of lambda and T4 tail tubes Micrographs of T4 tail tubes containing 5 key ... Bacteriophage - Bacteriophage Bacteriophage (Phage) Definition - Obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria ...
more infohttp://www.powershow.com/view1/25bd85-ZDc1Z/T4_Bacteriophage_powerpoint_ppt_presentation

Purification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography | BMC Biotechnology | Full TextPurification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography | BMC Biotechnology | Full Text

Therefore T4 is a potent model for general investigations. The T4 bacteriophage capsid has been modified successfully with ... Bacteriophage T4 was also found applicable for multi-component anthrax toxin and for HIV antigen presentation in in vitro phage ... Sathaliyawala T, Rao M, Maclean DM, Birx DL, Alving CR, Rao VB: Assembly of HIV antigens on bacteriophage T4: a novel in vitro ... Miller ES, Kutter E, Mosig G, Arisaka F, Kunisawa T, Rüger W: Bacteriophage T4 genome. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003, 67: 86-156 ...
more infohttps://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6750-11-59

In vitro ligation of oligodeoxynucleotides containing C8-oxidized purine lesions using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase<...In vitro ligation of oligodeoxynucleotides containing C8-oxidized purine lesions using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase<...

Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the ... Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the ... Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the ... Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/in-vitro-ligation-of-oligodeoxynucleotides-containing-c8-oxidized

Polbase - Reference: Transversion mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4.Polbase - Reference: Transversion mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4.

T4 R573C,T4 P447L,T4 A89TD363N,T4 A737V,T4 A777V,T4 G694S,T4 ... Transversion mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4. Ripley LS. Mol ... Transversion mutations can be distinguished from transition mutations by the use of special tauII mutants of bacteriophage T4. ...
more infohttps://polbase.neb.com/references/1037
  • T4 is also composed of three trimeric gp5-gp27 units. (kenyon.edu)
  • To understand the influence of the C-terminal trimerization domain on the properties of soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers, uncleaved, soluble gp140 glycoproteins were stabilized by fusion with another trimeric motif derived from T4 bacteriophage fibritin. (asm.org)
  • The mechanism by which the trimeric bacteriophage T4 clamp protein (the 45 protein) loads and dissociates from DNA was investigated as a function of its intersubunit protein-protein interactions. (neb.com)
  • We engineered a virus nanoparticle vaccine using bacteriophage T4 by incorporating key antigens of both B. anthracis and Y. pestis into one formulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4. (dtic.mil)
  • The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacterium's own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. (sciencephoto.com)
  • By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, with the perspective of therapeutic purposes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The T4 bacterophage is an important tool in research as well as a good system of study. (kenyon.edu)
  • From there, she was recruited to Vanderbilt University to study bacteriophage T4, a topic for which she became a leading investigator. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP‐synthesizing complex has been built. (embopress.org)
  • This makes T4 an excellent vehicle for the insertion of a specific DNA sequence or vector. (kenyon.edu)
  • An introductory course on the T3/T4 translational research domains. (harvard.edu)