Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.7.6.1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A genus of endospore-forming bacteria in the family Planococcaceae. The species are strict or facultative anerobes.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.

Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. (1/25)

Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12 is a lytic phage of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. The phage receptor is the lipopolysaccharide O chain of this serotype that consists of the rare sugar 6-deoxy-L-altropyranose. A one-step growth curve of phiYeO3-12 revealed eclipse and latent periods of 15 and 25 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 120 PFU per infected cell. In electron microscopy phiYeO3-12 virions showed pentagonal outlines, indicating their icosahedral nature. The phage capsid was shown to be composed of at least 10 structural proteins, of which a protein of 43 kDa was predominant. N-terminal sequences of three structural proteins were determined, two of them showing strong homology to structural proteins of coliphages T3 and T7. The phage genome was found to consist of a double-stranded DNA molecule of 40 kb without cohesive ends. A physical map of the phage DNA was constructed using five restriction enzymes. The phage infection could be effectively neutralized using serum from a rabbit immunized with whole phiYeO3-12 particles. The antiserum also neutralized T3 infection, although not as efficiently as that of phiYeO3-12. phiYeO3-12 was found to share, in addition to the N-terminal sequence homology, several common features with T3, including morphology and nonsubjectibility to F exclusion. The evidence conclusively indicated that phiYeO3-12 is the first close relative of phage T3 to be described.  (+info)

Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase. (2/25)

Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20-50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq DNA pol/TBD is thermostable, PCR competent and able to copy repetitive deoxynucleotide sequences six to seven times more faithfully than Taq DNA polymerase and makes 2-3-fold fewer AT-->GC transition mutations.  (+info)

The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes. (3/25)

The genome sequence of bacteriophage phiA1122 has been determined. phiA1122 grows on almost all isolates of Yersinia pestis and is used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a diagnostic agent for the causative agent of plague. phiA1122 is very closely related to coliphage T7; the two genomes are colinear, and the genome-wide level of nucleotide identity is about 89%. However, a quarter of the phiA1122 genome, one that includes about half of the morphogenetic and maturation functions, is significantly more closely related to coliphage T3 than to T7. It is proposed that the yersiniophage phiA1122 recombined with a close relative of the Y. enterocolitica phage phiYeO3-12 to yield progeny phages, one of which became the classic T3 coliphage of Demerec and Fano (M. Demerec and U. Fano, Genetics 30:119-136, 1945).  (+info)

Characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. (4/25)

DNA ligases of bacteriophage T4 and T7 have been widely used in molecular biology for decades, but little is known about bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. Here is the first report on the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. The polyhistidine-tagged recombinant T3 DNA ligase was shown to be an ATP-dependent enzyme. The enzymatic activity was not affected by high concentration of monovalent cations up to 1 M, whereas 2 mM ATP could inhibit its activity by 50%. Under optimal conditions (pH 8.0, 0.5 mM ATP, 5 mM DTT, 1 mM Mg(2+) and 300 mM Na(+)), 1 fmol of T3 DNA ligase could achieve 90% ligation of 450 fmol of cohesive dsDNA fragments in 30 min. T3 DNA ligase was shown to be over 5-fold more efficient than T4 DNA ligase for ligation of cohesive DNA fragments, but less active for blunt-ended DNA fragments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that T3 DNA ligase is more closely related to T7 DNA ligase than to T4 DNA ligase.  (+info)

In vivo hydrolysis of S-adenosylmethionine induces the met regulon of Escherichia coli. (5/25)

Regulation of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli involves a complex of the MetJ aporepressor protein and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) repressing expression of most genes in the met regulon. To test the role of SAM in the regulation of met genes directly, SAM pools were depleted by the in vivo expression of the cloned plasmid vector-based coliphage T3 SAM hydrolase (SAMase) gene. Cultures with in vivo SAMase activity were assayed for expression of the metA, B, C, E, F, H, J, K and R genes in cells grown in methionine-rich complete media as well as in defined media with and without l-methionine. In vivo SAMase activity dramatically induced expression between 11- and nearly 1000-fold depending on the gene assayed for all but metJ and metH, and these genes were induced over twofold. metJ : : Tn5 (aporepressor defective) and metK : : Tn5 (SAM synthetase impaired; produces <5 % of wild-type SAM) strains containing in vivo SAMase activity produced even higher met gene activity than that seen in comparably prepared cells with wild-type genes for all but metJ in a MetJ-deficient background. The SAMase-mediated hyperinduction of metH in wild-type cells and of the met genes assayed in metJ : : Tn5 and metK : : Tn5 cells provokes questions about how other elements such as the MetR activator protein or factors beyond the met regulon itself might be involved in the regulation of genes responsible for methionine biosynthesis.  (+info)

Compensatory evolution in response to a novel RNA polymerase: orthologous replacement of a central network gene. (6/25)

A bacteriophage genome was forced to evolve a new system of regulation by replacing its RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene, a central component of the phage developmental pathway, with that of a relative. The experiment used the obligate lytic phage T7 and the RNAP gene of phage T3. T7 RNAP uses 17 phage promoters, which are responsible for all middle and late gene expression, DNA replication, and progeny maturation, but the enzyme has known physical contacts with only 2 other phage proteins. T3 RNAP was supplied in trans by the bacterial host to a T7 genome lacking its own RNAP gene and the phage population was continually propagated on naive bacteria throughout the adaptation. Evolution of the T3 RNAP gene was thereby prevented, and selection was for the evolution of regulatory signals throughout the phage genome. T3 RNAP transcribes from T7 promoters only at low levels, but a single mutation in the promoter confers high expression, providing a ready mechanism for reevolution of gene expression in this system. When selected for rapid growth, fitness of the engineered phage evolved from a low of 5 doublings/h to 33 doublings/h, close to the expected maximum of 37 doublings/h. However, the experiment was terminated before it could be determined accurately that fitness had reached an obvious plateau, and it is not known whether further adaptation could have resulted in complete recovery of fitness. More than 30 mutations were observed in the evolved genome, but changes were found in only 9 of the 16 promoters, and several coding changes occurred in genes with no known contacts with the RNAP. Surprisingly, the T7 genome adapted to T3 RNAP also maintained high fitness when using T7 RNAP, suggesting that the extreme incompatibility of T7 elements with T3 RNAP is not an invariant property of divergence in these expression systems.  (+info)

Evolution and the complexity of bacteriophages. (7/25)

BACKGROUND: The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb) bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly biochemical complexity. Understanding their significance requires a definition of complexity that is more biochemically oriented than past empirically based definitions. HYPOTHESIS: Initially, I propose two biochemistry-oriented definitions of complexity: either decreased randomness or increased encoded information that does not serve immediate needs. Then, I make the assumption that these two definitions are equivalent. This assumption and recent data lead to the following four-part hypothesis that explains the presence of cellular gene homologs in long bacteriophage genomes and also provides a pathway for complexity increases in prokaryotic cells: (1) Prokaryotes underwent evolutionary increases in biochemical complexity after the eukaryote/prokaryote splits. (2) Some of the complexity increases occurred via multi-step, weak selection that was both protected from strong selection and accelerated by embedding evolving cellular genes in the genomes of bacteriophages and, presumably, also archaeal viruses (first tier selection). (3) The mechanisms for retaining cellular genes in viral genomes evolved under additional, longer-term selection that was stronger (second tier selection). (4) The second tier selection was based on increased access by prokaryotic cells to improved biochemical systems. This access was achieved when DNA transfer moved to prokaryotic cells both the more evolved genes and their more competitive and complex biochemical systems. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: I propose testing this hypothesis by controlled evolution in microbial communities to (1) determine the effects of deleting individual cellular gene homologs on the growth and evolution of long genome bacteriophages and hosts, (2) find the environmental conditions that select for the presence of cellular gene homologs, (3) determine which, if any, bacteriophage genes were selected for maintaining the homologs and (4) determine the dynamics of homolog evolution. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: This hypothesis is an explanation of evolutionary leaps in general. If accurate, it will assist both understanding and influencing the evolution of microbes and their communities. Analysis of evolutionary complexity increase for at least prokaryotes should include analysis of genomes of long-genome bacteriophages.  (+info)

Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage. (8/25)

Synthetic biology involves the engineering of biological organisms by using modular and generalizable designs with the ultimate goal of developing useful solutions to real-world problems. One such problem involves bacterial biofilms, which are crucial in the pathogenesis of many clinically important infections and are difficult to eradicate because they exhibit resistance to antimicrobial treatments and removal by host immune systems. To address this issue, we engineered bacteriophage to express a biofilm-degrading enzyme during infection to simultaneously attack the bacterial cells in the biofilm and the biofilm matrix, which is composed of extracellular polymeric substances. We show that the efficacy of biofilm removal by this two-pronged enzymatic bacteriophage strategy is significantly greater than that of nonenzymatic bacteriophage treatment. Our engineered enzymatic phage substantially reduced bacterial biofilm cell counts by approximately 4.5 orders of magnitude ( approximately 99.997% removal), which was about two orders of magnitude better than that of nonenzymatic phage. This work demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of using engineered enzymatic bacteriophage to reduce bacterial biofilms and the applicability of synthetic biology to an important medical and industrial problem.  (+info)

Whether you need to design a new packaging line or make the one you have more efficient, Packaging Systems Automation is the name to remember. PSA is a value added integrator with the know-how to provide standard and custom solutions to your product handling needs. From our manufacturing facility in Minneapolis Minnesota, our team of professionals design and build high quality packaging machinery and systems for customers throughout the packaging industry.Because our people have many years of experience, we will save you time and money as your full service partner in packaging.
A new packaging system for the aerial release of phytoseiids was designed and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The observed escapes before and after release, mortality during all stages of release, and fecundity after release indicated that the system was suitable for transporting and distributing phytoseiids. Other evaluated properties of the packaging system included container opening efficiency, container dispersion over the field at several fly-over altitudes, and the probability of containers to be lodged in the cassava canopy. Aerial release trials followed by recoveries of viable adult female phytoseiids from the target fields demonstrated the feasibility of aerial releases as a means for distributing phytoseiid natural enemies.
This FEMC System is designed to place different products into specific compartments in this multi-compartment tray at up to 40 trays per minute. These TV d...
Stefan Monnier ,[email protected], writes: ,, Is this a bug in package.el or is it an oversight in the Elisp manual? , , I think its a bug. OK, Ill write a bug report. Thanks Dieter -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Zwingenberg, Germany ...
The predictions of our model-notably, that the number of loci in a genetic architecture and the variance of their allelic contributions are greatest for traits under intermediate selection-are robust to choices of population-genetic parameters. The non-monotonic relation between selection pressure on a trait and the size of its genetic architecture, L, holds regardless of population size, but the location of maximum L is shifted towards weaker selection in larger populations (see electronic supplementary material, figure S5). This result is compatible with our explanation involving compensatory evolution: selection is more efficient in large populations, and so compensatory evolution occurs at smaller selection coefficients. Likewise, when the mutation rate is smaller the resulting equilibrium number of controlling loci is reduced (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6). This result is again compatible with the explanation of compensatory evolution, which requires frequent mutations. ...
Nordson EFDs industry-leading Dial-A-Dose™ and Posi-Dose® disposable dosing syringes provide advanced packaging for animal health products.
The SRS Series semi automatic rotary type heat sealers from Serpone Packaging Systems are designed for medium- to higher-volume production requirements.
This type of high speed line, characterised with the ultimate flexibility, is the Concetti flagship feature, enabling customers to easily package - with just one plant - different kinds of animal feeds ranging from powders to cubes, as well as ground, flat, flaky and laminated products.. The capacity of the bagging machine is up to 1,200 bag/h when handling free flowing products in 25 kg bags. Stoppage time between products is reduced to a minimum by the Concetti fully automatic changeover feature taking just 60 seconds from the HMI keyboard. The neat, square shape of the finished pallets are a result of the layer squaring and compression feature of the Concetti four-column palletiser that guarantees this packaging system remains one step ahead.. Info: salesitaly.com ...
While playing around with the packaging system, I kept running into , one problem: losing my dynamic libraries. My guess: set up an /etc/ld.so.conf listing the directories where you have your other shared libraries and I think this problem will disappear. Because you *do* run a new enough system that ldconfig reads this file by itself, dont you? - H=E5vard ...
In business since 1993, we have developed unsurpassed knowledge about transit cases and foam packaging systems. We are serious about our work and proud of our expertise and product quality.. ...
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
pASSEMBLE™ 10A1 Retroviral Packaging System includes a unique packaging vector with gag, pol and env from different viruses confering a tropism in the cell to be infected.
Constantia Flexibles released its new packaging system, the Flexible Blister, which can be incorporated into existing production while offering a portable system for packaging.
Introduction Taq DNA Polymerase is an enzyme widely used in PCR (1). The following guidelines are provided to ensure successful PCR using NEBs Taq DNA Polymerase
Taq DNA Polymerase from Bioline,A Highly Purified, Cost-Effective Taq DNA Polymerase,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
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Physical forces sufficient to deform an electronic device and/or packaging for the electronic device can damage the device. Some mechanical components in a device, for example, in a microelectromechanical device and/or in an interferometric modulator are particularly susceptible to damage. Accordingly, provided herein is a packaging system and packaged electronic device that resists physical damage, a method for manufacturing the same, and a method for protecting an electronic device from physical damage. The packaging system for the electronic device includes one or more spacers that prevent or reduce damage to the electronic device arising from contact with the packaging. In some embodiments, the packaged electronic device comprising spacers is thinner than a comparable device manufactured without spacers.
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The Titripac® packaging system for volumetric solutions is constructed from a recyclable outer carton and a durable inner bag. The inner bag collapses during withdrawal of reagent through the built-in contamination-proof dispenser tap. Therefore the reagent in the bag cannot be contaminated, and when empty, the outer carton can be fully recycled. The amount of packaging per liter is less than half the weight of alternative packaging options (plastic bottles ...
Working with information and product developers and software engineers at AT&T GIS, the faculty and staff have helped AT&T GIS to cut their support costs and improve their product development cycles. Since 1993, we have worked with AT&T GIS to dramatically improve their software interfaces, user manuals, packaging systems, and mass marketing materials.. Challenges. Because our usability testing research and client training programs have focused on mission-critical products for our industry partners, the usability publications of our faculty and graduate students are frequently proprietary and subject to strict non-disclosure contracts.. Other Clients. ...
From pastries to sauces, tea bags to tinned goods and milk to soft drinks - Adpak offers shrink wrapping and packaging systems to wrap almost anything.
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a snap packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone features to the IoT developer. ...
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a snap packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone features to the IoT developer. ...
The co-operatives board of directors had already taken special care to design and build halls that were ideal for storage. The new storage areas allow the large crates of fruit to be stacked and stored as ergonomically as possible. Their headroom of more than 10 meters means 13 large crates can be stacked right up to the roof. Growing customer requirements also meant further investments in the very latest sorting and packaging systems. One of Lanas main aims is to meet all the many varied requirements of the market with innovative and proactive solutions ...
Inline Filling Systems specializes in manufacturing liquid packaging systems that are engineered and built to meet the industry specific needs of small and medium size companies. We provide high value, robust systems that include a range of container flexibility, are easy to use, easy to clean and easy to maintain for the lowest total cost of ownership.. ...
A packaging system is disclosed for shipping a prosthetic tissue valve in a storage solution and preparing and loading of the bioprosthetic valve onto a catheter-based delivery system. The packaging system includes a fluid tight container filled with the storage solution attached to a delivery catheter, wherein the container surrounds the prosthetic tissue valve that is in a pre-loaded position on the delivery catheter during shipment and storage. The prosthetic tissue valve may include an attachment mechanism that attaches to the delivery catheter to properly position the tissue valve for loading within the delivery catheter. In another embodiment where the prosthetic tissue valve is not attached to the delivery catheter during shipment, the attachment mechanism may interact with the prosthetic tissue valve shipping container to prevent the bioprosthetic valve from moving during shipment.
Taq DNA Polymerase is a thermostable DNA Polymerase isolated from an E. coli strain that carries the Taq DNA polymerase gene. Taq DNA Polymerase is the most common polymerase used for PCR reactions.
MTP Taq DNA Polymerase is a recombinant thermostable enzyme from Thermus aquaticus expressed in E. coli and purified using a proprietary process to minimize the levels of contaminating DNA.
Taq DNA polymerase catalyzes 5-3 synthesis of DNA. The enzyme has been proved not having the 3-5 exonuclease activity. The enzyme has proven to have high amplification yield, be stable at high temparetaure. (D0010) - Products - Abnova
Most of the adenovirus gene products required for the production of infective AAV particles are supplied on the pHelper plasmid (i.e. E2A, E4, and VA RNA genes) that is co-transfected into cells with human AAV vector DNA. The remaining adenoviral gene product is supplied by the 293 host cells, which stably expresses the adenovirus E1 gene. By eliminating the need for live helper virus, the AAV helper-free system provides a safer and more convenient gene delivery system ...
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution In Press. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22:683-690. Full ...
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27:2105-2112. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics, 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. ...
Two trajectories are possible in converting a GC base pair to an AU base pair. One of them passes through a GU base pair intermediate, the other through an AC mismatch intermediate (see figure 4; electronic supplementary material, figure S3). In our data, a ribozyme with the GU intermediate is always more active than that with the AC intermediate (from +1.4 to +22.7%; average = +10.3%). This confirms predictions of the relative effects of these two intermediates based on the geometry of base pairs [32], experimental measurements [33] and bioinformatic analysis of tRNA evolution [34]. Our data support a continuous ridge or neutral network model (see Landscapes caused by a base pair switch in Supporting Information, electronic supplementary material) of compensatory evolution in RNA secondary structure, because in our experiments, the GU intermediate shows a significant decrease in fitness only in a single instance, and in this instance the base pair switch is not compensatory but ...
Active packaging, packaging systems to help extend shelf life, monitor freshness, display information on quality, improve safety, and improve convenience**Self-heating food packaging, active packaging with the ability to heat food contents without external heat sources or ...
മിശ്രിതത്തെ 55 ഡിഗ്രി സെന്റീഗ്രേഡിലേയ്ക്ക് പതിയെ ഊഷ്മനില താഴ്ത്തുന്നു. ഇവയ്ക്ക് അനുപൂരകമായ അൻപതിൽത്താഴെ ന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളുള്ള പ്രൈമറുകൾ നിർമ്മിക്കുന്നു. നാലുതരം ഡിഓക്സിട്രൈന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളെ ടാക് (taq) പോളിമെറേയ്സ് രാസാഗ്നിയോടൊപ്പം വേർപെട്ട ഡി.എൻ.ഏ തന്മാത്രകളോടൊപ്പം ചേർക്കുന്നു. താപനില ഉയർത്തി 72 ഡിഗ്രി സെൽഷ്യസാക്കുന്നു. 90 ഡിഗ്രിയിലും നശിച്ചുപോകാത്ത Taq DNA Polymerase എന്ന ...
Installing a Hadoop cluster typically involves unpacking the software on all the machines in the cluster or installing it via a packaging system as appropriate for your operating system. It is important to divide up the hardware into functions.. Typically one machine in the cluster is designated as the NameNode and another machine as the ResourceManager, exclusively. These are the masters. Other services (such as Web App Proxy Server and MapReduce Job History server) are usually run either on dedicated hardware or on shared infrastructure, depending upon the load.. The rest of the machines in the cluster act as both DataNode and NodeManager. These are the workers. ...
Jinhe Bai is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
DAnjou pears harvested at commercial maturity from a block of 6 trees were immediately divided into 2 lots. One lot was placed in refrigerated storage (1 °C) for 90 days and then transferred to room temperature 24 hours prior to wax application. The second lot of fruit was waxed 24 hours after harvest, using both hot and cold wax drying techniques. Prior to waxing, the pears were drenched in hot water (40 °C), and passed over rotary dewatering brushes for 30 sec before going into the wax applicator. Using a commercial pear wax formulation (Shieldbrite PR160C, Shield-brite Corp, Kirkland. WA) pears were waxed at the approximate rate of 10 ml/min (6,804 Kg fruit/3.8 liters). Waxed pears were dried in a commercial hot-drying tunnel held at 60 °C (Van Doren Sales, Inc., Wenatchee, WA) or a cold drier operated at 0 °C (Sirron, marketed by MARQ International Packaging Systems, Inc., Yakima, WA) for 2 min. After the fruit surface had dried, 100 pears were packed in pulp fiber trays, enclosed in a ...
Jan Narciso is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
This collection of reviews focuses on the most exciting areas of DNA packaging at the current time. Many of the new discoveries are driven by the development of molecular or imaging techniques, and these are providing insights into the complex world of chromatin. As these new techniques continue to improve, we will be able to answer many of the questions we have now, while likely raising many new ones. ...
The known functions of RNA structures have expanded of late, such that RNA is considered a more active player in molecular biology. The presence of RNA secondary structure in a sequence should constrain evolution of its constituent nucleotides because of the requirement to maintain the base-pairing regions in the structure. In a previous work, we found support for this hypothesis in nine molecules from various organisms, the exception being a structure found in a protein-coding region of the HIV-1 genome. In this work, I examine the interaction of constraints imposed by RNA structures and host-induced hypermutation on molecular evolution in HIV-1. I conclude that RNA structures in HIV do evolve via compensatory evolution, but that hypermutation can obscure the expected signal. Since RNAs known roles have increased, so have the methods for identification and prediction of RNA structures in genetic sequence. I use a method adapted for searching in multiple coding regions to identify conserved RNA ...
Operation End by Phia Use no scoring. The metal rod is an object. The metal rod is inedible. The description of the metal rod is This seems to be the only defense you are going to get. You might want to take it with you. When entire game begins: say Ive got to get out of here, the cyborg, Ive got to get to the outside world. Theres no other way, the towns right next to the coast. The cyborgs, the humans, Ive got to get there...; The cold metal cell is a room. The description of the cold metal cell is A metal cell. I thought I am going to use it to store the parts. I am just trying to help them... The carrying capacity of the player is 10. A hologram system #1 is here. The description of the hologram system is Patient number 1: synthetic arm began to move on its own. Patient deceased. The Hologram system #1 is fixed in place. Instead of taking the hologram #1: say That isnt yours to take? A table is here. The description of the table is There is a table in the room. Instead of ...
The PCR Master is a 2x concentrated ready-to-use master mix that contains Taq DNA Polymerase, PCR Grade Deoxynucleotides, and PCR Reaction Buffer with a final concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. This mix is designed for the routine amplification of any kind of DNA up to 3 kb.. The High Fidelity PCR Master is a 2x concentrated ready-to-use master mix that contains the Expand High Fidelity Enzyme blend, PCR Grade Deoxynucleotides, and PCR Reaction Buffer with a final concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. The Expand High Fidelity Enzyme blend is a blend of Taq DNA Polymerase and a thermostable DNA polymerase with proofreading activity. This powerful enzyme blend is designed to amplify any kind of DNA up to 5 kb (see Figure 1) with higher yield and three times higher fidelity than Taq DNA Polymerase alone.. ...
GeneCraft® is a German based company providing molecular biology products such as Taq DNA polymerases, nucleotides, kits and mixtures for standard, Hot-Start and Real-Time PCR
Amplifies nucleic acid templates using antibody-mediated hot-start, a blend of Taq DNA Polymerase and a proofreading enzyme, and AccuPrime accessory proteins for improved PCR fidelity, yield, and specificity over other hot-start DNA polymerases. AccuPrime Taq DNA Polymerase High Fidelity, 1000reactions ...
For more than three decades we set standards in hospital sterile supply. The own demand has always been to maximize patient safety from the perspective of packaging systems and to optimize the workflow in the daily practice of CSSD ...
For more than three decades we set standards in hospital sterile supply. The own demand has always been to maximize patient safety from the perspective of packaging systems and to optimize the workflow in the daily practice of CSSD ...
Profile: Solid Waste Compaction, Baling and Packaging Systems, Transfer Stations, Compost Plants, Beach Cleaning, Landfill Management
T7 phage, T3 phage, Φ29, P22, P37 Ligamenvirales Lipothrixviridae. Enveloped, rod-shaped. Linear dsDNA. Acidianus filamentous ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
... coli bacteriophage T3, which reduced the levels of S-adenosylmethionine, a precursor to ACC.[11] Endless Summer was briefly ...
T7 RNA Polymerase is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' ... Related family members include phage T3 and SP6 RNA polymerases, but this family is also related to the mitochondrial RNA ... McAllister WT (1993). "Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity)". Cell. ... T7 and T3, or T7 and SP6) in opposite orientation. RNA can be selectively synthesized from either strand of the insert DNA with ...
Journal Article: Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant ... Title: Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant ... 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BACTERIOPHAGES; CONTROL; DNA; DNA SEQUENCING; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ELECTROPHORESIS; EVOLUTION; GELS; ... We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads ...
The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison with the homologous genes of phages T7, T3, ... Sequence and analysis of the gene for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res 13:6753-6766 ... Dietz, A., Weisser, H., Kössel, H. et al. The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison ... Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJH, Roe BA (1980) Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA ...
... that encode T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerases (RNAPs) sharing 45% amino acid identity. In phylogenetic analyses using ... Identification and characterization of T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase sequences in wheat Plant Mol Biol. 1999 Jul;40(4 ... Using PCR-based methods, we assembled two wheat cDNA sequences, wheat-G and wheat-C, that encode T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA ...
Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA. / Basu, S ... title = "Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA", ... T1 - Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA ... Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
a, bacteriophage SP6 promoter. b, bacteriophage T3 promoter. c, bacteriophage T7 promoter. d, human CMV promoter. e, human HBB ... Red: Patwardhan et al. 2009 bacteriophage promoters. Blue: Patwardhan et al. 2009 mammalian promoters. Green: Melnikov et al. ...
PGRP; Animal peptidoglycan recognition proteins homologous to Bacteriophage T3 lysozyme. RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo ...
Enterobacteria phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7). Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). Yersinia phage YpP-Y. Yersinia phage R ... Enterobacteria phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7). Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). Yersinia phage YpP-Y. Yersinia phage R ... "Mutation in bacteriophage T3 affecting host cell lysis.". Miyazaki J.I., Ryo Y., Fujisawa H., Minagawa T.. Virology 89:327-329( ... Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ...
By regulating the expression of the rat liver SAM synthetase and the bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase proteins in E. coli, a 100- ... X. Bacteriophage T3-induced S-adenosylmethionine cleavage. J. Biol. Chem. 241:1995-2006. ... 1994) A novel Tn10 tetracycline regulon system controlling expression of the bacteriophage T3 gene encoding S-adenosyl-L- ... and bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase (T3SH). RLSS is a highly conserved homolog of the bacterial MetK SAM synthetase, except that ...
Here the authors find that bacteriophage T7 helicase is also involved in replication re-initiation by interacting with a non- ... Kruger, D. H. & Schroeder, C. Bacteriophage T3 and bacteriophage T7 virus-host cell interactions. Microbiol. Rev. 45, 9-51 ( ... Here, we investigate this replication re-initiation pathway using the bacteriophage T7 replisome. The bacteriophage T7 ... Mechanisms for the initiation of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 669-679 (1983). ...
Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). OC Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Caudovirales; Podoviridae; OC ... "Sequence of a conditionally essential region of bacteriophage T3, RT including the primary origin of DNA replication."; RL J. ... DR InterPro; IPR016306; DNA_ligase_ATP-dep_T3. DR InterPro; IPR012340; NA-bd_OB-fold. DR Pfam; PF01068; DNA_ligase_A_M; 1. DR ... PIRSF; PIRSF001600; DNA_ligase_phage_T3; 1. DR SUPFAM; SSF50249; SSF50249; 1. DR PROSITE; PS00697; DNA_LIGASE_A1; 1. DR PROSITE ...
Bacteriophage T3 and bacteriophage T7 virus-host cell interactions. Microbiol. Rev. 45:9-51. ... Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J. Bacteriol. ... The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes ... Antimicrobial drug discovery through bacteriophage genomics. Nat. Biotechnol. 22:185-191.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Science ...
Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA, J. Biol. ... Hamada, K., Fujisawa, H., and Minagawa, T., 1986, A defined in vitro system for packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA, Virology 151 ... Beier, H., and Hausmann, R., 1973, Genetic map of bacteriophage T3, I. Virol. 12: 417.Google Scholar ... Hausmann, R., and Härle, E., 1971, Expression of the genomes of the related bacteriophages T3 and T7, in: Proceedings of the ...
... some plasmids and the phages T7 and T3 synthesize a direct inhibitor of type I restriction-modification systems (11-13). ... Bacteriophages and Bacteria.. T7 mutants sRK836 and the 0.3 deletion mutant D364 were kindly provided by F. W. Studier ( ... DNA Ejection from a Bacteriophage λ Particle Results in Immediate Cleavage of 0.3+ Phage DNA by EcoKI.. The above data suggest ... Translocation and specific cleavage of bacteriophage T7 DNA in vivo by EcoKI. L. René García and Ian J. Molineux ...
Bacteriophage T3 Phage T3 Enterobacteria phage T3 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. It is in the genus ... Bacteriophage P1 Phage P1 P1 is a temperate bacteriophage (phage) that infects Escherichia coli and a some other bacteria. When ...
Identification and characterization of T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase sequences in wheat. Plant. Mol. Biol. 40, 567- ... Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the ... Mechanism of inhibition of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase by T7 lysozyme. J. Mol. Biol. 269, 10-27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Mol. Biol. 33, 353-367.Google Scholar ...
T3 DNA Ligase exhibits a higher tolerance (2-fold) for NaCl in the reaction compared to T4 DNA Ligase, making the enzyme a ... Cohesive ends, blunt ends, and nick sealing can all be efficiently catalyzed by T3 DNA Ligase. As with T4 DNA Ligase, blunt end ... T3 DNA Ligase is an ATP-dependent ds DNA ligase from bacteriophage T3. It will catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond ... T3 DNA Ligase is an ATP-dependent ds DNA ligase from bacteriophage T3. It will catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond ...
1997) Transcription termination by bacteriophage T3 and SP6 RNA polymerases at Rho-independent terminators. Can. J. Microbiol. ... 2000) Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. ... We isolated a bacteriophage, ΦK1-5, that is able to infect and grow on either K1 or K5 strains of E. coli. It appears that its ... 1996) Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the tail fiber adhesion. J. Mol. Biol. 258: ...
The RNA may be synthesized by a cellular RNA polymerase or a bacteriophage RNA polymerase (e.g., T3, T7, SP6). The use and ... RNA was synthesized from phagemid clones with T3 and T7 RNA polymerase6, followed by template removal with two sequential DNase ... A general strategy for production of dsRNA is to clone segments of interest between flanking copies of the bacteriophage T7 ... T3 or T7 RNA polymerase), or with characterized promoters in vivo, is produced predominantly from a single strand. The ...
Ikeda, T. M., and Gray, M. W. (1999). Identification and characterization of T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase sequences ...
Suitable promoters are those which are recognized by specific bacteriophage polymerases, such as bacteriophage T3, T7 or SP6. ... According to the SISKA invention, one of the primers is provided with a promoter sequence, for example of a bacteriophage T7 ...
shows clearly that the genomic DNA of bacteriophage T3, which cannot be cleaved by wild-type EcoRII because of the lower ... Cleavage of the DNA of bacteriophage T3 with EcoRII-trunc (here: EcoRII173-404) and wild-type EcoRII. Top: quantities of ... enzymes used; left trace: T3 DNA without restriction endonuclease; BstNI: positive control of the cleavage pattern; right trace ...
1987) Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is homologous to those encoded by bacteriophages T3 and T7. Cell 51:89-99. ... 2006) Bacteriophage origins of mitochondrial replication and transcription proteins. Trends Genet 22:90-95. ... 1998) Pausing and termination by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol 280:201-213. ... 2004) Promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. A single-molecule view of the ...
"ORI bacteriophage f1" FT promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO E. coli lac gene" FT promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T3" FT ... CC The order of the major features in this plasmid is: TRP1 - f1 ori CC (NaeI) - T7 promoter - lacZ/MCS - T3 promoter - pMB1 ... promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T7" FT CDS 0..0 FT /note="GEN E. coli beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ); FT reporter ...
Specific contacts between the bacteriophage T3, T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases and their promoters.J. Biol. Chem.2661991645651. ... In vitro comparison of initiation properties of bacteriophage lambda wild-type PR and ×3 mutant promoters.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
... and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. Bacteria were ... T3 - NP_523347; phiA1122 - NP_848309; gh-1 - NP_813786; PP03 - WP_010953264; phiKMV - NP_877482; SP6 - NP_853601; Tum2 - WP_ ... Three novel bacteriophages isolated from the East African Rift Valley soda lakes. *Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl. 1. , ... van Zyl, L.J., Nemavhulani, S., Cass, J. et al. Three novel bacteriophages isolated from the East African Rift Valley soda ...
D) Transcytosis of diverse phage types (T3, T5, T7, SP01, SPP1, and P22 phages) across MDCK cells. Bar plot shows mean; error ... Bacteriophage Transcytosis Provides a Mechanism To Cross Epithelial Cell Layers. Sophie Nguyen, Kristi Baker, Benjamin S. ... Bacteriophage Transcytosis Provides a Mechanism To Cross Epithelial Cell Layers. Sophie Nguyen, Kristi Baker, Benjamin S. ... Bacteriophage Transcytosis Provides a Mechanism To Cross Epithelial Cell Layers. Sophie Nguyen, Kristi Baker, Benjamin S. ...
Enzymes like bacteriophage SP6, T3 and T7 RNA polymerases have been used to produce synthetic RNA for a wide variety of ... Leary, S.L. et al. (1991) DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T3 transcribes and amplifies an RNA template in vitro ... Chamberlin, M. et al. (1983) Isolation of bacterial and bacteriophage RNA polymerases and their use in synthesis of RNA in ... In vitro transcription using bacteriophage DNA-dependent RNA polymerases has been optimized to mediate the synthesis of large ...
Bacteriophage φYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J. Bacteriol.182 ... Isolation and Characterization of Temperate Bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile. Shan Goh, Thomas V. Riley, Barbara J. ... Isolation and Characterization of Temperate Bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile. Shan Goh, Thomas V. Riley, Barbara J. ... Isolation and Characterization of Temperate Bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile. Shan Goh, Thomas V. Riley, Barbara J. ...
Bacteriophage Lambda Terminase and the Mechanism of Viral DNA Packaging. Feiss, Michael (et al.) ... T3/T7 DNA Packaging. Serwer, Philip. Pages 59-79 Preview Buy Chapter $29.95 ...
  • Dietz A, Kössel H, Hausmann R (1985) On the evolution of the terminal redundancies of Klebsiella phage No. 11 and of coliphages T3 and T7. (springer.com)
  • P1 is a temperate bacteriophage (phage) that infects Escherichia coli and a some other bacteria. (cbd.int)
  • Enterobacteria phage T3 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. (cbd.int)
  • Bacteriophages have adapted to bacterial defense systems, devised strategies to evade these anti-phage mechanisms and restored their infective capacity. (springer.com)
  • McGrath S, Fitzgerald GF, van Sinderen D. Identification and characterization of phage-resistance genes in temperate lactococcal bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • Here we introduce the Phage On Tap (PoT) protocol for the quick and efficient preparation of homogenous bacteriophage (phage) stocks. (peerj.com)
  • Due to increasing interest for the use of bacteriophage (phage) in medical, industrial, and molecular settings, new approaches are required to quickly and efficiently produce high titer, homogenous, and purified phage stocks. (peerj.com)
  • To further analyze the correct taxonomic position of this virus we have completed the sequence of its genome noting its very close similarity to Yersinia phage Berlin and coliphage T3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (healthmatics.info)
  • Phage therapy has been in vogue from 1930 until date as evidenced by works from Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages Microbiology Virology at Tbilisi, Georgia (Summers 2012). (researchsquare.com)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage T7 is a virulent phage with an icosahedral head, a short noncontractile tail, and a dsDNA genome of 39937 bp. (ecoliwiki.org)
  • DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. (osti.gov)
  • some plasmids and the phages T7 and T3 synthesize a direct inhibitor of type I restriction-modification systems ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is now accepted that bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities in most ecosystems and soda lakes are no exception, with studies conducted on Mono Lake placing viral abundance at 10 9 ml -1 , among the highest in natural aquatic environments [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of TUD-based phylogeny indicates that host influences are important in bacteriophage evolution, and phylogenies containing both phages and their hosts support their co-evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of Escherichia coli containing the type I restriction enzyme Eco KI by bacteriophage T7 0.3 mutants leads to restriction during the late stages of genome entry and during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • A virulent double-stranded DNA bacteriophage, ΦK1-5, has been isolated and found to be capable of infecting Escherichia coli strains that possess either the K1 or the K5 polysaccharide capsule. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia virus T4 is a species of bacteriophages that infect Escherichia coli bacteria. (ionoale.it)
  • Rapid ejection of a 0.3 + T7 genome from a bacteriophage λ particle results in degradation of the infecting DNA by Eco KI, showing that the normal T7 DNA translocation process delays restriction. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we describe the biological characteristics, whole genome sequences, and annotations for two new isolates of the B. megaterium bacteriophages (BM5 and BM10), which were isolated from Egyptian soil samples. (peerj.com)
  • Comparative analysis of the BM5 and BM10 genome structures, in conjunction with other B. megaterium bacteriophages, revealed relatively high levels of sequence and organizational identity. (peerj.com)
  • The genome of Kvp1, the first Kluyvera cryocrescens -specific bacteriophage, was sequenced using pyrosequencing (454 technology) at the McGill University and Genome Québec Innovation Centre. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At 39,472 bp, the annotated genome revealed a closer relationship to coliphage T3 than T7 with Kvp1 containing homologs to T3 early proteins S-adenosyl-L-methionine hydrolase (0.3) and protein kinase (0.7). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their primary function is to protect the host genome against invasion by foreign DNA, primarily bacteriophage DNA. (wn.com)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome sequence, structural proteins, and capsid organization of the cyanophage syn5: a "horned" bacteriophage of marine synechococcus. (purdue.edu)
  • This was accomplished by inserting the sam-k gene encoding SAMase from the E. coli bacteriophage T3 (under a promoter that directs fruit-specific expression) into the tomato genome. (biodiv.org)
  • Bacteriophages are probably the oldest viruses, having appeared early during bacterial evolution. (springer.com)
  • The most studied polymerases belong to Family A (found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and bacteriophages) and family B (found in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, archaea, and viruses). (frontiersin.org)
  • [1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tightly regulated transcriptional pattern of SSV1 has not been described before for any archaeal virus and is reminiscent of those of many bacteriophages and some eukaryotic viruses. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages exist in numerous forms and are capable of infecting disparate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To unravel the influence of viruses, and particularly bacteriophages, on microbiota ecology and animal host physiology and health, methods allowing quantitative comparison of virus diversity, abundance and function across samples are needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using PCR-based methods, we assembled two wheat cDNA sequences, wheat-G and wheat-C, that encode T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerases (RNAPs) sharing 45% amino acid identity. (nih.gov)
  • These promoters are recognized by different RNA polymerases (from the T3 and T7 bacteriophages, respectively). (devbio.com)
  • Therefore, bacteria and bacteriophages have a long history of co-evolution in which bacteria have developed multiple resistance mechanisms against bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophages are a promising alternative for curtailing infections caused by multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. (researchsquare.com)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRE is a fragment from the Cre recombinase derived from E. coli bacteriophage P1. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Tomato with delayed ripening due to expression of the SAMase from the E. coli bacteriophage T3. (biodiv.org)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. (healthmatics.info)
  • Alignment of these three class III promoters and a previously determined T3 RNA polymerase promoter at 1.05% on T3 genetic map, with start points of transcription (+1) in register, indicates a high degree of sequence conservation among the four T3 RNA polymerase promoters. (elsevier.com)
  • CC The order of the major features in this plasmid is: TRP1 - f1 ori CC (NaeI) - T7 promoter - lacZ'/MCS - T3 promoter - pMB1 ori - bla - CC CEN6 - ARSH4. (stanford.edu)
  • 0 FT /note="ORI bacteriophage f1" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
  • 0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T3" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
  • 644 /note='T7 promoter' /note='promoter for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase' CDS 1041. (vpiqnf.icu)
  • 3397) /note='T3 promoter' /note='promoter for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase' primer_bind complement(3418. (vpiqnf.icu)
  • In this case, the T3 promoter is in normal orientation and the T7 promoter is reversed. (devbio.com)
  • The DNA sequences of three major class III T3 RNA polymerase promoters located at 45.0, 55.0, and 64.8% on the standard T3 genetic map have been determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA were localized by in situ hybridization in normal and monocularly deprived cat visual cortex by using single-stranded RNA probes transcribed from cDNAs cloned in vectors with the T3 and T7 RNA polymerase promoters. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract&list_uids=12079351&itool=iconabstr&query_hl=13&itool=pubmed_docsum 'Complete nucleotide sequence and likely recombinatorial origin of bacteriophage T3. (openwetware.org)
  • Characterization of the lysogeny DNA module from teteperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage φSfi21. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, careful examination of the nucleotide sequences around 45.0 and 64.8 T3 map units shows that the putative RNA sequences arising from these regions by overlapping transcription from upstream promoters can be arranged into stable stemloop structures thought to be required for RNase III cleavage. (elsevier.com)
  • The bacteriophage promoters, T7, T3, and SP6, consist of 23 basepairs numbered -17 to +6, where +1 indicates the first base of the coded transcript. (thermofisher.com)
  • By regulating the expression of the rat liver SAM synthetase and the bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase proteins in E. coli , a 100-fold range of SAM levels could be achieved. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we used the regulated expression of two foreign enzymes to evade E. coli 's stringent regulation of SAM levels, namely, expression of rat liver SAM synthetase (RLSS) and bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase (T3SH). (asm.org)
  • In E. coli MG1655, expression of T3SH [the bacteriophage T3 S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) hydrolase] significantly reduced AI-2 activity in culture supernatants, suggesting that AI-2 production is limited by the amount of SAH produced in SAM-dependent transmethylase reactions. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Diverse Temperate Bacteriophage Carriage in Clostridium difficile 027 Strains," PLoS ONE (May 2012), 7(5):e372631-9. (patents.com)
  • T3 DNA Ligase exhibits a higher tolerance (2-fold) for NaCl in the reaction compared to T4 DNA Ligase, making the enzyme a versatile choice for in vitro molecular biology protocols requiring DNA ligase activity. (neb.com)
  • Bacteriophage Genetics and Molecular Biology. (springer.com)
  • During the morphogenesis of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, a DNA-free protein capsid (procapsid) is assembled and subsequently packages the bacteriophage DNA. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Similar in structure to T3, each virion of T7 has an icosahedral head (capsid) with a diameter of 60-61 nm and a 2 nm thick shell (the outer layer being made from two forms of the gene 10 protein). (ecoliwiki.org)
  • Yep-phi is a T7-related bacteriophage specific to Yersinia pestis , and it is routinely used in the identification of Y. pestis in China. (asm.org)
  • An E. coli strain containing a recombinant gene encoding T3 DNA Ligase. (neb.com)
  • 100. The expression library of claim 91 wherein the expression vector is a bacteriophage vector and wherein the expression library comprises recombinant bacteriophage particles. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This is the first report to demonstrate that membrane-bound proteins are involved in the adsorption of a T7-related bacteriophage. (asm.org)
  • Krylov, V. 2006-03-01 00:00:00 The T7-like ΦKMV bacteriophage active on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was previously isolated by us and shown to have DNA resistant to many endonucleases. (deepdyve.com)
  • Commercial production of bacteriophages specific against Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp, Shigella spp were done till mid 1950's at EIBMV, HIEET, Poland (Sulakvelidze et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • DNA_ligase_ATP-dep_T3. (genome.jp)
  • T3 DNA Ligase is an ATP-dependent ds DNA ligase from bacteriophage T3. (neb.com)
  • Cohesive ends, blunt ends, and nick sealing can all be efficiently catalyzed by T3 DNA Ligase (1). (neb.com)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to give 50% ligation of 100 ng HindIII fragments of λ DNA in a total reaction volume of 20 μl in 1 minute at 25°C in 1X T3 DNA Ligase Reaction Buffer. (neb.com)
  • T3 DNA Ligase is also active in buffers without PEG 6000, such as our T4 DNA Ligase Buffer and NEBuffers 1-4, for applications in which PEG 6000 is detrimental. (neb.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of this polypeptide shows 71% homology to the T7 RNA polymerase (the product of T7 gene 1 ), 72% homology to the T3 RNA polymerase and 27% homology to the SP6 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1983) The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 dNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. (springer.com)
  • Kotani H, Ishizaki Y, Hiraoka N, Obayashi A (1987) Nucleotide sequence and expression of the cloned gene of bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • Moffatt BA, Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1984) Nucleotide sequence of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • RT "Sequence of a conditionally essential region of bacteriophage T3, RT including the primary origin of DNA replication. (genome.jp)
  • Rudolph C, Freund-Mölbert E, Stirm S (1975) Fragments of Klebsiella bacteriophage No. 11. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different genomes, and lifestyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The well-studied model of tail morphology in bacteriophage classification was used for comparison with nucleotide usage patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997) 272, 21±30 Positioning of the Start Site in the Initiation of Transcription by Bacteriophage T7 RNA Polymerase Benjamin F. Weston, Iaroslav Kuzmine and Craig T. Martin* Department of Chemistry University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA , USA *Corresponding author The determination of various polymerase structures has sparked interest in understanding how the polynucleotide template interacts with the active site. (docplayer.net)
  • We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). (osti.gov)
  • Visualization of Bacteriophage T3 Capsids with DNA Incompletely Packaged In Vivo. (uthscsa.edu)
  • We have used bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) to study the transcriptional accessibility of ES chromatin in vivo . (embopress.org)
  • In vivo lysogenization of a Clostridium difficile bacteriophage .PHI.CD119," Anaerobe (2011) 17:125-129. (patents.com)
  • We found that bacteriophages have unique TUD patterns, representing genomic signatures that are relatively conserved among those with similar host range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lack of information on bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile prompted this study. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophage treatment significantly reduces viable Clostridium difficile and prevents toxin production in an in vitro model system," Anaerobe (2010), 16:549-554. (patents.com)
  • Prevention of Clostridium difficile-induced ileocecitis with Bacteriophage," Anaerobe (1999), 5:69-78. (patents.com)
  • 1. A method of treatment comprising administering to a patient a pharmaceutical composition comprising two or more bacteriophages selected from the group consisting of NCTC 12081404, NCTC 12081405, NCTC 12081406, NCTC 12081407, NCTC 12081408, NCTC 12081409, and NCTC 12081410, wherein the two or more bacteriophages are capable of lysing more than 5 different ribotypes of Clostridium difficile, and wherein the 5 different ribotypes comprise 014/20 or 027. (patents.com)
  • These polysaccharide coats also act as recognition sites for bacteriophages, which often carry tail spikes that contain polysaccharide depolymerization activities. (asm.org)
  • Evidence for bacteriophage T7 tail extension during DNA injection. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Tail morphology forms the basis for bacteriophage classification into 3 separate families: Myoviridae (contractile tails), Podoviridae (short tail stubs), and Siphoviridae (long tails) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2005) Changes in bacteriophage T7 virion structure at the initiation of infection. (ecoliwiki.org)
  • Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJH, Roe BA (1980) Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study, therefore, was to isolate and characterize bacteriophages specific for C. difficile as a preliminary step to assessing their potential as novel therapeutic agents. (asm.org)
  • Here, we investigate this replication re-initiation pathway using the bacteriophage T7 replisome. (nature.com)
  • Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens , is a member of the viral family Podoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4. (ionoale.it)
  • Template-free generation of RNA species that replicate with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. (naver.com)
  • A large variety of different RNA species that are replicated by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 have been generated by incubating high concentrations of this enzyme with substrate for extended time periods. (naver.com)
  • Common T3 containing medications such as Armour, Nature-Throid, WP Thyroid, compounded T4/T3, and Cytomel can cause test results to fluctuate significantly if taken at the wrong time. (ionoale.it)
  • Recent studies in the model RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 demonstrate that upstream duplex contacts provide at least some of the binding speci city and suggest that the enzyme interacts with the template strand in a melted context near the start site for transcription. (docplayer.net)
  • T3 polymerase enables the transcription of "sense" mRNA, whereas T7 polymerase transcribes antisense transcripts. (devbio.com)
  • ΦK5 is a related bacteriophage specific for E. coli strains that display the K5 antigen, a polymer consisting of a repeating structure of 4-linked α- N -acetylglucosamine and β-glucuronic acid ( N -acetyl heparosin). (asm.org)
  • In recent years, advances in sequencing technologies and data analysis techniques have enabled detailed metagenomic studies investigating intestinal viromes (collections of bacteriophage and eukaryotic viral nucleic acids) and their potential contributions to the ecology of the microbiota. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Labrie SJ, Samson JE, Moineau S. Bacteriophage resistance mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Studier FW, Dunn JJ (1983) Organization and expression of bacteriophage T7 DNA. (springer.com)
  • Cryo-EM asymmetric reconstruction of bacteriophage P22 reveals organization of its DNA packaging and infecting machinery. (purdue.edu)
  • The quantitative nature of the relationships between Kvp1 and the other members of the T7-like virus genus (T7, T3, φA1122, φYeO3-12, Berlin, K1F, VP4 and gh-1) was confirmed using CoreGenes. (biomedcentral.com)