The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (1/413)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

Replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates is required for bacterial growth. (2/413)

PriA, a 3' --> 5' DNA helicase, directs assembly of a primosome on some bacteriophage and plasmid DNAs. Primosomes are multienzyme replication machines that contribute both the DNA-unwinding and Okazaki fragment-priming functions at the replication fork. The role of PriA in chromosomal replication is unclear. The phenotypes of priA null mutations suggest that the protein participates in replication restart at recombination intermediates. We show here that PriA promotes replication fork assembly at a D loop, an intermediate formed during initiation of homologous recombination. We also show that DnaC810, encoded by a naturally arising intergenic suppressor allele of the priA2::kan mutation, bypasses the need for PriA during replication fork assembly at D loops in vitro. These findings underscore the essentiality of replication fork restart at recombination intermediates under normal growth conditions in bacteria.  (+info)

Virus passage through track-etch membranes modified by salinity and a nonionic surfactant. (3/413)

Why do viruses sometimes not pass through larger pores in track-etch filters? Increasing the salinity (0.8 to 160 mM Na+) decreased phiX174 and PRD1 passage through track-etch polycarbonate membranes (sodium dodecyl sulfate coated but not polyvinylpyrrolidone coated) and PRD1 passage through polyester membranes. Undiminished passage when 0.1% Tween 80 was added implied that nonionic virus adsorption occurred and indicated that high levels of salinity decreased virus passage by decreasing electrostatic repulsion that prevented adsorption.  (+info)

Different trajectories of parallel evolution during viral adaptation. (4/413)

The molecular basis of adaptation is a major focus of evolutionary biology, yet the dynamic process of adaptation has been explored only piecemeal. Experimental evolution of two bacteriophage lines under strong selection led to over a dozen nucleotide changes genomewide in each replicate. At least 96 percent of the amino acid substitutions appeared to be adaptive, and half the changes in one line also occurred in the other. However, the order of these changes differed between replicates, and parallel substitutions did not reflect the changes with the largest beneficial effects or indicate a common trajectory of adaptation.  (+info)

Evolutionary reversals during viral adaptation to alternating hosts. (5/413)

Experimental adaptation of the bacteriophage phiX174 to a Salmonella host depressed its ability to grow on the traditional Escherichia host, whereas adaptation to Escherichia did not appreciably affect growth on Salmonella. Continued host switching consistently exhibited this pattern. Growth inhibition on Escherichia resulted from two to three substitutions in the major capsid gene. When these phages were forced to grow again on Escherichia, fitness recovery occurred predominantly by reversions at these same sites, rather than by second-site compensatory changes, the more frequently observed mechanism in most microbial systems. The affected residues lie on the virion surface and they alter attachment efficiency, yet they occur in a region distinct from a putative binding region previously identified from X-ray crystallography. These residues not only experienced high rates of evolution in our experiments, but also exhibited high levels of radical amino acid variation among phiX174 and its known relatives, consistent with a history of adaptation involving these sites.  (+info)

Transfer of immune complexes from erythrocyte CR1 to mouse macrophages. (6/413)

We are developing a potential therapeutic approach for removing pathogens from the circulation of primates in which the pathogen is bound to the complement receptor (CR1) on E using a bispecific mAb complex, a heteropolymer (HP). We have used mAb this approach to demonstrate that cleared prototype pathogens are localized to, phagocytosed in, and destroyed in the liver. Extension of this work to a clinical setting will require a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the E-bound immune complex substrates are transferred to fixed tissue macrophages in the liver, the transfer reaction. Therefore, we examined an in vitro system to study this process using bacteriophage phiX174 as a model pathogen. E containing phiX174 (bound via an anti-CR1/anti-phiX174 HP) were incubated with P388D1 murine macrophages, and the two cell types were separated by centrifugation through Ficoll. Both E and macrophages were then probed and analyzed by RIA or flow cytometry. The results indicate that all three components of the E-bound IC (phiX174, HP, and CR1) were removed from the E and internalized by the macrophages. We found that transfer requires the Fc portion of IgG, because little transfer of phiX174 occurs when it is bound to E CR1 using a HP containing only Fab fragments. These findings, taken in the context of other studies, suggest a general mechanism for the transfer reaction in which Fc receptors facilitate close juxtaposition of the macrophage to the E-bound IC which then allows a macrophage-associated protease to cleave CR1. The released IC are then internalized and processed by the macrophages.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of DnaC810, a primosomal protein capable of bypassing PriA function. (7/413)

Escherichia coli strains lacking PriA are severely compromised in their ability to repair UV-damaged DNA and to perform homologous recombination. These phenotypes arise because of a lack of PriA-directed replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates such as D-loops. Naturally arising suppressor mutations in dnaC restore strains carrying the priA2::kan null allele to wild-type function. We have cloned one such gene, dnaC810, and overexpressed, purified, and characterized the DnaC810 protein. DnaC810 can support a PriA-independent synthesis of phiX174 complementary strand DNA. This can be attributed to its ability, unlike wild-type DnaC, to catalyze a SSB-insensitive general priming reaction with DnaB and DnaG on any SSB-coated single-stranded DNA. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that DnaC810 could load DnaB directly to SSB-coated single-stranded DNA as well as to D loop DNA. This explains the ability of DnaC810 to bypass the requirement for PriA, PriB, PriC, and DnaT during replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates.  (+info)

Characterization of the binding of spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174 with receptor lipopolysaccharides. (8/413)

The spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174 was prepared as a hexa histidine-tagged fusion (HisH). On enzyme-linked plate assaying, HisH was found to bind specifically to the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of phiX174-sensitive strains, Escherichia coli C and Salmonella typhimurium Ra chemotype, having the complete oligosaccharide sequence of the R-core on the LPSs. In sharp contrast, HisH bound weakly to the LPSs of phiX174-insensitive strains, i.e. E. coli F583 (Rd(2)) lacking some terminal saccharides and E. coli O111: B4 (smooth strain) having additional O-repeats on the R-core. The fluorescence spectra of HisH changed dose-dependently in the case of the LPS of E. coli C, the intensity increasing and the emission peak shifting to the shorter wavelength side, which was attributable to the hydrophobic interaction of HisH with the LPS. The binding equilibrium was analyzed by fluorometric titration to determine the dissociation constant K(d), 7.02 +/- 0.37 microM, and the Gibbs free energy change DeltaG(0), -29.1 kJ mol(-1) (at 22 degrees C, pH 7.4). Based on the temperature dependence of (K)d in a van't Hoff plot, the standard enthalpy change DeltaH(0) and the entropy change DeltaS(0) were calculated to be +23.7 kJ mol(-1) and 179 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 22 degrees C, respectively, and this binding was thereby concluded to be an entropy-driven reaction.  (+info)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Not long after Arbers discoveries, Arthur Kornberg identified the pasting mechanism for DNA, an enzyme he called ligase. Kornberg was trying to construct artificial viral DNA from viral fragments, but had been unable to make a biologically active molecule. Once he added ligase, however, he found that the enzyme made it possible to paste the ends of DNA molecules together.,br,,br, With ligase, the viral DNA he created formed a continuous loop, just as it did in the original virus. The artificial viral DNA was indeed biologically active, it could reproduce on its own, and Kornberg was hailed as having made life in a test tube ...
I have this nasty differential equation: ( Lorentz invariant elliptical invariant Klein-Gordon) -(hbar2/(2*m))*Sum[D[Phi[x[i]],{x(i),2}],{i,1,4}]+2*m*c2*J{Sqrt[m/m0]]=0 The substition Im working with is the Kerr mass one of: m/m0-,(r/r0)^2 and J as an elliptical invariant like: J[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x5*(x10+11*x5-1)5) I isolate the radial part of the second differential ( in a polar four sopace the angular part isnt importyant mostly to mass radial solutions) The Phi part is straight forfowd so Im left with a double interagation of a nasty rational function: ( m^2-,r^4) f[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x*(x10+11*x5-1)5) or if hbar^2/(m^2*c^2)--,r^2 g[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x^7 *(x10+11*x5-1)5) What I tried after the Integration wouldnt stop in my Mathematica was doing a term wise integration ( 64 terms, every 5th one non-zero ...
An interesting number and sequence Phi What is Phi? Phi ( = 1.618033988749895... ), most often pronounced fi like fly , is simply an irrational number like pi ( p = 3.14
of phi and psi for randomly chosen residues; these values range from -98° to -178° and from +90° to +167°, respectively. These ranges overlap the values for the twisted parallel showing that there is no differences in the ranges for the two types of twisted sheets. Median values for phi and psi are -125° and +140°, respectively. ...
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
Phi Việt Karaoke 06: Volume 06 - Mưa Bụi 01. Neu Anh Dung Hen - Unknown 02. Ke Co Don - Unknown 03. Doan Cuoi Tinh Yeu - Unknown 04. Hoa Bien - Unknown 05. Mot Minh Thoi - Unknown 06. Mong Chieu Xuan - Unknown 07. Nang Ha - Unknown 08. Viet Tu K. B. C - Unknown 09. Mong...
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
We had the 3rd brother as well, but sadly he passed away a few months ago. They were posted on craigslist shortly after I adopted my first two piggies. I originally was going to just adopt Dexter, but then decided to take Dexter and James. The woman that had them emailed me a few days later and said the 3rd brother (Vince) was returned, so of course I had to go get him also ...
The effect of rifampin on the replication of MVL51, a bullet-shaped mycoplasmavirus with single-stranded circular DNA of molecular weight 2 X 10(6), has been examined in a rifampin-resistant host cell. Rifampin does not block the early steps in MVL51 infection but does decrease the total amount of parental viral DNA taken up. The single-stranded parental viral DNA that enters the cell is found in membrane-associated, double-stranded DNA replicative forms I and II. Rifampin had no significant effect on the synthesis of progeny viral DNA RFI and RFII early in infection and SSI (single-stranded progeny viral chromosomes) later in infection. The rifampin block in virus synthesis was found to be in the step converting SSI into assembled virions. Rifampin was shown to affect the synthesis of virus-specific RNA, Which suggests that viral transcription is necessary for virion assembly. ...
Roger D. Kornberg Roger D. Kornberg Roger Kornberg in 2006, at the Fairchild Auditorium at Stanford University BornApril 24 1947 (1947-04-24) (age 65)St.
The Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA Polymerase Assay Kit (Catalog No. HCMV100K)includes all the assay kit components except the enzyme. It includes 400 µl of 10 x Buffer, 33 µl of 100 x DNA template, 33 µl of 100 x dNTP, 1550 µl of 2 x Dye and 1550 µl of 50 mM EDTA.. The Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA Polymerase Assay Kit Plus -100 (Catalog No. HCMV100KE). includes all the assay kit components. It includes 400 µl of 10 x Buffer, 33 µl of 100 x DNA template, 33 µl of 100 x dNTP, 33 µl of 100 x HCMV DNA polymerase, 1550 µl of 2 x Dye and 1550 µl of 50 mM EDTA.. ...
Phi Phi Anita Resort, Ko Phi Phi Don: See 66 traveller reviews, 56 candid photos, and great deals for Phi Phi Anita Resort, ranked #31 of 66 B&Bs / inns in Ko Phi Phi Don and rated 3 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Recently, Ive noticed a lot of confusion surrounding X DNA matching and mitochondrial DNA. Some folks think they are the same thing, but they arent at all. Its easy to become confused by the different types of DNA that we can use for genealogy, so Ill try to explain these differences two or three different ways…
Recently, Ive noticed a lot of confusion surrounding X DNA matching and mitochondrial DNA. Some folks think they are the same thing, but they arent at all. Its easy to become confused by the different types of DNA that we can use for genealogy, so Ill try to explain these differences two or three different ways…
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960x800 الفن التجريدي التعبيرية - اللوحات المعاصرة. 960x800 الروبوت خلفية بالحجم الكامل ل 480x800 الأجهزة, 960*800 الصور الصور 960-800. مجانا خلفيات مجردة. ألوان مجردة خلفيات. ورق
960x800 الفن التجريدي التعبيرية - الفن الحديث معرض على الانترنت. 960x800 الروبوت خلفية بالحجم الكامل ل 480x800 الأجهزة, 960*800 الصور. الصور 960-800. مجانا خلفيات مجردة
960x800 الزهور على الانترنت - مهارات الاستدامة, هدية من الطبيعة. 960x800 الروبوت خلفية بالحجم الكامل ل 480x800 الأجهزة, 960*800 الصور. الصور 960-800. مجانا خلفيات مجردة
480x800 Seni Abstrak Ekspresionisme - Karya Seni Untuk Dijual. 480 X 800 Semua Imej Percuma Muat Turun, 480*800 Gambar. Menegak; Gambar 480-800. Kertas Dinding Abstrak Percuma. Warna Abstrak Wallpaper. Kertas Dinding Berwarna-warni Percuma Muat Turun. 480/800 Foto, Wallpaper Percuma
இவ்வகையான மரபணுப் பிறழ்வுகளும் X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகுகளிலேற்படும் விகாரங்களால் ஏற்படுகின்றன. இங்கும் ஆண்களே பெண்களைவிட அதிகளவில் பாதிப்புக்கு உள்ளாகின்றனர். X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகில் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்பு ஆகையால், தொடர்ந்த சந்ததிக்கு கடத்தப்படுவதும் ஆணுக்கும் பெண்ணுக்கும் வேறுபடுகின்றது. பிறக்கும் ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்குழந்தையும், தனக்கான X ...
480x800 Seni Abstrak Ekspresionisme - Pameran Galeri Seni. 480 X 800 Semua Imej Percuma Muat Turun 480*800 Gambar. Menegak; Gambar 480-800. Kertas Dinding Abstrak Percuma. Warna Abstrak Wallpaper Kertas Dinding Berwarna-warni Percuma Muat Turun. 480/800 Foto, Wallpaper Percuma Untuk: Kanta
ISSNer: 1755-375X, 1395-3907, 0001-639X, 1600-0420. Yderligere søgbare ISSNs (Elektroniske): 1600-0420, 1755-3768. Wiley-Blackwell Munksgaard, USA. Tidsskrift ...
800x600◎教育情况:1989年12月-1992年5月为日本名古屋大学医学部研究生1993年11月-1998年10月为日本岐阜大学博士研究生1998年11月-1999年3月为日本岐阜大学医学部研究学者◎工作经历:1999年4月-至今中山大学肿瘤防治中心麻醉科工作 ◎省级以上学术团体及国家级专业杂志任...
800x600◎教育情况:1989年12月-1992年5月为日本名古屋大学医学部研究生1993年11月-1998年10月为日本岐阜大学博士研究生1998年11月-1999年3月为日本岐阜大学医学部研究学者◎工作经历:1999年4月-至今中山大学肿瘤防治中心麻醉科工作 ◎省级以上学术团体及国家级专业杂志任...
简历 & 研究组工作摘要 1955年 毕业于中山大学化学系。. 1960年 苏联科学院元素有机化合物研究所研究生毕业,获副博士学位。. 1965-1967 在英国皇家研究所及牛津大学访问学者。. 1980年选为中国科学院学部委员, 1985年选为第三世界科学院院士。. 现任中国科学院生物物理所研究员。博士生导师。曾任中国科学院生物物理所所长(1983-1986), 国家自然科学基金委员会副主任(1986-1995)。. 主要从事蛋白质晶体学和结构生物学。己发表自然科学论文140余篇,专著《X射线晶体学基础》等。研究成果分别获1982年国家自然科学二等奖、1989年国家自然科学二等奖、1987年中国科学院自然科学一等奖及1986年、1992年中国科学院自然科学二等奖。1992年获首届王丹萍科学奖金,1995年获何梁何利科学与技术进步奖。2004年获北京市科学技术奖一等奖。 ...
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ISSNer: 1755-375X, 1395-3907, 0001-639X, 1600-0420. Yderligere søgbare ISSNs (Elektroniske): 1600-0420, 1755-3768. Wiley-Blackwell Munksgaard, USA. Tidsskrift ...
東京歯科大学水道橋病院における最近6年間の口腔外科全身麻酔手術症例の臨床的検討東京歯科大学水道橋病院における最近6年間の口腔外科全身麻酔手術症例の臨床的検討AN0009999X ...
Microviridae is a family of bacteriophages with a single-stranded DNA genome. The name of this family is derived from the Greek micro, meaning small. This refers to the size of their genomes, which are among the smallest of the DNA viruses. Enterobacteria, intracellular parasitic bacteria, and spiroplasma serve as natural hosts. There are currently 12 species in this family, divided among 7 genera and one subfamily. The virons are non-enveloped, round with an icosahedral symmetry (T = 1). They have a diameter between 25-27 nanometers and lack tails. Each viron has 60 copies each of the F, G, and J proteins and 12 copies of the H protein. They have 12 pentagonal trumpet-shaped pentomers (~7.1 nm wide × 3.8 nm high), each of which composed of 5 copies of G and one of the H protein. Viruses in this family replicate their genomes via a rolling circle mechanism and encode dedicated RCR initiation proteins. Although the majority of species in this family have lytic life cycles, a few may have ...
On the fidelity of DNA replication. Isolation of high fidelity DNA polymerase-primase complexes by immunoaffinity chromatography.
The substances known as DNA and RNA bear organisms genetic code and also determine their vital processes. Arthur Kornberg took an interest in the way DNA and RNA are formed, and which enzymes steer this process. Enzymes are substances that speed up chemical processes inside organisms cells without being consumed. By studying bacteria, Arthur Kornberg succeeded in isolating DNA polymerase in 1956 - an enzyme that is active in the formation of DNA. Using a DNA molecule as a blueprint, the enzyme builds a copy of the DNA molecule from nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA.. ...
documentclass{article} \usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} \usepackage{amsmath} \DeclareMathOperator{\sn}{sn} \DeclareMathOperator{\cn}{cn} \DeclareMathOperator{\dn}{dn} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{gathered} \omega^3x_{4}(s) = \begin{minipage}[t]{.7\displaywidth} \raggedright\linespread{1.2}\selectfont \begin{math} x_4(\varphi_0) -2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 +2k^2x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2( \phi ) +4 \cos^3 ( \phi )E ( s ) k^2+x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) s - \cos^3( \phi ){s}^2E( s ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )s ( E (s) ^2 +\cos ( \phi ) {s}^2E ( s ) - 2x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) E ( s ) -1/6\cos ( \phi ) {s}^3-4/3 \cos^3 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^3 -1/2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ){s}^2-2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^2 -2\cos ( \phi) s E ( s ) ^2 -2x_1(\varphi_0)sE( s ) + k\sin (\phi ) \cn(s) {s}^2 \cos^2( \phi ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 \sn(s) ^2 -2/3\cos ( \phi) E ( s) +4/3k^3\cn(s) \sn(s) ^2\sin( \phi ) \cos^2 ( \phi )+2k\sin ( \phi ) \cn(s) +2/3\cos ( \phi ) s-8/3\cos ( \phi ) k^2\dn (s) \sn(s) ...
Virus particles Monoliths Ion exchang echromatography Virus purification Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage phi05_2302
Product Review: The Babyzen Yoyo2 travel system pushchair is an update on the Yoyo+ which was itself an update on the original Yoyo. On first launching, it took the travelling-pushchair world by storm thanks to its lightweight ...
MUSIC] The computation of added stiffness is easy because it only depends on some integrals over the interface. To compute the added mass we have to go a bit further. The added mass m A was defined as the inertia coefficient, when we obtained the force acting on the solid. It is made of the mass number, M, and of the sum of an interface of quantities that we know. Normal n, mode shape of the solid motion phi, and a quantity that we have to compute, the pressure shape, phi p. What is phi p? It was related to the velocity shape Phi u through phi u equals minus grad of phi p, and phi u was the solution of div of phi u equals zero, and phi u n equals phi n, at the interface. By taking the divergence of this momentum equation, we have div of grad of phi_p equals zero. So, we just have to find the field phi p, that satisfies Laplace equation, delta of phi p. equals zero, with a boundary condition at interface. Once we have phi p, we will obtain the added mass ma by a simple sum of the interface. ...
Males inherit one X chromosome from their mother. Females inherit one from their mother and one from their father. Here are seven generations of ancestors who could have contributed to Jeans X DNA and their approximate average percentage of contribution. These are adapted from Blaine Bettingers X-DNA charts. more information ...
Two N-terminal self-association domains are required for the dominant negative transcriptional activity of WT1 Denys-Drash mutant proteins. In transfection experiments with M13 mp DNA species, IT-Dop inhibited the single-stranded (SS) molecule more effectively than the double stranded replicative form (RF) DNA ...
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Optimize performance while maintaining a unified hardware and software environment with the latest products from the Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor family
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. PHI ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific ...
Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...
In 1977, Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X 174. In ... In 2003 a faster method was shown to assemble the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in 2 weeks. ... Bacteriophages occasionally move genetic material from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction,[8] and ... Bacteriophages, the viruses which infect bacteria, can be relatively easily grown as viral plaques on bacterial cultures. ...
Bacteriophage MS2. References[edit]. *^ a b c Enterobacteria phage phiX174 sensu lato, complete genome. "Complete genome: ... The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA- ... Phi X is regularly used as a positive control in DNA sequencing due to its relatively small genome size in comparison to other ... This bacteriophage has a [+] circular single-stranded DNA genome of 5386 nucleotides encoding 11 proteins.[1] Of these 11 genes ...
... phi X174, G4 and phi K" Biochim Biophys Acta 1130(3) 277-288 Aoyama A, Hayashi M (1986) Synthesis of bacteriophage phi X174 in ... Keegstra W, Baas PD, Jansz HS (1979) Bacteriophage phi X174 RF DNA replication in vivo. A study by electron microscopy" J Mol ... Tessman ES, Tessman I, Pollock TJ (1980) Gene K of bacteriophage phi X 174 codes for a nonessential protein" J Virol 33(1) 557- ... A protein of bacteriophage phi X174 into an ATT codon yields a viable phage indicating that A protein is not essential for phi ...
Phi X 174 bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced ... Number Gossip: 174. References[edit]. *^ "Sloane's A007304 : Sphenic numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. ... Gliese 174 or V834 Tau, a variable star. In the military[edit]. *174th Air Refueling Squadron unit of the Iowa Air National ... 174 is an even number, a composite number, a sphenic number,[1] and an abundant number with the abundance of 12. It is a ...
PCA was used to generate the first synthetic genome in history, that of the Phi X 174 virus. The Gibson assembly method, ... φX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (26): 15440-15445. ...
Phi X 174 on esimene DNA-l baseeruv genoom, mis sekveneeriti. Rõngasgenoom koosneb 11 geenist ja selles on 5386 aluspaari.[5] ... Bacteriophage phiX174 *↑ Kenneth Todar. All About E. coli *↑ Genome sequence of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus ...
doi:10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0330-01.. *^ Westwood, James H.; Yoder, John I.; Timko, Michael P.; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2010). "The ... Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage virus. It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail ... Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely limited ... and in the way that bacteriophages can limit bacterial infections. It is likely, though little researched, that most pathogenic ...
Phi X 174)(Phage Φ-X174)的基因組序列。這也是首次完整的基因組定序工作。他所發明的技術比起當時其他方法使用了較不具毒性的材料。主要是先進行DNA 合成,利用DNA引子和DNA聚合酶使DNA鏈得以展開複製,再利用雙去氧核苷酸( ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Barrell, B.G.; Smith, A.J.; Roe, B.A., Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D
... where he joined the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity.[31] Although he originally majored in mathematics, he later switched to ... "Mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Genetics (published February 1962). 47 (2): 179-86. PMC 1210321 ... 174] The commission ultimately determined that the disaster was caused by the primary O-ring not properly sealing in unusually ...
Phi X 174 on esimene DNA-l baseeruv genoom, mis sekveneeriti. Rõngasgenoom koosneb 11 geenist ja selles on 5386 aluspaari.[5] ... Bacteriophage phiX174 *↑ Kenneth Todar. All About E. coli *↑ Genome sequence of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus ...

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