Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Doulas: Trained lay women who provide emotional and/or physical support during obstetric labor and the postpartum period for mothers and their partners.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Ligusticum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.VietnamMice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)SvalbardViral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Dictionaries, PharmaceuticDictionaries, MedicalRxNorm: A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalNanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Nobel PrizeViola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Cowpox: A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (1/413)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

Replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates is required for bacterial growth. (2/413)

PriA, a 3' --> 5' DNA helicase, directs assembly of a primosome on some bacteriophage and plasmid DNAs. Primosomes are multienzyme replication machines that contribute both the DNA-unwinding and Okazaki fragment-priming functions at the replication fork. The role of PriA in chromosomal replication is unclear. The phenotypes of priA null mutations suggest that the protein participates in replication restart at recombination intermediates. We show here that PriA promotes replication fork assembly at a D loop, an intermediate formed during initiation of homologous recombination. We also show that DnaC810, encoded by a naturally arising intergenic suppressor allele of the priA2::kan mutation, bypasses the need for PriA during replication fork assembly at D loops in vitro. These findings underscore the essentiality of replication fork restart at recombination intermediates under normal growth conditions in bacteria.  (+info)

Virus passage through track-etch membranes modified by salinity and a nonionic surfactant. (3/413)

Why do viruses sometimes not pass through larger pores in track-etch filters? Increasing the salinity (0.8 to 160 mM Na+) decreased phiX174 and PRD1 passage through track-etch polycarbonate membranes (sodium dodecyl sulfate coated but not polyvinylpyrrolidone coated) and PRD1 passage through polyester membranes. Undiminished passage when 0.1% Tween 80 was added implied that nonionic virus adsorption occurred and indicated that high levels of salinity decreased virus passage by decreasing electrostatic repulsion that prevented adsorption.  (+info)

Different trajectories of parallel evolution during viral adaptation. (4/413)

The molecular basis of adaptation is a major focus of evolutionary biology, yet the dynamic process of adaptation has been explored only piecemeal. Experimental evolution of two bacteriophage lines under strong selection led to over a dozen nucleotide changes genomewide in each replicate. At least 96 percent of the amino acid substitutions appeared to be adaptive, and half the changes in one line also occurred in the other. However, the order of these changes differed between replicates, and parallel substitutions did not reflect the changes with the largest beneficial effects or indicate a common trajectory of adaptation.  (+info)

Evolutionary reversals during viral adaptation to alternating hosts. (5/413)

Experimental adaptation of the bacteriophage phiX174 to a Salmonella host depressed its ability to grow on the traditional Escherichia host, whereas adaptation to Escherichia did not appreciably affect growth on Salmonella. Continued host switching consistently exhibited this pattern. Growth inhibition on Escherichia resulted from two to three substitutions in the major capsid gene. When these phages were forced to grow again on Escherichia, fitness recovery occurred predominantly by reversions at these same sites, rather than by second-site compensatory changes, the more frequently observed mechanism in most microbial systems. The affected residues lie on the virion surface and they alter attachment efficiency, yet they occur in a region distinct from a putative binding region previously identified from X-ray crystallography. These residues not only experienced high rates of evolution in our experiments, but also exhibited high levels of radical amino acid variation among phiX174 and its known relatives, consistent with a history of adaptation involving these sites.  (+info)

Transfer of immune complexes from erythrocyte CR1 to mouse macrophages. (6/413)

We are developing a potential therapeutic approach for removing pathogens from the circulation of primates in which the pathogen is bound to the complement receptor (CR1) on E using a bispecific mAb complex, a heteropolymer (HP). We have used mAb this approach to demonstrate that cleared prototype pathogens are localized to, phagocytosed in, and destroyed in the liver. Extension of this work to a clinical setting will require a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which the E-bound immune complex substrates are transferred to fixed tissue macrophages in the liver, the transfer reaction. Therefore, we examined an in vitro system to study this process using bacteriophage phiX174 as a model pathogen. E containing phiX174 (bound via an anti-CR1/anti-phiX174 HP) were incubated with P388D1 murine macrophages, and the two cell types were separated by centrifugation through Ficoll. Both E and macrophages were then probed and analyzed by RIA or flow cytometry. The results indicate that all three components of the E-bound IC (phiX174, HP, and CR1) were removed from the E and internalized by the macrophages. We found that transfer requires the Fc portion of IgG, because little transfer of phiX174 occurs when it is bound to E CR1 using a HP containing only Fab fragments. These findings, taken in the context of other studies, suggest a general mechanism for the transfer reaction in which Fc receptors facilitate close juxtaposition of the macrophage to the E-bound IC which then allows a macrophage-associated protease to cleave CR1. The released IC are then internalized and processed by the macrophages.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of DnaC810, a primosomal protein capable of bypassing PriA function. (7/413)

Escherichia coli strains lacking PriA are severely compromised in their ability to repair UV-damaged DNA and to perform homologous recombination. These phenotypes arise because of a lack of PriA-directed replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates such as D-loops. Naturally arising suppressor mutations in dnaC restore strains carrying the priA2::kan null allele to wild-type function. We have cloned one such gene, dnaC810, and overexpressed, purified, and characterized the DnaC810 protein. DnaC810 can support a PriA-independent synthesis of phiX174 complementary strand DNA. This can be attributed to its ability, unlike wild-type DnaC, to catalyze a SSB-insensitive general priming reaction with DnaB and DnaG on any SSB-coated single-stranded DNA. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that DnaC810 could load DnaB directly to SSB-coated single-stranded DNA as well as to D loop DNA. This explains the ability of DnaC810 to bypass the requirement for PriA, PriB, PriC, and DnaT during replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates.  (+info)

Characterization of the binding of spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174 with receptor lipopolysaccharides. (8/413)

The spike H protein of bacteriophage phiX174 was prepared as a hexa histidine-tagged fusion (HisH). On enzyme-linked plate assaying, HisH was found to bind specifically to the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of phiX174-sensitive strains, Escherichia coli C and Salmonella typhimurium Ra chemotype, having the complete oligosaccharide sequence of the R-core on the LPSs. In sharp contrast, HisH bound weakly to the LPSs of phiX174-insensitive strains, i.e. E. coli F583 (Rd(2)) lacking some terminal saccharides and E. coli O111: B4 (smooth strain) having additional O-repeats on the R-core. The fluorescence spectra of HisH changed dose-dependently in the case of the LPS of E. coli C, the intensity increasing and the emission peak shifting to the shorter wavelength side, which was attributable to the hydrophobic interaction of HisH with the LPS. The binding equilibrium was analyzed by fluorometric titration to determine the dissociation constant K(d), 7.02 +/- 0.37 microM, and the Gibbs free energy change DeltaG(0), -29.1 kJ mol(-1) (at 22 degrees C, pH 7.4). Based on the temperature dependence of (K)d in a van't Hoff plot, the standard enthalpy change DeltaH(0) and the entropy change DeltaS(0) were calculated to be +23.7 kJ mol(-1) and 179 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 22 degrees C, respectively, and this binding was thereby concluded to be an entropy-driven reaction.  (+info)

*Hamilton O. Smith

In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific ...

*Virology

In 2003 a faster method was shown to assemble the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in 2 weeks. The giant ... In 1977, Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X 174. In ... Bacteriophages occasionally move genetic material from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction, and ... Bacteriophages, the viruses which infect bacteria, can be relatively easily grown as viral plaques on bacterial cultures. ...

*Genomic library

Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...

*Microviridae

... phi X174, G4 and phi K" Biochim Biophys Acta 1130(3) 277-288 Aoyama A, Hayashi M (1986) Synthesis of bacteriophage phi X174 in ... Keegstra W, Baas PD, Jansz HS (1979) Bacteriophage phi X174 RF DNA replication in vivo. A study by electron microscopy" J Mol ... Tessman ES, Tessman I, Pollock TJ (1980) Gene K of bacteriophage phi X 174 codes for a nonessential protein" J Virol 33(1) 557- ... A protein of bacteriophage phi X174 into an ATT codon yields a viable phage indicating that A protein is not essential for phi ...

*Mycoplasma laboratorium

... phi}X174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (26): 15440-15445 ... producing the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in about two weeks. However, the genome of Mycoplasma ...

*Hans D. Ochs

... in patients with antibody deficiencies and the in vivo analysis of antibody production using bacteriophage Phi X 174. He and ...

*Elizabeth Blackburn

... and her PhD in 1975 from the University of Cambridge in molecular biology on the bacteriophage Phi X 174 while a student of ... 1-13 Blackburn, Elizabeth Helen (1974). Sequence studies on bacteriophage ØX174 DNA by transcription. lib.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis ...

*Phi X 174

This bacteriophage has a [+] circular single-stranded DNA genome of 5386 nucleotides encoding 11 proteins. Of these 11 genes, ... Phi X is regularly used as a positive control in DNA sequencing due to its relatively small genome size in comparison to other ... The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. ... The Bacteriophages (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0195148503. Goodsell, David (February 2000). " ...

*Bacteriophage

G4 phage P1 phage Enterobacteria phage P2 P4 phage Phi X 174 phage N4 phage Pseudomonas phage Φ6 Φ29 phage 186 phage Viruses ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL. Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...

*174 (number)

... on parchment Phi X 174 bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced VA-174 List of highways numbered 174 United ... 174 is an even number, a composite number, a sphenic number, and an abundant number with the abundance of 12. It is a ... 174 Phaedra is a large, rocky main belt asteroid Gliese 174 or V834 Tau, a variable star 174th Air Refueling Squadron unit of ... 174 174 in the New York City Subway System The former 174th Street elevated station on the demolished IRT Third Avenue Line. ...

*DNA virus

Although bacteriophages were first described in 1927, it was only in 1959 that Sinshemer working with phage Phi X 174 showed ... The largest bacteriophage known is Klebsiella Phage vB_KleM-RaK2 which has a genome of 346 kilobases. A recently proposed clade ... Several dsDNA bacteriophages and the herpesviruses encode a powerful ATP driven DNA translocating machine that encapsidates a ... To a lesser extent this gene is also found in T4-like bacteriophages suggesting a common ancestor for these two groups of ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 --- bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 --- bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.691.230 --- cystoviridae MeSH B04.123.691.230.070 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.691.600 ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123. ...

*Bacteriophage P2

Clerch, B., E. Rivera, and M. Llagostera, Bacteriophage PSP3 and phi R73 activator proteins: analysis of promoter specificities ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a contractile sheath and is thus ...

*Synthetic genomes

PCA was used to generate the first synthetic genome in history, that of the Phi X 174 virus. The Gibson Assembly Method, ... φX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (26): 15440-15445. ...

*Richard Feynman

Instead, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he joined the Phi Beta Delta fraternity. Although he ... "Mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Genetics (published February 1962). 47 (2): 179-86. PMC 1210321 . ... 171-174. "I love my wife. My wife is dead". Letters of Note. Retrieved April 23, 2013. Gleick 1992, pp. 227-229. Mehra 1994, pp ...

*Synthetic genomics

PCA was used to generate the first synthetic genome in history, that of the Phi X 174 virus. The Gibson assembly method, ... φX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (26): 15440-15445. ...
The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Not long after Arbers discoveries, Arthur Kornberg identified the pasting mechanism for DNA, an enzyme he called ligase. Kornberg was trying to construct artificial viral DNA from viral fragments, but had been unable to make a biologically active molecule. Once he added ligase, however, he found that the enzyme made it possible to paste the ends of DNA molecules together.,br,,br, With ligase, the viral DNA he created formed a continuous loop, just as it did in the original virus. The artificial viral DNA was indeed biologically active, it could reproduce on its own, and Kornberg was hailed as having made life in a test tube ...
I have this nasty differential equation: ( Lorentz invariant elliptical invariant Klein-Gordon) -(hbar2/(2*m))*Sum[D[Phi[x[i]],{x(i),2}],{i,1,4}]+2*m*c2*J{Sqrt[m/m0]]=0 The substition Im working with is the Kerr mass one of: m/m0-,(r/r0)^2 and J as an elliptical invariant like: J[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x5*(x10+11*x5-1)5) I isolate the radial part of the second differential ( in a polar four sopace the angular part isnt importyant mostly to mass radial solutions) The Phi part is straight forfowd so Im left with a double interagation of a nasty rational function: ( m^2-,r^4) f[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x*(x10+11*x5-1)5) or if hbar^2/(m^2*c^2)--,r^2 g[x_]=(-x20+228*x15-494*x10-228*x5-1)3/(1728*x^7 *(x10+11*x5-1)5) What I tried after the Integration wouldnt stop in my Mathematica was doing a term wise integration ( 64 terms, every 5th one non-zero ...
An interesting number and sequence Phi What is Phi? Phi ( = 1.618033988749895... ), most often pronounced fi like fly , is simply an irrational number like pi ( p = 3.14
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
We had the 3rd brother as well, but sadly he passed away a few months ago. They were posted on craigslist shortly after I adopted my first two piggies. I originally was going to just adopt Dexter, but then decided to take Dexter and James. The woman that had them emailed me a few days later and said the 3rd brother (Vince) was returned, so of course I had to go get him also ...
The effect of rifampin on the replication of MVL51, a bullet-shaped mycoplasmavirus with single-stranded circular DNA of molecular weight 2 X 10(6), has been examined in a rifampin-resistant host cell. Rifampin does not block the early steps in MVL51 infection but does decrease the total amount of parental viral DNA taken up. The single-stranded parental viral DNA that enters the cell is found in membrane-associated, double-stranded DNA replicative forms I and II. Rifampin had no significant effect on the synthesis of progeny viral DNA RFI and RFII early in infection and SSI (single-stranded progeny viral chromosomes) later in infection. The rifampin block in virus synthesis was found to be in the step converting SSI into assembled virions. Rifampin was shown to affect the synthesis of virus-specific RNA, Which suggests that viral transcription is necessary for virion assembly. ...
Phi Phi Anita Resort, Ko Phi Phi Don: See 66 traveller reviews, 56 candid photos, and great deals for Phi Phi Anita Resort, ranked #31 of 66 B&Bs / inns in Ko Phi Phi Don and rated 3 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Recently, Ive noticed a lot of confusion surrounding X DNA matching and mitochondrial DNA. Some folks think they are the same thing, but they arent at all. Its easy to become confused by the different types of DNA that we can use for genealogy, so Ill try to explain these differences two or three different ways…
Recently, Ive noticed a lot of confusion surrounding X DNA matching and mitochondrial DNA. Some folks think they are the same thing, but they arent at all. Its easy to become confused by the different types of DNA that we can use for genealogy, so Ill try to explain these differences two or three different ways…
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இவ்வகையான மரபணுப் பிறழ்வுகளும் X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகுகளிலேற்படும் விகாரங்களால் ஏற்படுகின்றன. இங்கும் ஆண்களே பெண்களைவிட அதிகளவில் பாதிப்புக்கு உள்ளாகின்றனர். X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகில் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்பு ஆகையால், தொடர்ந்த சந்ததிக்கு கடத்தப்படுவதும் ஆணுக்கும் பெண்ணுக்கும் வேறுபடுகின்றது. பிறக்கும் ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்குழந்தையும், தனக்கான X ...
800x600◎教育情况:1989年12月-1992年5月为日本名古屋大学医学部研究生1993年11月-1998年10月为日本岐阜大学博士研究生1998年11月-1999年3月为日本岐阜大学医学部研究学者◎工作经历:1999年4月-至今中山大学肿瘤防治中心麻醉科工作 ◎省级以上学术团体及国家级专业杂志任...
800x600◎教育情况:1989年12月-1992年5月为日本名古屋大学医学部研究生1993年11月-1998年10月为日本岐阜大学博士研究生1998年11月-1999年3月为日本岐阜大学医学部研究学者◎工作经历:1999年4月-至今中山大学肿瘤防治中心麻醉科工作 ◎省级以上学术团体及国家级专业杂志任...
简历 & 研究组工作摘要 1955年 毕业于中山大学化学系。. 1960年 苏联科学院元素有机化合物研究所研究生毕业,获副博士学位。. 1965-1967 在英国皇家研究所及牛津大学访问学者。. 1980年选为中国科学院学部委员, 1985年选为第三世界科学院院士。. 现任中国科学院生物物理所研究员。博士生导师。曾任中国科学院生物物理所所长(1983-1986), 国家自然科学基金委员会副主任(1986-1995)。. 主要从事蛋白质晶体学和结构生物学。己发表自然科学论文140余篇,专著《X射线晶体学基础》等。研究成果分别获1982年国家自然科学二等奖、1989年国家自然科学二等奖、1987年中国科学院自然科学一等奖及1986年、1992年中国科学院自然科学二等奖。1992年获首届王丹萍科学奖金,1995年获何梁何利科学与技术进步奖。2004年获北京市科学技术奖一等奖。 ...
東京歯科大学水道橋病院における最近6年間の口腔外科全身麻酔手術症例の臨床的検討東京歯科大学水道橋病院における最近6年間の口腔外科全身麻酔手術症例の臨床的検討AN0009999X ...
Microviridae is a family of bacteriophages with a single-stranded DNA genome. The name of this family is derived from the Greek micro, meaning small. This refers to the size of their genomes, which are among the smallest of the DNA viruses. Enterobacteria, intracellular parasitic bacteria, and spiroplasma serve as natural hosts. There are currently 12 species in this family, divided among 7 genera and one subfamily. The virons are non-enveloped, round with an icosahedral symmetry (T = 1). They have a diameter between 25-27 nanometers and lack tails. Each viron has 60 copies each of the F, G, and J proteins and 12 copies of the H protein. They have 12 pentagonal trumpet-shaped pentomers (~7.1 nm wide × 3.8 nm high), each of which composed of 5 copies of G and one of the H protein. Viruses in this family replicate their genomes via a rolling circle mechanism and encode dedicated RCR initiation proteins. Although the majority of species in this family have lytic life cycles, a few may have ...
On the fidelity of DNA replication. Isolation of high fidelity DNA polymerase-primase complexes by immunoaffinity chromatography.
Two N-terminal self-association domains are required for the dominant negative transcriptional activity of WT1 Denys-Drash mutant proteins. In transfection experiments with M13 mp DNA species, IT-Dop inhibited the single-stranded (SS) molecule more effectively than the double stranded replicative form (RF) DNA ...
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Optimize performance while maintaining a unified hardware and software environment with the latest products from the Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor family
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. PHI ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Restriction enzyme inhibition and lambda exonuclease studies indicate that carcinogen N-acetoxy-N-acetyl-2 aminofluorene (AAAF) binds to sequences on ɸX174 RF and SV40 plasmids DNA that are similar to the eight preferred binding sites previously located on pBR 322. Both DNAs were digested with enzyme Hinf I and resultant fragments 32P end-labeled. Labeled fragments were reacted with the carcinogen to give one to sixteen bound moieties per DNA. Fragments were isolated and restriccion enzyme and lambda exonuclease inhibition assays were performed. Inhibition detected occurred at selected sites and was not specific for a certain enzyme or certain size of recognition sequence. Results of these assays allow mapping of the location of high affinity binding sites of the carcinogen on both DNAs. All sites have common sequence elements: the presence of either the sequence T(G/C)TT(G/C) or the sequence T(G/C) CTT(G/C).
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
infection (Wintrobe & Hasenbush, 1939) and we now know that most patients will develop low levels of immunoglobulin if cases are followed for long enough. Hypogammaglobulinaemia was first recognized as a clinical entity by Bruton (1952), when electrophoresis of serum revealed the surprising absence of the gamma fraction in an otherwise normal pattern. Immunological studies showed a complete absence of antibodies and isohaemagglutinins. Odd case reports of agammaglobulinaemia in CLL began appearing shortly afterwards (Brem & Morton, 1955; Jim & Reinhard, 1956). Jim (1957) found that 17 out of 50 patients had hypogammaglobulinaemia. In a more comprehensive study, Cone & Uhr (1964) found deficiencies in all classes of serum immunoglobulins and failure to produce an antibody response to phi x 174, a primary antigen, or diphtheria toxoid, a secondary antigen. There was also a failure to sensitize to dinitrofluorobenzene, although most patients did produce a delayed hypersensitivity response to recall ...
NIH thinks that a biological motor from bacteriophage phi29 indeed has a potential for the future of nanomedicine, for a number of reasons. The press offic
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Menjadi Pria Perkasa adalah Biasa, menjadi Pria Sejati Katolik adalah Luar Biasa. Diutamakan bagi yang akan/sudah menikah. Angkatan XIV: 29-30 Sep 2012 Sawangan Hotel & Golf Residence Sawangan, Depok Registrasi/Daftar ulang pk. 07.30 WIB Investasi Rp. 495.000 Pembicara: RM Aloysius Hadi Nugroho, Pr Achsen Gumelar Aloysius Ralph Marsoedhy Mulio Santoso Joppy Taroreh Billy Harijanto Boy…
Calories in Pro Bar Old School Pb & J Protein Bar. Find nutrition facts for Pro Bar Old School Pb & J Protein Bar and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
TABLE-US-00028 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 261 290 290 1 1 2 2 No sample su1 se phi062 phi323152 phi323152 phi101249 phi101249 Phi346482 Phi346482 1 017 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 2 044 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 3 006 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 4 007 n p 160 134 134 -- -- 119 119 5 009 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 6 047 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 7 637 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 8 001 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 9 046 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 10 048 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 11 049 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 12 109 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 13 354 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 14 sh2-i n n 158 135 135 141 141 119 119 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 11 11 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 3 3 4 4 5 5 No sample Phi213398 Phi213398 phi109624 phi109624 Phi159819 Phi159819 1 017 302 302 131 131 125 125 2 044 302 302 131 131 125 125 3 006 302 302 140 140 125 125 4 007 302 302 140 140 125 125 5 009 302 302 131 131 ...
The Cobble Beach, Phi Phi Island, Hin Poo Bay from 70 $ (18.Dec) Instant hotel booking. The Cobble Beach Resort enjoys a hillside location on the northern end of Loh Dalam Bay and offers 39 rooms and villas in three categories. The Thai-s...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
WORLD EXCLUSIVE Almost three months on, a policeman says insecticide probably killed Canadas Belanger sisters on the holiday island of Phi Phi. But theres no official report yet.
Lieberman, I. & Kornberg, A. (1954). „Enzymatic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. II. Dihydroorotic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5-carboxymethylhydantoin". J. Biol. Chem. 207: 911-924. PMID 13163076 ...
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with(numtheory): A000029 := proc(n) local d, s; if n = 0 then RETURN(1); else if n mod 2 = 1 then s := 2^((n-1)/2) else s := 2^(n/2-2)+2^(n/2-1); fi; for d in divisors(n) do s := s+phi(d)*2^(n/d)/(2*n); od; RETURN(s); fi; end ...
花月正春风/刘墉作/绢本设色/工笔/76.5x46.5CM/2013 即使 天堂 是不愁吃穿3不必工作3永永远远活着3 那活着有什么意义3 正因为有苦恼3才有解决的快乐; 正因为有病痛3才有痊愈的欢喜4 正因为有忧愁3才有忘忧的美好4 正因为有今天的不足3 ...
In molecular biology, a primosome is a protein complex responsible for creating RNA primers on single stranded DNA during DNA replication. The primosome consists of seven proteins: DnaG primase, DnaB helicase, DnaC helicase assistant, DnaT, PriA, Pri B, and PriC. At each replication fork, the primosome is utilized once on the leading strand of DNA and repeatedly, initiating each Okazaki fragment, on the lagging DNA strand. Initially the complex formed by PriA, PriB, and PriC binds to DNA. Then the DnaB-DnaC helicase complex attaches along with DnaT. This structure is referred to as the pre-primosome. Finally, DnaG will bind to the pre-primosome forming a complete primosome. The primosome attaches 1-10 RNA nucleotides to the single stranded DNA creating a DNA-RNA hybrid. This sequence of RNA is used as a primer to initiate DNA polymerase III. The RNA bases are ultimately replaced with DNA bases by RNase H nuclease (eukaryotes) or DNA polymerase I nuclease (prokaryotes). DNA Ligase then acts to ...
Numerous novel episomal DNA-sequences related to single-stranded circular DNA viruses have been isolated from milk, bovine sera as well as from different human pathological biopsies (Funk et al.; Gunst et al.; Lamberto et al.; Whitley et al.; all Genome Announc. (2014) 2(4); Falida et al.; Genome Announc. (2017) 5(17)). The high degree of homology between isolates from milk, bovine sera and human tissue or serum points at the consumption of bovine meat or dairy products as potential route of transmission. The global epidemiology of some common cancers (e.g. colon and breast cancer) could suggest a zoonotic origin of these conditions (zur Hausen and de Villiers, 2015; zur Hausen, Bund and de Villiers, 2017 ...
Description: The process by which adeno-associated virus (AAV) infects host cells includes viral binding and entry, intracellular trafficking, nuclear transport, and viral second strand DNA synthesis. The second strand DNA synthesis has been shown to be the rate limiting step, which leads to inefficient transduction by AAV vectors. ViraDuctin AAV Transduction Kit is a proprietary, multi-reagent formulation designed to increase the efficiency of transduction by AAV vectors. Reagent preparation takes only 10 minutes prior to host cell infection ...
I have many thoughts about what a Phi Phop really is. Some Thai sources say that she is a banana spirit (香蕉精) that dwells in a banana plant in the wild. Yet there are many Chinese sources like to akin Phi Phop with Gu maiden or master of poisons ( 蛊女). In the past, Gu is a subject no one in Indochina regions likes to talk about. The Hmong (苗族) people called a Gu maiden as Phi Phop. Once a lady is being accused of being a Phi Phop, then she has to leave her village and live in isolation. When there are many Phi Phops living together, they form a Phi Phop village. This type of village can still be found in isolated areas of Indochina. So, perhaps we can deduce that a Phi Phop is the spirit of a Gu maiden ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Phi Le, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
1. Factor: x2 + 11x + 10 (x + 10)(x +1) (x + 11)(x + 10) (x + 2)(x + 5) primeWhat is so hard about th...
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AMSBIO에서 Ozilla™는 새로운 고품질, 목적을 위해 세워지는 오존 가스 발전기입니다. 다만 13의 x 11의 x 5 인치 (32 x 28 x 13 cm)를 측정해서, 그것은 대부분의 표준 실험실 세포 배양 부화기, 공기 부화기, 세포 배양 두건, PCR 두건, 또는 메마른 대기권이 중요한 다른 어떤 환경에 맞출 것입니다
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This paper is concerned with a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation with the form \begin{eqnarray} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}+u\left\{ 1+\alpha u-\beta u^{2}-(1+\alpha-\beta)(\phi\ast u) \right\}, \quad (t,x)\in (0,\infty) \times \mathbb{R}, \end{eqnarray} where $\alpha $ and $\beta$ are positive constants, $0|\beta|1+\alpha$. We prove that there exists a number $c^*\geq 2$ such that the equation admits a positive traveling wave solution connecting the zero equilibrium to an unknown positive steady state for each speed $c|c^*$. At the same time, we show that there is no such traveling wave solutions for speed $c|2$. For sufficiently large speed $c|c^*$, we further show that the steady state is the unique positive equilibrium. Using the lower and upper solutions method, we also establish the existence of monotone traveling wave fronts connecting the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium. Finally, for a specific kernel function $\phi(x):=
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Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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The preparation that was sent you contained 500 units per cc and its purity is 2000 units per milligram protein. A unit has been defined as one micromole DPN split per hour at 38 degrees at pH 7.4. In view of the fact that practically all my experiences with this enzyme has been with its DPN-splitting properties, I would consider that the most safe criterion of its potency. However, the rate of increase of fluorescence of a FAD preparation or the rate of hydrolysis ATP may turn out to be equally reliable. The preparation you have contains approximately 125 units per cc with respect to micromoles of phosphate release from ATP. Thus, the relative potency of DPN to ATP splitting is approximately 4. The ratio of 300, as indicated in my note, is misleading in that the ATP units were differently defined: they were expressed in terms of a reaction velocity constant ...
D_f = \Gamma _f \nabla \phi _f \cdot{\rm{\vec S_f = }}\Gamma _{\rm{f}} \left[ {\left( {\phi _N - \phi _P } \right)\vec \alpha \cdot {\rm{\vec S_f + }}\bar \nabla \phi_f \cdot {\rm{\vec S_f - }}\left( {\bar \nabla \phi_f \cdot {\overrightarrow{d_{PN}}}} \right)\vec \alpha \cdot {\rm{\vec S_f}}} \right ...
My 5 year old son is obsessed, and I mean obsessed with lego. Those tiny little pieces are always under my feet. So when I saw these fruut sacks I just knew I had to give them a go. I was a little hesitant with the price to start with (they are $38.50 for small, $44.55 for medium and $47.85), I thought they were expensive for what they were - but boy was I wrong! They are so worth their weight in gold ...
Boutique Nutrition sportive et parapharmacie discount pas chere en ligne pour les Produits musculation, la sante, la minceur, la beaute et la forme.
It is also measure of time ie. in EE with phasors (f=constant) if we get philosophical P=U*I*Cos(Phi), as it is there for the difference of the phase of the I and U in timedomain. Now when phasors are mentioned, will there be traditional non-tagged method of using angles, by just using bare numbers. I think these two methods cant be separated in discussion they must work together and I go as far as saying that tagging should be more like an option to those who are jumping between O/(decided slicing method ...
色色色色色男人网站878vvcomohhdbdtprycn相关信息,202.195.136.156202.195.136.156/wwh/Files/WUH/201504271615409770.mhtTranslate this pageMIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=----=_NextPart_01D08104.8E9C3AC0 此文档为
Histones and polyamines nick the phosphodiester bond 3′ to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in DNA by inducing a beta-elimination reaction, which can be followed by delta-elimination. These beta- and delta-elimination reactions might be important for the repair of AP sites in chromatin DNA in either of two ways. In one pathway, after the phosphodiester bond 5′ to the AP site has been hydrolysed with an AP endonuclease, the 5′-terminal base-free sugar 5′-phosphate is released by beta-elimination. The one-nucleotide gap limited by 3′-OH and 5′-phosphate ends is then closed by DNA polymerase-beta and DNA ligase. We have shown in vitro that such a repair is possible. In the other pathway, the nicking 3′ to the AP site by beta-elimination occurs first. We have shown that the 3′-terminal base-free sugar so produced cannot be released by the chromatin AP endonuclease from rat liver. But it can be released by delta-elimination, leaving a gap limited by 3′-phosphate and 5′-phosphate. ...
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
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Start with: 5x3 - 45x.. You can factor out every term starting with constants; in this case 5.. 5 ( x3 - 9x). Next step, factor out the x so. 5x (x2 - 9). Using FOIL, you can then factor out the term in the parenthesis (x2 - 9). Note there is no x term and the 9 is a perfect square. You get (x -3) (x + 3).. So, in its final form you get. (5x )(x - 3) (x + 3). which can also be written as. 5(x)(x-3)(x+3). ...
|p|Fragrance-free and dye-free. Approximate pH 4.0 - 4.1.|/p| |p||strong|For the face:|/strong| From Dan: I have always kept some glycolic acid (a.k.a. alpha hydroxy acid or AHA) around as a secret weapon. This is how I describe what it does: |a href=h

Category:Bacteriophages - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Bacteriophages - Wikimedia Commons

Bacteriophage Phi X 174‎ (6 B). *. ► Bacteriophage trimeric proteins domain‎ (1 C) ... Media in categorie "Bacteriophages". Deze categorie bevat de volgende 77 bestanden, van in totaal 77. ... ADVERTISEMENT; Antivirus and bacteriophages Wellcome L0032605.jpg 5.228 × 3.451; 7,23 MB. ... The arrangement of known genes of bacteriophage T12 after integration into host.png 917 × 456; 28 kB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Bacteriophages?uselang=nl

The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...

The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. The safety and scientific ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001540?order=376

The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...

... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. This study has been ... Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001540?order=387

CU/CS-VU18SKH-8 Cooling - Panasonic VietnamCU/CS-VU18SKH-8 Cooling - Panasonic Vietnam

Virus : Bacteriophage (Phi X 174 NBRC 103405). • Test Report number : 11047937001-02. Mould : Cladosporium cladosporioides ( ... Virus : Escherichia coli phage (φΧ-174 ATCC 13706-B1). All results are based on specific testing conditions.. All tests are not ... Virus : Escherichia coli phage (øX-174 ATCC 13706-B1). : Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Virus. • KRCES-Env. Test Report no. : 23_0140. ...
more infohttps://www.panasonic.com/vn/en/consumer/air-conditioner/cooling/cu_cs-vu18skh-8.html

CU/CS-VU9SKH-8 Cooling - Panasonic VietnamCU/CS-VU9SKH-8 Cooling - Panasonic Vietnam

Virus : Bacteriophage (Phi X 174 NBRC 103405). • Test Report number : 11047937001-02. Mould : Cladosporium cladosporioides ( ... Virus : Escherichia coli phage (φΧ-174 ATCC 13706-B1). All results are based on specific testing conditions.. All tests are not ... Virus : Escherichia coli phage (øX-174 ATCC 13706-B1). : Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Virus. • KRCES-Env. Test Report no. : 23_0140. ...
more infohttps://www.panasonic.com/vn/en/consumer/air-conditioner/cooling/cu_cs-vu9skh-8.html

Bacteriophages offer promising alternative to antibioticsBacteriophages offer promising alternative to antibiotics

... from a new clinical study have confirmed the safety and tolerability of using bacteria-specific viruses known as bacteriophages ... Bacteriophages offer promising alternative to antibiotics. by Nutrition 2018 Bacteriophage Phi X 174 Electron micrograph. ... Bacteriophages can be used to selectively combat specific microorganisms in people without causing any type of infection or ... Bacteriophages: Are they an overlooked driver of Parkinsons disease?. Jun 10, 2018 ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-06-bacteriophages-alternative-antibiotics.html

Frontiers | X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Type 1: A Clinical and Molecular Perspective | ImmunologyFrontiers | X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Type 1: A Clinical and Molecular Perspective | Immunology

X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome: abnormal antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X 174. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser ( ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00666/full

Physiology | Bryan Brandenburg OfficialPhysiology | Bryan Brandenburg Official

The phi X bacteriophage is of interest because it was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. Read more ...
more infohttp://bryanmbrandenburg.com/category/3d-biology/physiology/page/2/

The ultimate goal: Sequencing DNAThe ultimate goal: Sequencing DNA

So far the smallest form of DNA available was from the single-stranded bacteriophage phi X174. This had been purified in 1959 ... Sinsheimer, R L (1959) A single-stranded DNA from bacteriophage phi X174, Journal Molecular Biology, 1:43. Back ... Hutchison not only had expertise in the bacteriophages genetics, but brought with him a mutant strain of the bacteriophage ... Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA, Nature, 265: 687-95. Back ...
more infohttp://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/exhibitions/sanger/dna

Genome: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia ArticleGenome: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article

Bacteriophage MS2. Bacteriophage MS2. The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that ... Phi-X174 phage. The phi X 174 bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. This work was completed by Fred ... Phi-X174 phage. The phi X 174 bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. This work was completed by Fred ... was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a viral RNA-genome (bacteriophage MS2. Bacteriophage ...
more infohttp://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Genome

Genomic library - WikipediaGenomic library - Wikipedia

Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genomic_library

NYOH - Drug DictionaryNYOH - Drug Dictionary

bacteriophage phi X 174 A bacteriophage that infects E. coli. Its genome is a circular DNA of 5386 bases. Check for active ...
more infohttp://newyorkoncology.com/disease-drug-info/drug-dictionary/B/

Virology - WikipediaVirology - Wikipedia

In 1977, Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X 174. In ... In 2003 a faster method was shown to assemble the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in 2 weeks. ... Bacteriophages occasionally move genetic material from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction,[8] and ... Bacteriophages, the viruses which infect bacteria, can be relatively easily grown as viral plaques on bacterial cultures. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virology

David B. Lewis M.D. | Stanford Medicine ProfilesDavid B. Lewis M.D. | Stanford Medicine Profiles

... lack of amplification and failure to undergo isotype switching in response to immunization with bacteriophage phi x 174 ... 174-185 Abstract. Vaccinia immunization was pivotal to successful smallpox eradication. However, the early immune responses ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/david-lewis

Items where Option is Biology - CaltechTHESISItems where Option is "Biology" - CaltechTHESIS

Benbow, Robert Michael (1972) On the genetic recombination of bacteriophage [phi]X174 DNA molecules. Dissertation (Ph.D.), ... Denhardt, David T. (1965) A biophysical study of bacteriophage [phi]X-174 replication. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California ... Hutchison, Clyde Allen (1969) Bacteriophage [phi]X174: Viral genes and functions. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of ... Guthrie, George Drake (1962) Studies on the interaction of subviral particles of the bacteriophage [phi]X174 with protoplasts ...
more infohttps://thesis.library.caltech.edu/view/option/biology.html

Hamilton O. Smith - WikipediaHamilton O. Smith - Wikipedia

In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_O._Smith

CDC- NPPTL - Considerations for Selecting Protective Clothing used in Healthcare for Protection against Microorganisms in Blood...CDC- NPPTL - Considerations for Selecting Protective Clothing used in Healthcare for Protection against Microorganisms in Blood...

Bacteriophage. Phi-X174. no penetration at 2 psi(13.8 kPa). 1 In order of increasing protection2 American Association of ... Phi-X174 bacteriophage penetration as a test system.. ISO 16604-. Clothing for protection against contact with blood and body ... Phi-X174 bacteriophage has nearly spherical morphology similar to HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. At 27 nm in diameter, it ... Bacteriophage. (Phi-X174) challenge suspension. Determines the ability of a material to resist the penetration of a ...
more infohttp://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/protectiveclothing/default.html

PPE-Info - Advanced SearchPPE-Info - Advanced Search

Test method using Phi-X 174 bacteriophage" Title "Clothing for protection against contact with blood and body fluids -- ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/PPEInfo/AdvancedSearch?page=36

PPE-Info - SearchPPE-Info - Search

Test method using Phi-X 174 bacteriophage" Title "Clothing for protection against contact with blood and body fluids -- ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/PPEInfo/Search?page=58

Study of Immune Responses and Safety of Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand in Patients With X-Linked Hyper-IgM SyndromeStudy of Immune Responses and Safety of Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand in Patients With X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome

hemocyanin (KLH) and Bacteriophage Phi-X 174 (PhiX174) to evaluate antigen-specific B and T. cell responses. Clinical response ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00001145/

Unravelling the genomeUnravelling the genome

... is sequenced by Walter Fiers and his team in Belgium and the genome of a single stranded DNA bacteriophage Phi X 174 is ... 1977 The genome of a single stranded RNA bacteriophage MS2 (a virus which attacks bacteria) ...
more infohttps://www.abpischools.org.uk/topic/unravelling-the-genome/2

Nanopore technique rapidly decodes long DNA strands  |  UW NewsNanopore technique rapidly decodes long DNA strands | UW News

To test this approach, the researchers used their nanopore system to read the sequence of bacteriophage Phi X 174, a virus that ... They found that the approach reliably read the bacteriophages DNA sequences and could read sequences as long as 4,500 ...
more infohttp://www.washington.edu/news/2014/06/26/nanopore-technique-rapidly-decodes-long-dna-strands/

Our experience suggests that lapa - metal metformin500mg comOur experience suggests that lapa - metal metformin500mg com

Photodynamic inactivation of antigenic determinants of single-stranded DNA bacteriophage phi chi 174. Clinical signs commonly ...
more infohttp://metal.metformin500mg.com/our-experience-suggests-that-lapa/

mutations of mortality: November 2008mutations of mortality: November 2008

I demonstrated this along time ago (1974) using the bacteriophage phi-X-174. This is a virus that lives in the bacterium e. ...
more infohttp://mutated-unmuated.blogspot.com/2008/11/

Chemo Examination Gloves - MANUAL X-NITRILE - Sterile Extra Protection Long CuffChemo Examination Gloves - MANUAL X-NITRILE - Sterile Extra Protection Long Cuff

The gloves was tested and passed viral penetration test as per ASTM F1671 test method; this\ntest uses bacteriophage Phi X 174 ... The gloves was tested and passed viral penetration test as per ASTM F1671 test method; this test uses bacteriophage Phi X 174, ...
more infohttp://www.eximed.it/store/product/chemo-examination-gloves-manual-x-nitrile-sterile-extra-protection-long-cuff
  • this\ntest uses bacteriophage Phi X 174, which dimensions are comparable to virus ones. (eximed.it)
  • The researchers say that bacteriophages might also be useful for eliminating nutritional deficiencies due to chronic diarrhea in developing countries and are seeking larger-scale support to test which strains might be best for this application. (medicalxpress.com)