Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.TritiumChloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)ThyminePodoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)UracilDNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.ThymidineDeoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Hydroxyphenylazouracil: Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Triethylenemelamine: Toxic alkylating agent used in industry; also as antineoplastic and research tool to produce chromosome aberrations and cancers.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Microviridae: A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacteriophage HK022: A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Corticoviridae: A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus phi6. (1/87)

Fisher's geometric model of adaptive evolution argues that adaptive evolution should generally result from the substitution of many mutations of small effect because advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common than those of large effect. However, evidence for both evolution by small steps and for Fisher's model has been mixed. Here we report supporting results from a new experimental test of the model. We subjected the bacteriophage phi6 to intensified genetic drift in small populations and caused viral fitness to decline through the accumulation of a deleterious mutation. We then propagated the mutated virus at a range of larger population sizes and allowed fitness to recover by natural selection. Although fitness declined in one large step, it was usually recovered in smaller steps. More importantly, step size during recovery was smaller with decreasing size of the recovery population. These results confirm Fisher's main prediction that advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common. We also show that the advantageous mutations of small effect are compensatory mutations whose advantage is conditional (epistatic) on the presence of the deleterious mutation, in which case the adaptive landscape of phi6 is likely to be very rugged.  (+info)

Precise packaging of the three genomic segments of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. (2/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA. Each virus particle contains one each of the three segments. Packaging is effected by the acquisition, in a serially dependent manner, of the plus strands of the genomic segments into empty procapsids. The empty procapsids are compressed in shape and expand during packaging. The packaging program involves discrete steps that are determined by the amount of RNA inside the procapsid. The steps involve the exposure and concealment of binding sites on the outer surface of the procapsid for the plus strands of the three genomic segments. The plus strand of segment S can be packaged alone, while packaging of the plus strand of segment M depends upon prior packaging of S. Packaging of the plus strand of L depends upon the prior packaging of M. Minus-strand synthesis begins when the particle has a full complement of plus strands. Plus-strand synthesis commences upon the completion of minus-strand synthesis. All of the reactions of packaging, minus-strand synthesis, and plus-strand synthesis can be accomplished in vitro with isolated procapsids. Live-virus constructions that are in accord with the model have been prepared. Mutant virus with changes in the packaging program have been isolated and analyzed.  (+info)

Packaging and replication regulation revealed by chimeric genome segments of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6. (3/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a double-stranded RNA genome composed of three linear segments, L, M, and S. The innermost particle in the virion of phi6, like in the other dsRNA viruses, is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, which carries out all the functions needed for the replication of the viral genome. Empty polymerase complexes can package the single-stranded copies of the viral genome segments, replicate the packaged segments into double-stranded form (minus strand synthesis), and then produce new plus strands (transcripts) from the double-stranded RNA templates. The three viral genomic segments contain unique packaging signals at their 5' ends, and minus strand synthesis initiation is dependent on the sequence at the 3' end. Here we have constructed chimeric segments that have the packaging signal from one segment and the minus strand synthesis initiation signal from another segment. Using purified recombinant polymerase complexes and single-stranded/chimeric and original RNA segments, we have analyzed the packaging and replication regulation operating in in vitro conditions. We show that the 5' end of the L genome segment in single-stranded form is needed to switch from the packaging to the minus strand synthesis and the same sequence is required in double-stranded form to switch on plus strand synthesis. In addition we have constructed deletions to the M segment to analyze the possible regulatory role of the internal noncoding area of this segment.  (+info)

A novel virus-host cell membrane interaction. Membrane voltage-dependent endocytic-like entry of bacteriophage straight phi6 nucleocapsid. (4/87)

Studies on the virus-cell interactions have proven valuable in elucidating vital cellular processes. Interestingly, certain virus-host membrane interactions found in eukaryotic systems seem also to operate in prokaryotes (Bamford, D.H., M. Romantschuk, and P. J. Somerharju, 1987. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 6:1467-1473; Romantschuk, M., V.M. Olkkonen, and D.H. Bamford. 1988. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 7:1821-1829). straight phi6 is an enveloped double-stranded RNA virus infecting a gram-negative bacterium. The viral entry is initiated by fusion between the virus membrane and host outer membrane, followed by delivery of the viral nucleocapsid (RNA polymerase complex covered with a protein shell) into the host cytosol via an endocytic-like route. In this study, we analyze the interaction of the nucleocapsid with the host plasma membrane and demonstrate a novel approach for dissecting the early events of the nucleocapsid entry process. The initial binding of the nucleocapsid to the plasma membrane is independent of membrane voltage (DeltaPsi) and the K(+) and H(+) gradients. However, the following internalization is dependent on plasma membrane voltage (DeltaPsi), but does not require a high ATP level or K(+) and H(+) gradients. Moreover, the nucleocapsid shell protein, P8, is the viral component mediating the membrane-nucleocapsid interaction.  (+info)

Replicase activity of purified recombinant protein P2 of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6. (5/87)

In nature, synthesis of both minus- and plus-sense RNA strands of all the known double-stranded RNA viruses occurs in the interior of a large protein assembly referred to as the polymerase complex. In addition to other proteins, the complex contains a putative polymerase possessing characteristic sequence motifs. However, none of the previous studies has shown template-dependent RNA synthesis directly with an isolated putative polymerase protein. In this report, recombinant protein P2 of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6 was purified and demonstrated in an in vitro enzymatic assay to act as the replicase. The enzyme efficiently utilizes phage-specific, positive-sense RNA substrates to produce double-stranded RNA molecules, which are formed by newly synthesized, full-length minus-strands base paired with the plus-strand templates. P2-catalyzed replication is also shown to be very effective with a broad range of heterologous single-stranded RNA templates. The importance and implications of these results are discussed.  (+info)

RNA secondary structures of the bacteriophage phi6 packaging regions. (6/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 genome consists of three segments of double-stranded RNA. During maturation, single-stranded copies of these segments are packaged into preformed polymerase complex particles. Only phi6 RNA is packaged, and each particle contains only one copy of each segment. An in vitro packaging and replication assay has been developed for phi6, and the packaging signals (pac sites) have been mapped to the 5' ends of the RNA segments. In this study, we propose secondary structure models for the pac sites of phi6 single-stranded RNA segments. Our models accommodate data from structure-specific chemical modifications, free energy minimizations, and phylogenetic comparisons. Previously reported pac site deletion studies are also discussed. Each pac site possesses a unique architecture, that, however, contains common structural elements.  (+info)

Characterization of phi8, a bacteriophage containing three double-stranded RNA genomic segments and distantly related to Phi6. (7/87)

The three double-stranded RNA genomic segments of bacteriophage Phi8 were copied as cDNA, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Although the organization of the genome is similar to that of Phi6, there is no similarity in either the nucleotide sequences or the amino acid sequences, with the exception of the motifs characteristic of viral RNA polymerases that are found in the presumptive polymerase sequence. Several features of the viral proteins differ markedly from those of Phi6. Although both phages are covered by a lipid-containing membrane, the protein compositions are very different. The most striking difference is that protein P8, which constitutes a shell around the procapsid in Phi6, is part of the membrane in Phi8. The host attachment protein consists of two peptides rather than one and the phage attaches directly to the lipopolysaccharide of the host rather than to a type IV pilus. The host range of Phi8 includes rough strains of Salmonella typhimurium and of pseudomonads  (+info)

Characterization of phi 13, a bacteriophage related to phi 6 and containing three dsRNA genomic segments. (8/87)

The three dsRNA genomic segments of bacteriophage Phi 13 were copied as cDNA and the nucleotide sequences were determined. The organization of the genome is similar to that of Phi 6, and there is significant similarity in the amino acid sequences of the proteins of the polymerase complex and one of the membrane proteins, P6. There is little or no similarity in the nucleotide sequences. Several features of the viral proteins differ markedly from those of Phi 6. Although both phages are covered by a lipid-containing membrane, the protein compositions are different. The host attachment protein consists of two peptides rather than one and the phage attaches directly to the LPS of the host rather than to a Type IV pilus. Despite the differences in the structure of the membranes, the two viruses can successfully exchange the genes for host attachment proteins and thereby change their host specificities.  (+info)

*Pseudomonas phage Φ6

Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... 2008). "Structure-Function Insights Into the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of the dsRNA Bacteriophage Φ6". Segmented Double- ... its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 --- bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 --- bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123. ...

*Genomic library

Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...

*Microviridae

... phi X174, G4 and phi K" Biochim Biophys Acta 1130(3) 277-288 Aoyama A, Hayashi M (1986) Synthesis of bacteriophage phi X174 in ... Keegstra W, Baas PD, Jansz HS (1979) Bacteriophage phi X174 RF DNA replication in vivo. A study by electron microscopy" J Mol ... Tessman ES, Tessman I, Pollock TJ (1980) Gene K of bacteriophage phi X 174 codes for a nonessential protein" J Virol 33(1) 557- ... A protein of bacteriophage phi X174 into an ATT codon yields a viable phage indicating that A protein is not essential for phi ...

*DNA virus

Although bacteriophages were first described in 1927, it was only in 1959 that Sinshemer working with phage Phi X 174 showed ... The largest bacteriophage known is Klebsiella Phage vB_KleM-RaK2 which has a genome of 346 kilobases. A recently proposed clade ... Several dsDNA bacteriophages and the herpesviruses encode a powerful ATP driven DNA translocating machine that encapsidates a ... To a lesser extent this gene is also found in T4-like bacteriophages suggesting a common ancestor for these two groups of ...

*Phi X 174

The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. ... Phi X is regularly used as a positive control in DNA sequencing due to its relatively small genome size in comparison to other ... This bacteriophage has a [+] circular single-stranded DNA genome of 5386 nucleotides encoding 11 proteins. Of these 11 genes, ... The Bacteriophages (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0195148503. Goodsell, David (February 2000). " ...

*Polymerase cycling assembly

2003). "Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: [var phi]X174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". ... 6 (5): 343-345. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1318. PMID 19363495. Gibson Assembly video on YouTube. ...

*Lin Chao

... his demonstration of Muller's ratchet in the RNA Virus Phi-6 and his work on sex in viruses. More recently, he was instrumental ... in the demonstration of the evolution of parasitic genetic elements in co-infecting bacteriophages and experimental tests of ...

*Holin LLH family

"Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC". FEMS ... van der Ploeg, Jan R. (2007-10-01). "Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans bacteriophage M102".FEMS Microbiology Letters 275 ... "Identification and characterization of the two-component cell lysis cassette encoded by temperate bacteriophage phiPYB5 of ... Lactobacillus fermentum". Journal of Applied Microbiology 105 (6): 1939-1944. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03953.x. ISSN 1365- ...

*Pseudomonas phage phiCTX

Nakayama, K; Kanaya, S; Ohnishi, M; Terawaki, Y; Hayashi, T (1999). "The complete nucleotide sequence of phi CTX, a cytotoxin- ... as Pseudomonas phage phiCTX is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and ... converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages". ... doi:10.1007/s00705-012-1299-6. PMID 22481600. Baltimore, D (1971). "Expression of animal virus genomes". Bacteriological ...

*Bioinformatics

"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... 152 (3720): 363-6. Bibcode:1966Sci...152..363E. doi:10.1126/science.152.3720.363. PMID 17775169. Johnson G, Wu TT (January 2000 ... 6. doi:10.1038/srep24373. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul Aurelian ... ISBN 0-470-02175-6 Kohane, et al. Microarrays for an Integrative Genomics. The MIT Press, 2002. ISBN 0-262-11271-X Lund, O. et ...

*Hamilton O. Smith

In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific ... 70 (6): 540. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(11)64310-3. PMID 7776712. Berg, K. (1978). "The Nobel prize in physiology and medicine 1978 ...

*Bacteriophage P2

Clerch, B., E. Rivera, and M. Llagostera, Bacteriophage PSP3 and phi R73 activator proteins: analysis of promoter specificities ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a contractile sheath and is thus ...

*Φ29 DNA polymerase

Garmendia C, Bernad A, Esteban JA, Blanco L, Salas M (February 1992). "The bacteriophage phi 29 DNA polymerase, a proofreading ... Φ29 is a bacteriophage of Bacillus subtilis with a sequenced, linear, 19,285 base pair DNA genome. Each 5' end is covalently ... Bernad A, Blanco L, Salas M (September 1990). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the YCDTDS amino acid motif of the phi 29 DNA ... Φ29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the bacteriophage Φ29. It is being increasingly used in molecular biology for multiple ...

*Sequence analysis

February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-695. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID 870828. Levitt M ( ... leading to the publication of the first complete genome of a bacteriophage in 1977. Robert Holley and his team in Cornell ... 6 (2): e1000667. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000667. PMC 2829047 . PMID 20195499. Stanke, M; Waack, S (Oct 19, 2003). "Gene ...

*History of genetics

Feb 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi: ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ... Sanger's lab sequence the entire genome of bacteriophage Φ-X174. In the late 1970s: nonisotopic methods of nucleic acid ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (May 1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". J. Gen ...

*Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins

In addition to distance restraints, restraints on the torsion angles of the chemical bonds, typically the psi and phi angles, ... Common techniques include addition of bacteriophages or bicelles to the sample, or preparation of the sample in a stretched ... Thus each peak can be converted into a maximum distance between the nuclei, usually between 1.8 and 6 angstroms. The intensity ...

*Bacillus phage

A Bacillus phage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have bacteria in the genus Bacillus as host species. These ... Blanco, L; Salas, M (September 1984). "Characterization and purification of a phage phi 29-encoded DNA polymerase required for ... Salas, Margarita; Blanco, Luis; Lázaro, José M.; de Vega, Miguel (12 December 2007). "The bacteriophage ϕ29 DNA polymerase". ... "The SPO1-related bacteriophages". Archives of Virology. 155 (10): 1547-1561. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0783-0. Gentry-Weeks, C; ...

*Holin

"What can bacteriophages do for us?" (PDF). Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied ... The Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h Holin (EPPE-Hol) Family 1.E.59 - The Putative Acholeplasma Phage L2 Holin (L2 Holin) Family 9.B.109 ... The first class III holin to be characterized was the bacteriophage T4-encoded t protein (T4 holin). Other examples include the ... Holins are a diverse group of small proteins produced by dsDNA bacteriophages in order to trigger and control the degradation ...

*Virology

In 2003 a faster method was shown to assemble the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in 2 weeks. The giant ... In 1977, Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X 174. In ... Bacteriophages occasionally move genetic material from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction, and ... Bacteriophages, the viruses which infect bacteria, can be relatively easily grown as viral plaques on bacterial cultures. ...

*Mycoplasma laboratorium

... phi}X174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (26): 15440-15445 ... producing the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in about two weeks. However, the genome of Mycoplasma ... On Oct 6, 2007, Craig Venter announced in an interview with UK's The Guardian newspaper that the same team had synthesized a ... 3.0.CO;2-6. PMID 11271496. Morris RM, et al. (2002). "SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities". Nature ...

*Геном - Вікіпедія

1977). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA. Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. PMID 870828 ... Court, D. L.; Oppenheim, A. B.; Adhya, S. L. (2007). A new look at bacteriophage lambda genetic networks. Journal of ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D.F.; Petersen, G.B. (1982). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. ... Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene. Nature 260 (5551): ...

*Genom bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. ... 6,4. 23. Hasil Proyek Genom Manusia.[29][30]. Genom prokariota[sunting , sunting sumber]. Genom eukariota[sunting , sunting ... 4,6 Mb. 4.288. 924. 1. [16]. Bakteria. Sorangium cellulosum. 13.033.779. 13 Mb. 9.367. 721. 1. Genom bakteria terbesar yang ... 6. Genom hewan multiselular yang pertama disekuensing, 1998[22]. Eukariota. Arabidopsis thaliana (tumbuhan berbunga). 125.000. ...

*DNA sequencing

"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ...

*Genom bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-695.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak nama: authors list ( ... 4,6 Mb 4.288 924 1 [16] Bakteria Sorangium cellulosum 13.033.779 13 Mb 9.367 721 1 Genom bakteria terbesar yang diketahui saat ... 6,4 23 Hasil Proyek Genom Manusia.[29][30] Genom prokariota[sunting , sunting sumber]. Genom eukariota[sunting , sunting sumber ... 6 Genom hewan multiselular yang pertama disekuensing, 1998[22] Eukariota Arabidopsis thaliana (tumbuhan berbunga) 125.000.000 ...

*Smallest organisms

Perhaps the most famous is the bacteriophage Phi-X174 with a genome size of 5386 nucleotides. However, some ssDNA viruses can ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage ΦX174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/265687a0 ... The males measure 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in), while females measure up to almost 10 cm (3.9 in). The smallest crocodilian is the ... 6. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00696. J.M. Labonté; C.A. Suttle (2013). "Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses ...

*Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins

Common techniques include addition of bacteriophages or bicelles to the sample, or preparation of the sample in a stretched ... In addition to distance restraints, restraints on the torsion angles of the chemical bonds, typically the psi and phi angles, ... 6][7] This is usually done using some of the following experiments, HNCO, HN(CA)CO, HNCA,[8] HN(CO)CA, HNCACB and CBCA(CO)NH. ... Thus each peak can be converted into a maximum distance between the nuclei, usually between 1.8 and 6 angstroms. The intensity ...

*Genomics

"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... Bacteriophage genome sequences can be obtained through direct sequencing of isolated bacteriophages, but can also be derived as ... Also the first genome to be sequenced was a bacteriophage. However, bacteriophage research did not lead the genomics revolution ... Bacteriophages have played and continue to play a key role in bacterial genetics and molecular biology. Historically, they were ...
documentclass{article} \usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} \usepackage{amsmath} \DeclareMathOperator{\sn}{sn} \DeclareMathOperator{\cn}{cn} \DeclareMathOperator{\dn}{dn} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{gathered} \omega^3x_{4}(s) = \begin{minipage}[t]{.7\displaywidth} \raggedright\linespread{1.2}\selectfont \begin{math} x_4(\varphi_0) -2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 +2k^2x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2( \phi ) +4 \cos^3 ( \phi )E ( s ) k^2+x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) s - \cos^3( \phi ){s}^2E( s ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )s ( E (s) ^2 +\cos ( \phi ) {s}^2E ( s ) - 2x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) E ( s ) -1/6\cos ( \phi ) {s}^3-4/3 \cos^3 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^3 -1/2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ){s}^2-2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^2 -2\cos ( \phi) s E ( s ) ^2 -2x_1(\varphi_0)sE( s ) + k\sin (\phi ) \cn(s) {s}^2 \cos^2( \phi ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 \sn(s) ^2 -2/3\cos ( \phi) E ( s) +4/3k^3\cn(s) \sn(s) ^2\sin( \phi ) \cos^2 ( \phi )+2k\sin ( \phi ) \cn(s) +2/3\cos ( \phi ) s-8/3\cos ( \phi ) k^2\dn (s) \sn(s) ...
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription ...
iframe src="https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=keyword+exact+%22DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA%22&embed=1&hide_pagination=1&hide_info=1&hide_options=1&hide_cluster=1" ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
NIH thinks that a biological motor from bacteriophage phi29 indeed has a potential for the future of nanomedicine, for a number of reasons. The press offic
Viral structure Virus: poison (Latin); infectious particles consisting of a nucleic acid in a protein coat Capsid; (viral envelopes); DNA or RNA Bacteriophages (phages)
In mathematics, the Crofton formula, named after Morgan Crofton (1826-1915), is a classic result of integral geometry relating the length of a curve to the expected number of times a "random" line intersects it. Suppose γ {\displaystyle \gamma } is a rectifiable plane curve. Given an oriented line l, let n γ {\displaystyle n_{\gamma }} (l) be the number of points at which γ {\displaystyle \gamma } and l intersect. We can parametrize the general line l by the direction φ {\displaystyle \varphi } in which it points and its signed distance p {\displaystyle p} from the origin. The Crofton formula expresses the arc length of the curve γ {\displaystyle \gamma } in terms of an integral over the space of all oriented lines: length ( γ ) = 1 4 ∬ n γ ( φ , p ) d φ d p . {\displaystyle {\text{length}}(\gamma )={\frac {1}{4}}\iint n_{\gamma }(\varphi ,p)\;d\varphi \;dp.} The differential form d φ ∧ d p {\displaystyle d\varphi \wedge dp} is invariant under rigid motions, so it is a natural ...
This collection from the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) provides historical reference plasmids for various incompatibility families. The collection also includes a set of bacterial host strains meant for cloning and in vitro packaging of and/or working with phages.
Hi, When I was in Japan, I used ETHACHINMATE as a carrier to recover DNA (from WAKO JUNYAKU Co.). In their catelogy, they show some data glycogen has effect on transformation efficency, but ethachinmate does not. I dont know whether linar polyacrylamide effect transformation and in vitro Packaging efficiency. Huang ...
An interesting number and sequence Phi What is Phi? Phi ( = 1.618033988749895... ), most often pronounced fi like fly , is simply an irrational number like pi ( p = 3.14
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
TY - JOUR. T1 - High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. AU - Gunther, Edward. AU - Murray, Noreen E.. AU - Glazer, Peter M.. PY - 1993/8/11. Y1 - 1993/8/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. DO - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. M3 - Article. C2 - 8396240. AN - SCOPUS:0027236017. VL - 21. SP - 3903. EP - 3904. JO - Nucleic Acids Research. JF - Nucleic Acids Research. SN - 0305-1048. IS - 16. ER - ...
These pages were created in support of the dsRNA Virus Symposia. The editors also wish to acknowledge continuing support from BBSRC, DEFRA and the Commission of the European Community. ...
Phi Phi Anita Resort, Ko Phi Phi Don: See 66 traveller reviews, 56 candid photos, and great deals for Phi Phi Anita Resort, ranked #31 of 66 B&Bs / inns in Ko Phi Phi Don and rated 3 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Book now at Lucy Restaurant and Bar at Bardessono in Yountville, CA. Explore menu, see photos and read 1103 reviews: We are locals and have been coming to Lucy periodically for years; we have had both good and poor experience mostly related to service. Todays visit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Optimize performance while maintaining a unified hardware and software environment with the latest products from the Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor family
Do your feet cry out in pain at the end of the day? Is it sometimes difficult to stand at all because the burning is unbearable? I want to help you find the
Cystovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae. Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Pseudomonas phage phi6. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Cystoviridae Genus: Cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 Pseudomonas phage phi8 Pseudomonas phage phi12 Pseudomonas phage phi13 Pseudomonas phage phi2954 Pseudomonas phage phiNN Pseudomonas phage phiYY Cystoviruses are distinguished by their tripartite dsRNA genome, totaling ~14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids. Most identified cystoviruses infect Pseudomonas species, but this is likely biased due to the method of screening and enrichment. The type species is Pseudomonas phage phi6, but there are many other proposed members of this family. Pseudomonas phage φ7, φ8, φ9, φ10, ...
Author Summary The fitness effects of mutations are the raw material for natural selection. It has been shown that point mutations typically have strongly deleterious effects in plant and animal RNA viruses, whereas cellular organisms are comparatively more robust. Here, we characterize the fitness effects of random mutations in DNA viruses and compare them with those found in RNA viruses, using six phage species of similar genome sizes. To achieve this goal, we introduced mutations by chemical and site-directed mutagenesis, identified the genetic changes by sequencing, and quantified their fitness effects using growth-rate assays. In all cases, mutations had a strong average impact on fitness. We conclude that mutational sensitivity is a general property of viruses with small genomes and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings.
Populations are at risk of extinction when unsuitable or when sink habitat exceeds a threshold frequency in the environment. Sinks that present cues associated with high-quality habitats, termed ecological traps, have especially detrimental effects on net population growth at metapopulation scales. Ecological traps for viruses arise naturally, or can be engineered, via the expression of viral-binding sites on cells that preclude viral reproduction. We present a model for virus population growth in a heterogeneous host community, parameterized with data from populations of the RNA bacteriophage Φ6 presented with mixtures of suitable host bacteria and either neutral or trap cells. We demonstrate that viruses can sustain high rates of population growth in the presence of neutral non-hosts as long as some host cells are present, whereas trap cells dramatically reduce viral fitness. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficacy of traps for viral elimination is frequency dependent in spatially ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. PHI ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), F6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), FX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the ...
The importance of the P3 protein in host switching events in phage ϕ6 has been previously established [36, 45]. This study confirmed this observation, but additionally brought to light the importance of the P12 protein in host switching events. This non-structural protein controls the liberation of mature ϕ6 particles from the host cytoplasmic membrane, but is not incorporated into the virion [46]. Like many eukaryotic viruses, Cystoviridae have envelopes comprised of both viral proteins and host lipids. Different hosts may have different lipid constituents which are contributed to the viral envelope and thus may require slightly altered P12 proteins for efficient envelope assembly. We have already shown that phage ϕ6 maturation in ERA affects fitness when the virion infects PP, and vice versa[25, 36]. We assume this epigenetic effect is mediated by the lipids taken from these very different hosts, and we speculate that our current results may relate to the importance of host lipid ...
TABLE-US-00028 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 261 290 290 1 1 2 2 No sample su1 se phi062 phi323152 phi323152 phi101249 phi101249 Phi346482 Phi346482 1 017 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 2 044 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 3 006 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 4 007 n p 160 134 134 -- -- 119 119 5 009 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 6 047 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 7 637 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 8 001 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 9 046 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 10 048 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 11 049 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 12 109 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 13 354 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 14 sh2-i n n 158 135 135 141 141 119 119 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 11 11 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 3 3 4 4 5 5 No sample Phi213398 Phi213398 phi109624 phi109624 Phi159819 Phi159819 1 017 302 302 131 131 125 125 2 044 302 302 131 131 125 125 3 006 302 302 140 140 125 125 4 007 302 302 140 140 125 125 5 009 302 302 131 131 ...
The Cobble Beach, Phi Phi Island, Hin Poo Bay from 70 $ (18.Dec) Instant hotel booking. The Cobble Beach Resort enjoys a hillside location on the northern end of Loh Dalam Bay and offers 39 rooms and villas in three categories. The Thai-s...
with(numtheory): A000029 := proc(n) local d, s; if n = 0 then RETURN(1); else if n mod 2 = 1 then s := 2^((n-1)/2) else s := 2^(n/2-2)+2^(n/2-1); fi; for d in divisors(n) do s := s+phi(d)*2^(n/d)/(2*n); od; RETURN(s); fi; end ...
Experimental and directed evolution using microbes offer powerful methods for uncovering processes of evolution across the tree of life. The goal of such experiments is to generate mutational diversity, either through propagation of microbes in stressful conditions (experimental evolution) or through artificial introduction of mutations into their genomes (directed evolution). In the case of multiple resulting mutations, each is then reverse engineered into the ancestral genotype individually to determine how it changes the phenotype of interest. This thesis presents the results of one experimental evolution project (evolution of viral thermostability under increasing temperatures) and one directed evolution project (diversification of toxin-antitoxin protein pairs in bacteria), including both evolutionary and single-mutation analyses. In both cases, I found that mutations may persist in a population due to their pleiotropic effects on traits other than the focal one of the study. My thesis ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Phi Le, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Looking for online definition of medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII in the Medical Dictionary? medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII explanation free. What is medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII? Meaning of medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII medical term. What does medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII mean?
The DNA Blunting Kit allows the conversion of 3 and 5 overhangs to blunt or flush ends. This conversion is accomplished simultaneously by the 3 to 5 exonuclease and 5 to 3 polymerase activities of T4 DNA Polymerase. The resulting blunt-ended DNA can be ligated efficiently into a vector using the same optimized buffer system employed in Takaras DNA Ligation Kits. The reaction can then be used directly in bacterial transformation or in vitro packaging procedures without need for further DNA purification.. ...
BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK Writes------------------------ Hi Netters, Has anyone tried electroporation as an alternative to in vitro packaging in order to make a lambda library? Comments, experiences, references welcomed. Jon R Sayers (Cell and Molecular Biology), Biochemistry Dept., University College North Wales, Univ of Wales, Bangor, LL57 2UW. Tel +44 248 38 23 54 Fax +44 248 370731 Email BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK ***************** Dear BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK I am in the process of doing that experiment. Ill tell you what happens tomorrow! Ill be electroporating a ligation but it will give some idea how it works. Dan Gietz ______________________________________ R.Daniel Gietz Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Human Genetics University of Manitoba 770 Bannatyne Ave, Rm 250 Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3 Tel.: (204)789-3458 Fax.: (204)786-8712 E-mail GIETZ at BLDGHSC.LAN1.UMANITOBA.CA Trying to do the Manitoba Thing ...
WORLD EXCLUSIVE Almost three months on, a policeman says insecticide probably killed Canadas Belanger sisters on the holiday island of Phi Phi. But theres no official report yet.
I have many thoughts about what a Phi Phop really is. Some Thai sources say that she is a banana spirit (香蕉精) that dwells in a banana plant in the wild. Yet there are many Chinese sources like to akin Phi Phop with Gu maiden or master of poisons ( 蛊女). In the past, Gu is a subject no one in Indochina regions likes to talk about. The Hmong (苗族) people called a Gu maiden as Phi Phop. Once a lady is being accused of being a Phi Phop, then she has to leave her village and live in isolation. When there are many Phi Phops living together, they form a Phi Phop village. This type of village can still be found in isolated areas of Indochina. So, perhaps we can deduce that a Phi Phop is the spirit of a Gu maiden ...
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The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...

... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. This study has been ... Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001540?order=387

Transcriptional regulation of three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 in vitro. - Semantic ScholarTranscriptional regulation of three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 in vitro. - Semantic Scholar

... transcriptase are responsible for the transcriptional regulation throughout the infection cycle of bacteriophage phi 6. ... Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA ... Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA ... Transcriptional regulation of three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 in vitro.. @article{ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Transcriptional-regulation-of-three-double-stranded-Emori-Iba/5382aea2c03d6bfd2130aa10d4dcd1cc439115e8

COVID-19 Decontamination and Reuse of Filtering Facepiece Respirators | CDCCOVID-19 Decontamination and Reuse of Filtering Facepiece Respirators | CDC

co-contaminated 3M 1870 FFRs with three bacteriophages, T1, T7, and Phi 6, and decontaminated the FFRs using VHP generated from ... MS2 bacteriophage. 99.9% for all tested viruses. 12, 13, 14. Microwave generated steam. 1100-1250 W microwave models (range: 40 ... of bacteriophage MS2, a non-enveloped virus, and H1N1 influenza A/PR/8/34 were achieved with much lower doses of approximately ... inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage. Filtration performance of all tested FFRs scored above NIOSH certification requirements. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/decontamination-reuse-respirators.html

COVID-19 Decontamination and Reuse of Filtering Facepiece Respirators | CDCCOVID-19 Decontamination and Reuse of Filtering Facepiece Respirators | CDC

co-contaminated 3M 1870 FFRs with three bacteriophages, T1, T7, and Phi 6, and decontaminated the FFRs using VHP generated from ... MS2 bacteriophage. 99.9% for all tested viruses. 12, 13, 14. Microwave generated steam. 1100-1250 W microwave models (range: 40 ... of bacteriophage MS2, a non-enveloped virus, and H1N1 influenza A/PR/8/34 were achieved with much lower doses of approximately ... inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage. Filtration performance of all tested FFRs scored above NIOSH certification requirements. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/decontamination-reuse-respirators.html?deliveryName=USCDC_2067-DM25771

Category:Bacteriophages - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Bacteriophages - Wikimedia Commons

Bacteriophage Phi X 174‎ (6 B). *. ► Bacteriophage trimeric proteins domain‎ (1 C) ... Media in categorie "Bacteriophages". Deze categorie bevat de volgende 77 bestanden, van in totaal 77. ... ADVERTISEMENT; Antivirus and bacteriophages Wellcome L0032605.jpg 5.228 × 3.451; 7,23 MB. ... The arrangement of known genes of bacteriophage T12 after integration into host.png 917 × 456; 28 kB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Bacteriophages?uselang=nl

METHOD FOR RETROVIRUS REMOVAL - Millipore CorporationMETHOD FOR RETROVIRUS REMOVAL - Millipore Corporation

Examples of such bacteriophages include Phi-6 and PR772. Practice shows that filters exhibiting a certain level of retention ... The membrane has been extensively tested using the 78 nm diameter bacteriophage Phi 6. This bacteriophage is readily grown to ... The bacteriophage PR772 challenge stream was prepared with a minimum titer of 1.0×107 pfu/mL in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS ... Quantification of bacteriophage in the initial and final feed were conducted on plates incubated overnight using a light box ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2012/0061332.html

Accessory genome of the multi-drug resistant ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA34.Accessory genome of the multi-drug resistant ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA34.

A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis ... A bacteriophage carried the aminoglycoside resistance gene (AAC(3)-IId). The two plasmids carried other six antibiotic ... A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive- ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2346427/Accessory-genome-of-the-multi-drug-resistant-ocular-isolate-of-Pseudomonas-aeruginosa.html

Competition and viral diversification | Biology LettersCompetition and viral diversification | Biology Letters

2006 Pleiotropic costs of niche expansion in the RNA bacteriophage phi 6. Genetics 172, 751-757. doi:10.1534/genetics. ... The RNA bacteriophage ϕ6 used in this study is a laboratory strain descended from the original isolate [12]. The bacterium ... 1973 Bacteriophage φ6: a lipid-containing virus of Pseudomonas phaseolicola. J. Virol. 11, 799-805. ... 1976 Genetic studies of temperature-sensitive bacteriophage and nonsense mutants of φ6. Virology 223, 218-223. doi:10.1016/0042 ...
more infohttp://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/1/20120616

Pseudomonas phage Φ6 - WikipediaPseudomonas phage Φ6 - Wikipedia

Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... 2008). "Structure-Function Insights Into the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of the dsRNA Bacteriophage Φ6". Segmented Double- ... its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudomonas_phage_%CE%A66

Method of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants - Credit, Managers Association Of CaliforniaMethod of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants - Credit, Managers Association Of California

A suspension (0.1 ml) of bacteriophage lambda or bacteriophage phi-X174, of at least 10 EV PFU/ml, is separately added to 4 ml ... Each suspension of bacteriophage with a radiation sensitizing compound is then exposed to U.V. radiation of the preferred ... Other bacteriophage suspensions are separately irradiated as above, but without added sensitizer, to demonstrate the effect of ... Compound I is also effective against a single-stranded DNA virus, phi-X174. Compound I is most preferred, showing a high (at ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5587490.html

Table of Contents | Journal of VirologyTable of Contents | Journal of Virology

Double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi 6 protein P4 is an unspecific nucleoside triphosphatase activated by calcium ions. A O ... Differential regulation of human papillomavirus type 6 and 11 early promoters in cultured cells derived from laryngeal ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/69/11

Table of Contents | Journal of VirologyTable of Contents | Journal of Virology

Production of a polyhedral particle in Escherichia coli from a cDNA copy of the large genomic segment of bacteriophage phi 6. P ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/62/1

a) Representative fits to Equation (2) for Ile340 and  | Open-ia) Representative fits to Equation (2) for Ile340 and | Open-i

Bacteriophage phi 6/enzymology*. *RNA Replicase/chemistry*/metabolism. Minor. *Guanosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/ ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2926596_gkq210f3&req=4

The Evolution and Genetics of Virus Host Shifts | proLékaře.czThe Evolution and Genetics of Virus Host Shifts | proLékaře.cz

DuffyS, TurnerPE, BurchCL (2006) Pleiotropic costs of niche expansion in the RNA bacteriophage phi 6. Genetics 172: 751-757. ... In bacteriophage (viruses of bacteria), mutations that enhance a virus ability to bind to host cells are important in ... TetartF, RepoilaF, MonodC, KrischHM (1996) Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the ... Genome Biol Evol 6: 273-289.. 31. WeinertLA, WelchJJ, SuchardMA, LemeyP, RambautA, et al. (2012) Molecular dating of human-to- ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-11/the-evolution-and-genetics-of-virus-host-shifts-54124

The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo - Full Text View -...

The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. The safety and scientific ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001540?order=376

List of MeSH codes (B04) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (B04) - Wikipedia

... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 --- bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 --- bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(B04)

peptidas.txtpeptidas.txt

... bacteriophage mu) - U40 Protein P5 murein endopeptidase (bacteriophage phi-6) - U48 CAAX prenyl protease 2 - U49 Peptidase lit ... bacteriophage A118) No D vanX D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase Yes M74 Murein endopeptidase Yes ME M16 A Pitrilysin Yes PDOC00130 B ... 248:183-228(1995). [ 6] Reeck G.R., de Haen C., Teller D.C., Doolittle R.F., Fitch W.M., et al. "Homology" in proteins and ... The following definitions apply: Homology -------- Homology means evolutionary relationship [6]. Peptidase family ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/docs/peptidas

Effects of single mutations from experimental evolution of microbial proteins: Thermostability in phi-6 Cystovirus and toxin...Effects of single mutations from experimental evolution of microbial proteins: Thermostability in phi-6 Cystovirus and toxin...

To investigate this question, I evolved the lytic RNA bacteriophage phi-6 for greater thermostability by exposing viral ... Effects of single mutations from experimental evolution of microbial proteins: Thermostability in phi-6 Cystovirus and toxin ...
more infohttps://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/40497

Sex enhances adaptation by unlinking beneficial from detrimental mutations in experimental yeast populations | BMC Evolutionary...Sex enhances adaptation by unlinking beneficial from detrimental mutations in experimental yeast populations | BMC Evolutionary...

Poon A, Chao L: Drift increases the advantage of sex in RNA bacteriophage Phi 6. Genetics. 2004, 166 (1): 19-24. 10.1534/ ... Malmberg RL: The evolution of epistasis and the advantage of recombination in populations of bacteriophage T4. Genetics. 1977, ... 1999, 53 (6): 1966-1971. 10.2307/2640455.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Szafraniec K, Borts RH, Korona R: Environmental stress ... We empirically estimated that this procedure allowed 78 ± 6% of matings to be outcrossed in the sexual lines (n = 6) by ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-12-43

WO2018069267A1 - Phi6 internal control compositions, devices & methods 
        - Google PatentsWO2018069267A1 - Phi6 internal control compositions, devices & methods - Google Patents

Bacteriophage Φ6 (Phi 6) is an enveloped double stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. Unlike single stranded RNA genomes ... 1 shows the structure of the Phi6 bacteriophage. Fig. 2 shows a sample processing device that can be used with the compositions ... 4(a) (bottom panel is Ct and top panel is amplitude). The results indicate that when using a Tris-buffer, Phi6 bacteriophage is ... The method of any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein Phi6 bacteriophage is reverse transcribed and/or amplified as an RNA standard ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018069267A1/en

Grishin Lab: PublicationsGrishin Lab: Publications

J.Pei and N.V.Grishin (2005) "The P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6 is a distant homolog of lytic transglycosylases". Protein ... H.Cheng, N.Shen, J.Pei and N.V.Grishin (2004) "Double-stranded DNA Bacteriophage Prohead Protease Is Homologous to Herpesvirus ... E 97(6-1): 062404; PMID: 30011480 309. J.Pei L.N.Kinch, N.V.Grishin (2018) "FlyXCDB -- a resource for Drosophila cell surface ... Biol. 6: 8 PMID: 16603087. 118. E.D.Nelson and N.V.Grishin (2006) "Alternate pathways for folding in the flavodoxin fold family ...
more infohttp://prodata.swmed.edu/Lab/Publications.htm

Grishin Lab: ResearchGrishin Lab: Research

... which contains just one P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6. We show that this singleton sequence possesses conserved sequence ... Structural similarity between Cre recombinase and MarA: Ribbon diagrams of a Cre recombinase from bacteriophage P1 (1crx) and b ... First, the P5 protein from bacteriophage phi8, which belongs to COG3926 and Pfam family DUF847, is predicted to have a new ... Since previous biochemical experiments with P5 of phi-6 have indicated that the purified enzyme possesses endopeptidase ...
more infohttp://prodata.swmed.edu/Lab/Research.htm

Harri Jäälinoja - Publications
     - University of HelsinkiHarri Jäälinoja - Publications - University of Helsinki

Electron cryomicroscopy comparison of the architectures of the enveloped bacteriophages [phi]6 and [phi]8. Jäälinoja, H. T., ... Electron cryo-microscopy studies of bacteriophage phi8 and archaeal virus SH1. Jäälinoja, H., 2007, Helsinki: University of ... 8008-8013 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Scientific › peer-review ...
more infohttps://researchportal.helsinki.fi/en/persons/harri-j%C3%A4%C3%A4linoja/publications/

Analiza struktury i funkcji białek wirusowych : transglikozylazy P5 z bakteriofaga \phi 6 oraz białka nukleokapsydu ludzkiego...Analiza struktury i funkcji białek wirusowych : transglikozylazy P5 z bakteriofaga \phi 6 oraz białka nukleokapsydu ludzkiego...

X ray crystallography, viral proteins, bacteriophage \phi 6, NL 63. affiliation:. Wydział Biochemii, Biofizyki i Biotechnologii ... Analysis of the structure and function of viral proteins : P5 transglycosylase from bacteriophage \phi 6 and human coronavirus ... The described research relates to P5 transglycosylase from bacteriophage ф 6 and the nucleocapsid protein (N) of human α ... Analiza struktury i funkcji białek wirusowych : transglikozylazy P5 z bakteriofaga \phi 6 oraz białka nukleokapsydu ludzkiego ...
more infohttps://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/70424
  • The phage Phi O18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The complex of T7 RNA polymerase with the phage phi 10 promoter has been visualized indirectly by exploiting the ability of the polymerase to protect DNA sequences from cleavage by methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II). (pnas.org)
  • It catalyses cleavage and ligation of a phosphodiester bond between a G and A nucleotide residue pair at the phi X origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Φ6 has been studied as a model to understand how segmented RNA viruses package their genomes, its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model organism to test evolutionary theory such as Muller's ratchet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence of the replication module, part of the lysis module, and remnants of a lysogenic module from the lytic P335 species lactococcal bacteriophage φ31 was determined, and its regulatory elements were investigated. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Packaging motor from double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi12 acts as an obligatory passive conduit during transcription. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We evaluated the efficacy of using bacteriophages to kill the pathogen in both biofilms and in the murine lung. (ucc.ie)
  • Specifically Brucella abortus (a pathogen which causes brucellosis in cattle) can be detected using Brucella bacteriophage for the virus, urease for the enzyme linked to the bacteriophage, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydrosysuccimide ester as a coupling reagent, sera from mice immunized with Brucella bacteriophage for a detector antibody, urease conjugated to anti-mouse sheep antibody for an indicator, and urea with bromcresol purple as the substrate. (patentgenius.com)
  • R. H. Gilman, R. B. Hornick, and W. E. Woodward, "Evaluation of a UDP-glucose-4-epimeraseless mutant of Salmonella typhi as a live oral vaccine," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 717-723, 1977. (hindawi.com)
  • Harada L.K., Silva E.C., Campos W.F., Del Fiol F.S., Vila M., Dabrowska K., Krylov V.N., Balcao V.M. (2018) Biotechnological applications of bacteriophages: State of the art. (ua.pt)
  • A bacteriophage carried the aminoglycoside resistance gene (AAC(3)-IId). (bioportfolio.com)
  • An ethanol-based spray disinfectant significantly reduced bacteriophage MS2 contamination on material from gowns meeting ASTM standard 1671 for resistance to blood and viral penetration and on a cover gown worn by personnel. (cambridge.org)
  • To partially purify bacteriophages, two quickly acquired resistance to these drugs by acquiring assay approaches were used to optimize the method. (cdc.gov)
  • Another limitation is the rapid emergence of phage-resistant mutants ( 6 , 11 , 18 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • The following definitions apply: Homology -------- Homology means evolutionary relationship [6]. (uniprot.org)
  • We used the segmented RNA bacteriophage ϕ6 as a model for studying the evolutionary genomics of virus adaptation in the face of host switches and parametrically varying population sizes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This document describes biochemical pathways for producing adipic acid, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid, hexamethylenediamine or 1,6-hexanediol by forming two. (patents.com)
  • Linkage studies have indicated that the coinheritance frequencies are less than would be expected from the published molecular weight of E79 deoxyribonucleic acid (120 X 10(6). (asm.org)
  • For these experiments, two samples were used in a first and plasmid-encoded enzymes (6,7). (cdc.gov)
  • Variable recovery of transductants as a result of phage killing was avoided by the use of recipients carrying the IncP-2 plasmid R38, and transduction frequencies of 4 X 10(-6) to 1 X 10(-5) per plaque-forming unit were obtained. (asm.org)
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or Duncan's disease was described in the mid-1970s by Purtilo and colleagues in the Duncan kindred, where 6 out of 18 young males died of a lymphoproliferative disorder ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • With this background established, the review then explores the potential for use of bacteriophage (phage) therapy as an alternative to antibiotics during the antenatal period. (frontiersin.org)