A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Bacteriophage phi X 174
Bacteriophage phi 6
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viral Tail Proteins
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Amino Acid Sequence
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Nucleic Acid Conformation
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Genetic Complementation Test
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Nucleic Acid Denaturation
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 188.8.131.52.
RNA Ligase (ATP)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Viral Plaque Assay
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific)
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 184.108.40.206.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Viral Structural Proteins
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Attachment Sites, Microbiological
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Open Reading Frames
Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer)
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Drug Resistance, Microbial
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Rec A Recombinases
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (1/780)Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations. (+info)
Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex. (2/780)Bacteriophage T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase (EC 220.127.116.11), a homodimer of 246-residue subunits, catalyzes hydroxymethylation of the cytosine base in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) to produce 5-hydroxymethyl-dCMP. It forms part of a phage DNA protection system and appears to function in vivo as a component of a multienzyme complex called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthetase. We have determined its crystal structure in the presence of the substrate dCMP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a subunit fold and a dimerization pattern in common with thymidylate synthases, despite low (approximately 20%) sequence identity. Among the residues that form the dCMP binding site, those interacting with the sugar and phosphate are arranged in a configuration similar to the deoxyuridylate binding site of thymidylate synthases. However, the residues interacting directly or indirectly with the cytosine base show a more divergent structure and the presumed folate cofactor binding site is more open. Our structure reveals a water molecule properly positioned near C-6 of cytosine to add to the C-7 methylene intermediate during the last step of hydroxymethylation. On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP-synthesizing complex has been built. (+info)
X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease VII: a DNA junction resolvase with a novel fold and unusual domain-swapped dimer architecture. (3/780)Phage T4 endonuclease VII (Endo VII), the first enzyme shown to resolve Holliday junctions, recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA substrates ranging from branched DNAs to single base mismatches. We have determined the crystal structures of the Ca2+-bound wild-type and the inactive N62D mutant enzymes at 2.4 and 2.1 A, respectively. The Endo VII monomers form an elongated, highly intertwined molecular dimer exhibiting extreme domain swapping. The major dimerization elements are two pairs of antiparallel helices forming a novel 'four-helix cross' motif. The unique monomer fold, almost completely lacking beta-sheet structure and containing a zinc ion tetrahedrally coordinated to four cysteines, does not resemble any of the known junction-resolving enzymes, including the Escherichia coli RuvC and lambda integrase-type recombinases. The S-shaped dimer has two 'binding bays' separated by approximately 25 A which are lined by positively charged residues and contain near their base residues known to be essential for activity. These include Asp40 and Asn62, which function as ligands for the bound calcium ions. A pronounced bipolar charge distribution suggests that branched DNA substrates bind to the positively charged face with the scissile phosphates located near the divalent cations. A model for the complex with a four-way DNA junction is presented. (+info)
The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg. (4/780)The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed. (+info)
Computational studies on mutant protein stability: The correlation between surface thermal expansion and protein stability. (5/780)Thermal stability of mutant proteins has been investigated using temperature dependent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in vacuo. The numerical modeling was aimed at mimicking protein expansion upon heating. After the conditions for an expanding protein accessible surface area were established for T4 lysozyme and barnase wild-type proteins, MD simulations were carried out under the same conditions using the crystal structures of several mutant proteins. The computed thermal expansion of the accessible surface area of mutant proteins was found to be strongly correlated with their experimentally measured stabilities. A similar, albeit weaker, correlation was observed for model mutant proteins. This opens the possibility of obtaining stability information directly from protein structure. (+info)
T4 RNA ligase catalyzes the synthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates. (6/780)T4 RNA ligase has been shown to synthesize nucleoside and dinucleoside 5'-polyphosphates by displacement of the AMP from the E-AMP complex with polyphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Displacement of the AMP by tripolyphosphate (P3) was concentration dependent, as measured by SDS/PAGE. When the enzyme was incubated in the presence of 0.02 mm [alpha-32P] ATP, synthesis of labeled Ap4A was observed: ATP was acting as both donor (Km, microm) and acceptor (Km, mm) of AMP from the enzyme. Whereas, as previously known, ATP or dATP (but not other nucleotides) were able to form the E-AMP complex, the specificity of a compound to be acceptor of AMP from the E-AMP complex was very broad, and with Km values between 1 and 2 mm. In the presence of a low concentration (0.02 mm) of [alpha-32P] ATP (enough to form the E-AMP complex, but only marginally enough to form Ap4A) and 4 mm of the indicated nucleotides or P3, the relative rate of synthesis of the following radioactive (di)nucleotides was observed: Ap4X (from XTP, 100); Ap4dG (from dGTP, 74); Ap4G (from GTP, 49); Ap4dC (from dCTP, 23); Ap4C (from CTP, 9); Ap3A (from ADP, 5); Ap4ddA, (from ddATP, 1); p4A (from P3, 200). The enzyme also synthesized efficiently Ap3A in the presence of 1 mm ATP and 2 mm ADP. The following T4 RNA ligase donors were inhibitors of the synthesis of Ap4G: pCp > pAp > pA2'p. (+info)
The C-terminal fragment of the precursor tail lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 stays as a structural component of the baseplate after cleavage. (7/780)Tail-associated lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 (tail lysozyme), the product of gene 5 (gp 5), is an essential structural component of the hub of the phage baseplate. It is synthesized as a 63-kDa precursor, which later cleaves to form mature gp 5 with a molecular weight of 43,000. To elucidate the role of the C-terminal region of the precursor protein, gene 5 was cloned and overexpressed and the product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, analytical ultracentrifugation, and circular dichroism. It was shown that the precursor protein tends to be cleaved into two fragments during expression and that the cleavage site is close to or perhaps identical to the cleavage site in the infected cell. The two fragments, however, remained associated. The lysozyme activity of the precursor or the nicked protein is about 10% of that of mature gp 5. Both the N-terminal mature tail lysozyme and the C-terminal fragment were then isolated and characterized by far-UV circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation. The latter remained trimeric after dissociation from the N-terminal fragment and is rich in beta-structure as predicted by an empirical method. To trace the fate of the C-terminal fragment, antiserum was raised against a synthesized peptide of the last 12 C-terminal residues. Surprisingly, the C-terminal fragment was found in the tail and the phage particle by immunoblotting. The significance of this finding is discussed in relation to the molecular assembly and infection process. (+info)
Bacteriophage T4 rnh (RNase H) null mutations: effects on spontaneous mutation and epistatic interaction with rII mutations. (8/780)The bacteriophage T4 rnh gene encodes T4 RNase H, a relative of a family of flap endonucleases. T4 rnh null mutations reduce burst sizes, increase sensitivity to DNA damage, and increase the frequency of acriflavin resistance (Acr) mutations. Because mutations in the related Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 gene display a remarkable duplication mutator phenotype, we further explored the impact of rnh mutations upon the mutation process. We observed that most Acr mutants in an rnh+ strain contain ac mutations, whereas only roughly half of the Acr mutants detected in an rnhDelta strain bear ac mutations. In contrast to the mutational specificity displayed by most mutators, the DNA alterations of ac mutations arising in rnhDelta and rnh+ backgrounds are indistinguishable. Thus, the increase in Acr mutants in an rnhDelta background is probably not due to a mutator effect. This conclusion is supported by the lack of increase in the frequency of rI mutations in an rnhDelta background. In a screen that detects mutations at both the rI locus and the much larger rII locus, the r frequency was severalfold lower in an rnhDelta background. This decrease was due to the phenotype of rnh rII double mutants, which display an r+ plaque morphology but retain the characteristic inability of rII mutants to grow on lambda lysogens. Finally, we summarize those aspects of T4 forward-mutation systems which are relevant to optimal choices for investigating quantitative and qualitative aspects of the mutation process. (+info)
Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. | Infection and Immunity
The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Mechanisims and Biological Significance of Recombination-dependent DNA Replication (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
Principal Investigator：MASAI Hisao, Project Period (FY)：1995 - 1996, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section：一般, Research Field：Functional biochemistry
Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. | Journal of Virology
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same ...
Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases | PNAS
Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. Spontaneous mutation and mutagenesis by 2-aminopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and thymine deprivation are strongly suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by ethyl methanesulfonate, and at A:T sites by nitrous acid, is moderately suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by hydroxylamine and by nitrous acid is not suppressed. These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. The data also reveal that mutagenic specificities of chemical agents depend as much upon the characteristics of the enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication as they do upon the chemistry of primary mutational lesions.. ...
Giant DNA Model
Giant DNA Model-Towering nearly 3 feet tall, this highly visible DNA molecule is ideally suited to lecture hall presentations. But your students will find it is even more effective for hands-on investigations into the functional unit of heredity. Mag
Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays. AU - Shaw, Denise R.. AU - Maurelli, Anthony T.. AU - Goguen, Jon D.. AU - Straley, Susan C.. AU - Curtiss, Roy. PY - 1983/1/14. Y1 - 1983/1/14. N2 - We have utilized lysis from without mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique we describe has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37°C, with a , 103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the ...
TWO-STEP RESISTANCE BY ESCHERICHIA COLI B TO BACTERIOPHAGE T2 | Genetics
Numerous authors have noted the difficulty in obtaining mutants of E. coli B that are resistant to bacteriophage T2 using standard procedures of plating large numbers of cells in the presence of excess phage. Yet, T2-resistant mutants appear in continuous culture at rates inconsistent with this difficulty. This paradoxical result derives from the fact that resistance to T2 usually arises as a consequence of two nonindependent mutations. Mutant bacteria resistant to phage T4 are very common and increase rapidly in continuous culture with phage T2 owing to an approximate halving of the rate at which T2 adsorbs to and kills these partially resistant mutants. The rate at which these partially resistant mutants then give rise to fully resistant mutants is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the rate obtained by direct selection. These results are consistent with biochemical evidence that T2 adsorption to E. coli B involves both the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (to which phage T4 ...
RCSB PDB - 1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN...
1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN THR157 (RIGHT ARROW) ILE
Transcriptional inhibition of the bacteriophage T7 early promoter region by oligonucleotide triple helix formation
We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav …
Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular...
Read Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein Summary Report | CureHunter
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs | Genetics
Figure 2. -Gene expression of a gene 61.5 mutant in a motA- genetic background. (A) MH1 cells were infected with motA- or 61.5- motA- phage. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled and analyzed as described in materials and methods. Middle-gene products are indicated by arrowheads and late-gene products by arrows. Gp43 forms a highly diffuse band in an 8% polyacrylamide gel (as seen here) for unknown reasons. The rate of synthesis of late-gene (B) or middle-gene products (C) at each time was measured by densitometry of each protein band and expressed in arbitrary units. Open and solid circles represent the rates of synthesis in motA--infected or 61.5- motA-infected cells, respectively. Because the gp23 band was close to other bands in A, the rate for this protein was derived from another experiment (not shown) in which the gp23 band was separated from others.. ...
Double-strand break of giant DNA: Protection by glucosyl-hesperidin as evidenced through direct observation on individual DNA molecules ...
Dramatic Change in the Tertiary Structure of Giant DNA without Distortion of the Secondary Structure Caused by Pteridine - Polyamine Conjugates ...
Sequence Similarity - 1DYB: DETERMINATION OF ALPHA-HELIX PROPENSITY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF A FOLDED PROTEIN: SITES 44...
1DYB: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
Royalpharma Auto Pharmacy Tablet Blister Carton Box Packaging Machine - Buy Carton Box Packaging Machine,Automatic Carton Box...
Royalpharma Auto Pharmacy Tablet Blister Carton Box Packaging Machine , Find Complete Details about Royalpharma Auto Pharmacy Tablet Blister Carton Box Packaging Machine,Carton Box Packaging Machine,Automatic Carton Box Packaging Machine,Blister Carton Box Packaging Machine from Other Packaging Machines Supplier or Manufacturer-Shanghai Royal Pharmaceutical Machinery Co., Ltd.
Automatic Scale Filling Packaging Machine,General Liquid(or High Viscosity Liquid) Scale Filling Packaging Machine,Vertical...
Automatic Scale Filling Packaging Machine,General Liquid(or High Viscosity Liquid) Scale Filling Packaging Machine,Vertical Packaging Machine,Vacuum Packaging Machine,Bagging, Counting, Weighing with Sealing,Others,Others,Others,Tea Bag Machines /Auto tag and string attachment machine,Pen Packaging Machine,
Paper Plastic Battery Packaging Machine - Horizontal packaging machine
blister-packingmachineButton Battery Paper PVC Automatic Blister Packing Machine With PLC ControldiytradeAutomatic Battery Paper Plastic Packing Machine BEST-800 Paper And Plastic Pack (China Paper Plastic Battery Packaging MachineBattery Blister Paper Card Packaging Machine - Buy Battery Packaging Machine,Blister Paper Card Paper Plastic Battery Packaging MachinePaper Plastic Battery Packing High Frequency Blister Packaging Machine - Buy Colorful Paper And Paper Plastic Battery Packaging MachinealiexpressZONESUN BST 19 Portable Battery Powered PP Plastic Strapping Machine Hand Strapping Tool for Paper Plastic Battery Packaging Machine imagesBulk-buy Automatic Stationery/Battery/Food Paper Plastic Paper Plastic Battery Packaging ...
Blister tablet automatic packaging machine video from FOSHAN DESSION PACKAGING MACHINERY Co.,LTD
medical automatic packaging machine tablet automatic packaging machine blister automatic packaging machine pills automatic packaging machine DS-250D Foshan Dession Packaigng Machinery Co.,Ltd. Rotary packaging machine with automatic feeding system
Wholesale Juice Packaging Machine, China Wholesale Juice Packaging Machine Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Wholesale Juice Packaging Machine - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Juice Packaging Machine products in best price from certified Chinese Carton Packaging Machine manufacturers, Auto Packaging Machine suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
small outer capsid protein - Chinese - English Dictionary with Pinyin & Handwriting Recognition. View stroke orders for each character too!
Label Tea Bag Packaging Machine - Label Tea Bag Packaging Machine Suppliers, Buyers, Wholesalers and Manufacturers - ecplaza.net
Label Tea Bag Packaging Machine directory ☆ Label Tea Bag Packaging Machine manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Label Tea Bag Packaging Machine buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
China Food Pouch Packaging Machine, Food Pouch Packaging Machine Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
China Food Pouch Packaging Machine manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Food Pouch Packaging Machine products in best price from certified Chinese Food Packaging Machine manufacturers, Pouch Machine suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Small Packaging Machine
Manufacturer of Small Packaging Machine - packing machine & Powder Small Packaging Machine (All in one), Masala Powder Packing Machine, Oil Pouch Packing Machine and Paste Ketchup Sauce Pickle Packing Machine offered by Sampack India Private Limited, Kochi, Kerala.
Hot selling slippery elm bark powder packaging machine
Manufacturer of Hot selling slippery elm bark powder packaging machine - packing machine & Powder Hot selling slippery elm bark powder packaging machine (All in one), Masala Powder Packing Machine, Oil Pouch Packing Machine and Paste Ketchup Sauce Pickle Packing Machine offered by Sampack India Private Limited, Kochi, Kerala.
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Look Whos Talking: T-Even Phage Lysis Inhibition, the Granddaddy of Virus-Virus Intercellular...
That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
China Multilane Side Sealing Bag Packing Machine / Packaging Equipment - China Packing Machine, Packaging Machine
China Multilane Side Sealing Bag Packing Machine / Packaging Equipment, Find details about China Packing Machine, Packaging Machine from Multilane Side Sealing Bag Packing Machine / Packaging Equipment - Shanghai Kingrun Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd.
China Shrink Warpping Machine, Shrink Packing Machine, Shrink Wrapper - China Heat Shrink Packaging Machine, Shrink Wrapping...
China Shrink Warpping Machine, Shrink Packing Machine, Shrink Wrapper, Find details about China Heat Shrink Packaging Machine, Shrink Wrapping Machine from Shrink Warpping Machine, Shrink Packing Machine, Shrink Wrapper - China SME Group Co., Ltd.
China Pouch Filling Machine - China Sachet Packing Machine, Sachet Packaging Machine
China Pouch Filling Machine, Find details about China Sachet Packing Machine, Sachet Packaging Machine from Pouch Filling Machine - Angel & Foryou Machinery Co., Limited
Bacteriophage T4 viruses, illustration - Stock Image C024/7526 - Science Photo Library
Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Wrapping machines supplier,automatic form fill machines exporter,wrapping machines exporter,automatic form fill machines...
PRESTO PACK SYSTEMS PVT. LTD. - Supplier, exporter and manufacturer of wrapping machines, automatic form fill machines, packing wrapping machines, liquid packaging machines, pouch packaging machines, packaging machines parts,form filling seal machines and sachet packing machines.
YB-150J Shanghai factory Automatic VFFS Fruit Jam/fruit juice pillow Packing Machine
Jam Packaging Machine Wholesale, Packaging Machine Suppliers 6923 products A wide variety of jam packaging machine options are available to you, such as JB-150J Factory Price 5g 10g Water Pouch Fruit Jam Honey Chili P...
A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. | Harvard Catalyst...
A 7-kDa region of the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein is required for primase but not for helicase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):396-400 ...
Polbase - Results for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating structure to function., Polymerase: T4 G298D, Property: Nucleotide Substitution Rate
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the...
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
Packaging Machines - Tagged Continous Band Sealer with Air Flushing - Optimanovel Packaging Technologies
All Packing Machinery & Tools , Both Automatic & semi automatic , Consisting of Shrink wrap Chamber , Shrink Tunnels ,Web sealer+Tunnel,L- bar Sealing ,Box wrapping ,PP Strapping , Continuous Band sealing , Pedal & Hand sealer,Carton Taping , Vacuum Packing,Granule,Liquid & Paste Filling ,Coders,Cling
Chinese first generation of film packing machine;. The first unit small salt packaging machine(equipped with electronic scale) was developed and launched, which filled the blanks of slat packing industry;. The first generation ZL series full-automatic vertical packing machine entered the industry of liquid ,seasoning, salt ,powder ,quick-freezing ,etc;. Soontrue developed the first generation of facial tissue packaging machine, which solved the packaging problem of facial tissue;. The technology was cooperated with Japan TOPACK ,Soontrue singed the first production line of multi lanes machines with Shanghai Pharmaceutical Co.. The first generation high speed vertical packing machine was successfully developed, and headed to North America and gained recognition.. ...
2 Hours Replied Automatic Cup Filling and Sealing Machine - Horizontal packaging machine
Aug 05, 2021 cup sealing machineWantJoin Cup Sealing Machine Full Automatic Cup Sealer Machine 90/95mm Electric Cup Sealing WantJoin Manual Cup Sealing Machine Electric Milk Tea Cup Sealer Machine for 180mm Tall and 8BestEquip Fully Automatic Sealing Machine 500-650Cups Per Hour Boba Sealer Digital Control BlacManual Cup Sealing Machine 300-500 Cups/Hour Electric Cup Sealer for 180mm Tall 95mm Cup 1See a full list on amazonAutomatic Cup Washing And Filling Sealing Machine With 2 Hours Replied Automatic Cup Filling and Sealing ...
China Filling Machine,Packaging Machine,Food Machine,Beverage Solutions,Plastic Machine,Card Machine - LUWICO
Features This machine integrates functions such as feeding bottles, sorting&placing&screwing caps, and delivering bottles. It automatically sorts pump type caps, and adjusts positions of pump type caps; and it automatically placing&screwing caps. Its automation is as advan ...
China Filling Machine,Packaging Machine,Food Machine,Beverage Solutions,Plastic Machine,Card Machine - LUWICO
No matter work separate or together, our workstation series always can use the simple an elegant lines to draw an ideal office space for you. Features: Structure,simplicity,neat;Module,combine flexibly,changed freely;A confident design in sending out the elegant; A design which will lead the trend ...
2017 new model bottled water packaging machine 32 filling nozzel Lagos
Suitable for:PET bottles;Filling system:gravity filling;Production capacity:4,000BPH -6,000BPH(350ml)Technical feature of water filling machine:It is adopted that ditect connection between air convey
Polbase - Reference: Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions at the bacteriophage T4 DNA replication fork....
The 44/62 complex mediates the interaction of gp45 with DNA dependent on ATP but not its hydrolysis. ATP hydrolysis causes the 44/62 complex to change the conformation of gp45 which is thought o be DNA loading into the clamp
Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA | PNAS
Frafments of phage T7 DNA have been cloned in Escherichia coli by using the plasmid pMB9. Such cloned fragments are able to recombine with infecting phages, thus providing a means to integrate the physical and genetic maps of T7 DNA. Approximately 65% of the T7 DNA molecule has been found in clones so far, and analysis of these clones has mapped genes 12-17 with an accuracy of about 1% the total length of T7 DNA. At least some cloned segments can supply T7 functions to infecting phages.. ...
Bacteriophage T7-like, protein 6.7 (IPR020134) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Propagating the missing bacteriophages: a large bacteriophage in a new class | Springer for Research & Development
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Servo and motion Control Automation for VFFS Machines by Messung
Messung partners with packaging machine builders to create tailored solutions that enhance the performance and value of their machines.
Bacteriophage - Stock Image F002/0293 - Science Photo Library
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
Biology-Online • View topic - bacteriophages
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
New Modes of Bacteriophage Spread are Discovered
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
Bacteriophages provide promising results against multidrug-resistant E.coli - Infectious Disease Hub
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
Gentaur Molecular :bio-gentaur \ MS2 Bacteriophage \ GEN0810066
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , bio-gentaur \ MS2 Bacteriophage \ GEN0810066 for more molecular products just contact us
Sega Bodega - self*care - Boomkat
self*care is the keenly awaited debut EP by Sega Bodega, a none-more-hyped producer whos already racked up credits for Quay Dash and Shygirl, and
DNA Experiments - WriteWork
1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
From there, she was recruited to Vanderbilt University to study bacteriophage T4, a topic for which she became a leading ... Miller, ES; Kutter, E; Mosig, G; Arisaka, F; Kunisawa, T; Rüger, W (March 2003). "Bacteriophage T4 genome". Microbiology and ... Luder, A; Mosig, G (February 1982). "Two alternative mechanisms for initiation of DNA replication forks in bacteriophage T4: ... Mathews, Christoper K.; Kutter, Elizabeth M.; Mosig, Gisela; Berget, Peter B. (1983). Bacteriophage T4. Washington, D.C.: ...
Escherichia virus T4 (phage T4) is a species of bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. It is a double-stranded ... 24-25 Miller ES, Kutter E, Mosig G, Arisaka F, Kunisawa T, Rüger W (March 2003). "Bacteriophage T4 genome". Microbiology and ... PMID 12626685 Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Bacteriophage T4 genetic homologies with bacteria and eucaryotes. J Bacteriol. 1989 May ... The numbers of reported genetic homologies between phage T4 and bacteria and between phage T4 and eukaryotes are similar ...
Type II topoisomerase
Bacteriophage T4 gene 39". Nucleic Acids Research. 14 (19): 7751-65. doi:10.1093/nar/14.19.7751. PMC 311794. PMID 3022233. ... Hyman P (August 1993). "The genetics of the Luria-Latarjet effect in bacteriophage T4: evidence for the involvement of multiple ... Mufti S, Bernstein H (October 1974). "The DNA-delay mutants of bacteriophage T4". Journal of Virology. 14 (4): 860-71. doi: ... McCarthy D (January 1979). "Gyrase-dependent initiation of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: interactions of Escherichia coli ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Animation by Hybrid Animation Medical for a T4 Bacteriophage targeting E. coli bacteria. ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ...
The bacterium E. coli is the host for bacteriophage T4. The bacteriophage encoded gp31 protein appears to be homologous to the ... The gene product 31 (gp31) of bacteriophage T4 is a protein required for bacteriophage morphogenesis that acts catalytically ... Marusich EI, Kurochkina LP, Mesyanzhinov VV (April 1998). "Chaperones in bacteriophage T4 assembly". Biochemistry (Moscow). 63 ... stable complex with GroEL chaperonin that is absolutely necessary for the folding and assembly in vivo of the bacteriophage T4 ...
The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ... and the virus bacteriophage T4. In several such studies, numerous mutations defective in the same gene were isolated and mapped ... In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... Intragenic complementation among temperature sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Genetics. 1965;51(6):987-1002. Crick FH, ...
Genomic map of bacteriophage T4, p. 491-519. In J Karam, JW Drake, KN Kreuzer, G Mosig, DH Hall, FA Eiserling, LW Black, EK ... As the early mapping of genes on the bacteriophage T4 chromosome progressed, it became evident that the arrangement of the ... Molecular biology of bacteriophage T4. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. Obringer JW. The functions of the ... For instance genes that specify proteins employed in bacteriophage head morphogenesis are tightly clustered. Other examples of ...
During growth of bacteriophage T4, an imbalance of thymine availability, either a deficiency or an excess of thymine, causes ... Thymineless mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4. Genetics. 1973 Jul;74(3):393-403. PMID: 4270369; PMCID: PMC1212957 Deutch CE, ...
Chaperones in bacteriophage T4 assembly. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998;63(4):399-406 Porter, Lauren L.; Looger, Loren L. (5 June ... The bacterium E. coli is the host for bacteriophage T4, and the phage encoded gp31 protein (P17313) appears to be structurally ... coli chaperone protein GroES and able to substitute for it in the assembly of bacteriophage T4 virus particles during infection ... stable complex with GroEL chaperonin that is absolutely necessary for the folding and assembly in vivo of the bacteriophage T4 ...
The genes of bacteriophage (phage) T4 that encode proteins with a role in determining phage T4 structure were identified using ... Chaperones in bacteriophage T4 assembly. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998;63(4):399-406 Benler S, Hung SH, Vander Griend JA, Peters GA ... Published 2010 Dec 3. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-355 Hyman P, van Raaij M. Bacteriophage T4 long tail fiber domains. Biophys Rev. ... Gp4 is a nuclease required for morphogenesis of T4-like bacteriophages. Virology. 2020;543:7-12. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2020.01. ...
The bacterium E. coli is the host for bacteriophage T4 that has a prolate head structure. The bacteriophage encoded gp31 ... Chaperones in bacteriophage T4 assembly. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998;63(4):399-406 Yamada S, Matsuzawa T, Yamada K, Yoshioka S, ... coli chaparone protein GroES and able to substitute for it in the assembly of bacteriophage T4 virions during infection. Like ... For example, the bacteriophage PRD1, the algal virus Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1), mimivirus and the mammalian ...
Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a ... 42-43 Rossmann MG, Mesyanzhinov VV, Arisaka F, Leiman PG (April 2004). "The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine". Current ... The host range of some bacteriophages is limited to a single strain of bacteria and they can be used to trace the source of ... Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant biological entity in aquatic environments- ...
These are exemplified by bacteriophage T4 and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, also referred to as giant viruses. The ... Yap ML, Rossmann MG (December 2014). "Structure and function of bacteriophage T4". Future Microbiology. 9 (12): 1319-27. doi: ...
Bacteriophage (phage) T4 gene 43 encodes the phage's DNA polymerase replicative enzyme. Temperature-sensitive (ts) gene 43 ... Antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1968;33:339-44. doi: 10.1101/sqb.1968.033. ... Control of mutation frequency by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. I. The CB120 antimutator DNA polymerase is defective in ... When phage T4 virions with a wild-type gene 43 DNA polymerase are exposed to either ultraviolet light, which introduces ...
In bacteriophage T4, mutations that reduce expression of the replicative DNA polymerase [gene product 43 (gp43)] increase ... During 1955 to 1959, Benzer performed genetic recombination experiments using rII mutants of bacteriophage T4. He found that, ... performed mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4 showing that recombination frequencies between rII mutants are ... Mutations altering genetic recombination and repair of DNA in bacteriophage T4. Virology. 1975;63(2):539-567. doi:10.1016/0042- ...
Lynn L. Silver
"Purification of bacteriophage T4 gene 61 protein. A protein essential for synthesis of RNA primers in the T4 in vitro DNA ... Nancy Nossal study the genetics of bacteriophage T4. Silver was then hired as a research scientist at Merck Research ...
Floor E (1970). "Interaction of morphogenetic genes of bacteriophage T4". J. Mol. Biol. 47 (3): 293-306. doi:10.1016/0022-2836( ... To create a viable phage T4 virus (see image), a balance of structural components is required. An amber mutant of phage T4 ... an amber mutant defective in a gene encoding a needed structural component of phage T4 is weakly suppressed (in an E. coli host ...
This process, referred to as multiplicity reactivation, has been studied in lambda and T4 bacteriophages, as well as in several ... I. The rII region of bacteriophage T4". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 3: 335-353. doi:10.1016/S0022-5193(62)80030-7. Hughes ... Bernstein C (March 1981). "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiological Reviews. 45 (1): 72-98. doi:10.1128/ ...
Deoxyribodipyrimidine endonucleosidase is found in bacteriophage T4. It is a base excision repair enzyme specific for ...
A primary infection by bacteriophage (phage) T4 of its E. coli host ordinarily leads to genetic exclusion of a secondarily ... Spackle and immunity functions of bacteriophage T4. J Virol. 1974;13(2):312-321. doi:10.1128/JVI.13.2.312-321.1974 Obringer JW ... The functions of the phage T4 immunity and spackle genes in genetic exclusion. Genet Res. 1988;52(2):81-90. doi:10.1017/ ... s0016672300027440 Bernstein C. Damage in DNA of an infecting phage T4 shifts reproduction from asexual to sexual allowing ...
E.B. Goldberg, R. Jayaraman (1971). Transcription of Bacteriophage T4 Genome In Vivo. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on ... T4 rII system India portal Biology portal "Brief Profile of the Awardee". Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize. 2016. Retrieved 28 ...
The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2004;14(2):171-80. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2004.02 ... Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a ... Main article: Bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of ... The viral genome is then known as a "provirus" or, in the case of bacteriophages a "prophage". Whenever the host divides, ...
DNA and RNA codon tables
Edgar B (2004). "The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. ...
Richard L. Thompson
Thompson, Richard L.; Narendra S. Goel (1985). "A Simulation of T4 Bacteriophage Assembly and Operation". Biosystems. 18 (1): ... Thompson, Richard L.; Narendra S. Goel (1988). "Movable Finite Automata (MFA) Models for Biological Systems I: Bacteriophage ...
"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. Epstein RH, Bolle ... These experiments, carried out with mutants of the rIIB gene of phage T4, showed, that for a gene that encodes a protein, three ... Bacteriophages had been a subject of experimental investigation since Félix d'Herelle had isolated and developed methods for ... Morange, A History of Molecular Biology, pp 41-43 Ellis E.L. "Bacteriophage: One-step growth curve" in Phage and the Origins of ...
Bacterial, archaeal and plant plastid code
"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. see pages 580-581 ...
Timeline of the evolutionary history of life
Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol (May 1989). "Bacteriophage T4 genetic homologies with bacteria and eucaryotes". Journal of ...
"Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4: The transition pathway". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 73 (4): 1269-1273. Bibcode:1976PNAS ...
Baltz, RH; Bingham, PM; Drake, JW (1976). "Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4: The transition pathway". Proceedings of the ...
Bacteriophage T4 thioredoxin seems to be evolution-related. In position 5 of the pattern T4, thioredoxin has Val instead of Pro ...
... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4.[ ...
Alec Broers, Baron Broers
"High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of bacteriophages 3C and T4". Science. 189 (4203): 637-9. doi:10.1126/science. ... Initially this high resolution low-loss mode was used to examine bacteriophage and blood cells in collaboration with ...
"Chemical Synthesis of a Primer and Its Use in the Sequence Analysis of the Lysozyme Gene of Bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977. Medical Research Council scientists ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ...
This process, referred to as multiplicity reactivation, has been studied in lambda and T4 bacteriophages, as well as in ... I. The rII region of bacteriophage T4. (1962) Journal of Theoretical Biology. 1962; 3, 335-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022- ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiol. Rev. 45 (1): 72-98. doi:10.1128/MMBR.45.1.72-98.1981. PMC 281499 ...
Sekvenciranje DNK - Wikipedija
"Chemical Synthesis of a Primer and Its Use in the Sequence Analysis of the Lysozyme Gene of Bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (svibnja 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 ... "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551 ...
Mutasi netral bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-582. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1448817 . PMID 15514035. ...
In BacteriophageEdit. T4 bacteriophage uses anti-sigma factor to ruin the Escherichia coli polymerase in order that direct ... AsiA is an anti-sigma factor gene that is required for bacteriophage T4 to be developed). Which means that AsiA is an essential ... and in the T4 bacteriophage. Anti-sigma factors are antagonists to the sigma factors, which regulate numerous cell processes ... Cartoon representation of T4 anti-sigma factor Audrey Stevens' Inhibitor, PDB entry 1jr5 ...
Studies with T4 bacteriophage and E. coli with defective dnaQ genes give evidence that the mutA tRNA may not have any effect on ...
DNA and RNA codon tables
"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. doi:10.1093/genetics/168.2.575. PMC 1448817. ...
Chen D, Bernstein C (1987). "Recombinational repair of hydrogen peroxide-induced damages in DNA of phage T4". Mutatation ... poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages. ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1): 39 ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiological Reviews. 45 (1): 72-98. PMC 281499 . PMID 6261109 ...
Chance and Necessity
The author continues to mention the sterospecific, spontaneous assembly of ribosomes and T4 bacteriophage from their protein ...
"Engineering trimeric fibrous proteins based on bacteriophage T4 adhesins". Protein Eng. 11 (4): 329-32. doi:10.1093/protein/ ...
Freese E (June 1959). "The specific mutagenic effect of base analogues on Phage T4". Journal of Molecular Biology. 1 (2): 87- ... "Distribution of fitness effects caused by single-nucleotide substitutions in bacteriophage f1". Genetics. 185 (2): 603-9. doi ... "THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUS AND BASE-ANALOGUE INDUCED MUTATIONS OF PHAGE T4". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Laemmli UK (August 1970). "Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4". Nature. 227 ( ...
Terapie cu laser rece
... action of He-Ne Laser radiation on bacteriophage T4 - Escherichia coli interaction. In: Lasers Surg.Med. 9/1989, S. 67-69 ... action of He-Ne Laser radiation on bacteriophage T4 - Escheria coli interaction. In: Lasers Surg.Med. 9/1989, S.67-69 ...
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage virus. It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail ... Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely limited ... and in the way that bacteriophages can limit bacterial infections. It is likely, though little researched, that most pathogenic ...
... and bacteriophage T4 GP37. Dominant and recessive genetic diseases in humans. In humans, many genetic traits or diseases ... a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage T4 tail ... "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863. PMID 5662621 ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". J. Mol. Biol. 77 (3 ... in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to the linear and circular DNA structures of bacteriophage T4.[ ...
The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ... 2 Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage. *3 Genetic complementation, heterosis and the evolution of sexual ... "Physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ...
Escherichia coli in molecular biology
... coli B was by Delbrück and Luria in 1942 in their study of bacteriophages T1 and T7. The original E. coli B strain, known ... coli and phage T4 to understand the topography of gene structure. Prior to Benzer's research, it was not known whether the ... originated from Félix d'Herelle from the Institut Pasteur in Paris around 1918 who studied bacteriophages, who claimed that ... "Bacteriophage phenomena". J. Bacteriol. 8 (1): 49-101. doi:10.1128/jb.8.1.49-101.1923. PMC 379003. PMID 16558985 ...
... a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage T4 tail ... "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863. PMID 5662621 ...
"A bipartite bacteriophage T4 SOC and HOC randomized peptide display library: detection and analysis of phage T4 terminase (gp17 ... The most common bacteriophages used in phage display are M13 and fd filamentous phage, though T4, T7, and λ phage have also ... Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... "Factors limiting display of foreign peptides on the major coat protein of filamentous bacteriophage capsids and a potential ...
Pseudomonas virus 42
Ackermann, H.W.; Krisch, H. M. (10 December 1997). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): ... Pseudomonas virus 42, formerly Pseudomonas phage 42, is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria. ...
Goldberg at Tufts University School of Medicine on genetics of bacteriophages. Returning to India, he joined MKU and spent his ... he discovered the induction of mutagenic DNA repair during restriction of nonglucosylated T4 DNA and the alleviation of ...
bacteriophage T4 - Everything2.com
... and its host bacterium, , can be considered among the earliest model organisms - biological systems that ... In addition, T4 and related phages are being used in investigations of bacteriophage therapy. Finally, recent analyses of DNA ... Figure 3. (a) A one‐step growth curve for bacteriophage T4 infecting E. . coli. B at 37 °C. Blue circles, infective centres; ... Bacteriophage T4 and its host bacterium, , can be considered among the earliest model organisms - biological systems that ...
METHYL METHANESULFONATE MUTAGENESIS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 | Genetics
Morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4 in extracts of mutant-infected cells | PNAS
RCSB PDB - 1G31: GP31 CO-CHAPERONIN FROM BACTERIOPHAGE T4
Bacteriophage T4 Encodes a Co-Chaperonin that Can Substitute for Escherichia Coli Groes in Protein Folding. Van Der Vies, S.M ... Structural adaptations in the specialized bacteriophage T4 co-chaperonin Gp31 expand the size of the Anfinsen cage.. Hunt, J.F. ... A Factor Preventing the Major Head Protein of Bacteriophage T4 from Random Aggregation. Laemmli, U.K., Beguin, F.,& ... The Gp31 protein from bacteriophage T4 functionally substitutes for the bacterial co-chaperonin GroES in assisted protein ...
Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs | Genetics
Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ...
RCSB PDB - 1C1K: BACTERIOPHAGE T4 GENE 59 HELICASE ASSEMBLY PROTEIN
T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds to both T4 gene 41 helicase and T4 gene 32 single-stranded DNA binding protein, and ... T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein accelerates the loading of the T4 gene 41 helicase during DNA synthesis by the T4 ... T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein accelerates the loading of the T4 gene 41 helicase during DNA synthesis by the T4 ... Bacteriophage T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds replication fork DNA. The 1.45 A resolution crystal structure reveals ...
Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases | PNAS
Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases. John W. Drake and Elaine O. ... These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the ... Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens ... Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome
Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... Noble, E.; Spiering, M.M.; Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. Viruses 2015, 7, 3186- ...
T4 Bacteriophage Cell-Puncturing Device
T4 bacteriophages reproduce via a lytic life cycle. Without their cell-puncturing device T4 bacteriophages would be unable to ... T4 bacterophage is an important tool in research as well as a good system of study. T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli ... T4 Bacteriophage Cell-Puncturing Device. Clint Priestley 03 and Matt Schefft 04. Contents:. I. Introduction II. General ... The T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device consists of two proteins that form a stable complex which makes up the hub of the ...
Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. - PubMed - NCBI
On the structure of the scaffolding core of bacteriophage T4 - Nokia Bell Labs
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4.
Bacteriophage T4 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Bacteriophage T4" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacteriophage T4" was a major or minor topic of ... Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the ... "Bacteriophage T4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Crystal structure of the bacteriophage T4 late-transcription coactivator gp33 with the ß-subunit flap domain of Escherichia ...
T4 bacteriophage, TEM - Stock Image C032/0374 - Science Photo Library
T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Phages are widely distributed in locations ... T4 bacteriophage (DNA virus), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). ... Caption: T4 bacteriophage (DNA virus), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). T4 is a bacteriophage that infects ...
Sandwalk: Green T4 Bacteriophage Earrings
Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.
Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region containing imm ... Abstract : Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region ... Descriptors : *GENES, *MUTATIONS, *BACTERIOPHAGES, CLUSTERING, ECOLOGY, ENZYMES, IMMUNITY, OVERLAP, PRODUCTION, PROTEINS, ...
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme molecule - Stock Image F006/9216 - Science Photo Library
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell ... Keywords: alpha helix, artwork, bacteriophage, bacteriophage t4, bacteriophage t4 lysozyme, beta sheet, biochemical, ... Caption: Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of ...
Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field - Jia - 2007 - Environmental Microbiology - Wiley Online...
Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field. Authors. *. Zhongjun Jia,. Corresponding author. * ... All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including ... T. V. Butina, O. I. Belykh, S. I. Belikov, Molecular-genetic identification of T4 bacteriophages in Lake Baikal, Doklady ... Christopher M. Bellas, Alexandre M. Anesio, High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of ...
A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague | mBio
Schematic of the bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle platform. (A) Structural model of phage T4. The enlarged capsomer shows the ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... Phage RB69 is closely related to T4, and its Soc protein binds to phage T4 capsid as well as the T4 Soc protein does (34). As ...
Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase | Science
Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ...
The bacteriophage T4 AsiA protein contacts the β-flap domain of RNA polymerase
Nucleotide sequence and control of transcription of the bacteriophage T4 motA regulatory gene
A 2116bp segment of the bacteriophage T4 genome encompassing the motA regulatory gene has been sequenced. In addition to motA, ... Nucleotide sequence and control of transcription of the bacteriophage T4 motA regulatory gene Mol Microbiol. 1990 Sep;4(9):1487 ... A 2116bp segment of the bacteriophage T4 genome encompassing the motA regulatory gene has been sequenced. In addition to motA, ... Measurements of the rate of transcription of motA showed that the promoter of this gene is turned off after only 2 min of T4 ...
In vivo restriction. Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA.
Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. ... We have located seven major endonuclease II-dependent restriction sites in the T4 genome, of which three were analyzed in ...
Radioactive sulfur tracer studies on the reproduction of T4 bacteriophage - CaltechAUTHORS
Maaløe, O. and Symonds, N. (1953) Radioactive sulfur tracer studies on the reproduction of T4 bacteriophage. Journal of ... RADIOACTIVE SULFUR TRACER STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTION OF T4 BACTERIOPHAGE O. Maaløe, N. Symonds Journal of Bacteriology Feb ... Such experiments have now been carried out, again using the phage T4, but labeling with S35. The results indicate that ... noninfective, sedimentable particles which adsorb and precipitate with the specificity of the T4 phages are present in both ...
PPT - T4 Bacteriophage PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 25bd85-ZDc1Z
Different Types of Bacteriophages ... Lysogenic- infect the cell and integrates its genetic material into the ... - A free ... T4 Bacteriophage. 1. T4 Bacteriophage 2. What is a Bacteriophage?*A small virus that only infects bacteria wikipedia ... Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview - Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview Viral Replication Dependent on hosts organelles ... T4 Bacteriophage. Description:. ... eat (greek) Two major types: Lytic and Lysogenic. Different Types of Bacteriophages ... ...
Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. | Journal of Virology
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature ... Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates.. P B Berget, H R Warner ... Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), ...
Phospholipid Metabolism in T4 Bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli K-12 (λ) | Journal of Virology
"Biosorption of Heavy Metals onto the Surface of Bacteriophage T4" by Zheng Huan Tan
Here we conducted a series of experiments to assess the biosorption potential of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4. Adsorption ... The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn2+ onto the surface of phage T4. Zn2+ ... The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 ... Zeta potential analysis demonstrated phage T4 (1010 VLPs mL-1) not exposed to zinc at pH 7.0 to be approximately -11.48 ± 1.16 ...
The Genome of the Pseudo T-even Bacteriophages, a Diverse Group That Resembles T4
The genomes of these pseudo T-even phages hybridized under stringent conditions to only a limited portion of the T4 genome that ... Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a large collection of bacteriophages with T-even morphology revealed four phages that are ... The Genome of the Pseudo T-even Bacteriophages, a Diverse Group That Resembles T4 J Mol Biol. 1997 Mar 28;267(2):237-49. doi: ... The genomes of these pseudo T-even phages hybridized under stringent conditions to only a limited portion of the T4 genome that ...
ProteinsEscherichiaGenomeReplicationGenesPolymerasePhagesBacteriaEncodesEnterobacteriaColiInfectionMUTAGENESIS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4Deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophageVirusesLysozymeMutants of bacteriophageGeneticsMolecularReplisomeLigaseAdsorptionInfectGeneticMutationsVitroLytic cycleVaccineStudy bacteriophageAntigensMutantTailHelicaseEndonucleaseNanoparticle platformTranslationalExclusionVivoIntracellularSequencesPlasmidsPolymerasesFunctionallyMorphogenesisBiologyOuter capsidMoleculesStrains
- Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of T4 proteins. (genetics.org)
- The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. (mdpi.com)
- Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the replication fork. (mdpi.com)
- The T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device consists of two proteins that form a stable complex which makes up the hub of the T4 baseplate. (kenyon.edu)
- Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. (nih.gov)
- Citation Query Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (psu.edu)
- Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (sciencephoto.com)
- Studies have shown that the phage T4 capsid proteins possess negatively charged binding sites, which are the C-terminus for Soc and the N-terminus for Hoc. (unl.edu)
- Three T4-encoded DNA polymerase accessory proteins are shown to stimulate transcription at T4 late promoters in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis-requiring process. (sciencemag.org)
- However, the nature of the enhancer of T4 late transcription is novel in that it is a structure--a break in the nontranscribed DNA stand--to which the three replication proteins bind, rather than a sequence. (sciencemag.org)
- Since the three DNA polymerase accessory proteins are carried on the moving replication fork as part of the replisome, we postulate that viral DNA replication forks act, in vivo, as the mobile enhancers of T4 late gene transcription. (sciencemag.org)
- Whereas Escherichia coli RNA polymerase bearing the T4 gene 55 protein can selectively recognize T4 late promoters, it is only capable of responding to the transcription-enhancing activity of the three replication proteins on acquiring an additional T4-specific modification. (sciencemag.org)
- Purification and characterization of the SegA protein of bacteriophage T4, an endonuclease related to proteins encoded by group I introns. (asm.org)
- Although not encoded by an intron, the bacteriophage T4 SegA protein shares common amino acid motifs with a family of proteins found within mobile group I introns present in fungi and phage. (asm.org)
- The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this review, we discuss the structures that are available and provide comparison to related proteins when the T4 structures are unavailable. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The core of T4 gp32 and two proteins from the T4 related phage RB69, the gp43 polymerase and the gp45 clamp are also solved. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To better understand the functionality of T4 DNA replication, in depth structural analysis will require complexes between proteins and DNA substrates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- T4 is a large, icosahedral phage that may serve as an efficient display platform for foreign peptides or proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- They discovered essentially all the proteins that constitute the T4 replisome, isolated them, and measured their enzymatic activities. (elsevier.com)
- The bacteriophage T4 DNA replisome is a complex dynamic system employing a variety of proteins to orchestrate the synthesis of DNA on both the leading and lagging strands. (neb.com)
- The publication ' Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4 ' is placed in the Top 100 of the best publications in CiteWeb. (citeweb.info)
- Additionally, the publicaiton ' Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4 ' is placed in the Top 100 among other scientific works published in 1970. (citeweb.info)
- Infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T4 leads to the expression of three phage mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (namely, Alt, ModA, and ModB), each of which modifies a distinct group of host proteins. (meta.org)
- To improve understanding of these interactions and their consequences for the T4 replication cycle, we used high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry to identify some of the putative target proteins ADP-ribosylated in vitro by Alt (total approximately 27) and ModB (total approximately 8). (meta.org)
- Bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein, a model for singlestrand specific nucleic acid-binding proteins, consists of three structurally and functionally distinct domains. (uwf.edu)
- Binding of T4 proteins RegB, RegA, gp32 and gp43 to their cognate target RNAs has been characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
- Effects of the bacteriophage T4 dda protein on DNA synthesis catalyzed by purified T4 replication proteins. (unil.ch)
- Results from these screens indicate that the hierarchy of repression of lacZ expression is from plasmids with different gene 44 REs is different for T4 regA and RB69 regA proteins . (musc.edu)
- T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. (sciencephoto.com)
- Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia coli, (as well as from phage mutants lacking cytosine modification), normally the first step in the reutilization of host DNA nucleotides for synthesis of phage DNA in infected cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here we conducted a series of experiments to assess the biosorption potential of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4. (unl.edu)
- Twentyfive carcinogens, including many hydrocarbons, were presumed to have no mutagenic activity because they were not toxic to Escherichia coli BB or to T4 phage. (aspetjournals.org)
- Both AT-to-GC and GC-to-AT mutations were weakly stimulated during T4 ribonucleotide reductase mutant, nrdBamB55, infections of ED8689/ pPS2, a host cell overproducing Escherichia coli (E. coli) ribonucleotide reductase. (oregonstate.edu)
- Like a miniature robot from a sci-fi thriller, tiny viruses known as bacteriophages inject their genetic goods into unsuspecting Escherichia coli bacteria. (wired.com)
- In bacteriophage T4, a specific DNA modification system has been evolved to protect its own genome against phage‐encoded nucleases and restriction endonuclease systems of its host Escherichia coli . (embopress.org)
- Amber nonsense mutants of gene 59 (amC5, amHL628) in bacteriophage T4 will cause an arrest of DNA synthesis in a nonpermissive host, Escherichia coli B. The arrested synthesis of DNA is rapidly suppressed by the addition of chloramphenicol at 5-12 min after infection. (elsevier.com)
- T4 bacteriophage has been well established in its ability to infect Escherichia coli K-12 strains, particularly strain BW25113, through an OmpC-dependent pathway with outer membrane porin C (OmpC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as receptors. (ubc.ca)
- Adsorption of T4 bacteriophage to the Escherichia coli host cell is mediated by six long and six short tail fibres. (unibas.ch)
- Beginning in the mid‐twentieth century, studies focused on bacteriophage T4 revealed essential features of the molecular nature of genes and genomes, mechanism and fidelity of DNA replication, genetic recombination, DNA repair, control of gene expression, genome organisation, assembly of complex macromolecular structures and pre‐emption of cell metabolism by virus infection. (els.net)
- The T4 virion has a complex multiprotein structure with a contractile tail that serves both for adsorption to host cells and for intracellular delivery of the viral genome. (els.net)
- Bacteriophage T4 contains a large, linear double‐stranded DNA genome, with chemical modifications of its cytosine residues. (els.net)
- The T4 genome encodes numerous enzymes, used to support replication of the viral genome and to synthesise deoxyribonucleotides to support the enormous rate of DNA accumulation in infected cells. (els.net)
- A 2116bp segment of the bacteriophage T4 genome encompassing the motA regulatory gene has been sequenced. (nih.gov)
- The genomes of these pseudo T-even phages hybridized under stringent conditions to only a limited portion of the T4 genome that encodes virus head, head-to-tail joining and contractile tail genes. (nih.gov)
- Taken together, our results show that SegA is an endonuclease with a hierarchy of site specificity, and these results are consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely related T-even phages. (asm.org)
- Many of these problems can continue to be addressed with T4, whereas the growing database of T4-related phage genome sequences provides new resources and potentially new phage-host systems to extend the work into a broader biological, evolutionary context. (biomedcentral.com)
- zebrafish and mice, bacteriophage T4 still presents the best opportunities for understanding at the molecular level DNA replication and recombination, and macromolecular assembly. (els.net)
- The bacteriophage T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein is required for recombination-dependent DNA replication, which is the predominant mode of DNA replication in the late stage of T4 infection. (rcsb.org)
- Our studies suggest that the helicase assembly protein is responsible for loading T4 gene 41 helicase specifically at replication forks, and that its binding sites for each arm must hold more than six, but not more than 12 nucleotides. (rcsb.org)
- These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
- Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. (mdpi.com)
- The lytic cycle allows the T4 bacteriophage to transform a host cell into a replication machine. (kenyon.edu)
- The expression of the late genes in bacteriophage T4 development is closely connected to viral DNA replication. (sciencemag.org)
- The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been shown to stimulate genetic recombination processes in vitro. (elsevier.com)
- Two types of recombination hotspots in bacteriophage T4: one requires DNA damage and a replication origin and the other does not. (duke.edu)
- The mutations eliminated the function of the origin, as judged by both autonomous replication of plasmids during T4 infection and two-dimensional gel analysis of phage genomic replication intermediates. (duke.edu)
- The two-dimensional gel analysis also revealed phage T4 replication intermediates not previously detected by this method, including origin theta forms. (duke.edu)
- The functions of T4 genes 45 , 44 , and 62 are required for phage DNA replication . (musc.edu)
- T4 uses host cell RNA polymerase for transcription of its own genes, but it modifies the bacterial enzyme, both to prevent its transcription of bacterial genes after infection and to contribute towards a timed viral gene transcription program. (els.net)
- Total RNAs were isolated at the times indicated and 10 μg of each total RNA was analyzed by Northern blotting with a probe for the T4 genes indicated in A-D. The half-life of each transcript was calculated by measuring signal intensities and is shown below A-D. The arrowheads indicate the transcripts of each gene. (genetics.org)
- Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. (dtic.mil)
- The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. (asm.org)
- Repair of the double-strand break (DSB) results in the predominance of T4 genes 56 and segF in the progeny, with exclusion of the corresponding T2 sequences. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Phage T4 has many optional homing endonuclease genes similar to segF, whereas similar endonuclease genes are relatively rare in other members of the T-even family of bacteriophages. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Conserved T4-like genes are displayed as blue arrows, novel ORFs are shown as red arrows, tRNAs as black arrowheads. (biomedcentral.com)
- We are developing phage T4 into a biomedical platform, to use it as an antibiotic, as a cancer therapeutic, and for the delivery of genes to targeted cells for gene therapy. (grantome.com)
- Some evidence suggests that in T4-infected E . coli these genes are cotranscribed in the 45 to 44 to 62 direction . (musc.edu)
- In this study regulation of expression of genes 45 , 44 , and 62 has been examined by using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic assays to analyze the protein products synthesized in T4-infected E . coli at various times after infection under different conditions . (musc.edu)
- Assembly of the T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme. (els.net)
- In particular one eight-base region of an RNA that interacts with the T4 DNA polymerase was chosen and randomized. (sciencemag.org)
- The binding constants of these two RNA's to T4 DNA polymerase are equivalent. (sciencemag.org)
- Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a large collection of bacteriophages with T-even morphology revealed four phages that are distantly related to all the others. (nih.gov)
- Hydroxymethyl‐deoxycytidine triphosphate (Hm‐dCTP), subsequently synthesized from Hm‐dCMP by the actions of T4 deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinase and E.coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase, is incorporated into the phage DNA by T4 DNA polymerase. (embopress.org)
- A plasmid-borne gene encoding bacteriophage T4 lysozyme with a structural mutation, Tyr161-Ala, was mutagenized by by the use of polymerase chain reaction. (umassmed.edu)
- In addition, T4 and related phages are being used in investigations of bacteriophage therapy. (els.net)
- Bacteriophage T4 is representative of a large group of closely related phages found in varied environments worldwide. (els.net)
- The results indicate that noninfective, sedimentable particles which adsorb and precipitate with the specificity of the T4 phages are present in both premature and ordinary lysates. (caltech.edu)
- A T4 segA amber mutant that we constructed had no phenotype, and PCR analyses indicated that several T-even-related phages lack the segA gene. (asm.org)
- Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. (cam.ac.uk)
- In our case, we are interested in the internal signalling and pathways associated with the direct interaction of T4 and M13 phages with prostate cancer cells (PC3). (alliedacademies.org)
- Most bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or just phages) are highly efficient in their ability to infect their often very specific bacterial hosts In general, only one or a few viral particles are necessary to successfully infect one bacterium. (grantome.com)
- Experiments with other hybrid phages engineered to produce different amounts of wild-type T4 lysozyme have shown that, to score as deleterious, a mutation must reduce lysozyme activity to less than 3% of that produced by wild-type P22 e416. (umassmed.edu)
- In this review we compile the past 10 - 15 year literature on RNA-protein interactions with T4 and some of its related phages, with particular focus on advances in mRNA decay and processing, and on translational repression. (biomedcentral.com)
- On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- A bacteriophage (a virus which infects bacteria ) which uses DNA as its genetic material (some viruses use RNA ) and is unusually large. (everything2.com)
- Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. (wiley.com)
- Bacteria are constantly threatened by predation from bacteriophage parasites and, in response, have evolved an array of resistance mechanisms. (edu.au)
- Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are widespread in bacteria and can confer multiple benefits, including resistance to bacteriophages. (edu.au)
- Unlike the traditional subunit vaccines, the phage T4 vaccine uses a highly stable nanoparticle scaffold, provides multivalency, requires no adjuvant, and elicits broad T-helper 1 and 2 immune responses that are essential for complete clearance of bacteria during infection. (cdc.gov)
- A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
-  Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
- It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
- Bacteriophages: A Therapy Concept against Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria. (nih.gov)
- It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). (biomedcentral.com)
- All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. (wiley.com)
- T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli so they remain dormant virions until their tail fibers come in contact with a binding site on an E. Coli cell wall. (kenyon.edu)
- I discuss a model based on these results that explains how BrUdR stimulates opposite mutagenic pathways in T4-infected and uninfected E. coli. (oregonstate.edu)
- The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The shutoff of host DNA synthesis is delayed until about 8 to 10 min after infection when E. coli B/5 cells are infected with bacteriophage T4 mutants deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants). (elsevier.com)
- Using this derivative, CT447 T4 plq + (for T4 plaque + ), the authors have shown that host DNA degradation and shutoff of host DNA synthesis occur after infection with either ndd98 x 5 (shutoff delayed) or T4D + (shutoff normal) with approximately the same kinetics as in E. coli strain B/5. (elsevier.com)
- The gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 is required for efficient genetic recombination in infected Eschericia coli cells and strongly stimulates in vitro pairing catalyzed by the phage uvsX protein, a RecA-like strand transferase. (scripps.edu)
- A plasmid vector for expression of bacteriophage T4 gene product 11 (gp11) in E. coli cells has been constructed. (utmb.edu)
- b) A chronology of major events in T4 infection. (els.net)
- Recombination hotspots have previously been discovered in bacteriophage T4 by two different approaches, marker rescue recombination from heavily damaged phage genomes and recombination during co-infection by two undamaged phage genomes. (duke.edu)
- The host DNA synthesized after infection with ndd mutants is stable in the absence of T4 endonucleases II and IV, but is unstable in the presence of these nucleases. (elsevier.com)
- We hypothesized that incubating BW25113 with WT supernatant would confer an observable level of resistance to T4 infection, whilst incubation of BW25113 with ΔompC mutant supernatant would yield negligible protective effects. (ubc.ca)
MUTAGENESIS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T41
- Reference: Transversion mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4. (neb.com)
Deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage1
- Deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4 is a homodimeric enzyme in which each polypeptide chain consists of 246 amino-acid residues. (elsevier.com)
- Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. (meta.org)
- Bacteriophages, bacterial viruses unable to infect eukaryotic cells, constitute a serious alternative to antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. (sciencephoto.com)
- 1) The lysozyme from the bacteriophage T4 eJD7 eJD4, which is a spontaneous revertant of the eJD4 frame shift mutant, has been isolated and purified. (elsevier.com)
- The mutagenized gene was inserted into a specialized bacteriophage lambda cloning vector that must acquire a functional lysozyme gene in order to form plaques. (umassmed.edu)
- Three compensatory second-site revertants were obtained: Thr152-Met, Lys43-Ile, and Thr151-Ala. The effects of these mutations are interpreted in light of previous structural and genetic studies of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
- Bouvier, Suzanne E. and Poteete, Anthony R., "Second-site reversion of a structural defect in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1996). (umassmed.edu)
- Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" by Dale Rennell, Suzanne E. Bouvier et al. (umassmed.edu)
- Amber mutations were introduced into every codon (except the initiating AUG) of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. (umassmed.edu)
- The amber alleles were introduced into a bacteriophage P22 hybrid, called P22 e416, in which the normal P22 lysozyme gene is replaced by its T4 homologue, and which consequently depends upon T4 lysozyme for its ability to form a plaque. (umassmed.edu)
- Plating the collection of amber mutants covering 163 of the 164 codons of T4 lysozyme, on 13 suppressor strains that each insert a different amino acid substitutions at every position in the protein (except the first). (umassmed.edu)
- Of the resulting 2015 single amino acid substitutions in T4 lysozyme, 328 were found to be sufficiently deleterious to inhibit plaque formation. (umassmed.edu)
- The effects of many of the deleterious substitutions are interpretable in light of the known structure of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
- and Poteete, Anthony R., "Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1991). (umassmed.edu)
Mutants of bacteriophage1
- Transversion mutations can be distinguished from transition mutations by the use of special tauII mutants of bacteriophage T4. (neb.com)
- Altman, S & Warner, V 1975, ' 9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 333-343. (elsevier.com)
- This book is intended for the student who is taking a first course in bacterial and bacteriophage genetics, rather than as a reference tool for the specialist. (springer.com)
- In order to develop the basic concepts of bacterial and bacteriophage genetics in a volume of reasonable size, I have endeavored to avoid the stricdy molecular approach as weIl as the thoroughly comprehensive treatment characteristic of review articles. (springer.com)
- Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. (wiley.com)
- Most of the intracellular T4 DNA made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is of lower molecular weight than mature T4 DNA and does not get packaged into phage particles. (elsevier.com)
- Thus, the generation of low molecular weight T4 DNA in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is not, in itself, also a mutagenic process. (elsevier.com)
- The study by Otsuka and Yonesaki, published in this issue of Molecular Microbiology, describes a new plasmid-encoded TA system, lsoAB, which confers resistance to a dmd - mutant of bacteriophage T4 through the activity of the LsoA toxin. (edu.au)
- The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well and its molecular mechanisms and qualifying agents are also well known. (biomedcentral.com)
- The RNaseH, a 5' to 3' exonuclease and T4 DNA ligase comprise the activities necessary for Okazaki repair. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the nick site in a total of 96 different duplexes. (elsevier.com)
- T4 DNA Ligase forms an energy dependent phosphodiester linkage between the termini of adjacent polynucleotides of duplex DNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- T4 ligase plays an active role in repair of DNA and RNA nicks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- T4 DNA Ligase is supplied in a solution containing 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 50 mM KCl, 1 mM DTT, and 50% (v/v) glycerol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- T4 DNA Ligase is inactivated by heating at 65 °C for 10 minutes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- T4 DNA Ligase catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the terminal 5′ phosphate and a 3′ hydroxyl groups of duplex DNA or RNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Adsorption of a heavy metal, Zn 2+ , to the surface of phage T4 was tested in a series of purified phage/metal solutions (0 µM - 1000 µM at 23°C). The Langmuir isotherm reasonably describes the sorption data, with an R-square of 0.8116. (unl.edu)
- The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 does occur, but not at a rapid rate. (unl.edu)
- The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn 2+ onto the surface of phage T4. (unl.edu)
- As bacteriophages are unable to infect mammalian cells, they are considered a neutral object characterised by their antigenic properties [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we investigated if there exists a difference in the ability of T4 to infect the wildtype (WT) K-12 strain BW25113 in presence of OmpC-containing BW25113 supernatant compared to K-12 ΔompC mutant strain JW2203-1 supernatant. (ubc.ca)
- Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4. (dtic.mil)
- All genetic markers from phage T2 are partially excluded from the progeny of mixed infections with the related phage T4 (general, or phage exclusion). (mdc-berlin.de)
- By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
- MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. (genetics.org)
- Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. (genetics.org)
- While these investigations focus on two enzymes in T4 deoxyribonucleotide metabolism, namely T4 ribonucleotide reductase and dCMP deaminase, the effects of other phage mutations on dNTP pools and mutagenesis were also investigated. (oregonstate.edu)
- Using a T4 DNA transformation assay, we have examined this intracellular T4 DNA for its content of 9-aminoacridine-induced revertants of certain rII gene frameshift mutations. (elsevier.com)
- The Gp31 protein from bacteriophage T4 functionally substitutes for the bacterial co-chaperonin GroES in assisted protein folding reactions both in vitro and in vivo. (rcsb.org)
- Using an in vitro assembly system, the 120- by 86-nm heads (capsids) of phage T4 were arrayed with anthrax and plague antigens fused to the small outer capsid protein Soc (9 kDa). (asm.org)
- Interestingly, SegF preferentially cleaves gene 56 of T2, both in vitro and in vivo, compared with that of phage T4. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Our work includes the interaction studies between different bacteriophage strains with different PCa cell lines and to know how these particles modulate cancer cell behaviour in vitro ( Figure 1 ). (alliedacademies.org)
- We would like to take this advantage to report our preliminary findings based upon the in vitro interaction studies from PCa cells (PC3) with bacteriophage T4 and M13. (alliedacademies.org)
- Previous studies had indicated that RB69 regA had a greater affinity for RNA than did T4 regA , in vitro . (musc.edu)
- Review the lytic cycle for bacteriophage T4. (earthlink.net)
- Here, we report the development of a dual anthrax-plague nanoparticle vaccine employing bacteriophage (phage) T4 as a platform. (asm.org)
- In addition, we are engineering the surface of T4 to carr multiple copies of an epitope for vaccine development. (grantome.com)
- We engineered a virus nanoparticle vaccine using bacteriophage T4 by incorporating key antigens of both B. anthracis and Y. pestis into one formulation. (cdc.gov)
- From there, she was recruited to Vanderbilt University to study bacteriophage T4, a topic for which she became a leading investigator. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunization experiments were performed in rabbits using soluble as well as T4 displayed gp41 antigens to determine their immunogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
- A large number of revertants occurring spontaneously and after treatment with 2-aminopurine, [5- 3 H]uracil radioactive decay, ethyl methanesulfonate, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, hydroxylamine and ultraviolet light were tested for their ability to support the growth of 24 amber mutants and one ochre mutant of bacteriophage T4. (elsevier.com)
- To test our hypothesis, we performed several growth curve assays in which BW25113 was grown in either WT or ΔompC mutant supernatant, infected with T4 bacteriophage upon inoculation and grown for up to 8 hours. (ubc.ca)
- Contrary to our hypothesis, the experimental results demonstrated that there is no difference in T4-mediated cell lysis between BW25113 incubation with WT versus ΔompC mutant supernatant. (ubc.ca)
- T4 morphogenesis involves separate subassembly pathways for viral heads, tails, tail baseplates and fibres, with the substructures assembling spontaneously. (els.net)
- A model of the T4 virion, with its tail contracted, based on image reconstruction from electron microscopic images. (els.net)
- The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. (asm.org)
- Jet nebulization of bacteriophages with different tail morphologies - Structural effects. (nih.gov)
- T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds to both T4 gene 41 helicase and T4 gene 32 single-stranded DNA binding protein, and to single and double-stranded DNA. (rcsb.org)
- We show here that T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds most tightly to fork DNA substrates, with either single or almost entirely double-stranded arms. (rcsb.org)
- The 1.45 A resolution crystal structure of the full-length 217-residue monomeric T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein reveals a novel alpha-helical bundle fold with two domains of similar size. (rcsb.org)
- We propose a speculative model of how the T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein might bind to fork DNA based on the similarity to HMG1, the location of the basic and hydrophobic regions, and the site size of the fork arms needed for tight fork DNA binding. (rcsb.org)
- The fork-binding model suggests putative binding sites for the T4 gene 32 single-stranded DNA binding protein and for the hexameric T4 gene 41 helicase assembly. (rcsb.org)
- Raney, KD & Benkovic, SJ 1995, ' Bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase translocates in a unidirectional fashion on single-stranded DNA ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 270, no. 38, pp. 22236-22242. (elsevier.com)
- Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. (biomedsearch.com)
- Therefore, phage T4 is a unique nanoparticle platform to formulate multivalent vaccines against high-risk pathogens for national preparedness against potential bioterror attacks and emerging infections. (cdc.gov)
- Exclusion of T4 phage by the hok/sok killer locus from plasmid R1. (lgcstandards-atcc.org)
- I describe in this dissertation the further development of a procaryotic system, namely bacteriophage T4, as a model in vivo system for studying dNTP pool imbalances and mutagenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
- Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag) by in vivo phage display. (biomedcentral.com)
- Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Four carcinogenic inorganic salts and five chemical carcinogens ( N -hydroxy-1-naphthylamine, N -hydroxy-2-naphthylamine, N -hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, 10-formyl-1,2-benzanthracene, and DL-ethionine) were toxic but not mutagenic to intracellular T4 phage. (aspetjournals.org)
- Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. (wiley.com)
- Sequencing of this conserved region of the pseudo T-even phage RB49 revealed substantial nucleotide sequence divergence from T4 (approximately 30% to 40%), and random genomic sequencing of this phage indicated that more than a third of its sequences had no detectable homology to T4. (nih.gov)
- In fact, the GGAG motif is one of the most frequent Shine-Dalgarno sequences encountered in T4. (biomedcentral.com)
- SegA protein cleaved circular and linear plasmids, DNA containing unmodified cytosines, and wild-type T4 DNA containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines. (asm.org)
- Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. (pnas.org)
- In addition, the phage-encoded RegB endoribonuclease (T4 regB gene) functionally inactivates many early transcripts and expedites their degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Finally, recent analyses of DNA packaging and morphogenesis have suggested applications of T4 as a gene delivery vehicle. (els.net)
- Phage particle purification is important for two different issues: general investigation of bacteriophage particles, i.e. phage biology studies, and for therapeutic applications of bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
- We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- A 'foldon' structural tag was fused at the C-terminus of gp41-5M to facilitate trimer formation, and phage T4 small outer capsid (Soc) protein was fused at the N-terminus for arraying gp41 on T4 capsids. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unlike HK97, the T5 capsid binds a decoration protein in the center of each hexamer similarly to the "hoc" protein of phage T4, suggesting a common role for these molecules. (deepdyve.com)
- This approach probably provides the best results, although most bacteriophages are spatially expanded polyhedrons with very long tails, different from single protein molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
- Complete independence from antibiotics' antimicrobial mechanisms was also shown, i.e. bacteriophages do not follow antibiotics' cross-resistance and can be fully effective on antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains [ 6 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)