Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (1/780)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

Crystal structure of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4, a component of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate-synthesizing complex. (2/780)

Bacteriophage T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase (EC 2.1.2.8), a homodimer of 246-residue subunits, catalyzes hydroxymethylation of the cytosine base in deoxycytidylate (dCMP) to produce 5-hydroxymethyl-dCMP. It forms part of a phage DNA protection system and appears to function in vivo as a component of a multienzyme complex called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthetase. We have determined its crystal structure in the presence of the substrate dCMP at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a subunit fold and a dimerization pattern in common with thymidylate synthases, despite low (approximately 20%) sequence identity. Among the residues that form the dCMP binding site, those interacting with the sugar and phosphate are arranged in a configuration similar to the deoxyuridylate binding site of thymidylate synthases. However, the residues interacting directly or indirectly with the cytosine base show a more divergent structure and the presumed folate cofactor binding site is more open. Our structure reveals a water molecule properly positioned near C-6 of cytosine to add to the C-7 methylene intermediate during the last step of hydroxymethylation. On the basis of sequence comparison and crystal packing analysis, a hypothetical model for the interaction between T4 deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase and T4 thymidylate synthase in the dNTP-synthesizing complex has been built.  (+info)

X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease VII: a DNA junction resolvase with a novel fold and unusual domain-swapped dimer architecture. (3/780)

Phage T4 endonuclease VII (Endo VII), the first enzyme shown to resolve Holliday junctions, recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA substrates ranging from branched DNAs to single base mismatches. We have determined the crystal structures of the Ca2+-bound wild-type and the inactive N62D mutant enzymes at 2.4 and 2.1 A, respectively. The Endo VII monomers form an elongated, highly intertwined molecular dimer exhibiting extreme domain swapping. The major dimerization elements are two pairs of antiparallel helices forming a novel 'four-helix cross' motif. The unique monomer fold, almost completely lacking beta-sheet structure and containing a zinc ion tetrahedrally coordinated to four cysteines, does not resemble any of the known junction-resolving enzymes, including the Escherichia coli RuvC and lambda integrase-type recombinases. The S-shaped dimer has two 'binding bays' separated by approximately 25 A which are lined by positively charged residues and contain near their base residues known to be essential for activity. These include Asp40 and Asn62, which function as ligands for the bound calcium ions. A pronounced bipolar charge distribution suggests that branched DNA substrates bind to the positively charged face with the scissile phosphates located near the divalent cations. A model for the complex with a four-way DNA junction is presented.  (+info)

The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg. (4/780)

The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed.  (+info)

Computational studies on mutant protein stability: The correlation between surface thermal expansion and protein stability. (5/780)

Thermal stability of mutant proteins has been investigated using temperature dependent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in vacuo. The numerical modeling was aimed at mimicking protein expansion upon heating. After the conditions for an expanding protein accessible surface area were established for T4 lysozyme and barnase wild-type proteins, MD simulations were carried out under the same conditions using the crystal structures of several mutant proteins. The computed thermal expansion of the accessible surface area of mutant proteins was found to be strongly correlated with their experimentally measured stabilities. A similar, albeit weaker, correlation was observed for model mutant proteins. This opens the possibility of obtaining stability information directly from protein structure.  (+info)

T4 RNA ligase catalyzes the synthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates. (6/780)

T4 RNA ligase has been shown to synthesize nucleoside and dinucleoside 5'-polyphosphates by displacement of the AMP from the E-AMP complex with polyphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Displacement of the AMP by tripolyphosphate (P3) was concentration dependent, as measured by SDS/PAGE. When the enzyme was incubated in the presence of 0.02 mm [alpha-32P] ATP, synthesis of labeled Ap4A was observed: ATP was acting as both donor (Km, microm) and acceptor (Km, mm) of AMP from the enzyme. Whereas, as previously known, ATP or dATP (but not other nucleotides) were able to form the E-AMP complex, the specificity of a compound to be acceptor of AMP from the E-AMP complex was very broad, and with Km values between 1 and 2 mm. In the presence of a low concentration (0.02 mm) of [alpha-32P] ATP (enough to form the E-AMP complex, but only marginally enough to form Ap4A) and 4 mm of the indicated nucleotides or P3, the relative rate of synthesis of the following radioactive (di)nucleotides was observed: Ap4X (from XTP, 100); Ap4dG (from dGTP, 74); Ap4G (from GTP, 49); Ap4dC (from dCTP, 23); Ap4C (from CTP, 9); Ap3A (from ADP, 5); Ap4ddA, (from ddATP, 1); p4A (from P3, 200). The enzyme also synthesized efficiently Ap3A in the presence of 1 mm ATP and 2 mm ADP. The following T4 RNA ligase donors were inhibitors of the synthesis of Ap4G: pCp > pAp > pA2'p.  (+info)

The C-terminal fragment of the precursor tail lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 stays as a structural component of the baseplate after cleavage. (7/780)

Tail-associated lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 (tail lysozyme), the product of gene 5 (gp 5), is an essential structural component of the hub of the phage baseplate. It is synthesized as a 63-kDa precursor, which later cleaves to form mature gp 5 with a molecular weight of 43,000. To elucidate the role of the C-terminal region of the precursor protein, gene 5 was cloned and overexpressed and the product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, analytical ultracentrifugation, and circular dichroism. It was shown that the precursor protein tends to be cleaved into two fragments during expression and that the cleavage site is close to or perhaps identical to the cleavage site in the infected cell. The two fragments, however, remained associated. The lysozyme activity of the precursor or the nicked protein is about 10% of that of mature gp 5. Both the N-terminal mature tail lysozyme and the C-terminal fragment were then isolated and characterized by far-UV circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation. The latter remained trimeric after dissociation from the N-terminal fragment and is rich in beta-structure as predicted by an empirical method. To trace the fate of the C-terminal fragment, antiserum was raised against a synthesized peptide of the last 12 C-terminal residues. Surprisingly, the C-terminal fragment was found in the tail and the phage particle by immunoblotting. The significance of this finding is discussed in relation to the molecular assembly and infection process.  (+info)

Bacteriophage T4 rnh (RNase H) null mutations: effects on spontaneous mutation and epistatic interaction with rII mutations. (8/780)

The bacteriophage T4 rnh gene encodes T4 RNase H, a relative of a family of flap endonucleases. T4 rnh null mutations reduce burst sizes, increase sensitivity to DNA damage, and increase the frequency of acriflavin resistance (Acr) mutations. Because mutations in the related Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD27 gene display a remarkable duplication mutator phenotype, we further explored the impact of rnh mutations upon the mutation process. We observed that most Acr mutants in an rnh+ strain contain ac mutations, whereas only roughly half of the Acr mutants detected in an rnhDelta strain bear ac mutations. In contrast to the mutational specificity displayed by most mutators, the DNA alterations of ac mutations arising in rnhDelta and rnh+ backgrounds are indistinguishable. Thus, the increase in Acr mutants in an rnhDelta background is probably not due to a mutator effect. This conclusion is supported by the lack of increase in the frequency of rI mutations in an rnhDelta background. In a screen that detects mutations at both the rI locus and the much larger rII locus, the r frequency was severalfold lower in an rnhDelta background. This decrease was due to the phenotype of rnh rII double mutants, which display an r+ plaque morphology but retain the characteristic inability of rII mutants to grow on lambda lysogens. Finally, we summarize those aspects of T4 forward-mutation systems which are relevant to optimal choices for investigating quantitative and qualitative aspects of the mutation process.  (+info)

The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an ...
Principal Investigator:MASAI Hisao, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same ...
Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. Spontaneous mutation and mutagenesis by 2-aminopurine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and thymine deprivation are strongly suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by ethyl methanesulfonate, and at A:T sites by nitrous acid, is moderately suppressed. Mutagenesis at G:C sites by hydroxylamine and by nitrous acid is not suppressed. These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. The data also reveal that mutagenic specificities of chemical agents depend as much upon the characteristics of the enzymatic apparatus of DNA replication as they do upon the chemistry of primary mutational lesions.. ...
Giant DNA Model-Towering nearly 3 feet tall, this highly visible DNA molecule is ideally suited to lecture hall presentations. But your students will find it is even more effective for hands-on investigations into the functional unit of heredity. Mag
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays. AU - Shaw, Denise R.. AU - Maurelli, Anthony T.. AU - Goguen, Jon D.. AU - Straley, Susan C.. AU - Curtiss, Roy. PY - 1983/1/14. Y1 - 1983/1/14. N2 - We have utilized lysis from without mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique we describe has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37°C, with a , 103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the ...
Numerous authors have noted the difficulty in obtaining mutants of E. coli B that are resistant to bacteriophage T2 using standard procedures of plating large numbers of cells in the presence of excess phage. Yet, T2-resistant mutants appear in continuous culture at rates inconsistent with this difficulty. This paradoxical result derives from the fact that resistance to T2 usually arises as a consequence of two nonindependent mutations. Mutant bacteria resistant to phage T4 are very common and increase rapidly in continuous culture with phage T2 owing to an approximate halving of the rate at which T2 adsorbs to and kills these partially resistant mutants. The rate at which these partially resistant mutants then give rise to fully resistant mutants is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the rate obtained by direct selection. These results are consistent with biochemical evidence that T2 adsorption to E. coli B involves both the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (to which phage T4 ...
1L10: STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MUTANTS OF THE LYSOZYME OF BACTERIOPHAGE T4. THE TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT PROTEIN THR157 (RIGHT ARROW) ILE
We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions fav …
Read Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Kim, Y. T., Lee, S. G., and Kim, H. J. (1995). Molecular and Biochemical studies on the DNA replication of bacteriophage T7: functional analysis of amino-terminal region of gene 2.5 protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 486-489 ...
Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA-containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines; from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced
Figure 2. -Gene expression of a gene 61.5 mutant in a motA- genetic background. (A) MH1 cells were infected with motA- or 61.5- motA- phage. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled and analyzed as described in materials and methods. Middle-gene products are indicated by arrowheads and late-gene products by arrows. Gp43 forms a highly diffuse band in an 8% polyacrylamide gel (as seen here) for unknown reasons. The rate of synthesis of late-gene (B) or middle-gene products (C) at each time was measured by densitometry of each protein band and expressed in arbitrary units. Open and solid circles represent the rates of synthesis in motA--infected or 61.5- motA-infected cells, respectively. Because the gp23 band was close to other bands in A, the rate for this protein was derived from another experiment (not shown) in which the gp23 band was separated from others.. ...
Double-strand break of giant DNA: Protection by glucosyl-hesperidin as evidenced through direct observation on individual DNA molecules ...
Dramatic Change in the Tertiary Structure of Giant DNA without Distortion of the Secondary Structure Caused by Pteridine - Polyamine Conjugates ...
1DYB: Determination of alpha-helix propensity within the context of a folded protein. Sites 44 and 131 in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.
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That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
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Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Amino acid changes coded by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase mutator mutants. Relating structure to function., Polymerase: T4 G298D, Property: Nucleotide Substitution Rate
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonalantibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the binding reaction. ...
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Frafments of phage T7 DNA have been cloned in Escherichia coli by using the plasmid pMB9. Such cloned fragments are able to recombine with infecting phages, thus providing a means to integrate the physical and genetic maps of T7 DNA. Approximately 65% of the T7 DNA molecule has been found in clones so far, and analysis of these clones has mapped genes 12-17 with an accuracy of about 1% the total length of T7 DNA. At least some cloned segments can supply T7 functions to infecting phages.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
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Traditionally, recombination reactions promoted by RecA-like proteins initiate by forming a nucleoprotein filament on a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which then pairs with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In this paper, we describe a novel pairing process that occurs in an unconventional manner: RecA protein polymerizes along dsDNA to form an active nucleoprotein filament that can pair and exchange strands with homologous ssDNA. Our results demonstrate that this inverse reaction is a unique, highly efficient DNA strand exchange reaction that is not due to redistribution of RecA protein from dsDNA to the homologous ssDNA partner. Finally, we demonstrate that the RecA protein-dsDNA filament can also pair and promote strand exchange with ssRNA. This inverse RNA strand exchange reaction is likely responsible for R-loop formation that is required for recombination-dependent DNA replication.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Bromine atom in PDB 2ntg: Structure of Spin-Labeled T4 Lysozyme Mutant T115R7
A Megaplasmid-Borne Anaerobic Ribonucleotide Reductase in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16: The conjugative 450-kb megaplasmid pHG1 is essential for the anaerobic grow
Read Conserved genomes of ΦKMV-like bacteriophages (T7 supergroup) active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
food packaging machines: twisting tie machine, food mixer, shrinking machine, vacuum sealing machine, bench box and cup sealer, film packaging machine and more ...
Fully Automatic Side Sealer(id:10407535). View product details of Fully Automatic Side Sealer from Shanghai ChengQi Packing Machinery Co.,Ltd manufacturer in EC21
German) Die vertikalen Schlauchbeutelmaschinen sind für die Herstellung von Beuteln und ihr Füllen von Produkten mit kleinen Produktmengen bestimmt. Das Programm der Maschine ermöglicht eine komfortable Steuerung und Einstellung, einschl. Speicherung von 200 verschiedenen Maschineneinstellungen in Vorwahlen und die Arbeit in zwei Regimes zum Erreichen der maximalen Leistung. Der Beutel wird in der Maschine aus wärmeschweißbarer Folie geformt. Diese Folie wird von einer Folienrolle abgespult und über verschiedene Leitrollen einem Tubus mit Schulter (Formatrohr) zugeführt. Hier wird aus der Folienbahn ein Schlauch geformt. In diesen Schlauch fällt während des Querschweißens das Produkt aus dem Dosierer. Der Folienabzug um eine Länge des Beutels sichern Abzugsriemchen. Nach dem Folienabzug schließen die Querbacken den Beutel und der Beutel wird abgeschnitten. Dieser Zyklus wiederholt sich je Arbeitstakt. Die Verpackungsmaschinen sind für sämtliche schüttfähige, schwer schüttfähige ...
Sullivan MB, Huang KH, Ignacio-Espinoza JC, Berlin AM, Kelly L, Weigele PR, DeFrancesco AS, Kern SE, Thompson LR, Young S, Yandava C, Fu R, Krastins B, Chase M, Sarracino D, Osburne MS, Henn MR, Chisholm SW. Genomic analysis of oceanic cyanobacterial myoviruses compared with T4-like myoviruses from diverse hosts and environments. Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov; 12(11):3035-56 ...
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Ishida Co Ltd is world leading supplier of food weighing and packaging machines and Equipment. Established since 1893 in Kyoto, Japan.
New generation aseptic packaging machines require more effective and efficient hydrogen peroxide products engineered specifically for each machine type. Solvay has a coordinated global approach to the research and development of the INTEROX® Aseptic Grade product range for this market segment.
At our headquarter we have two packaging machines to make kits and blister. The production capacity is of approx. 15,000 kits per day and on request we can also pack items into contract work. ...
Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
Viruses are the most numerous entities on Earth and have also been central to many episodes in the history of humankind. As the study of viruses progresses further and further, there are several limitations in transferring this knowledge to undergraduate and high school students. This deficiency is due to the difficulty in designing hands-on lessons that allow students to better absorb content, given limited financial resources and facilities, as well as the difficulty of exploiting viral particles, due to their small dimensions. The development of tools for teaching virology is important to encourage educators to expand on the covered topics and connect them to recent findings. Discoveries, such as giant DNA viruses, have provided an opportunity to explore aspects of viral particles in ways never seen before. Coupling these novel findings with techniques already explored by classical virology, including visualization of cytopathic effects on permissive cells, may represent a new way for teaching
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
The middle surface antigen (M-sAg) of hepadnaviruses is one of three envelope proteins that share a common C-terminal S domain. Two-component nature of bacteriophage T4 receptor activity in Escherichia coli K-12. Complex morphology and functional dynamics of vital murine intestinal mucosa ...
A team of scientists from the United States has recently developed a bioengineered bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle structure using CRISPR technology that can..
For those molecular geneticists out there, you will appreciate the new discovery of using a genetically modified M13 phage as a source for making hydrogen fuel out of water! The M13 bacteriophage is often used in molecular genetics work as a cloning vector. The phage contains a single strand circular DNA genome of 6407 nucleotides…
Bacteriophages benefit to human health and are useful in numerous other fields. Focus on this biological microentity discovered at the end of 19th century
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
Advt. No. 111. Sale of a site fronting property at No. 241, Triq it-Torri, Sliema, shown edged in red and marked No. 4 on plan P.D.76_2002_1. This site is subject to existing third party servitudes. Tenders are to be accompanied by a bid-bond for an amount of €8,000 as stipulated in the tender conditions. Offers below the amount of twenty-five thousand Euro (€25,000) will not be considered ...
Ramos, M. L. ; Dias, D.C.; Justino, L. L. G. ; Verissimo, L.M.P.; Valente, A. J. M. ; Esteso, M. A. ; Ribeiro, A. C. F. ; Leaist, D.G.; Pina, J. ; Cabral, A.M.T.D.P.V.; Rodrigo, M.M. ...
The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ... and the virus bacteriophage T4. In several such studies, numerous mutations defective in the same gene were isolated and mapped ... In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ... Intragenic complementation among temperature sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Genetics. 1965;51(6):987-1002. Crick FH, ...
Genomic map of bacteriophage T4, p. 491-519. In J Karam, JW Drake, KN Kreuzer, G Mosig, DH Hall, FA Eiserling, LW Black, EK ... As the early mapping of genes on the bacteriophage T4 chromosome progressed, it became evident that the arrangement of the ... Molecular biology of bacteriophage T4. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. Obringer JW. The functions of the ... For instance genes that specify proteins employed in bacteriophage head morphogenesis are tightly clustered. Other examples of ...
A primary infection by bacteriophage (phage) T4 of its E. coli host ordinarily leads to genetic exclusion of a secondarily ... Spackle and immunity functions of bacteriophage T4. J Virol. 1974;13(2):312-321. doi:10.1128/JVI.13.2.312-321.1974 Obringer JW ... The functions of the phage T4 immunity and spackle genes in genetic exclusion. Genet Res. 1988;52(2):81-90. doi:10.1017/ ... s0016672300027440 Bernstein C. Damage in DNA of an infecting phage T4 shifts reproduction from asexual to sexual allowing ...
Edgar B (2004). "The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. ...
"Heat mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4: The transition pathway". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 73 (4): 1269-1273. Bibcode:1976PNAS ...
Matthews BW, Remington SJ (1974). "The three dimensional structure of the lysozyme from bacteriophage T4". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... He created hundreds of mutants of T4 lysozyme (making it the commonest structure in the PDB), determined their structure by x- ... Baase WA, Liu L, Tronrud DE, Matthews BW (2010). "Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4". Protein Science. 19 (4): 631-41. doi: ... Anderson WF, Ohlendorf DH, Takeda Y, Matthews BW (1981). "Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage λ and its ...
Malys, Naglis (2012-01-01). "Shine-Dalgarno sequence of bacteriophage T4: GAGG prevails in early genes". Molecular Biology ...
Ferguson PL, Coombs DH (March 2000). "Pulse-chase analysis of the in vivo assembly of the bacteriophage T4 tail". J. Mol. Biol ...
"Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4". Nature. 227 (5259): 680-685. doi:10.1038/ ...
Tuerk C, Gold L (August 1990). "Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA ... evolution known as SELEX to isolate a small single stranded RNA molecule that was capable of binding to T4 bacteriophage DNA ... Hershey AD (September 1953). "Nucleic acid economy in bacteria infected with bacteriophage T2". The Journal of General ... "Phosphorus incorporation in Escherichia coli ribonucleic acid after infection with bacteriophage T2". Virology. 2 (2): 149-161 ...
Tuerk C, Gold L (August 1990). "Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA ...
During 1955 to 1959, Benzer performed genetic recombination experiments using rII mutants of bacteriophage T4. He found that, ... These experiments, involving mapping of mutational sites within the rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4, demonstrated that three ... performed mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4 showing that recombination frequencies between rII mutants are ... Benzer S. Fine structure of a genetic region in bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955;41(6):344-354. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
"Necessity of quantum coherence to account for the spectrum of time-dependent mutations exhibited by bacteriophage T4". ...
... see Benzer's T4 bacteriophage experiments T4 rII system). For example, an operon is a stretch of DNA that is transcribed to ...
One such device utilizes a recombinant version of the T4 bacteriophage which carries the gene for β-galactosidase. Water ... They are then incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Next, the bacteriophage and the β-galactosidase indicator substrate are added to ...
The genes required for MR in bacteriophage T4 are largely the same as the genes required for allelic recombination. Examples of ... Bernstein C (1981). "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiol. Rev. 45 (1): 72-98. doi:10.1128/MMBR.45.1.72- ... bacteriophage) are able to undergo mating. When a cell is mixedly infected by two genetically marked viruses, recombinant virus ... bacteriophage). The third method of DNA transfer is conjugation, in which a plasmid mediates transfer through direct cell ...
... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4. ...
1968 - Aaron Klug and David DeRosier use electron microscopy to visualise the structure of the tail of bacteriophage T4, a ...
... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 - bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.150.700 ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280.090.500.350 - bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.280.090.700 ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
T4 bacteriophage, Semliki Forest virus, Bacteriophage CbK, and Vesicular-Stomatitis-Virus. In 2017, three scientists, Jacques ...
... is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects ... Dda is involved in the initiation of T4 DNA replication and DNA recombination.[citation needed] The Dda gene is 31,219 base ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Dda - ATP-dependent DNA helicase dda - Enterobacteria phage T4 - dda gene & protein". ...
The evolution of epistasis and the advantage of recombination in populations of bacteriophage T4. Genetics 86:607-621. de la ... The isolation and characterization of TabR bacteria: Hosts that restrict bacteriophage T4 rII mutants Mol. Gen. Genet. 188:60- ... The isolation and characterization of bacterial strains (Tab32) that restrict bacteriophage T4 gene 32 mutants Mol. Gen. Genet ... Long-circulating bacteriophage as antibacterial agents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:3188-3192. Gupta, K., Y. Lee and J. Yin. ...
Ackermann, H.-W.; Krisch, H. M. (6 April 2014). "A catalogue of T4-type bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 142 (12): 2329- ... Animation by Hybrid Animation Medical for a T4 Bacteriophage targeting E. coli bacteria. ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ...
The bacteriophage T4 DNA injection machine. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2004;14(2):171-80. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2004.02 ... Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a ... Main article: Bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of ... The viral genome is then known as a "provirus" or, in the case of bacteriophages a "prophage".[113] Whenever the host divides, ...
Floor E (1970). "Interaction of morphogenetic genes of bacteriophage T4". J. Mol. Biol. 47 (3): 293-306. doi:10.1016/0022-2836( ... To create a viable phage T4 virus (see image), a balance of structural components is required. An amber mutant of phage T4 ... an amber mutant defective in a gene encoding a needed structural component of phage T4 is weakly suppressed (in an E. coli host ...
Edgar B (2004). "The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics 168 (2): 575-82. PMC 1448817. PMID 15514035. ... Ellis E.L. "Bacteriophage: One-step growth curve" in Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology (2007) Edited by John Cairns, ... Benzer S. FINE STRUCTURE OF A GENETIC REGION IN BACTERIOPHAGE. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955 Jun 15;41(6):344-54. PMID ... Luria S. E. "Reactivation of Irradiated Bacteriophage by Transfer of Self-Reproducing Units". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1947 ...
"Engineering trimeric fibrous proteins based on bacteriophage T4 adhesins". Protein Eng. 11 (4): 329-32. doi:10.1093/protein/ ...
Laemmli UK (August 1970). "Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4". Nature. 227 ( ...
"Circular and branched circular concatenates as possible intermediates in bacteriophage T4 DNA replication". J. Mol. Biol. 77 (3 ... in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to the linear and circular DNA structures of bacteriophage T4.[ ...
... that most cpDNA is linear and participates in homologous recombination and replication structures similar to bacteriophage T4.[ ...
"High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of bacteriophages 3C and T4". Science. 189 (4203): 637-9. doi:10.1126/science. ... Initially this high resolution low-loss mode was used to examine bacteriophage and blood cells in collaboration with ...
"Chemical Synthesis of a Primer and Its Use in the Sequence Analysis of the Lysozyme Gene of Bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ...
This process, referred to as multiplicity reactivation, has been studied in lambda and T4 bacteriophages,[12] as well as in ... I. The rII region of bacteriophage T4. (1962) Journal of Theoretical Biology. 1962; 3, 335-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022- ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiol. Rev. 45 (1): 72-98. doi:10.1128/MMBR.45.1.72-98.1981. PMC 281499 ...
"Chemical Synthesis of a Primer and Its Use in the Sequence Analysis of the Lysozyme Gene of Bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (svibnja 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 ... "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551 ...
"The genome of bacteriophage T4: an archeological dig". Genetics. 168 (2): 575-582. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1448817 . PMID 15514035. ...
In BacteriophageEdit. T4 bacteriophage uses anti-sigma factor to ruin the Escherichia coli polymerase in order that direct ... AsiA is an anti-sigma factor gene that is required for bacteriophage T4 to be developed). Which means that AsiA is an essential ... and in the T4 bacteriophage. Anti-sigma factors are antagonists to the sigma factors, which regulate numerous cell processes ... Cartoon representation of T4 anti-sigma factor Audrey Stevens' Inhibitor, PDB entry 1jr5 ...
Studies with T4 bacteriophage and E. coli with defective dnaQ genes give evidence that the mutA tRNA may not have any effect on ...
Chen D, Bernstein C (1987). "Recombinational repair of hydrogen peroxide-induced damages in DNA of phage T4". Mutatation ... poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[36] ... "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". Journal of General Physiology. 36 (1): 39 ... "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiological Reviews. 45 (1): 72-98. PMC 281499 . PMID 6261109 ...
The author continues to mention the sterospecific, spontaneous assembly of ribosomes and T4 bacteriophage from their protein ...
Freese E (June 1959). "The specific mutagenic effect of base analogues on Phage T4". Journal of Molecular Biology. 1 (2): 87- ... "Distribution of fitness effects caused by single-nucleotide substitutions in bacteriophage f1". Genetics. 185 (2): 603-9. doi ... "THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUS AND BASE-ANALOGUE INDUCED MUTATIONS OF PHAGE T4". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... action of He-Ne Laser radiation on bacteriophage T4 - Escherichia coli interaction. In: Lasers Surg.Med. 9/1989, S. 67-69 ... action of He-Ne Laser radiation on bacteriophage T4 - Escheria coli interaction. In: Lasers Surg.Med. 9/1989, S.67-69 ...
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage virus. It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail ... Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely limited ... and in the way that bacteriophages can limit bacterial infections. It is likely, though little researched, that most pathogenic ...
... and bacteriophage T4 GP37. Dominant and recessive genetic diseases in humans[edit]. In humans, many genetic traits or diseases ... a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage T4 tail ... "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863. PMID 5662621 ...
The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage[edit]. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ... 2 Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage. *3 Genetic complementation, heterosis and the evolution of sexual ... "Physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ...
... a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage T4 tail ... "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863. PMID 5662621 ...
"Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 Viralzone: ... The genome of the P1 phage is moderately large, around 93Kbp in length (compared to the genomes of e.g. T4 - 169Kbp, lambda - ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ... Sandmeier, H.; S. Iida; W. Arber (1992-06-01). "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: ...
Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ... Recognition and Specific Degradation of Bacteriophage T4 mRNAs. Hiroyuki Ueno and Tetsuro Yonesaki ...
Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases. John W. Drake and Elaine O. ... These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the ... Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens ... Suppression of Chemical Mutagenesis in Bacteriophage T4 by Genetically Modified DNA Polymerases ...
The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature ... Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates.. P B Berget, H R Warner ... Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), ...
Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.. J Jiang, L Abu-Shilbayeh, V B ... The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; ... Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. ... Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. ...
Maturation of bacteriophage T4 lagging strand fragments depends on interaction of T4 RNase H with T4 32 protein rather than the ... Bacteriophage T4 DNA primase-helicase. Characterization of the DNA synthesis primed by T4 61 protein in the absence of T4 41 ... Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its ... Bacteriophage T4 DNA primase-helicase. Characterization of oligomer synthesis by T4 61 protein alone and in conjunction with T4 ...
"Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships, Journal of Molecular ... Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships. Bacteriophage T5 ... Bacteriophage T5 Structure Reveals Similarities with HK97 and T4 Suggesting Evolutionary Relationships. Effantin, G.; Boulanger ... Analysis of bacteriophage T5 by cryo-electron microscopy and protein sequence analysis reveals analogies with HK97 and T4 that ...
... from bacteriophage T4; MW 25 kDa; has been sequenced ... DNA-containing unmodified cytosines and wild-type T4 DNA- ... Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein: cleaves circular and linear plasmids, ... SegA protein, Enterobacteria phage T4; Endodeoxyribonuclease segA protein, Enterobacteria phage T4; SEGA protein, Bacteriophage ... Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein. Subscribe to New Research on Enterobacteria phage T4 SegA protein ...
... and its host bacterium, , can be considered among the earliest model organisms - biological systems that ... In addition, T4 and related phages are being used in investigations of bacteriophage therapy. Finally, recent analyses of DNA ... Figure 3. (a) A one‐step growth curve for bacteriophage T4 infecting E. . coli. B at 37 °C. Blue circles, infective centres; ... Bacteriophage T4 and its host bacterium, , can be considered among the earliest model organisms - biological systems that ...
MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. About 56% are base pair substitutions, about ... Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. The induction of G:C → A:T transitions was detected even in a px or y ...
Morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4 in extracts of mutant-infected cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4 in extracts of mutant-infected cells. R S Edgar and W B Wood ...
Recent work on the T4 replisome has yielded more detailed insight into the dynamics and coordination of proteins at the ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... The T4 bacteriophage encodes eight proteins, which are sufficient to carry out coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA ... Noble, E.; Spiering, M.M.; Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. Viruses 2015, 7, 3186- ...
T4 bacteriophages reproduce via a lytic life cycle. Without their cell-puncturing device T4 bacteriophages would be unable to ... T4 bacterophage is an important tool in research as well as a good system of study. T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli ... T4 Bacteriophage Cell-Puncturing Device. Clint Priestley 03 and Matt Schefft 04. Contents:. I. Introduction II. General ... The T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device consists of two proteins that form a stable complex which makes up the hub of the ...
Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4.. Laemmli UK. ...
Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. ... Cleavage of structural proteins during the assemble of the head of bacteriophage T4. (1970) by U K Laemmli ...
"Bacteriophage T4" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacteriophage T4" was a major or minor topic of ... Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the ... "Bacteriophage T4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Crystal structure of the bacteriophage T4 late-transcription coactivator gp33 with the ß-subunit flap domain of Escherichia ...
T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Phages are widely distributed in locations ... T4 bacteriophage (DNA virus), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). ... Caption: T4 bacteriophage (DNA virus), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). T4 is a bacteriophage that infects ...
I worked on bacteriophage T4 as a graduate student and she helped me type my thesis. Its the perfect gift. [NEW - Green T4 ... I dunno, my wife would be totally into T4 earrings (but only if they were purple).. ...
Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region containing imm ... Abstract : Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. The map region ... Descriptors : *GENES, *MUTATIONS, *BACTERIOPHAGES, CLUSTERING, ECOLOGY, ENZYMES, IMMUNITY, OVERLAP, PRODUCTION, PROTEINS, ...
Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of bacterial cell ... Keywords: alpha helix, artwork, bacteriophage, bacteriophage t4, bacteriophage t4 lysozyme, beta sheet, biochemical, ... Caption: Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. Lysozymes are enzymes that disrupt the polysaccharide components of ...
Bacteriophage T4 gp17 motor assembly based on crystal structures and cryo-EM reconstructions. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3EZK/pdb ... We report the crystal structure of the DNA packaging motor protein, gene product 17 (gp17), in bacteriophage T4. The structure ... We report the crystal structure of the DNA packaging motor protein, gene product 17 (gp17), in bacteriophage T4. The structure ... Escherichia virus T4. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: 17. EC: 3.6.4 (UniProt), 3.1.21 (UniProt). ...
T4 LYSOZYME. A. 164. Escherichia virus T4. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: E. EC: 3.2.1.17. ... DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE HYDROPHOBIC CORE PACKING ARRANGEMENTS IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4 LYSOZYME. *DOI: 10.2210 ... Design and structural analysis of alternative hydrophobic core packing arrangements in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme.. Hurley, J.H. ... An attempt has been made to design modified core-packing arrangements in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. Alternative replacements of ...
Molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages in a rice field. Authors. *. Zhongjun Jia,. Corresponding author. * ... All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including ... T. V. Butina, O. I. Belykh, S. I. Belikov, Molecular-genetic identification of T4 bacteriophages in Lake Baikal, Doklady ... Christopher M. Bellas, Alexandre M. Anesio, High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of ...
Schematic of the bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle platform. (A) Structural model of phage T4. The enlarged capsomer shows the ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague. Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, ... Phage RB69 is closely related to T4, and its Soc protein binds to phage T4 capsid as well as the T4 Soc protein does (34). As ...
Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ... Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment: RNA ligands to bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase ...
"The Bacteriophage T4 AsiA Protein Contacts the -Flap Domain of RNA Polymerase." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... The bacteriophage T4 AsiA protein contacts the β-flap domain of RNA polymerase. ...
A 2116bp segment of the bacteriophage T4 genome encompassing the motA regulatory gene has been sequenced. In addition to motA, ... Nucleotide sequence and control of transcription of the bacteriophage T4 motA regulatory gene Mol Microbiol. 1990 Sep;4(9):1487 ... A 2116bp segment of the bacteriophage T4 genome encompassing the motA regulatory gene has been sequenced. In addition to motA, ... Measurements of the rate of transcription of motA showed that the promoter of this gene is turned off after only 2 min of T4 ...
Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia ... Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. ... We have located seven major endonuclease II-dependent restriction sites in the T4 genome, of which three were analyzed in ...
Maaløe, O. and Symonds, N. (1953) Radioactive sulfur tracer studies on the reproduction of T4 bacteriophage. Journal of ... RADIOACTIVE SULFUR TRACER STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTION OF T4 BACTERIOPHAGE O. Maaløe, N. Symonds Journal of Bacteriology Feb ... Such experiments have now been carried out, again using the phage T4, but labeling with S35. The results indicate that ... noninfective, sedimentable particles which adsorb and precipitate with the specificity of the T4 phages are present in both ...
Different Types of Bacteriophages ... Lysogenic- infect the cell and integrates its genetic material into the ... - A free ... T4 Bacteriophage. 1. T4 Bacteriophage 2. What is a Bacteriophage?*A small virus that only infects bacteria wikipedia ... Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview - Figure 13.6 Bacteriophage T4-overview Viral Replication Dependent on hosts organelles ... T4 Bacteriophage. Description:. ... eat (greek) Two major types: Lytic and Lysogenic. Different Types of Bacteriophages ... ...
Phospholipid Metabolism in T4 Bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli K-12 (λ). Robert H. F. Peterson, Clarence S. Buller ... Phospholipid Metabolism in T4 Bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli K-12 (λ) Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Here we conducted a series of experiments to assess the biosorption potential of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4. Adsorption ... The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn2+ onto the surface of phage T4. Zn2+ ... The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 ... Zeta potential analysis demonstrated phage T4 (1010 VLPs mL-1) not exposed to zinc at pH 7.0 to be approximately -11.48 ± 1.16 ...
The genomes of these pseudo T-even phages hybridized under stringent conditions to only a limited portion of the T4 genome that ... Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a large collection of bacteriophages with T-even morphology revealed four phages that are ... The Genome of the Pseudo T-even Bacteriophages, a Diverse Group That Resembles T4 J Mol Biol. 1997 Mar 28;267(2):237-49. doi: ... The genomes of these pseudo T-even phages hybridized under stringent conditions to only a limited portion of the T4 genome that ...
Enhancement of bacteriophage T4 late transcription by components of the T4 DNA replication apparatus ... The expression of the late genes in bacteriophage T4 development is closely connected to viral DNA replication. Three T4- ... Enhancement of bacteriophage T4 late transcription by components of the T4 DNA replication apparatus ... Enhancement of bacteriophage T4 late transcription by components of the T4 DNA replication apparatus ...
Although not encoded by an intron, the bacteriophage T4 SegA protein shares common amino acid motifs with a family of proteins ... Purification and characterization of the SegA protein of bacteriophage T4, an endonuclease related to proteins encoded by group ... Purification and characterization of the SegA protein of bacteriophage T4, an endonuclease related to proteins encoded by group ... Purification and characterization of the SegA protein of bacteriophage T4, an endonuclease related to proteins encoded by group ...
  • Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of bacteriophage T5 by cryo-electron microscopy and protein sequence analysis reveals analogies with HK97 and T4 that suggest a mosaic of such connections. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • Total RNAs were isolated at the times indicated and 10 μg of each total RNA was analyzed by Northern blotting with a probe for the T4 genes indicated in A-D. The half-life of each transcript was calculated by measuring signal intensities and is shown below A-D. The arrowheads indicate the transcripts of each gene. (genetics.org)
  • The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. (asm.org)
  • The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. (asm.org)
  • Unlike HK97, the T5 capsid binds a decoration protein in the center of each hexamer similarly to the "hoc" protein of phage T4, suggesting a common role for these molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. (asm.org)
  • By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
  • In addition, T4 and related phages are being used in investigations of bacteriophage therapy. (els.net)
  • Bacteriophage T4 is representative of a large group of closely related phages found in varied environments worldwide. (els.net)
  • The results indicate that noninfective, sedimentable particles which adsorb and precipitate with the specificity of the T4 phages are present in both premature and ordinary lysates. (caltech.edu)
  • Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a large collection of bacteriophages with T-even morphology revealed four phages that are distantly related to all the others. (nih.gov)
  • A T4 segA amber mutant that we constructed had no phenotype, and PCR analyses indicated that several T-even-related phages lack the segA gene. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, our results show that SegA is an endonuclease with a hierarchy of site specificity, and these results are consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely consistent with the insertion of segA DNA into the T4 genome some time after the divergence of the closely related T-even phages. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In our case, we are interested in the internal signalling and pathways associated with the direct interaction of T4 and M13 phages with prostate cancer cells (PC3). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Experiments with other hybrid phages engineered to produce different amounts of wild-type T4 lysozyme have shown that, to score as deleterious, a mutation must reduce lysozyme activity to less than 3% of that produced by wild-type P22 e416. (umassmed.edu)
  • In this review we compile the past 10 - 15 year literature on RNA-protein interactions with T4 and some of its related phages, with particular focus on advances in mRNA decay and processing, and on translational repression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the early clinical studies with bacteriophages were not vigorously pursued in the United States and Western Europe, phages continued to be utilized in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (asm.org)
  • In this minireview, we briefly describe the history of bacteriophage discovery and the early clinical studies with phages and we review the recent literature emphasizing research conducted in Poland and the former Soviet Union. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages or phages are bacterial viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse. (asm.org)
  • T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. (wiley.com)
  • Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes such as fungi, with bacteria and with viruses such as bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like a miniature robot from a sci-fi thriller, tiny viruses known as bacteriophages inject their genetic goods into unsuspecting Escherichia coli bacteria. (wired.com)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the traditional subunit vaccines, the phage T4 vaccine uses a highly stable nanoparticle scaffold, provides multivalency, requires no adjuvant, and elicits broad T-helper 1 and 2 immune responses that are essential for complete clearance of bacteria during infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteriophages: A Therapy Concept against Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Only little information on a particular class of myoviruses, the SPO1-like bacteriophages infecting low-G+C-content, gram-positive host bacteria ( Firmicutes ), is available. (asm.org)
  • It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The comparative analysis of bacteriophage genome sequences has greatly enhanced our understanding of their diversity, revealing relationships between phage genomes often infecting distantly related host bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 infecting some bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • This review discusses the potential application of bacterial viruses (phage therapy) toward the eradication of antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this regard, several potential relationships between bacteria and their bacteriophages are considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • zebrafish and mice, bacteriophage T4 still presents the best opportunities for understanding at the molecular level DNA replication and recombination, and macromolecular assembly. (els.net)
  • The T4 genome encodes numerous enzymes, used to support replication of the viral genome and to synthesise deoxyribonucleotides to support the enormous rate of DNA accumulation in infected cells. (els.net)
  • These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • Benkovic, S.J. Coordinated DNA Replication by the Bacteriophage T4 Replisome. (mdpi.com)
  • The lytic cycle allows the T4 bacteriophage to transform a host cell into a replication machine. (kenyon.edu)
  • The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The T4 bacteriophage Dda helicase is believed to be involved in early events in T4 DNA replication and has been shown to stimulate genetic recombination processes in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Two types of recombination hotspots in bacteriophage T4: one requires DNA damage and a replication origin and the other does not. (duke.edu)
  • The mutations eliminated the function of the origin, as judged by both autonomous replication of plasmids during T4 infection and two-dimensional gel analysis of phage genomic replication intermediates. (duke.edu)
  • The two-dimensional gel analysis also revealed phage T4 replication intermediates not previously detected by this method, including origin theta forms. (duke.edu)
  • T4 phage is able to perform all the functions required for the replication and maintenance of its genome. (openwetware.org)
  • Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. (meta.org)
  • Bacteriophages, bacterial viruses unable to infect eukaryotic cells, constitute a serious alternative to antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are considered to be the most prevalent entities in the biosphere [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Electron Microscopy images of bacteriophage T4 viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • T4 has been an important model system to tease out the details of basic mechanisms by which viruses assemble into infectious particles. (nsf.gov)
  • Not all viruses have a motor such as the one found in the T4 virus, but some viruses that cause human diseases posses molecular motors with similar functions, and likely have similar structures. (nsf.gov)
  • The gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 is required for efficient genetic recombination in infected Eschericia coli cells and strongly stimulates in vitro pairing catalyzed by the phage uvsX protein, a RecA-like strand transferase. (scripps.edu)
  • Interactions of bacteriophage T4-coded gene 32 protein with nucleic acids. (elsevier.com)
  • In this paper we examine the specificity of the co-operative binding (in the polynucleotide mode) of bacteriophage T4-coded gene 32 protein to synthetic and natural single-stranded nucleic acids differing in base composition and sugar type. (elsevier.com)
  • 1978). In addition, these results suggest possible mechanisms by which gene 32 messenger RNA might be specifically recognized (by gene 32 protein) and functionally discriminated from the other mRNAs of phage T4. (elsevier.com)
  • This extremely detailed visualization shows one such virus, called an enterobacteria phage T4. (wired.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • An attempt has been made to design modified core-packing arrangements in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. (rcsb.org)
  • These variants decrease the stability of T4 lysozyme by approximately 0 to 2 kcal/mol. (rcsb.org)
  • Genuine repacking of the hydrophobic core of T4 lysozyme with minimal effects on structure, stability and activity thus appears to have been achieved. (rcsb.org)
  • 1) The lysozyme from the bacteriophage T4 eJD7 eJD4, which is a spontaneous revertant of the eJD4 frame shift mutant, has been isolated and purified. (elsevier.com)
  • The mutagenized gene was inserted into a specialized bacteriophage lambda cloning vector that must acquire a functional lysozyme gene in order to form plaques. (umassmed.edu)
  • Three compensatory second-site revertants were obtained: Thr152-Met, Lys43-Ile, and Thr151-Ala. The effects of these mutations are interpreted in light of previous structural and genetic studies of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bouvier, Suzanne E. and Poteete, Anthony R., "Second-site reversion of a structural defect in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1996). (umassmed.edu)
  • Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" by Dale Rennell, Suzanne E. Bouvier et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Amber mutations were introduced into every codon (except the initiating AUG) of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. (umassmed.edu)
  • The amber alleles were introduced into a bacteriophage P22 hybrid, called P22 e416, in which the normal P22 lysozyme gene is replaced by its T4 homologue, and which consequently depends upon T4 lysozyme for its ability to form a plaque. (umassmed.edu)
  • Plating the collection of amber mutants covering 163 of the 164 codons of T4 lysozyme, on 13 suppressor strains that each insert a different amino acid substitutions at every position in the protein (except the first). (umassmed.edu)
  • Of the resulting 2015 single amino acid substitutions in T4 lysozyme, 328 were found to be sufficiently deleterious to inhibit plaque formation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The effects of many of the deleterious substitutions are interpretable in light of the known structure of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Poteete, Anthony R., "Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1991). (umassmed.edu)
  • T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli so they remain dormant virions until their tail fibers come in contact with a binding site on an E. Coli cell wall. (kenyon.edu)
  • Endonuclease II of bacteriophage T4 is required for in vivo restriction of cytosine-containing DNA from its host, Escherichia coli, (as well as from phage mutants lacking cytosine modification), normally the first step in the reutilization of host DNA nucleotides for synthesis of phage DNA in infected cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we conducted a series of experiments to assess the biosorption potential of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4. (unl.edu)
  • The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In bacteriophage T4, a specific DNA modification system has been evolved to protect its own genome against phage‐encoded nucleases and restriction endonuclease systems of its host Escherichia coli . (embopress.org)
  • The shutoff of host DNA synthesis is delayed until about 8 to 10 min after infection when E. coli B/5 cells are infected with bacteriophage T4 mutants deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants). (elsevier.com)
  • Using this derivative, CT447 T4 plq + (for T4 plaque + ), the authors have shown that host DNA degradation and shutoff of host DNA synthesis occur after infection with either ndd98 x 5 (shutoff delayed) or T4D + (shutoff normal) with approximately the same kinetics as in E. coli strain B/5. (elsevier.com)
  • A plasmid vector for expression of bacteriophage T4 gene product 11 (gp11) in E. coli cells has been constructed. (utmb.edu)
  • The virus in the study, called T4, is not a common scourge of people, but its host is: the bacterium Escherichia coli ( E. coli) . (nsf.gov)
  • Deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4 is a homodimeric enzyme in which each polypeptide chain consists of 246 amino-acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. (wiley.com)
  • The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main objects of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the intracellular T4 DNA made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is of lower molecular weight than mature T4 DNA and does not get packaged into phage particles. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the generation of low molecular weight T4 DNA in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is not, in itself, also a mutagenic process. (elsevier.com)
  • Altman, S & Warner, V 1975, ' 9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 333-343. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to develop the basic concepts of bacterial and bacteriophage genetics in a volume of reasonable size, I have endeavored to avoid the stricdy molecular approach as weIl as the thoroughly comprehensive treatment characteristic of review articles. (springer.com)
  • The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well and its molecular mechanisms and qualifying agents are also well known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. (wiley.com)
  • Transversion mutations can be distinguished from transition mutations by the use of special tauII mutants of bacteriophage T4. (neb.com)
  • This book is intended for the student who is taking a first course in bacterial and bacteriophage genetics, rather than as a reference tool for the specialist. (springer.com)
  • b) A chronology of major events in T4 infection. (els.net)
  • Recombination hotspots have previously been discovered in bacteriophage T4 by two different approaches, marker rescue recombination from heavily damaged phage genomes and recombination during co-infection by two undamaged phage genomes. (duke.edu)
  • The host DNA synthesized after infection with ndd mutants is stable in the absence of T4 endonucleases II and IV, but is unstable in the presence of these nucleases. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4. (dtic.mil)
  • By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
  • All genetic markers from phage T2 are partially excluded from the progeny of mixed infections with the related phage T4 (general, or phage exclusion). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • T4 has rich history going back to 1940s when the original genetic tools to understand virus assembly were developed,' adds biologist Venigalla Rao of Catholic University, also a lead researcher on the study. (nsf.gov)
  • T4 uses its motor to pack about 171,000 basepairs of genetic information to near-crystalline density within its 120 nanometer by 86 nanometer capsid. (nsf.gov)
  • In these countries therapeutic mixtures active against a variety of bacterial pathogens are produced on an industrial scale, so a significant level of expertise and a large collection of bacteriophages have been accumulated over the years. (frontiersin.org)
  • SegA protein cleaved circular and linear plasmids, DNA containing unmodified cytosines, and wild-type T4 DNA containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. (wiley.com)
  • Sequencing of this conserved region of the pseudo T-even phage RB49 revealed substantial nucleotide sequence divergence from T4 (approximately 30% to 40%), and random genomic sequencing of this phage indicated that more than a third of its sequences had no detectable homology to T4. (nih.gov)
  • Many of these problems can continue to be addressed with T4, whereas the growing database of T4-related phage genome sequences provides new resources and potentially new phage-host systems to extend the work into a broader biological, evolutionary context. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In fact, the GGAG motif is one of the most frequent Shine-Dalgarno sequences encountered in T4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, recent analyses of DNA packaging and morphogenesis have suggested applications of T4 as a gene delivery vehicle. (els.net)
  • T4 morphogenesis involves separate subassembly pathways for viral heads, tails, tail baseplates and fibres, with the substructures assembling spontaneously. (els.net)
  • Affirmation as to the potential medical application of bacteriophages has been demonstrated by their prolonged use in the treatment of certain bacterial infections in Russia, Georgia, and Poland. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using an in vitro assembly system, the 120- by 86-nm heads (capsids) of phage T4 were arrayed with anthrax and plague antigens fused to the small outer capsid protein Soc (9 kDa). (asm.org)
  • Our work includes the interaction studies between different bacteriophage strains with different PCa cell lines and to know how these particles modulate cancer cell behaviour in vitro ( Figure 1 ). (alliedacademies.org)
  • We would like to take this advantage to report our preliminary findings based upon the in vitro interaction studies from PCa cells (PC3) with bacteriophage T4 and M13. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Interestingly, SegF preferentially cleaves gene 56 of T2, both in vitro and in vivo, compared with that of phage T4. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Previous studies had indicated that RB69 regA had a greater affinity for RNA than did T4 regA , in vitro . (musc.edu)
  • As bacteriophages are unable to infect mammalian cells, they are considered a neutral object characterised by their antigenic properties [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The well-known T4 bacteriophage has a polygonal head where DNA is contained, and a rod-shaped tail made up of long fibers. (news-medical.net)
  • Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, phage T4 is a unique nanoparticle platform to formulate multivalent vaccines against high-risk pathogens for national preparedness against potential bioterror attacks and emerging infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we report the development of a dual anthrax-plague nanoparticle vaccine employing bacteriophage (phage) T4 as a platform. (asm.org)
  • We engineered a virus nanoparticle vaccine using bacteriophage T4 by incorporating key antigens of both B. anthracis and Y. pestis into one formulation. (cdc.gov)
  • In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raney, KD & Benkovic, SJ 1995, ' Bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase translocates in a unidirectional fashion on single-stranded DNA ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 270, no. 38, pp. 22236-22242. (elsevier.com)
  • Reference: Investigation of stoichiometry of T4 bacteriophage helicase loader protein (gp59). (neb.com)
  • An introductory course on the T3/T4 translational research domains. (harvard.edu)
  • This approach uses a two-plasmid system in which lacZ expression is placed under the translational control of T4 regA via the gene 44 recognition element (gene 44 RE) (AAUGAGGAAAUU) on plasmid pLacZ-44RE . (musc.edu)
  • The T4 virion has a complex multiprotein structure with a contractile tail that serves both for adsorption to host cells and for intracellular delivery of the viral genome. (els.net)
  • A model of the T4 virion, with its tail contracted, based on image reconstruction from electron microscopic images. (els.net)
  • The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. (asm.org)
  • Jet nebulization of bacteriophages with different tail morphologies - Structural effects. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophage T4 contains a large, linear double‐stranded DNA genome, with chemical modifications of its cytosine residues. (els.net)
  • Our studies on the T4 replisome build on the seminal work from the Alberts laboratory. (elsevier.com)
  • Adsorption of a heavy metal, Zn 2+ , to the surface of phage T4 was tested in a series of purified phage/metal solutions (0 µM - 1000 µM at 23°C). The Langmuir isotherm reasonably describes the sorption data, with an R-square of 0.8116. (unl.edu)
  • The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 does occur, but not at a rapid rate. (unl.edu)
  • The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn 2+ onto the surface of phage T4. (unl.edu)
  • MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. (genetics.org)
  • Using a T4 DNA transformation assay, we have examined this intracellular T4 DNA for its content of 9-aminoacridine-induced revertants of certain rII gene frameshift mutations. (elsevier.com)
  • However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A 'foldon' structural tag was fused at the C-terminus of gp41-5M to facilitate trimer formation, and phage T4 small outer capsid (Soc) protein was fused at the N-terminus for arraying gp41 on T4 capsids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunization experiments were performed in rabbits using soluble as well as T4 displayed gp41 antigens to determine their immunogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus far, over 6000 bacteriophages have been identified by using electron microscopy and the total number of phage virions in the biosphere has been estimated at around 10 32 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Phage particle purification is important for two different issues: general investigation of bacteriophage particles, i.e. phage biology studies, and for therapeutic applications of bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large number of revertants occurring spontaneously and after treatment with 2-aminopurine, [5- 3 H]uracil radioactive decay, ethyl methanesulfonate, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, hydroxylamine and ultraviolet light were tested for their ability to support the growth of 24 amber mutants and one ochre mutant of bacteriophage T4. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike HK97, the T5 capsid binds a decoration protein in the center of each hexamer similarly to the "hoc" protein of phage T4, suggesting a common role for these molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • This approach probably provides the best results, although most bacteriophages are spatially expanded polyhedrons with very long tails, different from single protein molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the phage-encoded RegB endoribonuclease (T4 regB gene) functionally inactivates many early transcripts and expedites their degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag) by in vivo phage display. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A bacteriophage enzyme breaks down the bacterial peptidoglycan causing osmostic lysis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus while bacteriophages do not substantially affect differentiation of DCs, some products of phage-induced lysis of bacterial cells may influence the differentiation and potentially also some functions of DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In other experiments color screening assays were performed to compare cells expressing T4 regA with cells expressing the regA homologue found in bacteriophage RB69 . (musc.edu)