Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of microscopic freshwater EUKARYOTA, commonly known as golden algae. They share many features with the BROWN ALGAE but are planktonic rather than benthic. Though most are photosynthetic, they are not considered truly autotrophic since they can become facultatively heterotrophic in the absence of adequate light. In this state they can feed on BACTERIA or DIATOMS.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.

Solution structure of bacteriophage PRD1 vertex complex. (1/32)

Bacteriophage PRD1 is a prototype of viruses with an internal membrane. The icosahedral capsid and major coat protein share structural similarity with the corresponding structures of adenovirus. The present study further explores similarities between these viruses, considering the 5-fold vertex assemblies. The vertex structure of bacteriophage PRD1 consists of proteins P2, P5, and P31. The vertex complex mediates host cell binding and controls double-stranded DNA delivery. Quaternary structures and interactions of purified spike proteins were studied by synchrotron radiation x-ray solution scattering. Low resolution models of the vertex proteins P5, P2, and P31 were reconstructed ab initio from the scattering data. Protein P5 is a long trimer that resembles the adenovirus spike protein pIV. The receptor-binding protein P2 is a 15.5-nm long, thin monomer and does not have an adenovirus counterpart. P31 forms a pentameric base with a maximum diameter of 8.5 nm, which is thinner than the adenovirus penton pIII. P5 further polymerize into a nonameric form ((P5(3))(3)). In the presence of P31, P5 associates into a P5(6):P31 complex. The constructed models of these assemblies provided support for a model of vertex assembly onto the virion. Although similar in overall architecture, clear differences between PRD1 and adenovirus spike assemblies have been revealed.  (+info)

Combined EM/X-ray imaging yields a quasi-atomic model of the adenovirus-related bacteriophage PRD1 and shows key capsid and membrane interactions. (2/32)

BACKGROUND: The dsDNA bacteriophage PRD1 has a membrane inside its icosahedral capsid. While its large size (66 MDa) hinders the study of the complete virion at atomic resolution, a 1.65-A crystallographic structure of its major coat protein, P3, is available. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and three-dimensional reconstruction have shown the capsid at 20-28 A resolution. Striking architectural similarities between PRD1 and the mammalian adenovirus indicate a common ancestor. RESULTS: The P3 atomic structure has been fitted into improved cryo-EM reconstructions for three types of PRD1 particles: the wild-type virion, a packaging mutant without DNA, and a P3-shell lacking the membrane and the vertices. Establishing the absolute EM scale was crucial for an accurate match. The resulting "quasi-atomic" models of the capsid define the residues involved in the major P3 interactions, within the quasi-equivalent interfaces and with the membrane, and show how these are altered upon DNA packaging. CONCLUSIONS: The new cryo-EM reconstructions reveal the structure of the PRD1 vertex and the concentric packing of DNA. The capsid is essentially unchanged upon DNA packaging, with alterations limited to those P3 residues involved in membrane contacts. These are restricted to a few of the N termini along the icosahedral edges in the empty particle; DNA packaging leads to a 4-fold increase in the number of contacts, including almost all copies of the N terminus and the loop between the two beta barrels. Analysis of the P3 residues in each quasi-equivalent interface suggests two sites for minor proteins in the capsid edges, analogous to those in adenovirus.  (+info)

The lytic enzyme of bacteriophage PRD1 is associated with the viral membrane. (3/32)

Bacteriophage PRD1 encodes two proteins (P7 and P15) that are associated with a muralytic activity. Protein P15 is a soluble beta-1,4-N-acetylmuramidase that causes phage-induced host cell lysis. We demonstrate here that P15 is also a structural component of the PRD1 virion and that it is connected to the phage membrane. Small viral membrane proteins P20 and P22 modulate incorporation of P15 into the virion and may connect it to the phage membrane. The principal muralytic protein involved in PRD1 DNA entry seems to be the putative lytic transglycosylase protein P7, as the absence of protein P15 did not delay initiation of phage DNA replication in the virus-host system used. The incorporation of two different lytic enzymes into virions may reflect the broad host range of bacteriophage PRD1.  (+info)

The small viral membrane-associated protein P32 is involved in bacteriophage PRD1 DNA entry. (4/32)

The lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1 infects a variety of gram-negative cells by injecting its linear double-stranded DNA genome into the host cell cytoplasm, while the protein capsid is left outside. The virus membrane and several structural proteins are involved in phage DNA entry. In this work we identified a new infectivity protein of PRD1. Disruption of gene XXXII resulted in a mutant phenotype defective in phage reproduction. The absence of the protein P32 did not compromise the particle assembly but led to a defect in phage DNA injection. In P32-deficient particles the phage membrane is unable to undergo a structural transformation from a spherical to a tubular form. Since P32(-) particles are able to increase the permeability of the host cell envelope to a degree comparable to that found with wild-type particles, we suggest that the tail-tube formation is needed to eject the DNA from the phage particle rather than to reach the host cell interior.  (+info)

A direct transposon insertion tool for modification and functional analysis of viral genomes. (5/32)

Advances in DNA transposition technology have recently generated efficient tools for various types of functional genetic analyses. We demonstrate here the power of the bacteriophage Mu-derived in vitro DNA transposition system for modification and functional characterization of a complete bacterial virus genome. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 was studied by insertion mutagenesis with reporter mini-Mu transposons that were integrated in vitro into isolated genomic DNA. After introduction into bacterial cells by electroporation, recombinant transposon-containing virus clones were identified by autoradiography or visual blue-white screening employing alpha-complementation of E. coli beta-galactosidase. Additionally, a modified transposon with engineered NotI sites at both ends was used to introduce novel restriction sites into the phage genome. Analysis of the transposon integration sites in the genomes of viable recombinant phage generated a functional map, collectively indicating genes and genomic regions essential and nonessential for virus propagation. Moreover, promoterless transposons defined the direction of transcription within several insert-tolerant genomic regions. These strategies for the analysis of viral genomes are of a general nature and therefore may be applied to functional genomics studies in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell viruses.  (+info)

The receptor binding protein P2 of PRD1, a virus targeting antibiotic-resistant bacteria, has a novel fold suggesting multiple functions. (6/32)

Bacteriophage PRD1 is unusual, with an internal lipid membrane, but has striking resemblances to adenovirus that include receptor binding spikes. The PRD1 vertex complex contains P2, a 590 residue monomer that binds to receptors on antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli and so is the functional counterpart to adenovirus fiber. P2 structures from two crystal forms, at 2.2 and 2.4 A resolution, reveal an elongated club-shaped molecule with a novel beta propeller "head" showing pseudo-6-fold symmetry. An extended loop with another novel fold forms a long "tail" containing a protruding proline-rich "fin." The head and fin structures are well suited to recognition and attachment, and the tail is likely to trigger the processes of vertex disassembly, membrane tube formation, and subsequent DNA injection.  (+info)

The unique vertex of bacterial virus PRD1 is connected to the viral internal membrane. (7/32)

Icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacterial viruses are known to package their genomes into preformed procapsids via a unique portal vertex. Bacteriophage PRD1 differs from the more commonly known icosahedral dsDNA phages in that it contains an internal lipid membrane. The packaging of PRD1 is known to proceed via preformed empty capsids. Now, a unique vertex has been shown to exist in PRD1. We show in this study that this unique vertex extends to the virus internal membrane via two integral membrane proteins, P20 and P22. These small membrane proteins are necessary for the binding of the putative packaging ATPase P9, via another capsid protein, P6, to the virus particle.  (+info)

Probing the ability of the coat and vertex protein of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 to display a meningococcal epitope. (8/32)

Bacteriophage PRD1 is an icosahedral dsDNA virus with a diameter of 740 A and an outer protein shell composed of 720 copies of major coat protein P3. Spike complexes at the vertices are composed of a pentameric base (protein P31) and a spike structure (proteins P5 and P2) where the N-terminal region of the trimeric P5 is associated with the base and the C-terminal region of P5 is associated with receptor-binding protein P2. The functionality of proteins P3 and P5 was investigated using insertions and deletions. It was observed that P3 did not tolerate changes whereas P5 tolerated changes much more freely. These properties support the hypothesis that viruses have core structures and functions, which remain stable over time, as well as other elements, responsible for host interactions, which are evolutionally more fluid. The insertional probe used was the apex of exposed loop 4 of group B meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA, a medically important subunit vaccine candidate. It was demonstrated that the epitope could be displayed on the virus surface as part of spike protein P5.  (+info)

A cell-free system has been developed from cells of an Escherichia coli strain, carrying cloned genes 1 (DNA polymerase) and 8 (terminal protein) of bacteriophage PRD1, that catalyzes protein-primed DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis in vitro is entirely dependent upon the addition of PRD1 DNA-terminal protein complex as template, Mg²⁺, and four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The origin and direction of PRD1 DNA replication in vitro were determined by restriction enzyme analysis of ³²P-labeled PRD1 DNA synthesized in this system. Replication starts at either end of the linear PRD1 DNA template. Analysis by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA synthesized in vitro showed that full-length PRD1 DNA is synthesized. DNA elongation in this system is inhibited by the drug aphidicolin. On the other hand, DNA initiation is inhibited by phenylglyoxal, an arginine-specific α-dicarbonyl reagent. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that linear ...
The new cryo-EM reconstructions reveal the structure of the PRD1 vertex and the concentric packing of DNA. The capsid is essentially unchanged upon DNA packaging, with alterations limited to those P3 residues involved in membrane contacts. These are restricted to a few of the N termini along the ico …
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Capsid protein that self-associates to form 11 pentons, building the T=13 laevo capsid in association with 160 hexamers of gp23* and one dodecamer of gp20.
1N7U: The Receptor Binding Protein P2 of PRD1, a Virus Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Has a Novel Fold Suggesting Multiple Functions.
Virus particles Monoliths Ion exchang echromatography Virus purification Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage phi05_2302
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
i.e. production rate, and observe the changes in Moreover, his work leaves open the questions of what causes the variation and whether it is evolutionarily significant. My work follows up on Delbrucks, except that I chose to look at a different, but closely related life history trait, lysis time. Earlier work has shown that there is a direct correlation between lysis time and burst size: the longer the phage waits to lyse the cell, the more babies it can produce. So it makes a good proxy for burst size, as well as an interesting life history trait in its own right. Plus, we now have the genetic techniques to manipulate the phages genome and dissect the causes of variation: to wit, the ability to manipulate the holin protein structure and to alter the strength of the promoter that controls holin production. All we need is a way of observing lysis time for individual cells. Enter the microscope-mounted perfusion chamber! Here is the setup ...
PRD is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to PRD is available on the Drugs.com website.
Effect of correction on averaged PRD1 sub-tomograms. (A) Fourier shell correlation between averaged maps obtained from aligned sub-tomograms split in two datase
Order Edelbrock 72410 12Oz/2Lb Bottle Prd Replacement for $18.99 in our huge selection of parts. Shop restoration car parts and accessories at Ecklers.
At PRD Tech, we are committed to be the technology leaders in promoting a cleaner environment, by providing innovative solutions to the industries that are meaningful, cheaper, smarter, cost effective, and technologically feasible. Our main goal is to enable the ease of implementation of environmental control technologies, that will also allow the industries maintain their profitable operations.
Backing up a step though, if youre trying to throw away whole triangles whose vertices have some color that matches a shader-determined criteria, then it would be much more efficient to kill the triangle in the vertex shader rather than in every single fragment (pixel or sample) generated by the triangle. Theres no discard in the vertex shader, but you can mimic this by just moving each vertex behind the near clip plane. If youre using a perspective projection, heres one way to do that ...
Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ:VRTX) reported consolidated financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2017. Vertex also reiterated guid
Accounting Consultancy Pte Ltd is located at Vertex, 33 Ubi Avenue 3, Tel 8616 8610, view Accounting Consultancy Pte Ltd location, products and services on Streetdirectory Map
A^{(2)}_{2n},A^{(2)}_{2n-1},B^{(1)}_n,C^{(1)}_n,D^{(1)}_{n}$ Lie algebras. By the method, we solve these models with the trivial K matrix and find that our results agree with that obtained by analytical ...
stipuliform lithographer Lithosiidae nonhousekeeping clinkery polyoxide vertices Amphrysian henhouse colberter hambergite unmaintained exterritorial pinned reversedly selectionism ungraveled bardash Linguata uncompromisingly crood witheredly alban aryballus cleeky [email protected] ...
The present invention relates to a Gram-negative glycosaminoglycan gene and methods of making and using same. The present invention relates to recombinant Gram-positive host cells containing a Gram-ne
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped proteinaceous particles containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome. HAdVs cause a spectrum of pathologies in all populations regardless of health standards. Following repeat exposure to multiple HAdV types, we develop robust and long-lived humoral and cellular immune responses that provide life-long protection from de novo infections and persistent HAdV. How HAdVs, anti-HAdV antibodies and antigen presenting cells (APCs) interact to influence infection is still incompletely understood. In our study, we used physical, pharmacological, biochemical, fluorescence and electron microscopy, molecular and cell biology approaches to dissect the impact of immune-complexed HAdV (IC-HAdV) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We show that IC-HAdV generate stabilized complexes of ~200 nm that are efficiently internalized by, and aggregate in, MoDCs. By comparing IC-HAdV, IC-empty capsid, IC-Ad2ts1 (a HAdV-C2 impaired in endosomal escape due to a ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus with a linear double-stranded DNA genome that is carried asymptomatically by most people. Symptomless primary infection is usual in childhood, establishing a lifelong carrier state where the virus persists as a latent infection of circulating B cells. The virus replicates recurrently in oropharyngeal epithelial cells, with consequent shedding of virus in saliva transmitting infection....
To diagnose PRD, the veterinary ophthalmologist examines the retina with an instrument called an indirect ophthalmoscope. Changes in the retinal blood vessel pattern, the optic nerve head and the reflective substance within the dogs eye (called the tapetum) are classic signs of PRD.. However, PRD will progress at different rates in different breeds. In some breeds PRD causes little or no early changes, and the eyes of these dogs may appear normal until they are in the later stages of the disease. This variation makes it difficult for the vet to determine just how long any particular dog will continue seeing.. There is no possible treatment for PRD, although a number of vitamin therapies have been suggested. At this time, none of the vitamin treatments have been scientifically proven to be effective, so use of vitamins must be deemed a naturopathic remedy rather than a medical treatment.. Cataracts may occur in some patients with PRD, and generally occur later in the disease. Formation of ...
Advanced specialist practitioner in the late effects of pelvic radiation Liz Walne, who is leading on the project, explained: While radiotherapy is becoming increasingly effective as a treatment, for some patients, being cured of cancer can come at a sacrifice to their quality of life.. For too long, both patients and clinicians have accepted the symptoms of PRD as a trade-off As a result, symptoms are under reported, not properly assessed and mismanaged.. Liz continued: Through our pilot specialist service, our aim is to identify and treat PRD to resolve or improve symptoms and thereby improve quality of life. We want the project to provide a foundation on which to develop a business case for permanent funding for the service, including all relevant trusts, once a better understanding of it is achieved.. Dan Hill, Rosemere Cancer Foundations chief officer, said: We are proud to support such an important pilot project that is raising awareness of and seeking to treat PRD, a condition that ...
b) The classical abhidhammic theory of matter primarily deals with 28 supposed elemental qualities which are never found alone, but are always combined in or associated with quasi-atomic particles called rūpakalāpas. The naïve realism underlying this philosophy is manifest, and furthermore has been scientifically obsolete for centuries. As an example the four (ultimately real) secondary material qualities supposedly present in all rūpakalāpas-color, odor, flavor, and nutritional essence-will be very briefly considered. The formulators of the theory evidently did not perceive that color, as such, exists only in the mind and is merely a symbolic interpretation of a certain bandwidth of electromagnetic radiation; and that furthermore the hypothetical rūpakalāpa is much smaller than the smallest wavelength of visible light. An individual rūpakalāpa, unless, perhaps, it could somehow be identified with a photon, could be endowed with color only potentially and even then in a very ...
vertex and segment objects used by polygon. vertex.php This package can be used to perform different types of geometric operations with polygons. It provides generic polygon and vertex classes that support mixing lines and arc segments between vertices. Polygons may be self-intersecting. It provides means to perform boolean operations AND and OR (Intersect and Union) with the shapes and...
The UC College of Medicine is continuing its upward path in cutting-edge research to enhance discovery sciences and facilitate translation of these discoveries to improve health and clinical care while recruiting new faculty. The new undergraduate program fosters scientific curiosity and investigation for our students. We are creating an environment of advanced clinical care that surpasses any in the region.. ...
A graph is called cubic if three edges meet at each vertex. Simple graphs permit only a single edge to link two distinct vertices, multigraphs allow more than one edge to link two distinct vertices, pseudographs also allow a vertex to link to itself (i.e., form a self-loop.) A graph is an abstraction: a set of symmetrical relations (edges) between pairs of members of a set (the set of vertices). For example, the friendships (edges) between persons (vertices) listed in a phonebook. Such an abstraction has no geometry until we make some decisions not specified in the graph itself in order to place (embed) its vertices and edges in 3D space, or on the Euclidean plane, or on some other surface or in some other space. Sometimes a given graph can be embedded in a space in fundamentally different ways, e.g., a left-handed and a right-handed version. The embedding, not the graph itself, is our guide to these important practical details. See Topics in Trivalent Graphs by Marijke van Gans for a clear ...
Predicted price for today: 156.08 Accuracy and performance of Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (VRTX) stock prediction using Deep Learning.
Vertex Pharmaceuticals said it would seek regulatory approval later this year for an experimental cystic-fibrosis drug that helped produce a statistically significant improvement in patients lung function compared with placebo in two late-stage studies.
Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (NASDAQ:VRTX) weekly options are pricing in a move of +/- $10 with Implied VOL currently in the 28th percentile over th
BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq: VRTX) today announced the planned initiation of two Phase 2 studies to evaluate the ...
http://demandware.edgesuite.net/aasj_prd/on/demandware.static/Sites-GoPro-Site/Sites-gopro-products/default/dwb29d0ed7/hi-res/CHDHX-401_main1.jpg http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2015-07/22/gopro-mobile-video-editing-app
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The domination number of a graph is the cardinality of a smallest subset of its vertex set with the property that each vertex of the graph is in the subset or adjacent to a vertex in the subset. This ...
1. 20x=y2 2. (x-3)squared =1/2(y+1) 3. y2+14y+4x+45=0 Find an equation of the parabola that satisfies the given conditions Focus F(0-4), directrix y=4 Find the vertices, the foci and the equations of the asymptotes.
Holin se v organizmu presnovi zlasti do trimetilamina, ki ima vonj po ribah. Velika količina zaužitega holina lahko zato povzroči neprijeten telesni vonj. Pri določeni genetski motnji, trimetilaminuriji, bolniki niso zmožni nadalje razgraditi trimetilamina in posledica je močan telesni vonj po ribah. Pri ublažitvi telesnega vonja pomaga dieta, ki vsebuje čim manj holina.. ...
The motivation for focusing on a specific virus is often its importance in terms of impact on human interests. The chlorella viruses are a notable exception and 40 years of research has made them the undisputed model system for large icosahedral dsDNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. Their status has changed from inconspicuous and rather odd with no ecological relevance to being the Phycodnaviridae type strain possibly affecting humans and human cognitive functioning in ways that remain to be understood. The Van Etten legacy is the backbone for research on Phycodnaviridae. After highlighting some of the peculiarities of chlorella viruses, we point to some issues and questions related to the viruses we choose for our research, our prejudices, what we are still missing, and what we should be looking for.
Titering of Bacterial Viruses Related protocols: Preparation of Phage Stocks Commonly Used Media for Phage Growth Agar Overlay Technique When an individual bacterial virus grows in a bacterial host suspended in a top agar lawn, its progeny infect and lyse the surrounding host cells. This causes the appearance of a hole or plaque in…
DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one strand only. In contrast to 5 end label, 3 end label was not taken up by the cells indicating that entry is a polarized process. Our results together with those of previou …
DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniaewas studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3′ or at the 5′ end, on one strand only. In contrast to 5′ end label, 3′ end label was not taken up...
The efficacy of PRD125 in blunting the continual expansion of the intestinal and hepatic pools of EC in Lal−/− mice is best illustrated by comparing the data for the treated mutants with those previously reported for Lal−/−:Soat2−/− mice (Lopez et al., 2014). In those studies, the hepatic EC concentrations in the Lal−/−:Soat2−/− mice versus their Lal−/−:Soat2+/+ littermates, all at 52 days of age, were 15.2 versus 54.3 mg/g, respectively. The corresponding values for LAL mutants given PRD125 versus their untreated Lal−/− mice controls were 23.4 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively (Fig. 3C). In the Lal−/− mice given PRD125, liver mass was 28% less than that in the untreated Lal−/− mice (Fig. 3A). This marked contraction in liver weight was comparable to that manifested in the Lal−/−:Soat2−/− mice (34%) (Lopez et al., 2014). From these sets of data, it can be calculated that the percentage reduction in whole liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the ...
GRAPH vertices=5 edges=5, ,VERTEX id=1, ,COORDINATE, 1 1 ,/COORDINATE, ,/VERTEX, ,VERTEX id=2, ,COORDINATE, 2 1 ,/COORDINATE, ,/VERTEX, ,VERTEX id=3, ,COORDINATE, 3 1 ,/COORDINATE, ,/VERTEX, ,VERTEX id=4, ,COORDINATE, 1 2 ,/COORDINATE, ,/VERTEX, ,VERTEX id=5, ,COORDINATE, 2 2 ,/COORDINATE, ,/VERTEX, ,EDGE source=1 target=2/, ,EDGE source=2 target=3/, ,EDGE source=1 target=4/, ,EDGE source=2 target=5/, ,EDGE source=2 target=3/, ,/GRAPH ...
The Pax3/7 genes, also known as Pax group III, encode proteins with a PRD domain and a complete PRD-type homeodomain. There are two genes in human, one in amphioxus and three in Drosophila (prd, gsb, gsbn ...
Rebeccah Brown, MD is a member of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Professor of Surgery; Associate Director of Trauma Services at CCHMC
Holin je u vodi rastvoran esencijalni nutrijent.[4][5][6][7] On se obično svrstava u B-kompleks vitamina. Holin se normalno javlja u obliku raznih kvaternarnih amonijum soli koje sadrže N,N,N-trimetiletanolamonijum katjon.. Katjon holina se javlja kao čeona grupa fosfatidilholina i sfingomijelina, dve klase fosfolipida koje su široko rasprostranjene u ćelijskim membranama. Holin je prekursorni molekul za neurotransmiter acetilholin koji ima veliki broj funkcija, kao što su memorija i kontrola mišića.. Holin se mora uneti putem hrane da bi telo ostalo zdravo.[8] On se koristi u sintezi gradivnih komponenti ćelijskih membrana.[9]. ...
Hi there, right now Im in the middle of translating a shader from GPU assembler to glsl. Ive just started with glsl a week ago, and all the stuff Ive read about it is this article Article At NeHe\s and some of the links provided there, so please dont flame too hard if this is just some simple thing Im over looking :) Its a vertex shader for bone animation, 4 bones per vertex. In the assebler version it indexes the required matrix for the transformations like so: ATTRIB index =
Happier news greeted shareholders of Vertex Pharmaceuticals this morning, after data from an ongoing Phase 2 study of VX-809 and KALYDECO ... showed significant improvements in lung function ... among adults with cystic fibrosis. This statistically significant clinical data promoted two analysts, ISI Group and JMP Securities, to up their ratings on Vertex to buy.. ISI crunched the numbers and concluded Vertex is worth $68 a share. JMP jumped even farther ahead and set a new price target of $100. Whichever number you believe, both analysts are looking smart this morning, as the shares leaped nearly 50% in response to the news (and the buy ratings). But are there any more gains in store?. Perhaps. You see, even at 39 times earnings, Vertex doesnt look that expensive relative to Street expectations for the company. On average, analysts see this company growing earnings at upward of 50% per year over the next five years. Thats more than fast enough to justify the P/E if Vertex can hit the ...
Hi I have currently used a vertex buffer to render one quad using 4 vertices and a triangle strip using using memcpy(vtxQuad, vtx, sizeof(vtx) ); Where vtx i...
I am learning how to use Vertex and Index buffers with shaders. I am still very new the concept and I am working on a big project course atm.Basically I...
Returns a snapshot of the vertices of this polyline at this time . The list returned is a copy of the list of vertices and so changes to the polylines vertices will not be reflected by this list, nor will changes to this list be reflected by the polyline. To change the vertices of the polyline, call ...
If the MoveTo row is the first row in the section, the Y cell represents the y-coordinate of the first vertex of a path. If the MoveTo row appears between two rows, the Y cell represents the y-coordinate of the first vertex after the break in the path. ...
Let G=(V,E) be a graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A vertex v∈Vve-dominates every edge incident to it as well as every edge adjacent to these incident ...
Hi All,I recently picked up an OCZ Agility 4 SSD, 256 GB. My current setup has a 1TB HDD and a 90GB vertex 2. The OS is on the vertex 2 as well as a game I play frequently. The 1TB HDD has random othe...
Im sure the intentions of whoever wrote the press release were good . . . but . . . it is quite a stretch. Still, interesting that it made it into Google News. The research the author discusses has nothing to do with Crossfit. The press release does, however, attempt to associate a high-fat diet (promoted by some Crossfitters as healthy than other diets) with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease by comparing incidence of disease between residents of Switzerland and Australian aboriginals living in modern Australia. The claim was that a high-fat dining Swiss have less cardiovascular disease than the presumed low-fat dining Australian Aboriginals and that, therefore, high-fat diets are healthier than low-fat diets.. I have not looked up the statistics for the Swiss, but Australian Aboriginals have been suffering increasing rates of cardiovascular disease over at least the last 30 years. Few modern Aboriginals are likely to be following a traditional Aboriginal diet. It is extremely unlikely ...
Caldentey J, Hänninen AL, Bamford DH (1994). "Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with muramidase activity". ... Rydman PS, Bamford DH (2003). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein P35". J Bacteriol. ... "Identification and functional analysis of the Rz/Rz1-like accessory lysis genes in the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 ... mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (10): 756-63. doi: ...
Rydman, Pia S.; Bamford, Dennis H. (2003-07-01). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein ... The PRD1 Phage P35 Holin (P35 Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.5) is a member of Holin Superfamily III. The prototype for this family is ... The original text was at "1.E.5 The PRD1 Phage P35 Holin (P35 Holin) Family" v t e. ... The reaction catalyzed by P35 holin is: autolysin (in) → autolysin (out) Bacteriophage Phage typing Holin Lysin Transporter ...
For example, the bacteriophage PRD1, the algal virus Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1), mimivirus and the mammalian ... The bacterium E. coli is the host for bacteriophage T4 that has a prolate head structure. The bacteriophage encoded gp31 ... Chaperones in bacteriophage T4 assembly. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998;63(4):399-406 Yamada S, Matsuzawa T, Yamada K, Yoshioka S, ... September 2016). "A Selection for Assembly Reveals That a Single Amino Acid Mutant of the Bacteriophage MS2 Coat Protein Forms ...
... bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - bacteriophage prd1 MeSH B04.123.205.600 ... bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.900.150 - bacteriophage prd1 MeSH B04.265.600.400 - harvey murine sarcoma virus MeSH B04.265. ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700. ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ...
Bacteriophages in Varidnaviria, including the proposed family Autolykiviridae, are potentially a major cause of death among ... In 1999, the structure of the MCP of Pseudomonas virus PRD1 was resolved, showing that the DJR-MCP lineage included prokaryotic ... a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family ... in contrast to tailed bacteriophages, which have more limited host ranges, as well as on the apparently large number of marine ...
These viruses are evolutionarily related to the large group of double jelly-roll viruses known as the PRD1-adenovirus viral ... "Insights into virus evolution and membrane biogenesis from the structure of the marine lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2". ... this has become known as the PRD1-adenovirus lineage (Bamfordvirae). Many members of this group have been identified through ...
The unusual bacteriophage PRD1 features a membrane beneath its icosahedral protein coat. The crystal structure of the major ... Viral evolution revealed by bacteriophage PRD1 and human adenovirus coat protein structures.. Benson SD1, Bamford JK, Bamford ...
The Receptor Binding Protein P2 of PRD1, a Virus Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Has a Novel Fold Suggesting Multiple ... THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1n7u/pdb ...
Changes in host cell energetics in response to bacteriophage PRD1 DNA entry.. R Daugelavicius, J K Bamford, D H Bamford ... PRD1-caused changes in delta psi and in PCB- binding differ considerably from those observed in other bacteriophage infections ... Double-stranded DNA bacteriophage PRD1 infects a variety of gram-negative bacteria harboring an IncP-type conjugative plasmid. ... Changes in host cell energetics in response to bacteriophage PRD1 DNA entry. ...
... the major coat protein of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1, at 1.65 A resolution. ...
The new cryo-EM reconstructions reveal the structure of the PRD1 vertex and the concentric packing of DNA. The capsid is ... Combined EM/X-ray imaging yields a quasi-atomic model of the adenovirus-related bacteriophage PRD1 and shows key capsid and ... Background: The dsDNA bacteriophage PRD1 has a membrane inside its icosahedral capsid. While its large size (66 MDa) hinders ... Results: The P3 atomic structure has been fitted into improved cryo-EM reconstructions for three types of PRD1 particles: the ...
Protein-primed DNA replication: role of inverted terminal repeats in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 life cycle.. H ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 and its relatives contain linear double-stranded DNA genomes, the replication of which ... Protein-primed DNA replication: role of inverted terminal repeats in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 life cycle. ... Protein-primed DNA replication: role of inverted terminal repeats in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 life cycle. ...
Bacteriophage PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects a variety of Gram-ne ... Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with muramidase activity.: ... Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with muramidase activity.. Authors * Caldentey, J ... Bacteriophage PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects a variety of Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli. ...
The structure of the bacteriophage PRD1 particle, determined by X-ray crystallography at about 4 A resolution, allows the first ... Membrane structure and interactions with protein and DNA in bacteriophage PRD1. Cockburn JJB., Abrescia NGA., Grimes JM., ... Bacteriophage PRD1, Capsid, Cell Membrane, Crystallography, X-Ray, DNA, Viral, Lipid Bilayers, Viral Proteins, Virus Assembly ... The structure of the bacteriophage PRD1 particle, determined by X-ray crystallography at about 4 A resolution, allows the first ...
A major difference is the PRD1 internal membrane, which acts in concert with vertex proteins to translocate the phage genome ... Multiresolution models of the PRD1 capsid, together with genetic analyses, provide fine details of the molecular interactions ... Bacteriophage PRD1 shares many structural and functional similarities with adenovirus. ... Bacteriophage PRD1 shares many structural and functional similarities with adenovirus. A major difference is the PRD1 internal ...
Insights into assembly from structural analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 Abrescia NGA., Cockburn JJB., Grimes JM., Sutton GC., ...
Crystals of bacteriophage PRD1, a virus containing an internal lipid bilayer, have been grown in thin-walled quartz capillary ... Crystals of bacteriophage PRD1, a virus containing an internal lipid bilayer, have been grown in thin-walled quartz capillary ... Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion. ... Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion. ...
Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion ... Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion ...
Probing the ability of the coat and vertex protein of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 to display a meningococcal ... Probing the ability of the coat and vertex protein of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 to display a meningococcal ...
PRD1 is an icosahedral double-stranded (ds)DNA bacterial virus with … ... Bacteriophage PRD1 / pathogenicity* * Bacteriophage PRD1 / physiology * Cell Membrane / metabolism* * DNA, Viral / metabolism* ... Sequential model of phage PRD1 DNA delivery: active involvement of the viral membrane Mol Microbiol. 2002 Dec;46(5):1199-209. ... PRD1 is an icosahedral double-stranded (ds)DNA bacterial virus with an internal membrane. It is an atypical dsDNA phage, as any ...
Bacteriophage PRD1 DNA polymerase: evolution of DNA polymerases.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 8287-91 1987 ...
Caldentey J, Hänninen AL, Bamford DH (1994). "Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with muramidase activity". ... Rydman PS, Bamford DH (2003). "Identification and mutational analysis of bacteriophage PRD1 holin protein P35". J Bacteriol. ... "Identification and functional analysis of the Rz/Rz1-like accessory lysis genes in the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 ... mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (10): 756-63. doi: ...
2004) Insights into assembly from structural analysis of bacteriophage PRD1. Nature 432(7013):68-74. ... in PRD1 (19), but on the capsid exterior. The location and interactions of IIIa concur with early observations that it is ...
2002) Minor proteins, mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid. Nat Struct Biol 9(10):756- ... 2001) Combined EM/X-ray imaging yields a quasi-atomic model of the adenovirus-related bacteriophage PRD1 and shows key capsid ... 2004) Insights into assembly from structural analysis of bacteriophage PRD1. Nature 432(7013):68-74. ... The surface charge at the bottom of the capsomer is overall positive and comparable to the one seen in PBCV-1, PRD1, and ...
The individual organisms were MS-2 bacteriophage and PRD-1 bacteriophage. Microbial populations evaluated were fecal coliforms ... bacteriophage). Microcosms with the higher salinity conditions (3,000 mg/l TDS) supported survival better and inactivation ...
6.1 Bacteriophages A series of experiments were conducted with the bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1. The effluent and influent ... 1. The log removal and inactivation for MS2 and PRD1 ranged between 2.40 to 2.96, and 1.50 to 2.27 log, respectively. The over ... The samples for MS2 and PRD1 were serially diluted and assayed using their respective bacterial hosts by double layer agar ... The data shows that quaternary ammonium organosilane coated zeolite can reduce the viable number of bacteriophages in aqueous ...
Déjà vu all over again: the similar structures of bacteriophage PRD1 and adenovirus. ... Sequence and structural characterization of great salt lake bacteriophage CW02, a member of the T7-like supergroup. ...
Membrane-containing icosahedral bacteriophage PRD1: the dawn of viral lineages. In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and ... Cold-active bacteriophages from the Baltic Sea ice have diverse genomes and virus-host interactions. Environ Microbiol. 17:3628 ... Non-structural proteins P17 and P33 are involved in the assembly of the internal membrane-containing virus PRD1. Virology. 482: ... Membrane-containing bacteriophages. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000779.pub3 ...
Insights into assembly from structural analysis of bacteriophage PRD1. Abrescia N.G.A., Cockburn J.J.B., Grimes J.M., Sutton G. ... Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion ...
Viruses tested included bacteriophage T4 (16), bacteriophage PRD1 (17), the archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus ... Bacteriophage T4, PRD1, and SSV-K have protein capsids (16-18) but have quite different inactivation profiles (Fig. 1). ... Bacteriophage PRD1: a broad-host-range dsDNA Tectivirus with an internal membrane. Adv. Virus Res. 45:281-319. ... Bacteriophage T4, PRD1, SSV-K, and VACV were propagated in host cell cultures using Escherichia coli B, Salmonella enterica ...
1987) The complete nucleotide sequence of the left very early region of Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 coding for the ... 1994) Functional organization of the bacteriophage PRD1 genome. J. Bacteriol. 176:3062-3068. ... 1995) Nucleotide sequence and transcription of the left early region of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1 coding for ... or some bacteriophage and adenovirus genomes (10, 25, 34). The replication mechanism of linear genomes has been well studied ...
Also, adenoviruses show a clear similarity to the bacteriophages exemplified by E. coli phage PRD1 (9), Pseudomonas phage φ6 of ... Viral evolution revealed by bacteriophage PRD1 and human adenovirus coat protein structures. Cell 98:825-833. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ... In the case of bacteriophage N15, 50% of its genome is clearly related to lambdoid bacteriophages (Fig. 3), whereas the ...
1974) Characteristics of PRD1, a plasmid-dependent broad-host-range DNA bacteriophage. J. Virol. 14:689-699. ... 1988) Bacteriophage P1. in The bacteriophages, ed Callendar R. (Plenum Press, New York, N.Y), 1:291-438. ... Bacteria and bacteriophages.Bacterial strains used for bacteriophage propagation and titration were E. coli AB1157 (5), P. ... Bacteriophage SN-T produced transductants at a frequency of 3 × 10−9 per input PFU, while bacteriophage SN-1 produced ...
Insights into assembly from structural analysis of bacteriophage PRD1. Abrescia, N.G.; Cockburn, J.J.; Grimes, J.M.; Sutton, G. ... Structure of the bacteriophage phi 29 DNA packaging motor. Simpson, A.A.; Tao, Y.Z.; Leiman, P.G.; Badasso, M.O.; He, Y.N.; ... Bacteriophage phi29 scaffolding protein gp7 before and after prohead assembly. Morais, M.C.; Kanamaru, S.; Badasso, M.O.; Koti ... Double-stranded DNA bacteriophage prohead protease is homologous to herpesvirus protease. Cheng, H.; Shen, N.; Pei, J.; Grishin ...
  • These results are in accordance with the presence of a specific channel engaged in phage PRD1 DNA transport. (asm.org)
  • The ITRs of each PRD1 phage species have evolved in parallel, suggesting communication between the molecule ends during the life cycle of these viruses. (asm.org)
  • This process was studied by constructing chimeric PRD1 phage DNA molecules with dissimilar end sequences. (asm.org)
  • A major difference is the PRD1 internal membrane, which acts in concert with vertex proteins to translocate the phage genome into the host. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Enterobacteria phage PRD1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature virons are released by lysis, which, in the case of PRD1, is achieved with the aid of virus-encoded lysis machinery consisting of four proteins: P15 (endolysin), P35 (holin), P36 and P37 (homologues of the Rz/Rz1 proteins of phage lambda). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRD1 Phage P35 Holin (P35 Holin) Family (TC# 1.E.5) is a member of Holin Superfamily III. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction catalyzed by P35 holin is: autolysin (in) → autolysin (out) Bacteriophage Phage typing Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Reddy, Bhaskara L. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that broad-host-range bacteriophages play a key role in phage ecology and gene transfer in nature. (asm.org)
  • To address the question of the distribution of broad-host-range bacteriophages, we examined several independent phage collections. (asm.org)
  • Exotoxins are often encoded by mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage (phage). (hindawi.com)
  • Many exotoxin genes are carried on mobile genetic elements, including bacterial viruses (bacteriophage or phage). (hindawi.com)
  • Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. (meta.org)
  • Phage_tail_NK is the globular tip protein of some tailed bacteriophages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In the phage Sf6-type needle, this distal tip folds into a knob with a TNF-like fold, similar to the fibre knobs of bacteriophage PRD1 and Adenovirus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Viruses tested included bacteriophage T4 ( 16 ), bacteriophage PRD1 ( 17 ), the archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka (SSV-K) ( 18 ), and vaccinia virus (VACV) ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • The resulting viruses were mixed with freshly prepared pH 7.0 to 7.1 sodium metasilicate solution in either 10 mM sodium bicarbonate-5 mM magnesium chloride for bacteriophage T4, PRD1, and SSV-K or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline for VACV to final silica concentrations of 0, 5, and 10 mM (0, 300, and 600 ppm). (asm.org)
  • The structural details show that the bacteriophage has similarities to viruses smaller than itself, simple plant and animal viruses whose outer coats are formed from proteins held together by linked "arms. (innovations-report.com)
  • Taken together, these features place the bacteriophage at an intermediate point on the viral evolutionary tree and help illuminate the overall evolutionary path taken by families of viruses. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our results reveal that PRD1 also has similarities to simpler viruses and reinforce the idea that there is a continuum of viral architectures running through viruses that infect such different hosts as bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • For example, the equine encephalitis virus is about 60 nanometers in diameter while the bacteriophage viruses Ψ174 and PRD1 are 23 and 63 nanometers in diameter respectively. (backpacking.net)
  • Some bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) can undergo a special kind of replication cycle called lysogeny. (vassar.edu)
  • The capsid architecture and the structure of its major capsid protein are very similar to those of the bacteriophage PRD1 and eukaryotic viruses Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 and adenovirus, suggesting a viral lineage that predates the three domains of life. (montana.edu)
  • However, the structure of the viral major capsid protein, elucidated at near-atomic resolution using cryo-electron microscopy, is strikingly similar to that observed in dsDNA viruses of the PRD1-adenovirus lineage, characterized by a major capsid protein bearing two β-barrels. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Viral evolution revealed by bacteriophage PRD1 and human adenovirus coat protein structures. (nih.gov)
  • Striking architectural similarities between PRD1 and the mammalian adenovirus indicate a common ancestor. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophage PRD1 shares many structural and functional similarities with adenovirus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A closer examination revealed a highly conserved amino acid sequence, YSRLRT, exist among all identified DNA terminal proteins including PRD1, PZA, Nf, φ29 and adenovirus. (arizona.edu)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Inactivation rates were determined for PRD1 bacteriophage and Adenovirus 2 in two catchment soils under a range of temperature, moisture and biotic status regimes. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Adenovirus 2 was inactivated more rapidly in the loam soil than PRD1 bacteriophage. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Given that PRD1 is similar in size to adenoviruses, yet more conservative with regard to inactivation in soil, it may be a useful surrogate in studies of Adenovirus fate and transport. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • We have been intrigued by the parallels between PRD1 and adenovirus since we discovered striking similarities in their overall structure in earlier studies," says structural biologist Roger M. Burnett, Ph.D., a professor at The Wistar Institute and senior author on the Nature Structural Biology study. (innovations-report.com)
  • The unusual bacteriophage PRD1 features a membrane beneath its icosahedral protein coat. (nih.gov)
  • Protein-primed DNA replication: role of inverted terminal repeats in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 life cycle. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli bacteriophage PRD1 and its relatives contain linear double-stranded DNA genomes, the replication of which proceeds via a protein-primed mechanism. (asm.org)
  • Protein-primed replication of the bacteriophage PRD1 genome in vitro: Development of in vitro DNA replication system and characterization of replication origin. (openrepository.com)
  • A cell-free system has been developed from cells of an Escherichia coli strain, carrying cloned genes 1 (DNA polymerase) and 8 (terminal protein) of bacteriophage PRD1, that catalyzes protein-primed DNA synthesis. (openrepository.com)
  • DNA synthesis in vitro is entirely dependent upon the addition of PRD1 DNA-terminal protein complex as template, Mg²⁺, and four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. (openrepository.com)
  • In vitro studies have also demonstrated that linear duplex, protein-free DNA molecules containing an inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequence of the PRD1 genome at one end can undergo replication by a protein-primed mechanism. (openrepository.com)
  • Membrane structure and interactions with protein and DNA in bacteriophage PRD1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Structure-function analysis of the bacteriophage PRD1 DNA terminal protein: Nucleotide sequence, overexpression, and site-directed mutagenesis of the terminal protein gene. (arizona.edu)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the PRD1 terminal protein gene has been determined. (arizona.edu)
  • The coding region for PRD1 terminal protein is 777 base pairs long and encodes 259 amino acid residues (29,326 daltons). (arizona.edu)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of PRD1 terminal protein reveals no overall homology with other known terminal proteins or related proteins. (arizona.edu)
  • To study the structure-function relationship of the YSRLRT sequence of PRD1 terminal protein, in vitro site-directed mutagenesis was performed to determine the role of each amino acid in this conserved region. (arizona.edu)
  • The PRD1 terminal protein and DNA polymerase genes were cloned into phagemid pEMBLex3, and the recombinant plasmid used for constructing mutants. (arizona.edu)
  • Eleven PRD1 terminal protein mutant clones were examined for their priming complex formation activities. (arizona.edu)
  • Our results have strongly demonstrated that the positive charge residue of arginine-174 plays an important role for PRD1 terminal protein function. (arizona.edu)
  • There are 13 tyrosine residues in the predicted PRD1 terminal protein. (arizona.edu)
  • From analyses, the tyrosine-190 has been determined to be the most likely linkage site between terminal protein and PRD1 DNA. (arizona.edu)
  • P2, the major capsid protein of bacteriophage PM2, adopts the double beta-barrel fold characteristic of the PRD1-adenoviral lineage. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fold recognition algorithms predict A223 and C381 to have folds similar to that of P5 vertex protein from PRD1, further supporting the possible evolutionary link. (montana.edu)
  • Replication of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA in vitro: the roles of terminal protein and DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • Bacteriophage PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects a variety of Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli. (mysciencework.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4, PRD1, SSV-K, and VACV were propagated in host cell cultures using Escherichia coli B, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, Sulfolobus solfataricus strain Gϴ, and murine BSC-1 cells, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophage P1 is a generalized transducing virus capable of plaque formation on several enteric species in addition to Escherichia coli ( 40 ), while bacteriophage Mu produces progeny virions capable of adsorption to and plaque production on different bacterial species ( 12 ) due to the differential orientation of the invertible viral G segment region ( 12 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • There's a study here from the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health website (Lukasik J, et al) entitled " Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes . (stackexchange.com)
  • Bacteriophage PRD1 DNA polymerase: evolution of DNA polymerases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional importance of bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase residue Tyr148 in primer-terminus stabilisation at the 3'-5' exonuclease active site. (neb.com)
  • The bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • Mutagenesis of a highly conserved lysine 340 of the PRD1 DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • Purification and characterization of PRD1 DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • Site-specific mutagenesis of PRD1 DNA polymerase: mutations in highly conserved regions of the family B DNA polymerase. (neb.com)
  • Double-stranded DNA bacteriophage PRD1 infects a variety of gram-negative bacteria harboring an IncP-type conjugative plasmid. (asm.org)
  • An international team of scientists led by researchers at The Wistar Institute has combined two different imaging techniques to uncover the molecular-level framework of a common bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
  • The bacteriophage studied, called PRD1, infects antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli bacteria, including strains responsible for tens of thousands of cases of food poisoning in the United States each year. (innovations-report.com)
  • PRD1 is a bacteriphage, a virus that infects bacteria. (vassar.edu)
  • Bacteriophage PM2 infects Gram-negative bacteria. (ictvonline.org)
  • HK97 is a double-stranded DNA virus similar to bacteriophage λ. (scripps.edu)
  • namely (from left to right) entries 1wce (birnavirus, 234 × 106 Å3), 1w8x (bacteriophage Prd1, 192.5 × 106 Å3), 1ohg (Hk97 bacteriophage capsid, 143 × 106 Å3) and 2btv (bluetongue virus core, 123 × 106 Å3). (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the ability of the R-M systems to switch between six target DNA specificities also has a key role in preventing the spread of bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • The dsDNA bacteriophage PRD1 has a membrane inside its icosahedral capsid. (nih.gov)
  • The P3 atomic structure has been fitted into improved cryo-EM reconstructions for three types of PRD1 particles: the wild-type virion, a packaging mutant without DNA, and a P3-shell lacking the membrane and the vertices. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the bacteriophage PRD1 particle, determined by X-ray crystallography at about 4 A resolution, allows the first detailed analysis of a membrane-containing virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Minor proteins, mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Multiresolution models of the PRD1 capsid, together with genetic analyses, provide fine details of the molecular interactions associated with particle stability and membrane dynamics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Crystallization of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1 in quartz capillaries by vapour diffusion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PRD1 is an icosahedral double-stranded (ds)DNA bacterial virus with an internal membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The new images show not only the outer coat of the bacteriophage, but also reveal details of its inner membrane, a poorly-understood fatty double layer beneath the coat that forms a protective barrier around the genetic material, or DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • These were applied to membrane-containing icosahedral bacteriophage PRD1, which bound specifically to both matrices. (biaseparations.com)
  • PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The two imaging techniques used by the researchers to dissect the structure of PRD1 are electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography. (innovations-report.com)
  • For each organism, the inactivation over time was determined using established media culture (bacteria) or agar overlay plaque analysis (bacteriophage). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Bacteriophages are viral parasites of bacteria first recognized early in the 20th century ( 8 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Shen, Zhi-Qiang 2017-08-01 00:00:00 Bacteriophages are widely used to the treatment of drug-resistant bacteria and the improvement of food safety through bacterial lysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Based on the host bacteria composed of 33 standard strains and 10 isolated strains, the bacteriophages in 18 water samples collected from the three sites in the Tianjin Haihe River Basin were isolated by the ESPs and traditional methods. (deepdyve.com)
  • Auckenthaler A, Raso G, Huggenberger P (2002) Particle transport in a karst aquifer: natural and artificial tracer experiments with bacteria, bacteriophages and microspheres. (springer.com)
  • Tailed bacteriophage virions deliver DNA to susceptible cells after adsorbing to specific receptors on the surface of the bacteria. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The fold of the monomer and the pseudo-sixfold symmetry of the capsomer resembles that of the major coat proteins in the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage PRD1 and the double-stranded DNA human adenoviruses, as well as the viral proteins VP2-VP3 of picornaviruses. (nebraska.edu)
  • Using the streptococcal temperate bacteriophage SpSL1, we show that the variants of both the SpnIII and SpnIV R-M systems are able to restrict invading bacteriophage with an efficiency approximately proportional to the number of target sites in the bacteriophage genome. (asm.org)
  • This image is an example of a linear replication construct containing the origins of replication for the bacteriophage PRD1's genome, as well as an antibiotic resistance marker (DHFR). (uoregon.edu)
  • Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with mura. (mysciencework.com)
  • In this paper, we describe isolation of a lytic bacteriophage against S. aureus and its characterization. (hindawi.com)
  • This term, it has involved learning basic programming and analysis of various aspects of the PRD1 replication proteins to compare them to other organisms. (uoregon.edu)
  • The origin and direction of PRD1 DNA replication in vitro were determined by restriction enzyme analysis of ³²P-labeled PRD1 DNA synthesized in this system. (openrepository.com)
  • Analysis by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA synthesized in vitro showed that full-length PRD1 DNA is synthesized. (openrepository.com)
  • The analyses of the results obtained with synthetic oligonucleotides have revealed that the specificity of the replication origin is strand specific and even on a single-stranded template a particular DNA sequence including a 3' terminal C residue for the initiation of PRD1 DNA replication in vitro. (openrepository.com)
  • Our results suggest that a multiple-host enrichment protocol may be more effective for the isolation of broad-host-range bacteriophages by avoiding the selection bias inherent in single-host methods. (asm.org)
  • The sample isolation efficiency and bacteriophage isolation efficiency of the ESPs method were 3.28 and 2.13 times higher than those of the traditional method. (deepdyve.com)
  • While virion particles are capable of independent existence outside the host, all bacteriophages are obligate intracellular parasites and must enter a host bacterium to replicate. (asm.org)
  • In this study, a novel and highly efficient method was developed for isolating bacteriophage from water based on the electropositive silica gel particles (ESPs) method. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, it is clear that some bacteriophages do productively infect a range of bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • Crystals of bacteriophage PRD1, a virus containing an internal lipid bilayer, have been grown in thin-walled quartz capillary tubes by vapour diffusion as a means of eliminating mechanical handling of the crystals during data collection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. (asm.org)
  • Two important questions concern the relative frequencies with which bacteriophages exhibiting a wide host range may be isolated from nature and the percentages of broad-host-range phages that can be identified in existing virus collections. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages able to interact with a wide range of host species would be significant in the control of the composition and genetic diversity of microbial communities as well as the processes of transductional gene exchange and the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes through those communities. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages were first used successfully to treat bacterial infections a decade before antibiotics were discovered [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Surprisingly, systematic studies of broad-host-range interactions of bacteriophages and of the relative frequencies with which such bacteriophages may be isolated are lacking. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 was insensitive to silica treatment. (asm.org)
  • The DNAs of these bacteriophages contained modified bases and were insensitive to cleavage by type I and II restriction endonucleases. (asm.org)
  • Rahaman, M. S.* "Bacteriophage-based strategies for biofouling control in ultrafiltration: in situ biofouling mitigation, biocidal additives and biofilm cleanser" Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2018, 523, 254-265. (mcgill.ca)
  • Studies of bacteriophage infection have revealed that the process is initiated when the virion interacts with host cell surface receptor molecules ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • These bacteriophages were sensitive to restriction, and their efficiency of plating was dramatically reduced on the alternate host. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of bacteriophage T4 with silica at 600 ppm (10 mM) caused a loss of infectivity of up to three orders of magnitude ( Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the limited investigations on bacteriophage restrict their further application. (deepdyve.com)
  • Besides the effects on TPP+ accumulation, PRD1 induces the leakage of ATP and K+ from the cytosol. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophage P22 is the prototype of the Podoviridae that are characterized by a T = 7 capsid with a short tail structure incorporated into a unique 5-fold vertex. (scripps.edu)
  • It was of interest to known which tyrosine is actually linked to terminal nucleotide of the PRD1 DNA. (arizona.edu)
  • The efficiency of plating of these bacteriophages was changed only slightly on the alternate host. (asm.org)
  • We also tested the applicability of the monolithic anion exchange purification on a filamentous bacteriophage phi 05_2302. (biaseparations.com)
  • Leading and lagging strand synthesis at the replication fork of bacteriophage T7. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • All these observations suggest that bacteriophages can successfully be used to combat antibiotic resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, structures of bacteriophage λ were determined at subnanometer resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. (scripps.edu)