Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. (1/25)

Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12 is a lytic phage of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. The phage receptor is the lipopolysaccharide O chain of this serotype that consists of the rare sugar 6-deoxy-L-altropyranose. A one-step growth curve of phiYeO3-12 revealed eclipse and latent periods of 15 and 25 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 120 PFU per infected cell. In electron microscopy phiYeO3-12 virions showed pentagonal outlines, indicating their icosahedral nature. The phage capsid was shown to be composed of at least 10 structural proteins, of which a protein of 43 kDa was predominant. N-terminal sequences of three structural proteins were determined, two of them showing strong homology to structural proteins of coliphages T3 and T7. The phage genome was found to consist of a double-stranded DNA molecule of 40 kb without cohesive ends. A physical map of the phage DNA was constructed using five restriction enzymes. The phage infection could be effectively neutralized using serum from a rabbit immunized with whole phiYeO3-12 particles. The antiserum also neutralized T3 infection, although not as efficiently as that of phiYeO3-12. phiYeO3-12 was found to share, in addition to the N-terminal sequence homology, several common features with T3, including morphology and nonsubjectibility to F exclusion. The evidence conclusively indicated that phiYeO3-12 is the first close relative of phage T3 to be described.  (+info)

Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase. (2/25)

Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20-50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq DNA pol/TBD is thermostable, PCR competent and able to copy repetitive deoxynucleotide sequences six to seven times more faithfully than Taq DNA polymerase and makes 2-3-fold fewer AT-->GC transition mutations.  (+info)

The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes. (3/25)

The genome sequence of bacteriophage phiA1122 has been determined. phiA1122 grows on almost all isolates of Yersinia pestis and is used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a diagnostic agent for the causative agent of plague. phiA1122 is very closely related to coliphage T7; the two genomes are colinear, and the genome-wide level of nucleotide identity is about 89%. However, a quarter of the phiA1122 genome, one that includes about half of the morphogenetic and maturation functions, is significantly more closely related to coliphage T3 than to T7. It is proposed that the yersiniophage phiA1122 recombined with a close relative of the Y. enterocolitica phage phiYeO3-12 to yield progeny phages, one of which became the classic T3 coliphage of Demerec and Fano (M. Demerec and U. Fano, Genetics 30:119-136, 1945).  (+info)

Characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. (4/25)

DNA ligases of bacteriophage T4 and T7 have been widely used in molecular biology for decades, but little is known about bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. Here is the first report on the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. The polyhistidine-tagged recombinant T3 DNA ligase was shown to be an ATP-dependent enzyme. The enzymatic activity was not affected by high concentration of monovalent cations up to 1 M, whereas 2 mM ATP could inhibit its activity by 50%. Under optimal conditions (pH 8.0, 0.5 mM ATP, 5 mM DTT, 1 mM Mg(2+) and 300 mM Na(+)), 1 fmol of T3 DNA ligase could achieve 90% ligation of 450 fmol of cohesive dsDNA fragments in 30 min. T3 DNA ligase was shown to be over 5-fold more efficient than T4 DNA ligase for ligation of cohesive DNA fragments, but less active for blunt-ended DNA fragments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that T3 DNA ligase is more closely related to T7 DNA ligase than to T4 DNA ligase.  (+info)

In vivo hydrolysis of S-adenosylmethionine induces the met regulon of Escherichia coli. (5/25)

Regulation of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli involves a complex of the MetJ aporepressor protein and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) repressing expression of most genes in the met regulon. To test the role of SAM in the regulation of met genes directly, SAM pools were depleted by the in vivo expression of the cloned plasmid vector-based coliphage T3 SAM hydrolase (SAMase) gene. Cultures with in vivo SAMase activity were assayed for expression of the metA, B, C, E, F, H, J, K and R genes in cells grown in methionine-rich complete media as well as in defined media with and without l-methionine. In vivo SAMase activity dramatically induced expression between 11- and nearly 1000-fold depending on the gene assayed for all but metJ and metH, and these genes were induced over twofold. metJ : : Tn5 (aporepressor defective) and metK : : Tn5 (SAM synthetase impaired; produces <5 % of wild-type SAM) strains containing in vivo SAMase activity produced even higher met gene activity than that seen in comparably prepared cells with wild-type genes for all but metJ in a MetJ-deficient background. The SAMase-mediated hyperinduction of metH in wild-type cells and of the met genes assayed in metJ : : Tn5 and metK : : Tn5 cells provokes questions about how other elements such as the MetR activator protein or factors beyond the met regulon itself might be involved in the regulation of genes responsible for methionine biosynthesis.  (+info)

Compensatory evolution in response to a novel RNA polymerase: orthologous replacement of a central network gene. (6/25)

A bacteriophage genome was forced to evolve a new system of regulation by replacing its RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene, a central component of the phage developmental pathway, with that of a relative. The experiment used the obligate lytic phage T7 and the RNAP gene of phage T3. T7 RNAP uses 17 phage promoters, which are responsible for all middle and late gene expression, DNA replication, and progeny maturation, but the enzyme has known physical contacts with only 2 other phage proteins. T3 RNAP was supplied in trans by the bacterial host to a T7 genome lacking its own RNAP gene and the phage population was continually propagated on naive bacteria throughout the adaptation. Evolution of the T3 RNAP gene was thereby prevented, and selection was for the evolution of regulatory signals throughout the phage genome. T3 RNAP transcribes from T7 promoters only at low levels, but a single mutation in the promoter confers high expression, providing a ready mechanism for reevolution of gene expression in this system. When selected for rapid growth, fitness of the engineered phage evolved from a low of 5 doublings/h to 33 doublings/h, close to the expected maximum of 37 doublings/h. However, the experiment was terminated before it could be determined accurately that fitness had reached an obvious plateau, and it is not known whether further adaptation could have resulted in complete recovery of fitness. More than 30 mutations were observed in the evolved genome, but changes were found in only 9 of the 16 promoters, and several coding changes occurred in genes with no known contacts with the RNAP. Surprisingly, the T7 genome adapted to T3 RNAP also maintained high fitness when using T7 RNAP, suggesting that the extreme incompatibility of T7 elements with T3 RNAP is not an invariant property of divergence in these expression systems.  (+info)

Evolution and the complexity of bacteriophages. (7/25)

BACKGROUND: The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb) bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly biochemical complexity. Understanding their significance requires a definition of complexity that is more biochemically oriented than past empirically based definitions. HYPOTHESIS: Initially, I propose two biochemistry-oriented definitions of complexity: either decreased randomness or increased encoded information that does not serve immediate needs. Then, I make the assumption that these two definitions are equivalent. This assumption and recent data lead to the following four-part hypothesis that explains the presence of cellular gene homologs in long bacteriophage genomes and also provides a pathway for complexity increases in prokaryotic cells: (1) Prokaryotes underwent evolutionary increases in biochemical complexity after the eukaryote/prokaryote splits. (2) Some of the complexity increases occurred via multi-step, weak selection that was both protected from strong selection and accelerated by embedding evolving cellular genes in the genomes of bacteriophages and, presumably, also archaeal viruses (first tier selection). (3) The mechanisms for retaining cellular genes in viral genomes evolved under additional, longer-term selection that was stronger (second tier selection). (4) The second tier selection was based on increased access by prokaryotic cells to improved biochemical systems. This access was achieved when DNA transfer moved to prokaryotic cells both the more evolved genes and their more competitive and complex biochemical systems. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: I propose testing this hypothesis by controlled evolution in microbial communities to (1) determine the effects of deleting individual cellular gene homologs on the growth and evolution of long genome bacteriophages and hosts, (2) find the environmental conditions that select for the presence of cellular gene homologs, (3) determine which, if any, bacteriophage genes were selected for maintaining the homologs and (4) determine the dynamics of homolog evolution. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: This hypothesis is an explanation of evolutionary leaps in general. If accurate, it will assist both understanding and influencing the evolution of microbes and their communities. Analysis of evolutionary complexity increase for at least prokaryotes should include analysis of genomes of long-genome bacteriophages.  (+info)

Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage. (8/25)

Synthetic biology involves the engineering of biological organisms by using modular and generalizable designs with the ultimate goal of developing useful solutions to real-world problems. One such problem involves bacterial biofilms, which are crucial in the pathogenesis of many clinically important infections and are difficult to eradicate because they exhibit resistance to antimicrobial treatments and removal by host immune systems. To address this issue, we engineered bacteriophage to express a biofilm-degrading enzyme during infection to simultaneously attack the bacterial cells in the biofilm and the biofilm matrix, which is composed of extracellular polymeric substances. We show that the efficacy of biofilm removal by this two-pronged enzymatic bacteriophage strategy is significantly greater than that of nonenzymatic bacteriophage treatment. Our engineered enzymatic phage substantially reduced bacterial biofilm cell counts by approximately 4.5 orders of magnitude ( approximately 99.997% removal), which was about two orders of magnitude better than that of nonenzymatic phage. This work demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of using engineered enzymatic bacteriophage to reduce bacterial biofilms and the applicability of synthetic biology to an important medical and industrial problem.  (+info)

Whether you need to design a new packaging line or make the one you have more efficient, Packaging Systems Automation is the name to remember. PSA is a value added integrator with the know-how to provide standard and custom solutions to your product handling needs. From our manufacturing facility in Minneapolis Minnesota, our team of professionals design and build high quality packaging machinery and systems for customers throughout the packaging industry.Because our people have many years of experience, we will save you time and money as your full service partner in packaging.
Carton packaging systems to handle a wide product range capable of integrating labellers, printers, serialisation and aggregation systems.
A new packaging system for the aerial release of phytoseiids was designed and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The observed escapes before and after release, mortality during all stages of release, and fecundity after release indicated that the system was suitable for transporting and distributing phytoseiids. Other evaluated properties of the packaging system included container opening efficiency, container dispersion over the field at several fly-over altitudes, and the probability of containers to be lodged in the cassava canopy. Aerial release trials followed by recoveries of viable adult female phytoseiids from the target fields demonstrated the feasibility of aerial releases as a means for distributing phytoseiid natural enemies.
This FEMC System is designed to place different products into specific compartments in this multi-compartment tray at up to 40 trays per minute. These TV d...
Stefan Monnier ,[email protected], writes: ,, Is this a bug in package.el or is it an oversight in the Elisp manual? , , I think its a bug. OK, Ill write a bug report. Thanks Dieter -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Zwingenberg, Germany ...
An updated version of the proven R-300 shrink-sleeve packaging system has a zero-downtime feature that allows it to run while film is being spliced between
Schneider Electric United Kingdom. Smart machines for smart manufacturing: Innovative machine builder SOMIC uses EcoStruxure™ Machine to build high-performance packaging systems for its customers.
THE probability of compensatory genetic change occurring in a gene is very small. The rate of fixation of compensatory mutations in a population depends upon three major factors: (1) effective population size, (2) selection pressure, and (3) mutation rate (Kimura 1990; Stephan 1996). Compensatory evolution has been studied extensively in relation to the RNA structure (Stephan and Kirby 1993; Kirbyet al. 1995; Muse 1995; Stephan 1996; Innan and Stephan 2001). Maintaining the structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is essential to the integrity of the molecule. Mutation in a stem, which leads to a loss of base pairing, will reduce its stability and this is often accompanied by changes in the biochemical properties of the molecule. A second mutation in the complementary region of the RNA that restores the structural integrity most often restores the biochemical properties of the molecule despite changes in the primary sequence (Figure 1A). In essence, the probability of both members of a stem pair ...
The predictions of our model-notably, that the number of loci in a genetic architecture and the variance of their allelic contributions are greatest for traits under intermediate selection-are robust to choices of population-genetic parameters. The non-monotonic relation between selection pressure on a trait and the size of its genetic architecture, L, holds regardless of population size, but the location of maximum L is shifted towards weaker selection in larger populations (see electronic supplementary material, figure S5). This result is compatible with our explanation involving compensatory evolution: selection is more efficient in large populations, and so compensatory evolution occurs at smaller selection coefficients. Likewise, when the mutation rate is smaller the resulting equilibrium number of controlling loci is reduced (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6). This result is again compatible with the explanation of compensatory evolution, which requires frequent mutations. ...
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Machinery & Equipment / Packaging Systems - NONWOVENS INDUSTRY is the only monthly trade magazine dedicated to the worldwide business of nonwovens. For more than 30 years, the magazine has tracked the growth of the nonwovens industry through years of changes, technology, evolution and market development.
Nordson EFDs industry-leading Dial-A-Dose™ and Posi-Dose® disposable dosing syringes provide advanced packaging for animal health products.
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The SRS Series semi automatic rotary type heat sealers from Serpone Packaging Systems are designed for medium- to higher-volume production requirements.
bin/bash # Package a root filesystem directory into a filesystem image, with # associated bootable kernel binary and launch scripts. source sources/ ,, exit 1 # Parse the sources/targets/$1 directory read_arch_dir $1 # Do we have our prerequisites? if [ -z $NATIVE_ROOT ] then [ -z $NO_NATIVE_COMPILER ] && NATIVE_ROOT=$BUILD/root-filesystem-$ARCH [ -e $NATIVE_ROOT ] ,, NATIVE_ROOT=$BUILD/simple-root-filesystem-$ARCH fi if [ ! -d $NATIVE_ROOT ] then [ -z $FAIL_QUIET ] && echo No $NATIVE_ROOT ,&2 exit 1 fi # Announce start of stage. (Down here after the recursive call above so # it doesnt get announced twice.) echo === Packaging system image from root-filesystem # The initramfs packaging uses the kernels build infrastructure, so extract # it now. setupfor linux [ -z $SYSIMAGE_TYPE ] && SYSIMAGE_TYPE=squashfs echo Generating $SYSIMAGE_TYPE root filesystem from $NATIVE_ROOT. # Embed an initramfs image in the kernel? if [ $SYSIMAGE_TYPE == initramfs ] then $CC ...
Keeping things fresh is key to Evergreen Packaging Equipments beverage packaging systems. So its no surprise that the Cedar Rapids, IA-based company adopte
This type of high speed line, characterised with the ultimate flexibility, is the Concetti flagship feature, enabling customers to easily package - with just one plant - different kinds of animal feeds ranging from powders to cubes, as well as ground, flat, flaky and laminated products.. The capacity of the bagging machine is up to 1,200 bag/h when handling free flowing products in 25 kg bags. Stoppage time between products is reduced to a minimum by the Concetti fully automatic changeover feature taking just 60 seconds from the HMI keyboard. The neat, square shape of the finished pallets are a result of the layer squaring and compression feature of the Concetti four-column palletiser that guarantees this packaging system remains one step ahead.. Info: ...
Make an Impact with this International Key Position. Our client is a global player and market leader for packaging systems and solutions for various industries. To meet the constantly changing requirements in the consumer market, sustainable products with outstanding innovation and modern technology are developed within the global organization. Due to a succession within the global sourcing and procurement team at the Headquarter in Switzerland we are mandated to recruit a senior personality ...
In business since 1993, we have developed unsurpassed knowledge about transit cases and foam packaging systems. We are serious about our work and proud of our expertise and product quality.. ...
While playing around with the packaging system, I kept running into , one problem: losing my dynamic libraries. My guess: set up an /etc/ listing the directories where you have your other shared libraries and I think this problem will disappear. Because you *do* run a new enough system that ldconfig reads this file by itself, dont you? - H=E5vard ...
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
pASSEMBLE™ 10A1 Retroviral Packaging System includes a unique packaging vector with gag, pol and env from different viruses confering a tropism in the cell to be infected.
Constantia Flexibles released its new packaging system, the Flexible Blister, which can be incorporated into existing production while offering a portable system for packaging.
Introduction Taq DNA Polymerase is an enzyme widely used in PCR (1). The following guidelines are provided to ensure successful PCR using NEBs Taq DNA Polymerase
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Physical forces sufficient to deform an electronic device and/or packaging for the electronic device can damage the device. Some mechanical components in a device, for example, in a microelectromechanical device and/or in an interferometric modulator are particularly susceptible to damage. Accordingly, provided herein is a packaging system and packaged electronic device that resists physical damage, a method for manufacturing the same, and a method for protecting an electronic device from physical damage. The packaging system for the electronic device includes one or more spacers that prevent or reduce damage to the electronic device arising from contact with the packaging. In some embodiments, the packaged electronic device comprising spacers is thinner than a comparable device manufactured without spacers.
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EDL Packaging Engineers, Inc. (EDL) , provider of end-of-line packaging systems, has announced that Kevin Cameron hasjoined the company as operations manager, and will be responsible for optimizing EDLs manufacturing and assembly operations.
The Titripac® packaging system for volumetric solutions is constructed from a recyclable outer carton and a durable inner bag. The inner bag collapses during withdrawal of reagent through the built-in contamination-proof dispenser tap. Therefore the reagent in the bag cannot be contaminated, and when empty, the outer carton can be fully recycled. The amount of packaging per liter is less than half the weight of alternative packaging options (plastic bottles ...
Our 1.5 Mil Clear Pre-Opened Bags on Roll are designed for use with auto-baggers, or automated bagging machines, for easy and efficient packaging.. Bags for automatic machines come open on one side, for easy product inserting, and perforated on the back for easy tear-off. Ideal for high-volume packaging operations. Compatible with most automated bagging machines like Titan, Clamcom AUTOBAG, Sharp, and others. Rest assured, these are compatible with most industry standard packaging systems and are very competitively priced. All of our Pre-Opened Bags on Roll meet FDA and USDA requirements.. As with any of our bags, custom printing and sizes are always available.. ...
Vertical Form Fill & Seal Machines - APPE - Vertical Form, Fill & SealThe Vertical form fill sealing machine (FFS) is a type of automated assembly-line product packaging system, commonly used to in the packaging industry for food, and a wide variety of other products Content on this page requires a newer version ... .Vertical […]
Working with information and product developers and software engineers at AT&T GIS, the faculty and staff have helped AT&T GIS to cut their support costs and improve their product development cycles. Since 1993, we have worked with AT&T GIS to dramatically improve their software interfaces, user manuals, packaging systems, and mass marketing materials.. Challenges. Because our usability testing research and client training programs have focused on mission-critical products for our industry partners, the usability publications of our faculty and graduate students are frequently proprietary and subject to strict non-disclosure contracts.. Other Clients. ...
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a snap packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone features to the IoT developer. ...
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a snap packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone features to the IoT developer. ...
The co-operatives board of directors had already taken special care to design and build halls that were ideal for storage. The new storage areas allow the large crates of fruit to be stacked and stored as ergonomically as possible. Their headroom of more than 10 meters means 13 large crates can be stacked right up to the roof. Growing customer requirements also meant further investments in the very latest sorting and packaging systems. One of Lanas main aims is to meet all the many varied requirements of the market with innovative and proactive solutions ...
From pastries to sauces, tea bags to tinned goods and milk to soft drinks - Adpak offers shrink wrapping and packaging systems to wrap almost anything.
Inline Filling Systems specializes in manufacturing liquid packaging systems that are engineered and built to meet the industry specific needs of small and medium size companies. We provide high value, robust systems that include a range of container flexibility, are easy to use, easy to clean and easy to maintain for the lowest total cost of ownership.. ...
Magnum Systems, one of North Americas leading designers and manufacturers of material handling and packaging systems for dry bulk solids, announces an ag
From cleaning products to skincare, perfumes to make up to bath and shower products - Adpak has packaging systems that can wrap almost anything.
A packaging system is disclosed for shipping a prosthetic tissue valve in a storage solution and preparing and loading of the bioprosthetic valve onto a catheter-based delivery system. The packaging system includes a fluid tight container filled with the storage solution attached to a delivery catheter, wherein the container surrounds the prosthetic tissue valve that is in a pre-loaded position on the delivery catheter during shipment and storage. The prosthetic tissue valve may include an attachment mechanism that attaches to the delivery catheter to properly position the tissue valve for loading within the delivery catheter. In another embodiment where the prosthetic tissue valve is not attached to the delivery catheter during shipment, the attachment mechanism may interact with the prosthetic tissue valve shipping container to prevent the bioprosthetic valve from moving during shipment.
Taq DNA Polymerase is a thermostable DNA Polymerase isolated from an E. coli strain that carries the Taq DNA polymerase gene. Taq DNA Polymerase is the most common polymerase used for PCR reactions.
MTP Taq DNA Polymerase is a recombinant thermostable enzyme from Thermus aquaticus expressed in E. coli and purified using a proprietary process to minimize the levels of contaminating DNA.
Taq DNA polymerase catalyzes 5-3 synthesis of DNA. The enzyme has been proved not having the 3-5 exonuclease activity. The enzyme has proven to have high amplification yield, be stable at high temparetaure. (D0010) - Products - Abnova
Most of the adenovirus gene products required for the production of infective AAV particles are supplied on the pHelper plasmid (i.e. E2A, E4, and VA RNA genes) that is co-transfected into cells with human AAV vector DNA. The remaining adenoviral gene product is supplied by the 293 host cells, which stably expresses the adenovirus E1 gene. By eliminating the need for live helper virus, the AAV helper-free system provides a safer and more convenient gene delivery system ...
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27:2105-2112. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics, 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. ...
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution In Press. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22:683-690. Full ...
Two trajectories are possible in converting a GC base pair to an AU base pair. One of them passes through a GU base pair intermediate, the other through an AC mismatch intermediate (see figure 4; electronic supplementary material, figure S3). In our data, a ribozyme with the GU intermediate is always more active than that with the AC intermediate (from +1.4 to +22.7%; average = +10.3%). This confirms predictions of the relative effects of these two intermediates based on the geometry of base pairs [32], experimental measurements [33] and bioinformatic analysis of tRNA evolution [34]. Our data support a continuous ridge or neutral network model (see Landscapes caused by a base pair switch in Supporting Information, electronic supplementary material) of compensatory evolution in RNA secondary structure, because in our experiments, the GU intermediate shows a significant decrease in fitness only in a single instance, and in this instance the base pair switch is not compensatory but ...
Active packaging, packaging systems to help extend shelf life, monitor freshness, display information on quality, improve safety, and improve convenience**Self-heating food packaging, active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or ...
മിശ്രിതത്തെ 55 ഡിഗ്രി സെന്റീഗ്രേഡിലേയ്ക്ക് പതിയെ ഊഷ്മനില താഴ്ത്തുന്നു. ഇവയ്ക്ക് അനുപൂരകമായ അൻപതിൽത്താഴെ ന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളുള്ള പ്രൈമറുകൾ നിർമ്മിക്കുന്നു. നാലുതരം ഡിഓക്സിട്രൈന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളെ ടാക് (taq) പോളിമെറേയ്സ് രാസാഗ്നിയോടൊപ്പം വേർപെട്ട ഡി.എൻ.ഏ തന്മാത്രകളോടൊപ്പം ചേർക്കുന്നു. താപനില ഉയർത്തി 72 ഡിഗ്രി സെൽഷ്യസാക്കുന്നു. 90 ഡിഗ്രിയിലും നശിച്ചുപോകാത്ത Taq DNA Polymerase എന്ന ...
DAnjou pears harvested at commercial maturity from a block of 6 trees were immediately divided into 2 lots. One lot was placed in refrigerated storage (1 °C) for 90 days and then transferred to room temperature 24 hours prior to wax application. The second lot of fruit was waxed 24 hours after harvest, using both hot and cold wax drying techniques. Prior to waxing, the pears were drenched in hot water (40 °C), and passed over rotary dewatering brushes for 30 sec before going into the wax applicator. Using a commercial pear wax formulation (Shieldbrite PR160C, Shield-brite Corp, Kirkland. WA) pears were waxed at the approximate rate of 10 ml/min (6,804 Kg fruit/3.8 liters). Waxed pears were dried in a commercial hot-drying tunnel held at 60 °C (Van Doren Sales, Inc., Wenatchee, WA) or a cold drier operated at 0 °C (Sirron, marketed by MARQ International Packaging Systems, Inc., Yakima, WA) for 2 min. After the fruit surface had dried, 100 pears were packed in pulp fiber trays, enclosed in a ...
Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing it via a packaging system as appropriate for your operating system. It is important to divide up the hardware into functions.. Typically one machine in the cluster is designated as the NameNode and another machine as the ResourceManager, exclusively. These are the masters. Other services (such as Web App Proxy Server and MapReduce Job History server) are usually run either on dedicated hardware or on shared infrastructure, depending upon the load.. The rest of the machines in the cluster act as both DataNode and NodeManager. These are the workers. ...
Jinhe Bai is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
Jan Narciso is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
Here are some tips to help you prepare for your massage in order to get the MOST out of your massage. All of these are strictly tips, you do whats best for you. Scheduling Your Massage: Schedule your massage for a time where you will not feel rushed getting to or leaving the appointment. Arriving […]. Read More ...
This collection of reviews focuses on the most exciting areas of DNA packaging at the current time. Many of the new discoveries are driven by the development of molecular or imaging techniques, and these are providing insights into the complex world of chromatin. As these new techniques continue to improve, we will be able to answer many of the questions we have now, while likely raising many new ones. ...
... , also called bacteriophage T3 and T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial ... FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ... T3+Phage at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is typically studied in the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in bacteriophages and in E. coli. Abortive initiation ...
Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes.[citation needed] To ... They found that bacteriophage growing within an infected bacterium could be modified, so that upon their release and re- ... This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). ... infection of a related bacterium the bacteriophage's growth is restricted (inhibited) (also described by Luria in his ...
His part was naming the bacteriophages into Type 1(T1), Type 2 (T2), Type 3 (T3), etc.[citation needed] The specific time and ... T4-like viruses Animation of T4 Bacteriophage Infecting E.coli Animation of T4 Bacteriophage DNA packaging (Articles with short ... "Genetic Recombinations Leading to Production of Active Bacteriophage from Ultraviolet Inactivated Bacteriophage Particles". ... Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. (The second T4 bible, go here, as well as Mosig and Eiserling ...
Agritope introduced an S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) encoding gene derived from the E. coli bacteriophage T3, which ...
T7 or T3. These promoters are recognized by DNA dependent RNA polymerases originally characterized from bacteriophages. The ...
"Discrimination between bacteriophage T3 and T7 promoters by the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases depends primarily upon a three base- ...
... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700. ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280.090.700. ... bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.205.891.200 - bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
The cleavage of this sequence between the AA's results in 5' overhangs on the DNA called sticky ends: 5'-A ,A G C T T-3' 3'-T T ... Their primary function is to protect the host genome against invasion by foreign DNA, primarily bacteriophage DNA. There is ...
... swapping it out for one found in T3 RNAP makes the polymerase recognize T3 promoters instead. Similar to other viral nucleic ... T7 RNA Polymerase is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' ... Other members include phage T3 and SP6 RNA polymerases, the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), and the chloroplastic ssRNAP ... McAllister WT (1993). "Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity)". Cellular ...
The DNA-binding protein complex recognizes a discrete nucleotide sequence (5'-GGG ACT TTC T-3') in the upstream region of a ... These microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, viruses and bacteriophages. The bacterial part of the microbiota has been more ...
It relies on relating the desired activity of a target protein with the fitness of an infectious bacteriophage which carries ... This resulted in polymerases with ~3-4 orders of magnitude greater activity for the target promoter than the original T3 ... The central component of PACE is a fixed-volume vessel known as the "lagoon". The lagoon contains M13 bacteriophage vectors ... Brödel, A.K.; Isalan, M.; Jaramillo, A. (2018). "Engineering of biomolecules by bacteriophage directed evolution". Curr. Opin. ...
The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes ...
Bacteriophage adhering to mucus provide a non-host-derived immunity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110,10771-10776 (2013). ... A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range. PLoS ONE 7, e30954 (2012). ... Evidence of a robust resident bacteriophage population revealed through analysis of the human salivary virome. ISME J. 6, 915- ...
Bacteriophage T3 - Preferred Concept UI. M0027047. Scope note. Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family ... Coliphage T3 Enterobacteria phage T3 Phage T3 Phage, T3 Phages, T3 T3 Phage T3 Phages ... Coliphage T3. Enterobacteria phage T3. Phage T3. Phage, T3. Phages, T3. T3 Phage. T3 Phages. ... colifago T3 fago T3 fago T3 de enterobacterias Scope note:. Bacteriófago del género de fagos similares a T7, de la familia ...
... that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and ...
Bacteriophage T7 and T3 promoters are located upstream of MCS A and downstream of MCS B, respectively. pIRES includes a ...
Results suggest that bacteriophage can be used as a dietary strategy to reduce the presence of SE in internal organs and also ... In spleen, T4 significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the bacteria from 0.94 in both T2 and T3 to 0.56 log cfu/gm. There was no ... Effect of dietary bacteriophage supplementation in internal organs, fecal excretion and ileal immune response in laying hens ... There was no significant effect of T3 on reduction of numbers of cecal SENAR. A significant reduction of SENAR (P < 0.05) was ...
Dietary bacteriophages potentially can serve as a step to reduce Salmonella contamination of feed through direct lysis of the ... No significant differences in bird weight were observed between treatments d 0 to 42 (P > 0.05). However, T2 and T3 had lower ... Therefore, the dietary bacteriophage did not interfere with colonization or protection afforded by the live Salmonella vaccine. ... The objective of this study was to evaluate if dietary bacteriophages impacted the colonization of a live Salmonella vaccine. A ...
Directed evolution of T3 and T7 bacteriophages for improved thermostability. ... Here the major capsid gene of the bacteriophage T7 (40-kb dsDNA) was replaced with the homologous gene of either T3 or K11, ... T3/7 is essentially T3 based, but a DNA fragment containing part of the tail fiber gene 17 is replaced by the T7 sequence. T3 ... The T3 and T7 recombinant phage carries altered tail fibers and acquires better adsorption efficiency than T3. How phages T3 ...
Editing of Phage Genomes-Recombineering-assisted SpCas9 Modification of Model Coliphages T7, T5, and T3 Bacteriophages-viruses ...
These vectors contain the transcription promoters from either bacteriophage SP6, T7, or T3 flanking a unique BamHI cloning site ... Suppression was assayed by translation of RNA isolated from an amber coat mutant of bacteriophage Qbeta (GB11) in a protein- ...
Haemophilus bacteriophage HP1, HP2, S2. 2. 325,263. 47. 41.2. 60. 0 (0). Putative phage-related proteins from H. influenzae, ...
Survival of bacteriophage MS2 on filtering facepiece respirator coupons. Fisher E, Shaffer R.. Appl Biosafety. 2010 Apr-Jun;15( ... Sappenfield WM, Peck MG, Gilbert CS, Haynatzka VR, Bryant T3.. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Jun 20.. ... Sappenfield WM, Peck MG, Gilbert CS, Haynatzka VR, Bryant T3.. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Jun 18.. ...
Tau factor from Escherichia coli mediates accurate and efficient termination of transcription at the bacteriophage T3 early ... The Effects of Ionic Strength on Termination of Transcription of Dnas from Bacteriophages T4, T5 and T7 by Dna-Dependent Rna ... The effects of ionic strength on termination of transcription of DNAs from bacteriophages T4, T5 and T7 by DNA-dependent RNA ... were previously isolated based on their ability to block the growth of bacteriophage T4. Here we show that rho(nusD) strains ...
Isolation of bacteriophage and plant pathogenic actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi. p. 92-111. In: "Plant Pathological Methods. ... isolates P1 and T3. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 106: 215-225.. Google Scholar ...
Ackermann HW: Bacteriophage observations and evolution. Res Microbiol 2003,154(4):245-251.PubMedCrossRef 39. DeShazer D, Waag ... of the phage-associated novel superantigen gene speL in recent invasive and noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes M3/T3 isolates ... Juhala RJ, Ford ME, Duda RL, Youlton A, Hatfull GF, Hendrix RW: Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive ... Hendrix RW, Hatfull GF, Smith MC: Bacteriophages with tails:. chasing their origins and evolution. Res Microbiol 2003,154(4): ...
T3 Phages use Bacteriophage T3 T3 Receptor use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Receptor associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor ... T3 Phage use Bacteriophage T3 ... T3 Receptors use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Thyroid Hormone ... T3 Receptor-associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 ...
phospho T3 (6). * phospho T514 (6). * phospho T58 (6). * phospho T71 (7). ... Bacteriophage P1 (2). * Bird (2). * Bordetella pertussis (6). * Bovine papillomavirus (2). * Caenorhabditis elegans (30). ...
T3 Phages use Bacteriophage T3 T3 Receptor use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Receptor associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor ... T3 Phage use Bacteriophage T3 ... T3 Receptors use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Thyroid Hormone ... T3 Receptor-associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 ...
T3 Phages use Bacteriophage T3 T3 Receptor use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Receptor associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor ... T3 Phage use Bacteriophage T3 ... T3 Receptors use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Thyroid Hormone ... T3 Receptor-associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 ...
T3 Phages use Bacteriophage T3 T3 Receptor use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Receptor associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor ... T3 Phage use Bacteriophage T3 ... T3 Receptors use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Thyroid Hormone ... T3 Receptor-associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 ...
Cortisol, Estradiol, FSH, HCG, Gastrin, LH, Progesterone, PTH/IO PTH, Prolactin, T3, T3 Free, T3 Uptake, T4, T4 Free, TBG, ... Bacteriophage, Streptococcus, E.Coli, Others), By Product (Oral Consumption, External Consumption, Surgical Treatment), By ... Cortisol, Estradiol, FSH, HCG, Gastrin, LH, Progesterone, PTH/IO PTH, Prolactin, T3, T3 Free, T3 Uptake, T4, T4 Free, TBG, ... Marketing T3 Tests. Major Companies Developing or. Marketing T4 Tests. Major Companies Developing or. Marketing TSH Tests. ...
T3 Phages use Bacteriophage T3 T3 Receptor use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Receptor associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor ... T3 Phage use Bacteriophage T3 ... T3 Receptors use Receptors, Thyroid Hormone T3 Thyroid Hormone ... T3 Receptor-associating Factor use Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 ...
The Cas12j enzyme, also known as CasΦ, comes from the genomes of huge bacteriophages of the Biggiephage clade.14 This is ... The resulting constructs were respectively named RESCUE.t1 and RESCUE.t3 and were shown to facilitate conversion of cytosine to ... The resulting constructs were respectively named REPAIR.t1 and REPAIR.t3 and were shown to facilitate adenosine to inosine ... It has been hypothesized that Biggiephages use Cas12j to cut the DNA of other competing bacteriophages. There exist subtypes of ...
Alternatives to Antibiotics: Utilization of bacteriophage to treat colibacilosis and Prevent foodborne pathogens. Poultry ... T3 Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (3 x 105 CFUs/ g de feed) and T4 Positive Control (avilamycin + anticoccidial from 1 to ... T3 Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (3 x 105 CFUs/g feed) and T4 Positive Control (avilamycin + anticoccidial from 1 to 35 ... T3 - Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (3 x 10(5) CFUs/ g de feed) and T4 - Positive Control (avilamycin + anticoccidial ...
Bacteriophage T5-like cott162 121986 39.744 MF431739 Bacteriophage T5-like chee158 121986 39.746 MF431738 Bacteriophage T5-like ... 003298 Enterobacteria phage T3 38208 49.901 NC_003085 Myxococcus phage Mx8 49534 67.745 NC_002796 Lactococcus phage BK5-T 40003 ... Bacteriophage T5-like poul124 120629 39.264 MF431734 Bacteriophage T5-like saus111K 120620 39.263 MF431733 Bacteriophage T5- ... MF431732 Bacteriophage T5-like pork29 120622 39.263 MF431731 Bacteriophage T5-like pork27 120618 39.264 MF431730 Bacteriophage ...
4); two way ANOVA test with post hoc analysis of means showed differences between T2 and T3 tumors versus T4 although node ... Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 227: 680-5. ...
In T2a or T2b, the cancer has invaded the inner or the outer detrusor muscle, and at T3, the tumor has invaded beyond the ... Next articleResearchers have successfully used bacteriophages to treat an antibiotic-resistant mycobacterial lung infection ... After penetrating the muscle and reaching the fatty tissue, the T3 stage is reached, where T4 is characterized as growth of the ...
... as an oncologically comparable and surgically superior alternative to total omentectomy during radical gastrectomy for T3-T4 ... outstanding sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds implemented with genetically engineered bacteriophage ...
  • These results suggest that it is the RNA-binding ability of Rho rather than its transcription termination function that is important for the inhibition of bacteriophage growth and the shorter bulk mRNA lifetime. (
  • To broaden our knowledge of the mitochondrial transcriptional apparatus, we have used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach designed to amplify an internal portion of phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase genes. (
  • Using this strategy, we have recovered sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and phage T3/T7 RNA polymerases from a phylogenetically broad range of multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • We infer that the T3/T7-like RNA polymerase sequences reported here are likely derived from genes encoding the mitochondrial RNA polymerase in the organisms in which they occur, suggesting a phage T3/T7-like RNA polymerase was recruited to act in transcription in the mitochondrion at an early stage in the evolution of this organelle. (
  • A T3 and T7 recombinant phage acquires efficient adsorption and a broader host range. (
  • It is usually thought that bacteriophage T7 is female specific, while phage T3 can propagate on male and female Escherichia coli. (
  • T3 - Negative Control + Bacillus subtilis (3 x 10(5) CFUs/ g de feed) and T4 - Positive Control (avilamycin + anticoccidial from 1 to 35 days of age). (
  • A total of 120 of 54-week-old Lohman Brown Classic laying hens were subjected to four dietary treatments: control group with no Se supplementation (T1), 0.3 mg/kg of sodium selenite (T2), 0.3 mg/kg of selenium yeast (T3), and 0.3 mg/kg of bacterial Se (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, ADS18) (T4). (
  • Bacteriophages-viruses that infect bacterial cells-are the most abundant biological entities on Earth. (
  • Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the eukaryotic lineage. (
  • Although mitochondria and chloroplasts are considered to be descendants of eubacteria-like endo- symbionts, the mitochondrial RNA polymerase of yeast is a nucleus-encoded, single-subunit enzyme homologous to bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases, rather than a multi-component, eubacterial-type alpha 2 beta beta' enzyme, as encoded in chloroplast DNA. (
  • We found that the growth patterns of phages T7M and T3 do not match the above characteristics, instead showing strain dependent male exclusion. (
  • Mutants in Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho, termed rho(nusD), were previously isolated based on their ability to block the growth of bacteriophage T4. (
  • Evaluation of the role of bacteriophage against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization of internal organs (ceca, liver/gall bladder, spleen and ovaries) and the effect of ileal immune response in laying hens was studied. (
  • Results suggest that bacteriophage can be used as a dietary strategy to reduce the presence of SE in internal organs and also significantly increased the levels of interferon and interleukin in the ileum. (
  • A study was conducted to evaluate the role of bacteriophage (BP) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) internal organs colonization and ileum immune response in laying hens. (
  • This functionally diverse protein superfamily regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in the uptake of metals, amino-acid biosynthesis, cell division, the control of plasmid copy number, the lytic cycle of bacteriophages and, perhaps, many other cellular processes. (