Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.TritiumDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Proflavine: Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 220.127.116.11.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 18.104.22.168.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ThymidineCapsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Cytosine NucleotidesViral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 22.214.171.124.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.ThymineElectrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.UracilCryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 126.96.36.199.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.PolynucleotidesCytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 188.8.131.52 (ATP) and EC 184.108.40.206 (NAD).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.DCMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 220.127.116.11.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.AcridinesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ribonucleotide ReductasesShigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. (1/25)Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12 is a lytic phage of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. The phage receptor is the lipopolysaccharide O chain of this serotype that consists of the rare sugar 6-deoxy-L-altropyranose. A one-step growth curve of phiYeO3-12 revealed eclipse and latent periods of 15 and 25 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 120 PFU per infected cell. In electron microscopy phiYeO3-12 virions showed pentagonal outlines, indicating their icosahedral nature. The phage capsid was shown to be composed of at least 10 structural proteins, of which a protein of 43 kDa was predominant. N-terminal sequences of three structural proteins were determined, two of them showing strong homology to structural proteins of coliphages T3 and T7. The phage genome was found to consist of a double-stranded DNA molecule of 40 kb without cohesive ends. A physical map of the phage DNA was constructed using five restriction enzymes. The phage infection could be effectively neutralized using serum from a rabbit immunized with whole phiYeO3-12 particles. The antiserum also neutralized T3 infection, although not as efficiently as that of phiYeO3-12. phiYeO3-12 was found to share, in addition to the N-terminal sequence homology, several common features with T3, including morphology and nonsubjectibility to F exclusion. The evidence conclusively indicated that phiYeO3-12 is the first close relative of phage T3 to be described. (+info)
Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase. (2/25)Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20-50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq DNA pol/TBD is thermostable, PCR competent and able to copy repetitive deoxynucleotide sequences six to seven times more faithfully than Taq DNA polymerase and makes 2-3-fold fewer AT-->GC transition mutations. (+info)
The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes. (3/25)The genome sequence of bacteriophage phiA1122 has been determined. phiA1122 grows on almost all isolates of Yersinia pestis and is used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a diagnostic agent for the causative agent of plague. phiA1122 is very closely related to coliphage T7; the two genomes are colinear, and the genome-wide level of nucleotide identity is about 89%. However, a quarter of the phiA1122 genome, one that includes about half of the morphogenetic and maturation functions, is significantly more closely related to coliphage T3 than to T7. It is proposed that the yersiniophage phiA1122 recombined with a close relative of the Y. enterocolitica phage phiYeO3-12 to yield progeny phages, one of which became the classic T3 coliphage of Demerec and Fano (M. Demerec and U. Fano, Genetics 30:119-136, 1945). (+info)
Characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. (4/25)DNA ligases of bacteriophage T4 and T7 have been widely used in molecular biology for decades, but little is known about bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. Here is the first report on the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of bacteriophage T3 DNA ligase. The polyhistidine-tagged recombinant T3 DNA ligase was shown to be an ATP-dependent enzyme. The enzymatic activity was not affected by high concentration of monovalent cations up to 1 M, whereas 2 mM ATP could inhibit its activity by 50%. Under optimal conditions (pH 8.0, 0.5 mM ATP, 5 mM DTT, 1 mM Mg(2+) and 300 mM Na(+)), 1 fmol of T3 DNA ligase could achieve 90% ligation of 450 fmol of cohesive dsDNA fragments in 30 min. T3 DNA ligase was shown to be over 5-fold more efficient than T4 DNA ligase for ligation of cohesive DNA fragments, but less active for blunt-ended DNA fragments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that T3 DNA ligase is more closely related to T7 DNA ligase than to T4 DNA ligase. (+info)
In vivo hydrolysis of S-adenosylmethionine induces the met regulon of Escherichia coli. (5/25)Regulation of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli involves a complex of the MetJ aporepressor protein and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) repressing expression of most genes in the met regulon. To test the role of SAM in the regulation of met genes directly, SAM pools were depleted by the in vivo expression of the cloned plasmid vector-based coliphage T3 SAM hydrolase (SAMase) gene. Cultures with in vivo SAMase activity were assayed for expression of the metA, B, C, E, F, H, J, K and R genes in cells grown in methionine-rich complete media as well as in defined media with and without l-methionine. In vivo SAMase activity dramatically induced expression between 11- and nearly 1000-fold depending on the gene assayed for all but metJ and metH, and these genes were induced over twofold. metJ : : Tn5 (aporepressor defective) and metK : : Tn5 (SAM synthetase impaired; produces <5 % of wild-type SAM) strains containing in vivo SAMase activity produced even higher met gene activity than that seen in comparably prepared cells with wild-type genes for all but metJ in a MetJ-deficient background. The SAMase-mediated hyperinduction of metH in wild-type cells and of the met genes assayed in metJ : : Tn5 and metK : : Tn5 cells provokes questions about how other elements such as the MetR activator protein or factors beyond the met regulon itself might be involved in the regulation of genes responsible for methionine biosynthesis. (+info)
Compensatory evolution in response to a novel RNA polymerase: orthologous replacement of a central network gene. (6/25)A bacteriophage genome was forced to evolve a new system of regulation by replacing its RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene, a central component of the phage developmental pathway, with that of a relative. The experiment used the obligate lytic phage T7 and the RNAP gene of phage T3. T7 RNAP uses 17 phage promoters, which are responsible for all middle and late gene expression, DNA replication, and progeny maturation, but the enzyme has known physical contacts with only 2 other phage proteins. T3 RNAP was supplied in trans by the bacterial host to a T7 genome lacking its own RNAP gene and the phage population was continually propagated on naive bacteria throughout the adaptation. Evolution of the T3 RNAP gene was thereby prevented, and selection was for the evolution of regulatory signals throughout the phage genome. T3 RNAP transcribes from T7 promoters only at low levels, but a single mutation in the promoter confers high expression, providing a ready mechanism for reevolution of gene expression in this system. When selected for rapid growth, fitness of the engineered phage evolved from a low of 5 doublings/h to 33 doublings/h, close to the expected maximum of 37 doublings/h. However, the experiment was terminated before it could be determined accurately that fitness had reached an obvious plateau, and it is not known whether further adaptation could have resulted in complete recovery of fitness. More than 30 mutations were observed in the evolved genome, but changes were found in only 9 of the 16 promoters, and several coding changes occurred in genes with no known contacts with the RNAP. Surprisingly, the T7 genome adapted to T3 RNAP also maintained high fitness when using T7 RNAP, suggesting that the extreme incompatibility of T7 elements with T3 RNAP is not an invariant property of divergence in these expression systems. (+info)
Evolution and the complexity of bacteriophages. (7/25)BACKGROUND: The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb) bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly biochemical complexity. Understanding their significance requires a definition of complexity that is more biochemically oriented than past empirically based definitions. HYPOTHESIS: Initially, I propose two biochemistry-oriented definitions of complexity: either decreased randomness or increased encoded information that does not serve immediate needs. Then, I make the assumption that these two definitions are equivalent. This assumption and recent data lead to the following four-part hypothesis that explains the presence of cellular gene homologs in long bacteriophage genomes and also provides a pathway for complexity increases in prokaryotic cells: (1) Prokaryotes underwent evolutionary increases in biochemical complexity after the eukaryote/prokaryote splits. (2) Some of the complexity increases occurred via multi-step, weak selection that was both protected from strong selection and accelerated by embedding evolving cellular genes in the genomes of bacteriophages and, presumably, also archaeal viruses (first tier selection). (3) The mechanisms for retaining cellular genes in viral genomes evolved under additional, longer-term selection that was stronger (second tier selection). (4) The second tier selection was based on increased access by prokaryotic cells to improved biochemical systems. This access was achieved when DNA transfer moved to prokaryotic cells both the more evolved genes and their more competitive and complex biochemical systems. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: I propose testing this hypothesis by controlled evolution in microbial communities to (1) determine the effects of deleting individual cellular gene homologs on the growth and evolution of long genome bacteriophages and hosts, (2) find the environmental conditions that select for the presence of cellular gene homologs, (3) determine which, if any, bacteriophage genes were selected for maintaining the homologs and (4) determine the dynamics of homolog evolution. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: This hypothesis is an explanation of evolutionary leaps in general. If accurate, it will assist both understanding and influencing the evolution of microbes and their communities. Analysis of evolutionary complexity increase for at least prokaryotes should include analysis of genomes of long-genome bacteriophages. (+info)
Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage. (8/25)Synthetic biology involves the engineering of biological organisms by using modular and generalizable designs with the ultimate goal of developing useful solutions to real-world problems. One such problem involves bacterial biofilms, which are crucial in the pathogenesis of many clinically important infections and are difficult to eradicate because they exhibit resistance to antimicrobial treatments and removal by host immune systems. To address this issue, we engineered bacteriophage to express a biofilm-degrading enzyme during infection to simultaneously attack the bacterial cells in the biofilm and the biofilm matrix, which is composed of extracellular polymeric substances. We show that the efficacy of biofilm removal by this two-pronged enzymatic bacteriophage strategy is significantly greater than that of nonenzymatic bacteriophage treatment. Our engineered enzymatic phage substantially reduced bacterial biofilm cell counts by approximately 4.5 orders of magnitude ( approximately 99.997% removal), which was about two orders of magnitude better than that of nonenzymatic phage. This work demonstrates the feasibility and benefits of using engineered enzymatic bacteriophage to reduce bacterial biofilms and the applicability of synthetic biology to an important medical and industrial problem. (+info)
Bacteriophage T3, or T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells, including strains of ... FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ... T3 Phage at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Restriction modification system
Other viruses, such as bacteriophages T3 and T7, encode proteins that inhibit the restriction enzymes. To counteract these ... They found that bacteriophage growing within an infected bacterium could be modified, so that upon their release and re- ... This prevents infection by effectively destroying the foreign DNA introduced by an infectious agent (such as a bacteriophage). ... infection of a related bacterium the bacteriophage's growth is restricted (inhibited) (also described by Luria in his ...
Genetically modified tomato
Agritope introduced an S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) encoding gene derived from the E. coli bacteriophage T3, which ...
... is typically studied in the T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in bacteriophages, and in E. coli. Abortive ...
His part was naming the bacteriophages into Type 1(T1), Type 2 (T2), Type 3 (T3), etc. Phages have multiple factors ... T even bacteriophages are genetically related. The genetic diversity of bacteriophage is extraordinary and phenomenal. The ... Bacteriophages in general (including T-even bacteriophages) contain a head structure, which can vary in size and shape. The ... Bacteriophage genomes can be highly mosaic at which the phage is made up of individual modules which may be found in other ...
List of MeSH codes (B04)
... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.205.891.200 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 --- bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...
Nuclease protection assay
T7 or T3. These promoters are recognized by DNA dependent RNA polymerases originally characterized from bacteriophages. The ...
The cleavage of this sequence between the AA's results in 5' overhangs on the DNA called sticky ends: 5'-A ,A G C T T-3' 3'-T T ... Their primary function is to protect the host genome against invasion by foreign DNA, primarily bacteriophage DNA. There is ...
T7 RNA polymerase
... is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA in the 5'→ 3' direction. ... Related family members include phage T3 and SP6 RNA polymerases, but this family is also related to the mitochondrial RNA ... McAllister WT (1993). "Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity)". Cell. ... T7 and T3, or T7 and SP6) in opposite orientation. RNA can be selectively synthesized from either strand of the insert DNA with ...
Flanking the T3 and T7 promoters are BssH II sites. This rare six-base cutter will allow the insert plus the T phage RNA ... pBluescript II is a commercially available phagemid containing several useful sequences for use in cloning with bacteriophage. ... The multiple cloning site and T7 and T3 RNA polymerase promoter sequences are present in the N-terminal portion of a lacZ gene ... Flanking the multiple cloning site are T7 and T3 RNA polymerase promoters that can be used to synthesize RNA in vitro. The ...
The DNA-binding protein complex recognizes a discrete nucleotide sequence (5'-GGG ACT TTC T-3') in the upstream region of a ... viruses and bacteriophages. The bacterial part of microbiome has been addressed more deeply. It consists of 9 core genera: ...
Whether you need to design a new packaging line or make the one you have more efficient, Packaging Systems Automation is the name to remember. PSA is a value added integrator with the know-how to provide standard and custom solutions to your product handling needs. From our manufacturing facility in Minneapolis Minnesota, our team of professionals design and build high quality packaging machinery and systems for customers throughout the packaging industry.Because our people have many years of experience, we will save you time and money as your full service partner in packaging.
A packaging and delivery system for aerial release of Phytoseiidae for biological control - Semantic Scholar
A new packaging system for the aerial release of phytoseiids was designed and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The observed escapes before and after release, mortality during all stages of release, and fecundity after release indicated that the system was suitable for transporting and distributing phytoseiids. Other evaluated properties of the packaging system included container opening efficiency, container dispersion over the field at several fly-over altitudes, and the probability of containers to be lodged in the cassava canopy. Aerial release trials followed by recoveries of viable adult female phytoseiids from the target fields demonstrated the feasibility of aerial releases as a means for distributing phytoseiid natural enemies.
This FEMC System is designed to place different products into specific compartments in this multi-compartment tray at up to 40 trays per minute. These TV d...
Stefan Monnier ,[email protected], writes: ,, Is this a bug in package.el or is it an oversight in the Elisp manual? , , I think its a bug. OK, Ill write a bug report. Thanks Dieter -- Best wishes H. Dieter Wilhelm Zwingenberg, Germany ...
Evolution of genetic architectures | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
The predictions of our model-notably, that the number of loci in a genetic architecture and the variance of their allelic contributions are greatest for traits under intermediate selection-are robust to choices of population-genetic parameters. The non-monotonic relation between selection pressure on a trait and the size of its genetic architecture, L, holds regardless of population size, but the location of maximum L is shifted towards weaker selection in larger populations (see electronic supplementary material, figure S5). This result is compatible with our explanation involving compensatory evolution: selection is more efficient in large populations, and so compensatory evolution occurs at smaller selection coefficients. Likewise, when the mutation rate is smaller the resulting equilibrium number of controlling loci is reduced (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6). This result is again compatible with the explanation of compensatory evolution, which requires frequent mutations. ...
This type of high speed line, characterised with the ultimate flexibility, is the Concetti flagship feature, enabling customers to easily package - with just one plant - different kinds of animal feeds ranging from powders to cubes, as well as ground, flat, flaky and laminated products.. The capacity of the bagging machine is up to 1,200 bag/h when handling free flowing products in 25 kg bags. Stoppage time between products is reduced to a minimum by the Concetti fully automatic changeover feature taking just 60 seconds from the HMI keyboard. The neat, square shape of the finished pallets are a result of the layer squaring and compression feature of the Concetti four-column palletiser that guarantees this packaging system remains one step ahead.. Info: salesitaly.com ...
... (IDLV) packaging system for transient expression in dividing cells and stable expression in quiescent cells.
... (IDLV) packaging system for transient expression in dividing cells and stable expression in quiescent cells.
While playing around with the packaging system, I kept running into , one problem: losing my dynamic libraries. My guess: set up an /etc/ld.so.conf listing the directories where you have your other shared libraries and I think this problem will disappear. Because you *do* run a new enough system that ldconfig reads this file by itself, dont you? - H=E5vard ...
Lentiviral, Retroviral, Baculoviral Expression Vectors and Particles: Viral packaging systems for a new age
Viral packaging systems in lentiviral, baculoviral, and retroviral platforms as well as packaging services with high titer products
pASSEMBLE™ 10A1 Retroviral Packaging System includes a unique packaging vector with gag, pol and env from different viruses confering a tropism in the cell to be infected.
Constantia Flexibles released its new packaging system, the Flexible Blister, which can be incorporated into existing production while offering a portable system for packaging.
... ,A Highly Purified, Cost-Effective Taq DNA Polymerase,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
PCR The following guidelines are provided to ensure successful PCR using New England Biolabs’ Hot Start Taq DNA Polymerase
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SibEm \ Taq DNA Polymerase with AS Buffer \ E338 for more molecular products just contact us
Patent US7573547 - System and method for protecting micro-structure of display array using ... - Google Patents
Physical forces sufficient to deform an electronic device and/or packaging for the electronic device can damage the device. Some mechanical components in a device, for example, in a microelectromechanical device and/or in an interferometric modulator are particularly susceptible to damage. Accordingly, provided herein is a packaging system and packaged electronic device that resists physical damage, a method for manufacturing the same, and a method for protecting an electronic device from physical damage. The packaging system for the electronic device includes one or more spacers that prevent or reduce damage to the electronic device arising from contact with the packaging. In some embodiments, the packaged electronic device comprising spacers is thinner than a comparable device manufactured without spacers.
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The Titripac® packaging system for volumetric solutions is constructed from a recyclable outer carton and a durable inner bag. The inner bag collapses during withdrawal of reagent through the built-in contamination-proof dispenser tap. Therefore the reagent in the bag cannot be contaminated, and when empty, the outer carton can be fully recycled. The amount of packaging per liter is less than half the weight of alternative packaging options (plastic bottles ...
Working with information and product developers and software engineers at AT&T GIS, the faculty and staff have helped AT&T GIS to cut their support costs and improve their product development cycles. Since 1993, we have worked with AT&T GIS to dramatically improve their software interfaces, user manuals, packaging systems, and mass marketing materials.. Challenges. Because our usability testing research and client training programs have focused on mission-critical products for our industry partners, the usability publications of our faculty and graduate students are frequently proprietary and subject to strict non-disclosure contracts.. Other Clients. ...
The co-operatives board of directors had already taken special care to design and build halls that were ideal for storage. The new storage areas allow the large crates of fruit to be stacked and stored as ergonomically as possible. Their headroom of more than 10 meters means 13 large crates can be stacked right up to the roof. Growing customer requirements also meant further investments in the very latest sorting and packaging systems. One of Lanas main aims is to meet all the many varied requirements of the market with innovative and proactive solutions ...
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a "snap" packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone "features" to the IoT developer. ...
Ubuntu* Core is a version of the Ubuntu Linux* distribution modified for use on IoT devices. It employs a "snap" packaging system, originally developed for Ubuntu Mobile Devices, and brings many phone "features" to the IoT developer. ...
US7967138B2 - Packaging systems for percutaneously deliverable bioprosthetic valves - Google Patents
A packaging system is disclosed for shipping a prosthetic tissue valve in a storage solution and preparing and loading of the bioprosthetic valve onto a catheter-based delivery system. The packaging system includes a fluid tight container filled with the storage solution attached to a delivery catheter, wherein the container surrounds the prosthetic tissue valve that is in a pre-loaded position on the delivery catheter during shipment and storage. The prosthetic tissue valve may include an attachment mechanism that attaches to the delivery catheter to properly position the tissue valve for loading within the delivery catheter. In another embodiment where the prosthetic tissue valve is not attached to the delivery catheter during shipment, the attachment mechanism may interact with the prosthetic tissue valve shipping container to prevent the bioprosthetic valve from moving during shipment.
MTP Taq DNA Polymerase is a recombinant thermostable enzyme from Thermus aquaticus expressed in E. coli and purified using a proprietary process to minimize the levels of contaminating DNA.
Taq DNA polymerase catalyzes 5-3 synthesis of DNA. The enzyme has been proved not having the 3-5 exonuclease activity. The enzyme has proven to have high amplification yield, be stable at high temparetaure. (D0010) - Products - Abnova
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27:2105-2112. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics, 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. ...
D. M. Stoebel, and C. J. Dorman. 2010. The effect of mobile element IS10 on experimental regulatory evolution in Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution In Press. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2010. Waste and yet want not. Molecular Cell, 38:625-626. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, K. Hokamp, M. S. Last, and C. J. Dorman. 2009. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by E. coli lacking RpoS. PLoS Genetics 5: e1000671 Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. Free, and C. J. Dorman. 2008. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria. Microbiology, 154: 2533-2545. Full Text D. M. Stoebel, A. M. Dean, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 2008. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products. Genetics, 178:1653-1660. Full Text D. M. Stoebel. 2005. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22:683-690. Full ...
Environmental epistasis in catalytic RNA | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Two trajectories are possible in converting a GC base pair to an AU base pair. One of them passes through a GU base pair intermediate, the other through an AC mismatch intermediate (see figure 4; electronic supplementary material, figure S3). In our data, a ribozyme with the GU intermediate is always more active than that with the AC intermediate (from +1.4 to +22.7%; average = +10.3%). This confirms predictions of the relative effects of these two intermediates based on the geometry of base pairs , experimental measurements  and bioinformatic analysis of tRNA evolution . Our data support a continuous ridge or neutral network model (see Landscapes caused by a base pair switch in Supporting Information, electronic supplementary material) of compensatory evolution in RNA secondary structure, because in our experiments, the GU intermediate shows a significant decrease in fitness only in a single instance, and in this instance the base pair switch is not compensatory but ...
മിശ്രിതത്തെ 55 ഡിഗ്രി സെന്റീഗ്രേഡിലേയ്ക്ക് പതിയെ ഊഷ്മനില താഴ്ത്തുന്നു. ഇവയ്ക്ക് അനുപൂരകമായ അൻപതിൽത്താഴെ ന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളുള്ള പ്രൈമറുകൾ നിർമ്മിക്കുന്നു. നാലുതരം ഡിഓക്സിട്രൈന്യൂക്ലിയോടൈഡുകളെ ടാക് (taq) പോളിമെറേയ്സ് രാസാഗ്നിയോടൊപ്പം വേർപെട്ട ഡി.എൻ.ഏ തന്മാത്രകളോടൊപ്പം ചേർക്കുന്നു. താപനില ഉയർത്തി 72 ഡിഗ്രി സെൽഷ്യസാക്കുന്നു. 90 ഡിഗ്രിയിലും നശിച്ചുപോകാത്ത Taq DNA Polymerase എന്ന ...
Jan Narciso is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
Jinhe Bai is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Controlled-release of Chlorine Dioxide in a Perforated Packaging System to Extend the Storage Life and Improve the Safety of Grape Tomatoes
DAnjou pears harvested at commercial maturity from a block of 6 trees were immediately divided into 2 lots. One lot was placed in refrigerated storage (1 °C) for 90 days and then transferred to room temperature 24 hours prior to wax application. The second lot of fruit was waxed 24 hours after harvest, using both hot and cold wax drying techniques. Prior to waxing, the pears were drenched in hot water (40 °C), and passed over rotary dewatering brushes for 30 sec before going into the wax applicator. Using a commercial pear wax formulation (Shieldbrite PR160C, Shield-brite Corp, Kirkland. WA) pears were waxed at the approximate rate of 10 ml/min (6,804 Kg fruit/3.8 liters). Waxed pears were dried in a commercial hot-drying tunnel held at 60 °C (Van Doren Sales, Inc., Wenatchee, WA) or a cold drier operated at 0 °C (Sirron, marketed by MARQ International Packaging Systems, Inc., Yakima, WA) for 2 min. After the fruit surface had dried, 100 pears were packed in pulp fiber trays, enclosed in a ...
This collection of reviews focuses on the most exciting areas of DNA packaging at the current time. Many of the new discoveries are driven by the development of molecular or imaging techniques, and these are providing insights into the complex world of chromatin. As these new techniques continue to improve, we will be able to answer many of the questions we have now, while likely raising many new ones. ...
Operation End" by Phia Use no scoring. The metal rod is an object. The metal rod is inedible. The description of the metal rod is "This seems to be the only defense you are going to get. You might want to take it with you." When entire game begins: say "Ive got to get out of here, the cyborg, Ive got to get to the outside world. Theres no other way, the towns right next to the coast. The cyborgs, the humans, Ive got to get there..."; The cold metal cell is a room. The description of the cold metal cell is "A metal cell. I thought I am going to use it to store the parts. I am just trying to help them..." The carrying capacity of the player is 10. A hologram system #1 is here. The description of the hologram system is "Patient number 1: synthetic arm began to move on its own. Patient deceased." The Hologram system #1 is fixed in place. Instead of taking the hologram #1: say "That isnt yours to take?" A table is here. The description of the table is "There is a table in the room." Instead of ...
GeneCraft® is a German based company providing molecular biology products such as Taq DNA polymerases, nucleotides, kits and mixtures for standard, Hot-Start and Real-Time PCR
Amplifies nucleic acid templates using antibody-mediated hot-start, a blend of Taq DNA Polymerase and a proofreading enzyme, and AccuPrime accessory proteins for improved PCR fidelity, yield, and specificity over other hot-start DNA polymerases. AccuPrime Taq DNA Polymerase High Fidelity, 1000reactions ...
Profile: Solid Waste Compaction, Baling and Packaging Systems, Transfer Stations, Compost Plants, Beach Cleaning, Landfill Management
A device and method for stabilizing a drug, particularly a chiral drug or the active enantiomer(s) thereof, in a carrier composition of a transdermal delivery system prior to the systems use by providing a product packaging system to prevent or control degradation reactions that can result from certain packaging materials and moisture contamination, while at the same time providing a child-resistant wrapping for the transdermal system.
Gene Expression and Molecular Cloning > Genetic Engineering Enzymes > Taq DNA Polymerase Laboratory Product Directory and...
Read reviews and compare manufacturers of Gene Expression and Molecular Cloning > Genetic Engineering Enzymes > Taq DNA Polymerase products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory
An conceptual project to create a packaging system for Eli Lillys line of insulin-based injection products Humilin and Humilog for treatment of diabetes. The goal was to make obvious the distinction between the different strengths and types of insulin using icons and colors. Packaging was designed to snap closed and opened easily. Glucagon is an emergency treatment to stop a diabetic seizure while it is occurring. It must be administered by another person, such as a friend or family member, since the patient will be incapacitated. As conceptual project, the packaging was rethought from being just a container for numerous parts and instructions to taking an active role in reducing the complexity and steps that an administrator, usually not a medical professional, has deal with during this emergency situation. It displaces the manual steps of uncapping the solution, unsealing the needle, and inserting the needle into the solution, and injecting the solution - reducing the risk of bending or breaking the
The invention relates to foam structures with enhanced physical properties which can be used in the areas of packaging, athletics, water sports, and construction. In general, the structures are laminated polymer foams that include a core of a low density foam and one or more skins of relatively high density foam covering the core. The skins provide improved physical properties to the foam structures by improving the flexural strength, resistance to bending, and resulting damage from bending in the laminated foam structure while modestly increasing the weight of the laminated structure, for example. Uses of the foam structures include, but are not limited to, packaging materials, gym mats, body boards, or eaves fillers. The skin can act as a hinge to fold a die cut piece into a collapsible packaging system.
LightCycler® 480 PCR master mixes are all based on enzyme compatible with hot start protocols. When used on the LightCycler® 480 Instrument, these protocols have been shown to significantly improve the specificity, sensitivity, and yield of PCR. For example, heat-labile blocking groups on some of the amino acid residues of FastStart Taq DNA Polymerase make the modified enzyme inactive at room temperature. Therefore, there is no elongation during the period when primers can nonspecifically bind. The FastStart Taq DNA Polymerase is activated by removing the blocking groups at a high temperature (i.e., a pre-incubation step at +95°C).. Back to Top. ...
Our experienced team provides health care cost containment techniques to help you control costs & protect plan assets. We provide the industry with best practices through innovative technologies, legal expertise & focused customer service. Learn more about cost-saving opportunities with the experts at The Phia Group.
Our experienced team provides health care cost containment techniques to help you control costs and protect plan assets. Learn more!
The news portal of PHIA, a site about psychological harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, psychology, manipulation, bullying, mobbing, and suicide factors.
The news portal of PHIA, a site about psychological harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, psychology, manipulation, bullying, mobbing, and suicide factors.
While X-ray crystallography is a powerful technique, artificial laboratory-grown crystals sometimes do not realistically reflect biology. The team sought to confirm their findings in living bacteria using an additional imaging technique called soft X-ray tomography, which bombards bacterial cells with X-rays to produce flat 2D images. The 2D images are then combined computationally to create a 3D picture of the whole, living bacteria. When packaging proteins lack the DNA-binding regions, the team found that the previously observed DNA networks are missing. In fact, the bacterial DNA seems to collapse into disarray, and the cell no longer grows properly. The team anticipates that these new findings may eventually lead to the development of next-generation antibiotic drugs that target this packaging system.. ...
SMARTchoice shRNA Lentiviral particles are manufactured using the Dharmacon Trans-Lentiviral shRNA Packaging System which has been optimized for achieving high viral titers as well as premium biosafety. The SMARTvector shRNA vector construct and the Trans-Lentiviral Packaging plasmids are co-transfected into an HEK293T cell line, and then viral particles are harvested, concentrated and purified to provide a high-titer preparation. All SMARTchoice shRNA particles are manufactured under stringent quality control guidelines ...
Save 25% Garden of Life - Primal Defense Ultra 180 Capsules Primal Defense Ultra Ultimate Probiotic Formula 15 Billion CFU Daily 13 Species with HSOs Supports Normal Bowel Function* Vegetarian Gluten Free BioProtect Packaging System The Digestive Health Connection All organs and systems rely on the health of the digestive tract. Proper digestion is essential for the body to absorb and utilize the nutrients it needs. In addition, 75% of the cells necessary for the immune system to function effectively are connected to the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics: Critical For Good Health Probiotics (Pro = Positive, Biotic = Life) are living microflora that play a critical role in maintaining good health. Present in many live foods but destroyed by heat processing, live probiotic cultures populate the intestinal tract where they play a positive role in digestive and immune health.* Primal Defense Ultra is the Ultimate Broad-Spectrum Probiotic Formula Formulated to deliver 15 billion CFU in a 3 capsule serving
SBH Sterilization Container Systems are sterile packaging systems for medical instruments and textiles that utilize an established filter technology, proven materials, and design properties which makes our containers reliable. Our containers are reusable devices and feature an assortment of sizes .... Read More » ...
10X ThermoPol Reaction Buffer is optimized for use with VentR® and Deep VentR™ DNA Polymerases. This buffer also provides superior reaction conditions for other thermophilic DNA polymerases, including Taq DNA Polymerase, as well as various other DNA and RNA modifying enzymes. Supplemental MgSO4 is provided to maximize flexibility for users that require additional Mg2+ for their specific application.
Mr. Speaker, I will share my time with the elegant and extraordinary member for Vancouver East.. This is an issue that has a lot of importance in my riding of New Westminster-Burnaby. It is something I hear about regularly. There are seniors who do not have access to medication because they cannot afford to pay for it, and families that, because they do not have access to private pharmacare plans, have to effectively pay out of their pockets, if they can afford to. This is not an issue that is just sterile debate in the House of Commons. This really touches the heart and soul of Canadians quality of life.. Today we have heard a lot of arguments from Liberal members of Parliament. They have consistently said that we should just wait. Their arguments would have a little more validity if it was not for the history of the Liberal Party on this issue.. In 1964, the Royal Commission on Health Services recommended that we have national pharmacare. The Liberals said that it was not ready yet, so we ...
TA cloning (also known as rapid cloning or T cloning) is a subcloning technique that avoids the use of restriction enzymes and is easier and quicker than traditional subcloning. So it is beneficial type of cloning. The technique relies on the ability of adenine (A) and thymine (T) (complementary basepairs) on different DNA fragments to hybridize and, in the presence of ligase, become ligated together. PCR products are usually amplified using Taq DNA polymerase which preferentially adds an adenine to the 3 end of the product. Such PCR amplified inserts are cloned into linearized vectors that have complementary 3 thymine overhangs. The insert is created by PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. This polymerase lacks 3 to 5 proofreading activity and, with a high probability, adds a single, 3-adenine overhang to each end of the PCR product. It is best if the PCR primers have guanines at the 5 end as this maximizes probability of Taq DNA polymerase adding the terminal adenosine overhang. Thermostable ...
One of the great aspirations of gene therapy is to eventually develop technology which will provide a feasible approach to correcting genetic defects and combating infectious diseases. The laboratory is engaged in studying the molecular biology of the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) in hopes of developing a safe, efficient viral vector for human gene therapy. Ongoing research is revealing that this nonpathogenic human virus is now accessible for utilization as a vector. We have developed a packaging system which allows for efficient encapsidation of foreign genes into AAV virions. We have also indentified the essential cis-acting sequencing required for efficient integration into host cell DNA. Finally, we have characterized this integration step and uncovered the exciting result of site-specific integration. this last observation clearly sets AAV apart as a eucaryotic viral vector and its potential for gene therapy in humans. Our continued efforts to understand and ...
Taq DNA Polymerase is a highly thermostable DNA polymerase of a thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus. Taq DNA Polymerase catalyzes 5=,3′ synthesis of DNA. The enzyme has no detectable 3=,5′ proofreading exonuclease activity and possesses low 5=,3′ exonuclease activity. This enzyme adds a single 3′-A overhang to each end of the PCR product, which can be applied to T/A cloning. The recombinant Taq DNA Polymerase is ideal for standard PCR of templates 5 kb or shorter.. ...
Eventbrite - PHIA Review Committee presents General Public- Focus Group - Wednesday, 8 March 2017 at St. Johns, St. Johns, NL. Find event and ticket information.
Packaging system for rapid production of murine leukemia virus vectors with variable tropism. | Journal of Virology
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
Strapping R is made up of a porcine tissue valve on a nitinol body its coronary heart valve is delivered via a sophisticated catheter shipping method making use of a minimally invasive method. It has the ability to recapture the valve prior to total release and a packaging configuration that offers a one user with complete control of the sixty two-in.-long catheter and extra performance during the planning and loading of the valve on to the catheter. The packaging system is made up of a tray in a single pouch housed within a paperboard carton. The premade pouch framework is 20-mm oriented polyamide (nylon)x2/fifty-mm polyethylene, and is supplied by Steripack Ireland ...
You need to first build an initial protocol and then optimize it.. The most important to determine the conditions is the polymerase used. Some polymerases work at higher or lower temperatures and will work faster or slower. Find the default protocol from the polymerase seller and this will give you a good idea where to start.. The second most important is the primers used. Depending on the GC % in the primers and their length, the times or temperature of each step will change, or if you prefer will need to be Optimized. The length of the DNA fragments will also determine the length of the cycles. Most polymerase sellers will includes steps to optimize the reaction depending on the quantity of DNA used, primer length and other parameters. For more information: Designing primers: Taq DNA polymerase protocol example:. Optimizing PCR ...
/PRNewswire/ -- At CES 2019 (Booth #44219, January 8-11, Las Vegas, NV), Royal Philips (NYSE: PHG, AEX: PHIA), a global leader in health technology, today...
Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Journal Article: Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant ... Title: Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant ... 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BACTERIOPHAGES; CONTROL; DNA; DNA SEQUENCING; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ELECTROPHORESIS; EVOLUTION; GELS; ... We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads ...https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22435036-length-quantization-dna-partially-expelled-from-heads-bacteriophage-t3-mutant
17.5 - Holin - Enterobacteria phage T3 - 17.5 gene & protein
Enterobacteria phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7). Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). Yersinia phage YpP-Y. Yersinia phage R ... Enterobacteria phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7). Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). Yersinia phage YpP-Y. Yersinia phage R ... "Mutation in bacteriophage T3 affecting host cell lysis.". Miyazaki J.I., Ryo Y., Fujisawa H., Minagawa T.. Virology 89:327-329( ... Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ...http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P10307
Selection on noise constrains variation in a eukaryotic promoter. - PubMed - NCBI
a, bacteriophage SP6 promoter. b, bacteriophage T3 promoter. c, bacteriophage T7 promoter. d, human CMV promoter. e, human HBB ... Red: Patwardhan et al. 2009 bacteriophage promoters. Blue: Patwardhan et al. 2009 mammalian promoters. Green: Melnikov et al. ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25778704?dopt=Abstract
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Thioredoxin-1 - P0AA25 (THIO ECOLI)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P0AA25
Enterobacteria phage T3 (Bacteriophage T3). OC Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Caudovirales; Podoviridae; OC ... "Sequence of a conditionally essential region of bacteriophage T3, RT including the primary origin of DNA replication."; RL J. ... DR InterPro; IPR016306; DNA_ligase_ATP-dep_T3. DR InterPro; IPR012340; NA-bd_OB-fold. DR Pfam; PF01068; DNA_ligase_A_M; 1. DR ... PIRSF; PIRSF001600; DNA_ligase_phage_T3; 1. DR SUPFAM; SSF50249; SSF50249; 1. DR PROSITE; PS00697; DNA_LIGASE_A1; 1. DR PROSITE ...http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?uniprot:P07717
Bacteriophage T3 Phage T3 Enterobacteria phage T3 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. It is in the genus ... Bacteriophage P1 Phage P1 P1 is a temperate bacteriophage (phage) that infects Escherichia coli and a some other bacteria. When ...https://bch.cbd.int/database/organism-registry/
PGLYRP1 peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
PGRP; Animal peptidoglycan recognition proteins homologous to Bacteriophage T3 lysozyme. RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/8993
Influence of S-Adenosylmethionine Pool Size on Spontaneous Mutation, Dam Methylation, and Cell Growth ofEscherichia coli |...
By regulating the expression of the rat liver SAM synthetase and the bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase proteins in E. coli, a 100- ... X. Bacteriophage T3-induced S-adenosylmethionine cleavage. J. Biol. Chem. 241:1995-2006. ... 1994) A novel Tn10 tetracycline regulon system controlling expression of the bacteriophage T3 gene encoding S-adenosyl-L- ... and bacteriophage T3 SAM hydrolase (T3SH). RLSS is a highly conserved homolog of the bacterial MetK SAM synthetase, except that ...https://jb.asm.org/content/181/21/6756?ijkey=bee8d6aa8f8620310bb2fdc206d413cb51150137&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison with the homologous genes of phages T7, T3,...
The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison with the homologous genes of phages T7, T3, ... Sequence and analysis of the gene for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res 13:6753-6766 ... Dietz, A., Weisser, H., Kössel, H. et al. The gene for Klebsiella bacteriophage K11 RNA polymerase: Sequence and comparison ... Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJH, Roe BA (1980) Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA ...https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00261733
The T7 Group | SpringerLink
Locations and nucleotide sequences of three major class III promoters for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase on T3 DNA, J. Biol. ... Hamada, K., Fujisawa, H., and Minagawa, T., 1986, A defined in vitro system for packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA, Virology 151 ... Beier, H., and Hausmann, R., 1973, Genetic map of bacteriophage T3, I. Virol. 12: 417.Google Scholar ... Hausmann, R., and Härle, E., 1971, Expression of the genomes of the related bacteriophages T3 and T7, in: Proceedings of the ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5424-6_8
"ORI bacteriophage f1" FT promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO E. coli lac gene" FT promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T3" FT ... CC The order of the major features in this plasmid is: TRP1 - f1 ori CC (NaeI) - T7 promoter - lacZ/MCS - T3 promoter - pMB1 ... promoter 0..0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T7" FT CDS 0..0 FT /note="GEN E. coli beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ); FT reporter ...http://genome-www.stanford.edu/vectordb/vector_descrip/COMPLETE/PRS314.SEQ.html
Outer Membrane Proteins Ail and OmpF of Yersinia pestis Are Involved in the Adsorption of T7-Related Bacteriophage Yep-phi |...
Bacteriophage T3 and bacteriophage T7 virus-host cell interactions. Microbiol. Rev. 45:9-51. ... Bacteriophage phiYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J. Bacteriol. ... The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes ... Antimicrobial drug discovery through bacteriophage genomics. Nat. Biotechnol. 22:185-191.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb of Science ...https://jvi.asm.org/content/87/22/12260
Nascent RNA structure modulates the transcriptional dynamics of RNA polymerases | PNAS
1987) Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is homologous to those encoded by bacteriophages T3 and T7. Cell 51:89-99. ... 2006) Bacteriophage origins of mitochondrial replication and transcription proteins. Trends Genet 22:90-95. ... 1998) Pausing and termination by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol 280:201-213. ... 2004) Promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. A single-molecule view of the ...https://www.pnas.org/content/109/23/8948
Patent US7101697 - Restriction endonucleases, method of synthesis and use thereof - Google Patents
shows clearly that the genomic DNA of bacteriophage T3, which cannot be cleaved by wild-type EcoRII because of the lower ... Cleavage of the DNA of bacteriophage T3 with EcoRII-trunc (here: EcoRII173-404) and wild-type EcoRII. Top: quantities of ... enzymes used; left trace: T3 DNA without restriction endonuclease; BstNI: positive control of the cleavage pattern; right trace ...http://www.google.com/patents/US7101697?dq=6,654,957
Plastid RNA Polymerases | SpringerLink
Identification and characterization of T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase sequences in wheat. Plant. Mol. Biol. 40, 567- ... Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the ... Mechanism of inhibition of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase by T7 lysozyme. J. Mol. Biol. 269, 10-27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. Mol. Biol. 33, 353-367.Google Scholar ...https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11008-005-0081-1
KAKEN - Research Projects | ヒト・ゲノム解析研究 (KAKENHI-PROJECT-03NP0401)
Publications] Kimura,M.and Fujisawa,H.: Dissection of functional domains of the packaging protein of bacteriophage T3 DNA by ... Publications] Fujisawa,H.,Shibata,H.,and Kato,H.: Analysis of interactions among factors involved in the bacteriophage T3 DNA ... Publications] Hashimoto,C.,and Fujisawa,H.: DNA sequences necessary for packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA. Virology. 187. ( ... 4.DNA解析技術開発班。DNAの分離、切断、クロ-ニング、染色体上へのマッピング等に関わる技術https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-03NP0401/
Patent US5466586 - Method for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) - Google Patents
Suitable promoters are those which are recognized by specific bacteriophage polymerases, such as bacteriophage T3, T7 or SP6. ... According to the SISKA invention, one of the primers is provided with a promoter sequence, for example of a bacteriophage T7 ...http://www.google.ca/patents/US5466586
Paul J Jardine - Research Output - [email protected]
Bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging. Grimes, S., Jardine, P. J. & Anderson, D., 2002, In : Advances in Virus Research. 58. Research ... Bacteriophages. Hendrix, R. W., Bamford, D., Casjens, S., Christie, G., Duda, B., Grimes, S. N., Hatfull, G., Jardine, P. J., ... Structure of the bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging motor. Simpson, A. A., Tao, Y., Leiman, P. G., Badasso, M. O., He, Y., Jardine ... Structural changes of bacteriophage φ29 upon DNA packaging and release. Xiang, Y., Morais, M. C., Battisti, A. J., Grimes, S., ...https://experts.umn.edu/en/persons/paul-j-jardine/publications/
Bacteriophage K1-5 Encodes Two Different Tail Fiber Proteins, Allowing It To Infect and Replicate on both K1 and K5 Strains of...
1997) Transcription termination by bacteriophage T3 and SP6 RNA polymerases at Rho-independent terminators. Can. J. Microbiol. ... 2000) Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. ... We isolated a bacteriophage, ΦK1-5, that is able to infect and grow on either K1 or K5 strains of E. coli. It appears that its ... 1996) Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the tail fiber adhesion. J. Mol. Biol. 258: ...https://jvi.asm.org/content/75/6/2509
Difference between revisions of "Rebuilding T7" - OpenWetWare
T3 -- see "Complete nucleotide sequence and likely recombinatorial origin of bacteriophage T3." ... Based on Ian Molineuxs chapter in Calendars "The Bacteriophages" book.] Publications. Refactoring bacteriophage T7. Nature/ ... "The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes" ... The genome sequence of Yersinia pestis bacteriophage phiA1122 reveals an intimate history with the coliphage T3 and T7 genomes ...https://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Rebuilding_T7&diff=43108&oldid=4524
The Origin of the Bacterial Immune Response | Springer for Research & Development
Therefore, bacteria and bacteriophages have a long history of co-evolution in which bacteria have... ... Bacteriophages are probably the oldest viruses, having appeared early during bacterial evolution. ... SAMase gene of bacteriophage T3 is responsible for overcoming host restriction. J Virol 1976; 19:136-145.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ackermann H-W. Bacteriophage obserations and evolution. Res Microbiol 2003; 154:245-251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-1680-7_1
T3 phage - Wikipedia
Bacteriophage T3, or T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells, including strains of ... FRASER, D; WILLIAMS, RC (Feb 1953). "Details of frozen-dried T3 and T7 bacteriophages as shown by electron microscopy". Journal ... "DNA packaging-associated hyper-capsid expansion of bacteriophage t3". Journal of Molecular Biology. 397 (2): 361-74. doi: ... T3 Phage at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T3_phage
Structural and Functional Roles of the Surface-Exposed Loops of the β-Barrel Membrane Protein OmpA fromEscherichia coli |...
1976) On a bacteriophage T3 and T4 receptor region within the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli B. J. Mol. Biol. ... At turn T3, the peptide Arg-Arg-Arg-Ile was introduced between Ile-131 and Thr-132, and Ala-130 was converted to Val (Materials ... 1985) A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes. Proc. Natl. Acad ... 1987) DNA sequence of genes 38 encoding a receptor recognizing protein of bacteriophages T2, K3 and of K3 host range mutants. J ...https://jb.asm.org/content/181/12/3688
DiVA - Sökresultat
Moreover, intracellular removal of SAM by ectopic expression of the bacteriophage T3 SAMase abolished antiviral activity. ...http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22authority-person%3A63776%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=sv&query=
Modulation of HSP47 expression - Patent # 8710209 - PatentGenius
Zhou, et al, Synthesis of Functional mRNA in Mammalian Cells by Bacteriophage T3 RNA Polymerase, Mol. Cell Bio., (1990) 10:4529 ... Elroy-Stein, et al., Cytoplasmic expression system based on constitutive synthesis of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in ...http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/8710209.html
- DNA_ligase_ATP-dep_T3. (genome.jp)
- T3 DNA Ligase is an ATP-dependent ds DNA ligase from bacteriophage T3. (neb.com)
- Cohesive ends, blunt ends, and nick sealing can all be efficiently catalyzed by T3 DNA Ligase (1). (neb.com)
- T3 DNA Ligase exhibits a higher tolerance (2-fold) for NaCl in the reaction compared to T4 DNA Ligase, making the enzyme a versatile choice for in vitro molecular biology protocols requiring DNA ligase activity. (neb.com)
- An E. coli strain containing a recombinant gene encoding T3 DNA Ligase. (neb.com)
- One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to give 50% ligation of 100 ng HindIII fragments of λ DNA in a total reaction volume of 20 μl in 1 minute at 25°C in 1X T3 DNA Ligase Reaction Buffer. (neb.com)
- T3 DNA Ligase is also active in buffers without PEG 6000, such as our T4 DNA Ligase Buffer and NEBuffers 1-4, for applications in which PEG 6000 is detrimental. (neb.com)
- CC The order of the major features in this plasmid is: TRP1 - f1 ori CC (NaeI) - T7 promoter - lacZ'/MCS - T3 promoter - pMB1 ori - bla - CC CEN6 - ARSH4. (stanford.edu)
- 0 FT /note="ORI bacteriophage f1" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
- 0 FT /note="PRO bacteriophage T3" FT promoter 0. (stanford.edu)
- The x axis denotes strains that only differ in the T3 promoter strength, in accordance with the order from strong to weak. (igem.org)
- Dunn JJ, Studier FW (1983) The complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 dNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. (springer.com)
- Abstract&list_uids=12079351&itool=iconabstr&query_hl=13&itool=pubmed_docsum 'Complete nucleotide sequence and likely recombinatorial origin of bacteriophage T3. (openwetware.org)