Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Toxic alkylating agent used in industry; also as antineoplastic and research tool to produce chromosome aberrations and cancers.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus phi6. (1/87)

Fisher's geometric model of adaptive evolution argues that adaptive evolution should generally result from the substitution of many mutations of small effect because advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common than those of large effect. However, evidence for both evolution by small steps and for Fisher's model has been mixed. Here we report supporting results from a new experimental test of the model. We subjected the bacteriophage phi6 to intensified genetic drift in small populations and caused viral fitness to decline through the accumulation of a deleterious mutation. We then propagated the mutated virus at a range of larger population sizes and allowed fitness to recover by natural selection. Although fitness declined in one large step, it was usually recovered in smaller steps. More importantly, step size during recovery was smaller with decreasing size of the recovery population. These results confirm Fisher's main prediction that advantageous mutations of small effect should be more common. We also show that the advantageous mutations of small effect are compensatory mutations whose advantage is conditional (epistatic) on the presence of the deleterious mutation, in which case the adaptive landscape of phi6 is likely to be very rugged.  (+info)

Precise packaging of the three genomic segments of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. (2/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a genome of three segments of double-stranded RNA. Each virus particle contains one each of the three segments. Packaging is effected by the acquisition, in a serially dependent manner, of the plus strands of the genomic segments into empty procapsids. The empty procapsids are compressed in shape and expand during packaging. The packaging program involves discrete steps that are determined by the amount of RNA inside the procapsid. The steps involve the exposure and concealment of binding sites on the outer surface of the procapsid for the plus strands of the three genomic segments. The plus strand of segment S can be packaged alone, while packaging of the plus strand of segment M depends upon prior packaging of S. Packaging of the plus strand of L depends upon the prior packaging of M. Minus-strand synthesis begins when the particle has a full complement of plus strands. Plus-strand synthesis commences upon the completion of minus-strand synthesis. All of the reactions of packaging, minus-strand synthesis, and plus-strand synthesis can be accomplished in vitro with isolated procapsids. Live-virus constructions that are in accord with the model have been prepared. Mutant virus with changes in the packaging program have been isolated and analyzed.  (+info)

Packaging and replication regulation revealed by chimeric genome segments of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6. (3/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 has a double-stranded RNA genome composed of three linear segments, L, M, and S. The innermost particle in the virion of phi6, like in the other dsRNA viruses, is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, which carries out all the functions needed for the replication of the viral genome. Empty polymerase complexes can package the single-stranded copies of the viral genome segments, replicate the packaged segments into double-stranded form (minus strand synthesis), and then produce new plus strands (transcripts) from the double-stranded RNA templates. The three viral genomic segments contain unique packaging signals at their 5' ends, and minus strand synthesis initiation is dependent on the sequence at the 3' end. Here we have constructed chimeric segments that have the packaging signal from one segment and the minus strand synthesis initiation signal from another segment. Using purified recombinant polymerase complexes and single-stranded/chimeric and original RNA segments, we have analyzed the packaging and replication regulation operating in in vitro conditions. We show that the 5' end of the L genome segment in single-stranded form is needed to switch from the packaging to the minus strand synthesis and the same sequence is required in double-stranded form to switch on plus strand synthesis. In addition we have constructed deletions to the M segment to analyze the possible regulatory role of the internal noncoding area of this segment.  (+info)

A novel virus-host cell membrane interaction. Membrane voltage-dependent endocytic-like entry of bacteriophage straight phi6 nucleocapsid. (4/87)

Studies on the virus-cell interactions have proven valuable in elucidating vital cellular processes. Interestingly, certain virus-host membrane interactions found in eukaryotic systems seem also to operate in prokaryotes (Bamford, D.H., M. Romantschuk, and P. J. Somerharju, 1987. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 6:1467-1473; Romantschuk, M., V.M. Olkkonen, and D.H. Bamford. 1988. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 7:1821-1829). straight phi6 is an enveloped double-stranded RNA virus infecting a gram-negative bacterium. The viral entry is initiated by fusion between the virus membrane and host outer membrane, followed by delivery of the viral nucleocapsid (RNA polymerase complex covered with a protein shell) into the host cytosol via an endocytic-like route. In this study, we analyze the interaction of the nucleocapsid with the host plasma membrane and demonstrate a novel approach for dissecting the early events of the nucleocapsid entry process. The initial binding of the nucleocapsid to the plasma membrane is independent of membrane voltage (DeltaPsi) and the K(+) and H(+) gradients. However, the following internalization is dependent on plasma membrane voltage (DeltaPsi), but does not require a high ATP level or K(+) and H(+) gradients. Moreover, the nucleocapsid shell protein, P8, is the viral component mediating the membrane-nucleocapsid interaction.  (+info)

Replicase activity of purified recombinant protein P2 of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6. (5/87)

In nature, synthesis of both minus- and plus-sense RNA strands of all the known double-stranded RNA viruses occurs in the interior of a large protein assembly referred to as the polymerase complex. In addition to other proteins, the complex contains a putative polymerase possessing characteristic sequence motifs. However, none of the previous studies has shown template-dependent RNA synthesis directly with an isolated putative polymerase protein. In this report, recombinant protein P2 of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi6 was purified and demonstrated in an in vitro enzymatic assay to act as the replicase. The enzyme efficiently utilizes phage-specific, positive-sense RNA substrates to produce double-stranded RNA molecules, which are formed by newly synthesized, full-length minus-strands base paired with the plus-strand templates. P2-catalyzed replication is also shown to be very effective with a broad range of heterologous single-stranded RNA templates. The importance and implications of these results are discussed.  (+info)

RNA secondary structures of the bacteriophage phi6 packaging regions. (6/87)

Bacteriophage phi6 genome consists of three segments of double-stranded RNA. During maturation, single-stranded copies of these segments are packaged into preformed polymerase complex particles. Only phi6 RNA is packaged, and each particle contains only one copy of each segment. An in vitro packaging and replication assay has been developed for phi6, and the packaging signals (pac sites) have been mapped to the 5' ends of the RNA segments. In this study, we propose secondary structure models for the pac sites of phi6 single-stranded RNA segments. Our models accommodate data from structure-specific chemical modifications, free energy minimizations, and phylogenetic comparisons. Previously reported pac site deletion studies are also discussed. Each pac site possesses a unique architecture, that, however, contains common structural elements.  (+info)

Characterization of phi8, a bacteriophage containing three double-stranded RNA genomic segments and distantly related to Phi6. (7/87)

The three double-stranded RNA genomic segments of bacteriophage Phi8 were copied as cDNA, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Although the organization of the genome is similar to that of Phi6, there is no similarity in either the nucleotide sequences or the amino acid sequences, with the exception of the motifs characteristic of viral RNA polymerases that are found in the presumptive polymerase sequence. Several features of the viral proteins differ markedly from those of Phi6. Although both phages are covered by a lipid-containing membrane, the protein compositions are very different. The most striking difference is that protein P8, which constitutes a shell around the procapsid in Phi6, is part of the membrane in Phi8. The host attachment protein consists of two peptides rather than one and the phage attaches directly to the lipopolysaccharide of the host rather than to a type IV pilus. The host range of Phi8 includes rough strains of Salmonella typhimurium and of pseudomonads  (+info)

Characterization of phi 13, a bacteriophage related to phi 6 and containing three dsRNA genomic segments. (8/87)

The three dsRNA genomic segments of bacteriophage Phi 13 were copied as cDNA and the nucleotide sequences were determined. The organization of the genome is similar to that of Phi 6, and there is significant similarity in the amino acid sequences of the proteins of the polymerase complex and one of the membrane proteins, P6. There is little or no similarity in the nucleotide sequences. Several features of the viral proteins differ markedly from those of Phi 6. Although both phages are covered by a lipid-containing membrane, the protein compositions are different. The host attachment protein consists of two peptides rather than one and the phage attaches directly to the LPS of the host rather than to a Type IV pilus. Despite the differences in the structure of the membranes, the two viruses can successfully exchange the genes for host attachment proteins and thereby change their host specificities.  (+info)

documentclass{article} \usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} \usepackage{amsmath} \DeclareMathOperator{\sn}{sn} \DeclareMathOperator{\cn}{cn} \DeclareMathOperator{\dn}{dn} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{gathered} \omega^3x_{4}(s) = \begin{minipage}[t]{.7\displaywidth} \raggedright\linespread{1.2}\selectfont \begin{math} x_4(\varphi_0) -2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 +2k^2x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2( \phi ) +4 \cos^3 ( \phi )E ( s ) k^2+x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) s - \cos^3( \phi ){s}^2E( s ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )s ( E (s) ^2 +\cos ( \phi ) {s}^2E ( s ) - 2x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) E ( s ) -1/6\cos ( \phi ) {s}^3-4/3 \cos^3 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^3 -1/2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ){s}^2-2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^2 -2\cos ( \phi) s E ( s ) ^2 -2x_1(\varphi_0)sE( s ) + k\sin (\phi ) \cn(s) {s}^2 \cos^2( \phi ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 \sn(s) ^2 -2/3\cos ( \phi) E ( s) +4/3k^3\cn(s) \sn(s) ^2\sin( \phi ) \cos^2 ( \phi )+2k\sin ( \phi ) \cn(s) +2/3\cos ( \phi ) s-8/3\cos ( \phi ) k^2\dn (s) \sn(s) ...
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
4DQJ: Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
Many viruses package their genome into preformed capsids using packaging motors powered by the hydrolysis of ATP. The hexameric ATPase P4 of dsRNA bacteriophage phi12, located at the vertices of the icosahedral capsid, is such a packaging motor. We have captured crystallographic structures of P4 for all the key points along the catalytic pathway, including apo, substrate analog bound, and product bound. Substrate and product binding have been observed as both binary complexes and ternary complexes with divalent cations. These structures reveal large movements of the putative RNA binding loop, which are coupled with nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, indicating how ATP hydrolysis drives RNA translocation through cooperative conformational changes. Two distinct conformations of bound nucleotide triphosphate suggest how hydrolysis is activated by RNA binding. This provides a model for chemomechanical coupling for a prototype of the large family of hexameric helicases and oligonucleotide translocating
During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription ...
iframe src=https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=keyword+exact+%22DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA%22&embed=1&hide_pagination=1&hide_info=1&hide_options=1&hide_cluster=1 ...
of phi and psi for randomly chosen residues; these values range from -98° to -178° and from +90° to +167°, respectively. These ranges overlap the values for the twisted parallel showing that there is no differences in the ranges for the two types of twisted sheets. Median values for phi and psi are -125° and +140°, respectively. ...
Aims: To develop infectious (live/dead) enveloped virus test indicators and response surface methodology (RSM) models that evaluate survival of an enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus on contaminated aircraft materials after exposure to hot, humid air (HHA).Methods and Results: Enveloped RNA bacteriophage Phi6 (Φ6) was dried on wiring insulation, aircraft performance coating (APC), polypropylene, and nylon at ≥ 8 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) test coupon−1. Only 2.4 log10 inactivation was measured on APC at 70°Celsius (°C), 5% relative humidity (RH) after 24 h. In contrast, HHA RSM models showed a 90% probability of a 7 log10 inactivation at ≥63°C, 90% RH after 1 h, and decontamination kinetics were similar across different materials. HHA decontamination of C-130 and C-17 aircraft showed >7 log10 and ≥5.9 log10 inactivation of enveloped virus on 100 and 110 test indicators, respectively, with a 1-h treatment, excluding ramp-up and ramp-down times.Conclusions: Enveloped RNA virus test
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
NIH thinks that a biological motor from bacteriophage phi29 indeed has a potential for the future of nanomedicine, for a number of reasons. The press offic
Virus particles Monoliths Ion exchang echromatography Virus purification Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage phi05_2302
Viral structure Virus: poison (Latin); infectious particles consisting of a nucleic acid in a protein coat Capsid; (viral envelopes); DNA or RNA Bacteriophages (phages)
In mathematics, the Crofton formula, named after Morgan Crofton (1826-1915), is a classic result of integral geometry relating the length of a curve to the expected number of times a random line intersects it. Suppose γ {\displaystyle \gamma } is a rectifiable plane curve. Given an oriented line l, let n γ {\displaystyle n_{\gamma }} (l) be the number of points at which γ {\displaystyle \gamma } and l intersect. We can parametrize the general line l by the direction φ {\displaystyle \varphi } in which it points and its signed distance p {\displaystyle p} from the origin. The Crofton formula expresses the arc length of the curve γ {\displaystyle \gamma } in terms of an integral over the space of all oriented lines: length ( γ ) = 1 4 ∬ n γ ( φ , p ) d φ d p . {\displaystyle {\text{length}}(\gamma )={\frac {1}{4}}\iint n_{\gamma }(\varphi ,p)\;d\varphi \;dp.} The differential form d φ ∧ d p {\displaystyle d\varphi \wedge dp} is invariant under rigid motions, so it is a natural ...
This collection from the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) provides historical reference plasmids for various incompatibility families. The collection also includes a set of bacterial host strains meant for cloning and in vitro packaging of and/or working with phages.
Hi, When I was in Japan, I used ETHACHINMATE as a carrier to recover DNA (from WAKO JUNYAKU Co.). In their catelogy, they show some data glycogen has effect on transformation efficency, but ethachinmate does not. I dont know whether linar polyacrylamide effect transformation and in vitro Packaging efficiency. Huang ...
An interesting number and sequence Phi What is Phi? Phi ( = 1.618033988749895... ), most often pronounced fi like fly , is simply an irrational number like pi ( p = 3.14
Phi Việt Karaoke 06: Volume 06 - Mưa Bụi 01. Neu Anh Dung Hen - Unknown 02. Ke Co Don - Unknown 03. Doan Cuoi Tinh Yeu - Unknown 04. Hoa Bien - Unknown 05. Mot Minh Thoi - Unknown 06. Mong Chieu Xuan - Unknown 07. Nang Ha - Unknown 08. Viet Tu K. B. C - Unknown 09. Mong...
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
The key to truly high performance with the Phi coprocessor is to express sufficient parallelism and vector capability to fully utilize the device. Here is a timing framework that enables you to measure and optimize performance and push it past 1 teraflop.
TY - JOUR. T1 - High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. AU - Gunther, Edward. AU - Murray, Noreen E.. AU - Glazer, Peter M.. PY - 1993/8/11. Y1 - 1993/8/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. DO - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. M3 - Article. C2 - 8396240. AN - SCOPUS:0027236017. VL - 21. SP - 3903. EP - 3904. JO - Nucleic Acids Research. JF - Nucleic Acids Research. SN - 0305-1048. IS - 16. ER - ...
These pages were created in support of the dsRNA Virus Symposia. The editors also wish to acknowledge continuing support from BBSRC, DEFRA and the Commission of the European Community. ...
Distinguishing features. See discussion under family properties. Virion See discussion under family properties. Genome organisation and replication. See discussion under family properties. Biology. See discussion under family properties. Species demarcation criteria. Not currently defined. ...
The absolute requirement for primers in the initiation of DNA synthesis poses a problem for replicating the ends of linear chromosomes. The DNA polymerase of bacteriophage phi29 solves this problem by using a serine hydroxyl of terminal protein to prime replication. The 3.0 A resolution structure sh …
Phi Phi Anita Resort, Ko Phi Phi Don: See 66 traveller reviews, 56 candid photos, and great deals for Phi Phi Anita Resort, ranked #31 of 66 B&Bs / inns in Ko Phi Phi Don and rated 3 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
First case you have: $$T=\frac 12 M\,v^2+\frac 12 I\omega^2=F\,L$$ with : $$v=\omega\,R~,I=\frac 12 M\,R^2$$ you obtain $$ \omega=\frac{2}{3}\frac{\sqrt{3}}{R}\,\sqrt{\frac{F\,L}{M}}$$ second case $$T=\frac 12 M\,v^2+\frac 12 I\omega^2=F\,L+F\,R\,\varphi$$ with $$\varphi=\frac{x}{R}=\frac{L}{R} \,,v=\omega\,R$$ you obtain $$ \omega=\frac{2}{3}\frac{\sqrt{6 ...
Book now at Lucy Restaurant and Bar at Bardessono in Yountville, CA. Explore menu, see photos and read 1103 reviews: We are locals and have been coming to Lucy periodically for years; we have had both good and poor experience mostly related to service. Todays visit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of the in vitro packaging efficiency of bacteriophage T7 DNA. T2 - effects of neutral polymers. AU - Son, Marjatta. AU - Hayes, Shirley J.. AU - Serwer, Philip. PY - 1989/10/30. Y1 - 1989/10/30. N2 - The in vitro DNA packaging of several DNA bacteriophages is stimulated by the presence of neutral polymers. To optimize bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging and to understand the basis for optimization, the efficiency ofT7 DNA packaging has been determined at completion, as a function of the type, molecular mass, and concentration of the polymer added. When the polymer used was polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 0.2, 0.6 or 12.6 kDa, the efficiency of DNA packaging reached maximum at an intermediate concentration of polymer. The osmotic pressure (Pos) at maximum efficiency was either in, or close to, the range of colloid Pos measured for the intact host cell. The optimum Pos increased as the size of the polymer used decreased. PEG-100 (of 0.1 kDa) did not stimulate in vitro T7 DNA ...
Optimize performance while maintaining a unified hardware and software environment with the latest products from the Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor family
Do your feet cry out in pain at the end of the day? Is it sometimes difficult to stand at all because the burning is unbearable? I want to help you find the
Cystovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae. Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Pseudomonas phage phi6. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Cystoviridae Genus: Cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 Pseudomonas phage phi8 Pseudomonas phage phi12 Pseudomonas phage phi13 Pseudomonas phage phi2954 Pseudomonas phage phiNN Pseudomonas phage phiYY Cystoviruses are distinguished by their tripartite dsRNA genome, totaling ~14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids. Most identified cystoviruses infect Pseudomonas species, but this is likely biased due to the method of screening and enrichment. The type species is Pseudomonas phage phi6, but there are many other proposed members of this family. Pseudomonas phage φ7, φ8, φ9, φ10, ...
Author Summary The fitness effects of mutations are the raw material for natural selection. It has been shown that point mutations typically have strongly deleterious effects in plant and animal RNA viruses, whereas cellular organisms are comparatively more robust. Here, we characterize the fitness effects of random mutations in DNA viruses and compare them with those found in RNA viruses, using six phage species of similar genome sizes. To achieve this goal, we introduced mutations by chemical and site-directed mutagenesis, identified the genetic changes by sequencing, and quantified their fitness effects using growth-rate assays. In all cases, mutations had a strong average impact on fitness. We conclude that mutational sensitivity is a general property of viruses with small genomes and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings.
Characterizing the genome of mature virions is pivotal to understanding the highly dynamic processes of virus assembly and infection. Owing to the different cellular fates of DNA and RNA, the life cycles of double-stranded (ds)DNA and dsRNA viruses are dissimilar. In terms of nucleic acid packing, dsDNA viruses, which lack genome segmentation and intra-capsid transcriptional machinery, predominantly display single-spooled genome organizations1-8. Because the release of dsRNA into the cytoplasm triggers host defence mechanisms9, dsRNA viruses retain their genomes within a core particle that contains the enzymes required for RNA replication and transcription10-12. The genomes of dsRNA viruses vary greatly in the degree of segmentation. In members of the Reoviridae family, genomes consist of 10-12 segments and exhibit a non-spooled arrangement mediated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases11-14. However, whether this arrangement is a general feature of dsRNA viruses remains unknown. Here, using cryo-electron
Populations are at risk of extinction when unsuitable or when sink habitat exceeds a threshold frequency in the environment. Sinks that present cues associated with high-quality habitats, termed ecological traps, have especially detrimental effects on net population growth at metapopulation scales. Ecological traps for viruses arise naturally, or can be engineered, via the expression of viral-binding sites on cells that preclude viral reproduction. We present a model for virus population growth in a heterogeneous host community, parameterized with data from populations of the RNA bacteriophage Φ6 presented with mixtures of suitable host bacteria and either neutral or trap cells. We demonstrate that viruses can sustain high rates of population growth in the presence of neutral non-hosts as long as some host cells are present, whereas trap cells dramatically reduce viral fitness. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficacy of traps for viral elimination is frequency dependent in spatially ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. PHI ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
pHI, MY 3 1/2 YEAR OLD SON HAS PA.WE FOUND OUT WHEN HE WAS 2.I HAVE READ SEVERAL ARTICLES SAYING THAT IF YOU ARE NOT EXPOSED TO PEANUTS FOR 2-4 YEARS
Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), F6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), FX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the ...
The importance of the P3 protein in host switching events in phage ϕ6 has been previously established [36, 45]. This study confirmed this observation, but additionally brought to light the importance of the P12 protein in host switching events. This non-structural protein controls the liberation of mature ϕ6 particles from the host cytoplasmic membrane, but is not incorporated into the virion [46]. Like many eukaryotic viruses, Cystoviridae have envelopes comprised of both viral proteins and host lipids. Different hosts may have different lipid constituents which are contributed to the viral envelope and thus may require slightly altered P12 proteins for efficient envelope assembly. We have already shown that phage ϕ6 maturation in ERA affects fitness when the virion infects PP, and vice versa[25, 36]. We assume this epigenetic effect is mediated by the lipids taken from these very different hosts, and we speculate that our current results may relate to the importance of host lipid ...
MUSIC] The computation of added stiffness is easy because it only depends on some integrals over the interface. To compute the added mass we have to go a bit further. The added mass m A was defined as the inertia coefficient, when we obtained the force acting on the solid. It is made of the mass number, M, and of the sum of an interface of quantities that we know. Normal n, mode shape of the solid motion phi, and a quantity that we have to compute, the pressure shape, phi p. What is phi p? It was related to the velocity shape Phi u through phi u equals minus grad of phi p, and phi u was the solution of div of phi u equals zero, and phi u n equals phi n, at the interface. By taking the divergence of this momentum equation, we have div of grad of phi_p equals zero. So, we just have to find the field phi p, that satisfies Laplace equation, delta of phi p. equals zero, with a boundary condition at interface. Once we have phi p, we will obtain the added mass ma by a simple sum of the interface. ...
TABLE-US-00028 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 261 290 290 1 1 2 2 No sample su1 se phi062 phi323152 phi323152 phi101249 phi101249 Phi346482 Phi346482 1 017 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 2 044 n n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 3 006 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 4 007 n p 160 134 134 -- -- 119 119 5 009 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 6 047 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 7 637 n p 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 8 001 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 9 046 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 10 048 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 11 049 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 12 109 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 13 354 p n 160 137 137 -- -- 119 119 14 sh2-i n n 158 135 135 141 141 119 119 2005 IBM neigbors chr. 11 11 11 11 11 11 2005 IBM neigbors sample position 3 3 4 4 5 5 No sample Phi213398 Phi213398 phi109624 phi109624 Phi159819 Phi159819 1 017 302 302 131 131 125 125 2 044 302 302 131 131 125 125 3 006 302 302 140 140 125 125 4 007 302 302 140 140 125 125 5 009 302 302 131 131 ...
The Cobble Beach, Phi Phi Island, Hin Poo Bay from 70 $ (18.Dec) Instant hotel booking. The Cobble Beach Resort enjoys a hillside location on the northern end of Loh Dalam Bay and offers 39 rooms and villas in three categories. The Thai-s...
with(numtheory): A000029 := proc(n) local d, s; if n = 0 then RETURN(1); else if n mod 2 = 1 then s := 2^((n-1)/2) else s := 2^(n/2-2)+2^(n/2-1); fi; for d in divisors(n) do s := s+phi(d)*2^(n/d)/(2*n); od; RETURN(s); fi; end ...
Experimental and directed evolution using microbes offer powerful methods for uncovering processes of evolution across the tree of life. The goal of such experiments is to generate mutational diversity, either through propagation of microbes in stressful conditions (experimental evolution) or through artificial introduction of mutations into their genomes (directed evolution). In the case of multiple resulting mutations, each is then reverse engineered into the ancestral genotype individually to determine how it changes the phenotype of interest. This thesis presents the results of one experimental evolution project (evolution of viral thermostability under increasing temperatures) and one directed evolution project (diversification of toxin-antitoxin protein pairs in bacteria), including both evolutionary and single-mutation analyses. In both cases, I found that mutations may persist in a population due to their pleiotropic effects on traits other than the focal one of the study. My thesis ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Phi Le, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Looking for online definition of medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII in the Medical Dictionary? medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII explanation free. What is medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII? Meaning of medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII medical term. What does medial basal bronchopulmonary segment S VII mean?
The DNA Blunting Kit allows the conversion of 3 and 5 overhangs to blunt or flush ends. This conversion is accomplished simultaneously by the 3 to 5 exonuclease and 5 to 3 polymerase activities of T4 DNA Polymerase. The resulting blunt-ended DNA can be ligated efficiently into a vector using the same optimized buffer system employed in Takaras DNA Ligation Kits. The reaction can then be used directly in bacterial transformation or in vitro packaging procedures without need for further DNA purification.. ...
BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK Writes------------------------ Hi Netters, Has anyone tried electroporation as an alternative to in vitro packaging in order to make a lambda library? Comments, experiences, references welcomed. Jon R Sayers (Cell and Molecular Biology), Biochemistry Dept., University College North Wales, Univ of Wales, Bangor, LL57 2UW. Tel +44 248 38 23 54 Fax +44 248 370731 Email BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK ***************** Dear BSS032 at BANGOR.AC.UK I am in the process of doing that experiment. Ill tell you what happens tomorrow! Ill be electroporating a ligation but it will give some idea how it works. Dan Gietz ______________________________________ R.Daniel Gietz Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Human Genetics University of Manitoba 770 Bannatyne Ave, Rm 250 Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3 Tel.: (204)789-3458 Fax.: (204)786-8712 E-mail GIETZ at BLDGHSC.LAN1.UMANITOBA.CA Trying to do the Manitoba Thing ...
Phi29 works by using random hexamers which under the right buffer conditions will hybridize with the DNA template. The Phi29 polymerase is then able to begin elongation from multiple sites producing DNA concatamers. Due to its cow-catch capabilities, Phi29 is also able to displace double strands as it moves along the template.. ...
WORLD EXCLUSIVE Almost three months on, a policeman says insecticide probably killed Canadas Belanger sisters on the holiday island of Phi Phi. But theres no official report yet.
I have many thoughts about what a Phi Phop really is. Some Thai sources say that she is a banana spirit (香蕉精) that dwells in a banana plant in the wild. Yet there are many Chinese sources like to akin Phi Phop with Gu maiden or master of poisons ( 蛊女). In the past, Gu is a subject no one in Indochina regions likes to talk about. The Hmong (苗族) people called a Gu maiden as Phi Phop. Once a lady is being accused of being a Phi Phop, then she has to leave her village and live in isolation. When there are many Phi Phops living together, they form a Phi Phop village. This type of village can still be found in isolated areas of Indochina. So, perhaps we can deduce that a Phi Phop is the spirit of a Gu maiden ...
SE equation in (1d) a\frac{d^{2}\phi}{dx^{2}}+V(x)\phi=E_{n}\phi (1) WKB approach \phi=exp(iW/\hbar) (2) W=[2m(E_{n}-V)]^{1/2} then from (2) we...
Boutique Nutrition sportive et parapharmacie discount pas chere en ligne pour les Produits musculation, la sante, la minceur, la beaute et la forme.
Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model ... "Structure-Function Insights Into the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of the dsRNA Bacteriophage Φ6". Segmented Double-stranded RNA ...
... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700. ...
Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...
... phi X174, G4 and phi K" Biochim Biophys Acta 1130(3) 277-288 Aoyama A, Hayashi M (1986) Synthesis of bacteriophage phi X174 in ... Keegstra W, Baas PD, Jansz HS (1979) Bacteriophage phi X174 RF DNA replication in vivo. A study by electron microscopy" J Mol ... Tessman ES, Tessman I, Pollock TJ (1980) Gene K of bacteriophage phi X 174 codes for a nonessential protein" J Virol 33(1) 557- ... A protein of bacteriophage phi X174 into an ATT codon yields a viable phage indicating that A protein is not essential for phi ...
The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA- ... Fiers W, Sinsheimer RL (October 1962). "The structure of the DNA of bacteriophage phi-X174. III. Ultracentrifugal evidence for ... January 1992). "Atomic structure of single-stranded DNA bacteriophage phi X174 and its functional implications". Nature. 355 ( ... A protein of bacteriophage phi X174 into an ATT codon yields a viable phage indicating that A protein is not essential for phi ...
... his demonstration of Muller's ratchet in the RNA Virus Phi-6 and his work on sex in viruses. More recently, he was instrumental ... in the demonstration of the evolution of parasitic genetic elements in co-infecting bacteriophages and experimental tests of ...
"Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC". FEMS ... van der Ploeg, JR (2007). "Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans bacteriophage M102". FEMS Microbiol Lett. 275 (1): 130-8. ... "Identification and characterization of the two-component cell lysis cassette encoded by temperate bacteriophage phiPYB5 of ... 105 (6): 1939-44. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03953.x. PMID 19120640. S2CID 25967192. Reddy, Bhaskara L.; Saier Jr., Milton H ...
2003). "Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: [var phi]X174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides". ... 6 (5): 343-345. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1318. PMID 19363495. Gibson Assembly video on YouTube. ...
Nakayama, K; Kanaya, S; Ohnishi, M; Terawaki, Y; Hayashi, T (1999). "The complete nucleotide sequence of phi CTX, a cytotoxin- ... as Pseudomonas virus phiCTX is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and ... converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages". ... doi:10.1007/s00705-012-1299-6. PMID 22481600. Baltimore, D (1971). "Expression of animal virus genomes". Bacteriological ...
In 2003 the same group synthetically assembled the genome of a virus, Phi X 174 bacteriophage. Currently, Smith is scientific ... 70 (6): 540. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(11)64310-3. PMID 7776712. Berg, K. (1978). "The Nobel prize in physiology and medicine 1978 ...
Clerch, B., E. Rivera, and M. Llagostera, Bacteriophage PSP3 and phi R73 activator proteins: analysis of promoter specificities ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a ...
Garmendia C, Bernad A, Esteban JA, Blanco L, Salas M (February 1992). "The bacteriophage phi 29 DNA polymerase, a proofreading ... Φ29 is a bacteriophage of Bacillus subtilis with a sequenced, linear, 19,285 base pair DNA genome. Each 5' end is covalently ... Bernad A, Blanco L, Salas M (September 1990). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the YCDTDS amino acid motif of the phi 29 DNA ... Φ29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the bacteriophage Φ29. It is being increasingly used in molecular biology for multiple ...
Unfortunately the superbug had survived in her throat and she passed away on November 15, 2017 at age 25 before bacteriophage ... She attended Stanford University, graduating Phi Beta Kappa, majoring in human biology with a concentration in environmental ... This allowed her to push for experimental options with bacteriophage treatment, which engineers viruses to destroy bacteria. ... Retrieved 6 March 2019. Boodman, Eric (12 November 2017). "To save a young woman besieged by superbugs, scientists hunt a ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... In the 1970's, new techniques for sequencing DNA were applied to bacteriophage MS2 and øX174, and the extended nucleotide ... ISBN 0-470-02175-6 Kohane, et al. Microarrays for an Integrative Genomics. The MIT Press, 2002. ISBN 0-262-11271-X Lund, O. et ... 6: 24373. Bibcode:2016NatSR...624373C. doi:10.1038/srep24373. PMC 4829868. PMID 27071527.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... Court DL, Oppenheim AB, Adhya SL (January 2007). "A new look at bacteriophage lambda genetic networks". Journal of Bacteriology ... Sanger F, Coulson AR, Hong GF, Hill DF, Petersen GB (December 1982). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA". Journal ... Bacteriophage MS2). The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs. The ...
February 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-695. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID 870828. Levitt M ( ... leading to the publication of the first complete genome of a bacteriophage in 1977. Robert Holley and his team in Cornell ... 6 (2): e1000667. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000667. PMC 2829047 . PMID 20195499. Stanke, M; Waack, S (Oct 19, 2003). "Gene ...
Feb 1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi: ... 1972: Walter Fiers and his team were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for bacteriophage MS2 coat protein ... Sanger's lab sequence the entire genome of bacteriophage Φ-X174. In the late 1970s: nonisotopic methods of nucleic acid ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (May 1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". J. Gen ...
The first class III holin to be characterized was the bacteriophage T4-encoded t protein (T4 holin). Other examples include the ... The Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h Holin (EPPE-Hol) Family 1.E.59 - The Putative Acholeplasma Phage L2 Holin (L2 Holin) Family 9.B.109 ... Veiga-Crespo P; Barros-Velázquez J; Villa T.G. (2007). Méndez-Vilas A (ed.). "What can bacteriophages do for us?" (PDF). ... Holins are a diverse group of small proteins produced by dsDNA bacteriophages in order to trigger and control the degradation ...
In addition to distance restraints, restraints on the torsion angles of the chemical bonds, typically the psi and phi angles, ... Common techniques include addition of bacteriophages or bicelles to the sample, or preparation of the sample in a stretched ... Thus each peak can be converted into a maximum distance between the nuclei, usually between 1.8 and 6 angstroms. The intensity ...
A Bacillus phage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have bacteria in the genus Bacillus as host species. These ... Blanco, L; Salas, M (September 1984). "Characterization and purification of a phage phi 29-encoded DNA polymerase required for ... Salas, Margarita; Blanco, Luis; Lázaro, José M.; de Vega, Miguel (12 December 2007). "The bacteriophage ϕ29 DNA polymerase". ... "The SPO1-related bacteriophages" (PDF). Archives of Virology. 155 (10): 1547-1561. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0783-0. PMID 20714761 ...
... and graduated Phi Beta Kappa, Delta Sigma Rho, and Sigma Xi.[3][4] During this time, he earned his Bachelor of Arts from Brown ... during which time he published two scientific articles of his research on treating Bacteriophage viruses with ultraviolet light ... "Action of Ultraviolet Light upon Bacteriophage and Filterable Viruses". Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and ... "The Resistance of Different Concentrations of a Bacteriophage of Ultraviolet Rays". Journal of Infectious Diseases 40 (1927). ...
1977). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA. Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. PMID 870828 ... Court, D. L.; Oppenheim, A. B.; Adhya, S. L. (2007). A new look at bacteriophage lambda genetic networks. Journal of ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D.F.; Petersen, G.B. (1982). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. ... Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene. Nature 260 (5551): ...
In 2003 a faster method was shown to assemble the 5386-base genome of the bacteriophage Phi X 174 in two weeks. The giant ... In 1977, Frederick Sanger achieved the first complete sequencing of the genome of any organism, the bacteriophage Phi X 174. In ... Bacteriophages occasionally move genetic material from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction, and ... Bacteriophages, the viruses which infect bacteria, can be relatively easily grown as viral plaques on bacterial cultures. ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977. Medical Research Council scientists ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. PMID 870828. doi: ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D.F.; Petersen, G.B. (1982). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA". ... APS". Nature 407 (6800): 81-6. PMID 10993077. doi:10.1038/35024074.. *↑ Frederick R. Blattner, Guy Plunkett III; et al. (1997 ... "PLoS ONE 6 (9): e24882. PMC 3174227. PMID 21949776. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024882.. ...
Smith, H., Hutchison III, C., Pfannkoch, C., and Venter, C. Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: {phi}X174 ... bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotides. PNAS 100, 26 (2003), 15440-15445. Sazani, P., Larralde, R., Szostak, J. A small ... Nature 406 (2000), 974-978 Adleman, L. Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems Archived 6 February 2005 at ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. ... 6,4. 23. Hasil Proyek Genom Manusia.[29][30]. Genom prokariota[sunting , sunting sumber]. Genom eukariota[sunting , sunting ... 4,6 Mb. 4.288. 924. 1. [16]. Bakteria. Sorangium cellulosum. 13.033.779. 13 Mb. 9.367. 721. 1. Genom bakteria terbesar yang ... 6. Genom hewan multiselular yang pertama disekuensing, 1998[22]. Eukariota. Arabidopsis thaliana (tumbuhan berbunga). 125.000. ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-695.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak nama: authors list ( ... 4,6 Mb 4.288 924 1 [16] Bakteria Sorangium cellulosum 13.033.779 13 Mb 9.367 721 1 Genom bakteria terbesar yang diketahui saat ... 6,4 23 Hasil Proyek Genom Manusia.[29][30] Genom prokariota[sunting , sunting sumber]. Genom eukariota[sunting , sunting sumber ... 6 Genom hewan multiselular yang pertama disekuensing, 1998[22] Eukariota Arabidopsis thaliana (tumbuhan berbunga) 125.000.000 ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ... Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W (May 1972). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat ...
Common techniques include addition of bacteriophages or bicelles to the sample, or preparation of the sample in a stretched ... In addition to distance restraints, restraints on the torsion angles of the chemical bonds, typically the psi and phi angles, ... 6][7] This is usually done using some of the following experiments, HNCO, HN(CA)CO, HNCA,[8] HN(CO)CA, HNCACB and CBCA(CO)NH. ... Thus each peak can be converted into a maximum distance between the nuclei, usually between 1.8 and 6 angstroms. The intensity ...
Phi X 174 bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced ...
Common bacteriophage include T7 and Lamda phage.[17] There are bacteriophages that infect every kind of bacteria including both ... Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base). ReferencesEdit. *^ "Pathogen". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. ... Bacteriophages are viruses, also known as phage, that infect bacteria often leading to the death of the bacteria that was ... 63 (6): 1055-1068. ISSN 0042-9686. PMC 2536484. PMID 3879673.. *^ a b "List of Vaccines , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-04-15. ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature. 265 (5596): 687-95. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/ ... Viruses and bacteriophagesEdit. Bacteriophages have played and continue to play a key role in bacterial genetics and molecular ... Bacteriophage genome sequences can be obtained through direct sequencing of isolated bacteriophages, but can also be derived as ... Also the first genome to be sequenced was a bacteriophage. However, bacteriophage research did not lead the genomics revolution ...
En meget velundersøgt bakteriofag, Phi-X174 har et genom af ssDNA på 5386 nukleotider, der koder for 11 proteiner. Det mindste ... Jumbo Bacteriophages: An Overview. Frontiers in Microbiology 2017 *^ a b The Global Virome Project. Science 2018 ... Bakteriofag eller "fag", ofte skrevet som det græske bogstav Φ (phi), reproducerer i en bakterie. ... Flertalsformerne vira og virusser er fordanskede udgaver[6] Historisk[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Opdaget af botanikeren D. ...
Phi X 174 on esimene DNA-l baseeruv genoom, mis sekveneeriti. Rõngasgenoom koosneb 11 geenist ja selles on 5386 aluspaari.[5] ... Bacteriophage phiX174 *↑ Kenneth Todar. All About E. coli *↑ Genome sequence of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus ... 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease ... 2010). "The dynamic genome of Hydra". Nature 464 (7288): 592-6. *↑ Susan E. Wilson-Sanders. Invertebrate Models for Biomedical ...
Phi X 174)(Phage Φ-X174)的基因組序列。這也是首次完整的基因組定序工作。他所發明的技術比起當時其他方法使用了較不具毒性的材料。主要是先進行DNA 合成,利用DNA引子和DNA聚合酶使DNA鏈得以展開複製,再利用雙去氧核苷酸( ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Barrell, B.G.; Smith, A.J.; Roe, B.A., Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D
λ phage, T5 phage, phi, C2, L5, HK97, N15 Podoviridae. Nonenveloped, noncontractile tail (short). Linear dsDNA. T7 phage, T3 ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
"Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. doi:10.1038/265687a0. பப்மெட்:870828. http:// ... "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature 260: 500- ...
... where he joined the Pi Lambda Phi fraternity.[31] Although he originally majored in mathematics, he later switched to ... "Mapping experiments with r mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Genetics (published February 1962). 47 (2): 179-86. PMC 1210321 ... 51 (1): 6-22. ISSN 0013-7812.. Books[edit]. *Brown, Laurie M. and Rigden, John S. (editors) (1993) Most of the Good Stuff: ... 7 (6): 313-320. Bibcode:1969PhTea...7..313F. doi:10.1119/1.2351388. Retrieved December 15, 2016.. Lecture presented at the ...
doi:10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0330-01.. *^ Westwood, James H.; Yoder, John I.; Timko, Michael P.; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2010). "The ... Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage virus. It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail ... Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely limited ... 3 (6): 504-510. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1163. PMID 15886693.. *^ a b Dobson, A.; Lafferty, K. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Hechinger, R. F.; ...
Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA polymerase is a high-processivity enzyme that can produce DNA amplicons greater than 70 kilobase pairs. ... Esteban JA, Salas M, Blanco L (1993). "Fidelity of phi 29 DNA polymerase. Comparison between protein-primed initiation and DNA ... "Highly efficient DNA synthesis by the phage phi 29 DNA polymerase. Symmetrical mode of DNA replication". The Journal of ... 102 (48): 17332-6. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10217332H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508809102. PMC 1283157. PMID 16286637. Paez JG, Lin M, ...
Directed mutagenesis Phi value analysis Hsu PD, Lander ES, Zhang F (June 2014). "Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 ... Hutchison Ca, 3.; Edgell, M. H. (1971). "Genetic Assay for Small Fragments of Bacteriophage φX174 Deoxyribonucleic Acid". ... effect of an extracistronic mutation on the in vitro propagation of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 72 (1 ... The ssUDNA is extracted from the bacteriophage that is released into the medium, and then used as template for mutagenesis. An ...
doi:10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1027-01. Mew TW, Alvarez AM, Leach JE, Swings J (1993). "Focus on bacterial blight of rice". Plant ... Potential use of bacteriophages is also considered, however major limiting factors are their sensitivity to environmental ... 110 (6): 1153-1160. doi:10.1094/phyto-03-19-0098-le. ISSN 0031-949X. Schaad NW, Jones JB, Chun W (2001). "Laboratory Guide for ... 6 (1): 6453. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6453S. doi:10.1038/ncomms7453. PMID 25743609. Bayer-Santos E, Lima LD, Ceseti LM, Ratagami ...
doi:10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0330-01. Westwood, James H.; Yoder, John I.; Timko, Michael P.; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2010). "The ... Most viruses are bacteriophages, infecting bacteria. Parasitism is a major aspect of evolutionary ecology; for example, almost ... and in the way that bacteriophages can limit bacterial infections. It is likely, though little researched, that most pathogenic ... 13 (6): 278-284. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.003. PMID 15936660. Lawrence, C. M.; Menon, S.; Eilers, B. J.; et al. (2009). " ...
... for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Blood-Borne Pathogens Using Phi-X174 Bacteriophage ... for Meshes of 6 in.2 [3871 mm2 or Less, in Panels or Rolls, with Uniform Meshes F2454-05(2016)e1 Practice for Sealing Lateral ... 6 in. NPS and Smaller) F1123-87(2019) Specification for Non-Metallic Expansion Joints F1126-12(2017)e1 Specification for Food ... 6 to 60 in. Annular Corrugated Profile-Wall Polyethylene (PE) Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary Sewer Applications F2947/F2947M-SP ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the large double-stranded RNA segment of bacteriophage phi 6: genes specifying the viral replicase and ... "Nucleotide sequence of the middle dsRNA segment of bacteriophage phi 6: placement of the genes of membrane-associated proteins ... "Nucleotide sequence of the small double-stranded RNA segment of bacteriophage phi 6: novel mechanism of natural translational ...
... Protein Sci. 2005 May;14(5):1370-4. doi ... which contains just one P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6. We show that this singleton sequence possesses conserved sequence ... Since previous biochemical experiments with P5 of phi-6 have indicated that the purified enzyme possesses endopeptidase ...
... transcriptase are responsible for the transcriptional regulation throughout the infection cycle of bacteriophage phi 6. ... Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA ... Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA ... Transcriptional regulation of three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 in vitro.. @article{ ...
The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human ... The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m, and a high AH of 14.4 g/m, Phi 6 ... Phi 6 was suspended in a body fluid simulant and inoculated onto 1-cm, coupons of steel, plastic, and two fabric curtain types ... The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital ...
Bacteriophage Phi X 174‎ (6 B). *. ► Bacteriophage trimeric proteins domain‎ (1 C) ... Media in categorie "Bacteriophages". Deze categorie bevat de volgende 77 bestanden, van in totaal 77. ... ADVERTISEMENT; Antivirus and bacteriophages Wellcome L0032605.jpg 5.228 × 3.451; 7,23 MB. ... The arrangement of known genes of bacteriophage T12 after integration into host.png 917 × 456; 28 kB. ...
Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or ... Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or ... The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human ... The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m3 and a high AH of 14.4 g/m3 Phi 6 ...
co-contaminated 3M 1870 FFRs with three bacteriophages, T1, T7, and Phi 6, and decontaminated the FFRs using VHP generated from ... MS2 bacteriophage. 99.9% for all tested viruses. 12, 13, 14. Microwave generated steam. 1100-1250 W microwave models (range: 40 ... of bacteriophage MS2, a non-enveloped virus, and H1N1 influenza A/PR/8/34 were achieved with much lower doses of approximately ... inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage. Filtration performance of all tested FFRs scored above NIOSH certification requirements. ...
Frequency and Fitness Consequences of Bacteriophage Phi 6 Host Range Mutations. PLoS ONE 2014, 9(11), e113078. ... Metformin lowers glucose 6-phosphate in hepatocytes by activation of glycolysis downstream of glucose phosphorylation. Journal ...
Examples of such bacteriophages include Phi-6 and PR772. Practice shows that filters exhibiting a certain level of retention ... The membrane has been extensively tested using the 78 nm diameter bacteriophage Phi 6. This bacteriophage is readily grown to ... The bacteriophage PR772 challenge stream was prepared with a minimum titer of 1.0×107 pfu/mL in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS ... Quantification of bacteriophage in the initial and final feed were conducted on plates incubated overnight using a light box ...
Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model ... "Structure-Function Insights Into the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of the dsRNA Bacteriophage Φ6". Segmented Double-stranded RNA ...
A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis ... A bacteriophage carried the aminoglycoside resistance gene (AAC(3)-IId). The two plasmids carried other six antibiotic ... A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive- ...
2006 Pleiotropic costs of niche expansion in the RNA bacteriophage phi 6. Genetics 172, 751-757. doi:10.1534/genetics. ... The RNA bacteriophage ϕ6 used in this study is a laboratory strain descended from the original isolate [12]. The bacterium ... 1973 Bacteriophage φ6: a lipid-containing virus of Pseudomonas phaseolicola. J. Virol. 11, 799-805. ... 1976 Genetic studies of temperature-sensitive bacteriophage and nonsense mutants of φ6. Virology 223, 218-223. doi:10.1016/0042 ...
Interference with bacteriophage phi 6 genomic RNA packaging by hairpin structures. X Qiao, J Qiao, L Mindich ... Innate resistance to lethal mousepox is genetically linked to the NK gene complex on chromosome 6 and correlates with early ...
A suspension (0.1 ml) of bacteriophage lambda or bacteriophage phi-X174, of at least 10 EV PFU/ml, is separately added to 4 ml ... Each suspension of bacteriophage with a radiation sensitizing compound is then exposed to U.V. radiation of the preferred ... Other bacteriophage suspensions are separately irradiated as above, but without added sensitizer, to demonstrate the effect of ... Compound I is also effective against a single-stranded DNA virus, phi-X174. Compound I is most preferred, showing a high (at ...
Double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi 6 protein P4 is an unspecific nucleoside triphosphatase activated by calcium ions. A O ... Differential regulation of human papillomavirus type 6 and 11 early promoters in cultured cells derived from laryngeal ...
Bacteriophage phi 6/enzymology*. *RNA Replicase/chemistry*/metabolism. Minor. *Guanosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/ ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ... forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and ...
DuffyS, TurnerPE, BurchCL (2006) Pleiotropic costs of niche expansion in the RNA bacteriophage phi 6. Genetics 172: 751-757. ... In bacteriophage (viruses of bacteria), mutations that enhance a virus ability to bind to host cells are important in ... TetartF, RepoilaF, MonodC, KrischHM (1996) Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the ... Genome Biol Evol 6: 273-289.. 31. WeinertLA, WelchJJ, SuchardMA, LemeyP, RambautA, et al. (2012) Molecular dating of human-to- ...
... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700. ...
The Use of Bacteriophage Phi X174 to Assess the Immune Competence of HIV-Infected Patients In Vivo. The safety and scientific ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody ... Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients ...
... bacteriophage mu) - U40 Protein P5 murein endopeptidase (bacteriophage phi-6) - U48 CAAX prenyl protease 2 - U49 Peptidase lit ... bacteriophage A118) No D vanX D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase Yes M74 Murein endopeptidase Yes ME M16 A Pitrilysin Yes PDOC00130 B ... 248:183-228(1995). [ 6] Reeck G.R., de Haen C., Teller D.C., Doolittle R.F., Fitch W.M., et al. "Homology" in proteins and ... The following definitions apply: Homology -------- Homology means evolutionary relationship [6]. Peptidase family ...
Poon A, Chao L: Drift increases the advantage of sex in RNA bacteriophage Phi 6. Genetics. 2004, 166 (1): 19-24. 10.1534/ ... Malmberg RL: The evolution of epistasis and the advantage of recombination in populations of bacteriophage T4. Genetics. 1977, ... 1999, 53 (6): 1966-1971. 10.2307/2640455.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Szafraniec K, Borts RH, Korona R: Environmental stress ... We empirically estimated that this procedure allowed 78 ± 6% of matings to be outcrossed in the sexual lines (n = 6) by ...
Bacteriophage Φ6 (Phi 6) is an enveloped double stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. Unlike single stranded RNA genomes ... 1 shows the structure of the Phi6 bacteriophage. Fig. 2 shows a sample processing device that can be used with the compositions ... 4(a) (bottom panel is Ct and top panel is amplitude). The results indicate that when using a Tris-buffer, Phi6 bacteriophage is ... The method of any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein Phi6 bacteriophage is reverse transcribed and/or amplified as an RNA standard ...
Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or ...
... viruses and report here a significant decrease in fitness due to Mullers ratchet in 20 lineages of the RNA bacteriophage phi 6 ...
To investigate this question, I evolved the lytic RNA bacteriophage phi-6 for greater thermostability by exposing viral ... Effects of single mutations from experimental evolution of microbial proteins: Thermostability in phi-6 Cystovirus and toxin ...
J.Pei and N.V.Grishin (2005) "The P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6 is a distant homolog of lytic transglycosylases". Protein ... H.Cheng, N.Shen, J.Pei and N.V.Grishin (2004) "Double-stranded DNA Bacteriophage Prohead Protease Is Homologous to Herpesvirus ... E 97(6-1): 062404; PMID: 30011480 309. J.Pei L.N.Kinch, N.V.Grishin (2018) "FlyXCDB -- a resource for Drosophila cell surface ... Biol. 6: 8 PMID: 16603087. 118. E.D.Nelson and N.V.Grishin (2006) "Alternate pathways for folding in the flavodoxin fold family ...
... which contains just one P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6. We show that this singleton sequence possesses conserved sequence ... Structural similarity between Cre recombinase and MarA: Ribbon diagrams of a Cre recombinase from bacteriophage P1 (1crx) and b ... First, the P5 protein from bacteriophage phi8, which belongs to COG3926 and Pfam family DUF847, is predicted to have a new ... Since previous biochemical experiments with P5 of phi-6 have indicated that the purified enzyme possesses endopeptidase ...
... of antibiotic resistance markers among Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains by temperate bacteriophages Aa phi 23. Cell ... we also tested for bacteriophages from 100 mL of sewage in samples 1A and 2A (Table). Bacteriophages partially purified from ... The band in which we expected a broad range of bacteriophages (10), corresponding to a density of 1.46 ± 0.5 g mL-1, was ... To partially purify bacteriophages, two assay approaches were used to optimize the method. For both approaches, 10 mL of sewage ...
Bacteriophage phi-6 molecule tags Rna polymerase total genus 232 structure length 664 ...
  • Rescue of maturation off-pathway products in the assembly of Pseudomonas phage φ 6. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6. (lookformedical.com)
  • Gospodarzem faga ф 6 jest Pseudomonas syringae, Gram - ujemna bakteria, patogen wielu gatunków roślin uprawnych. (edu.pl)
  • Phage ф 6 infects Pseudomonas syringae, a Gram - negative bacterium, a pathogen of a number of crops. (edu.pl)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophage UFV-P2. (nih.gov)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of phi CTX, a cytotoxin-converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its remedial action. (nih.gov)
  • Pseudomonas was effectively cleared (reduced by a magnitude of at least 3 to 4 log units) from murine lungs in 6 h. (ucc.ie)
  • We have identified two bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) that can kill Pseudomonas growing on human lung cells and in an animal model of lung infection. (ucc.ie)
  • Cornelissen A, Ceyssens PJ, T'Syen J, Van Praet H, Noben JP, Shaburova OV, Krylov VN, Volckaert G, Lavigne R. The T7-related Pseudomonas putida phage $\phi$ 15 displays virion associated biofilm degradation properties. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The de novo initiating RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), P2, forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome in the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on the bacteriophage phi6 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (P2) from bacteriophage Phi6 has been cloned and the protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli to produce an active enzyme. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cryo-electron tomography of bacteriophage phi6 procapsids shows random occupancy of the binding sites for RNA polymerase and packaging NTPase. (naver.com)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of the double stranded DNA genome ofbacteriophage Phi O18P consists of 33,985 bp. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • On the Phi O18P genome 46 open reading frames (orfs) were identified which are organized in the modules integration and regulation, replication, head, packaging, tail and lysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A DNA sequence for the genome of bacteriophage phi X174 of approximately 5,375 nucleotides has been determined using the rapid and simple 'plus and minus' method. (meta.org)
  • Microviridae is a family of bacteriophages with a single-stranded DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phi MAM1 genome mTOR inhibitor shows high homology to previously reported ViI-like enterobacterial bacteriophage genomes. (cret-signal.com)
  • Genome Research 19(6): 1117-1123. (els.net)
  • Insertional inactivation of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-toxin by bacteriophage phi 13 occurs by site- and orientation-specific integration of the phi 13 genome. (nih.gov)
  • Perhaps the most famous is the bacteriophage Phi-X174 with a genome size of 5386 nucleotides. (dailybazarkori.com)
  • Like the intB element, the DinoHI genome contains a copy of regA which has similarity to the repressors of lambdoid bacteriophages, suggesting that the maintenance of DinoHI and the intB element may be co-ordinately controlled. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using a rapidly evolving bacteriophage, ϕ 6 (a virus that infects bacteria), we determined whether novel resource (host) use was more likely to evolve, and evolve more rapidly, when populations experienced greater competition for hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Tectiviridae 0 questions A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (lookformedical.com)
  • Increasing levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria, particularly in gram-negative rods resistant to β-lactam antimicrobial drugs, have become evident ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The major mechanism of resistance that causes clinically important infection in gram-negative bacteria is the production of β-lactamases, which includes chromosome- and plasmid-encoded enzymes ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The potential of bacteriophage as an alternative biocontrol agent has recently been revisited due to the widespread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that specifically infect bacteria. (asm.org)
  • 1. A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages. (lexic.us)
  • In all samples, different in bacteria, particularly in gram-negative rods resistant to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae strains resist- -lactam antimicrobial drugs, have become evident (6,7). (cdc.gov)
  • Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prophages can also carry virulence factors that are necessary for bacteria to adopt pathogenic lifestyles, as is the case for the CTXϕ prophage of Vibrio cholerae ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105. (lookformedical.com)
  • We isolated and characterized two phages from a local wastewater treatment plant, a myovirus (phi NH-4) and a podovirus (phi MR299-2). (ucc.ie)
  • Although the existence of bacteriophages infecting C. perfringens has been reported ( 43 ) and a certain phenotypic effect of temperate phages of this organism has demonstrated ( 61 ), we were surprised to find that no sequences or other molecular data on C. perfringens phages were available, except for a preliminary mapping of the integration sites of two phages ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • It is now accepted that bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities in most ecosystems and soda lakes are no exception, with studies conducted on Mono Lake placing viral abundance at 10 9 ml -1 , among the highest in natural aquatic environments [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate this question, I evolved the lytic RNA bacteriophage phi-6 for greater thermostability by exposing viral populations to heat shocks that increased to a maximum temperature at different rates. (washington.edu)
  • Bactériophage P22 0 questions A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. (lookformedical.com)
  • A virulent bacteriophage (phi MAM1) that infects Serratia plymuthica was isolated from the natural environment and characterized. (cret-signal.com)
  • Since previous biochemical experiments with P5 of phi-6 have indicated that the purified enzyme possesses endopeptidase activity and not glycosidase activity, our results point to the possibility of a newly evolved molecular function and call for further experimental characterization of this unusual P5 protein. (nih.gov)
  • Stanley E, Fitzgerald G, Le Marrec C, Fayard B, van Sinderen D. Sequence analysis and characterization of phi O1205, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1205. (labome.org)
  • Isolation of a bacteriophage specific for a new capsular type of Klebsiella pneumo-niae and characterization of its polysaccharide depolymerase. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In addition to bacteriophage receptor recognition, characterization of the mutants also uncovered important roles for S-layer protein A (SlpA) in sporulation, resistance to innate immunity effectors, and toxin production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using newly identified bacteriophage receptor binding proteins for targeting, we constructed a panel of Avidocin-CDs that kills diverse C. difficile isolates in an S-layer sequence-dependent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1977) Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA. (els.net)
  • For the first time, the nucleotide sequence of a bacteriophage infecting Clostridium species was determined. (asm.org)
  • Using comparative sequence analysis, we deduce spatial structure for one of such families, namely, U40, which contains just one P5 protein from bacteriophage phi-6. (nih.gov)
  • Role of host protein glutaredoxin 3 in the control of transcription during bacteriophage Phi2954 infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA bacteriophage phi 6 protein P4 is an unspecific nucleoside triphosphatase activated by calcium ions. (asm.org)
  • The described research relates to P5 transglycosylase from bacteriophage ф 6 and the nucleocapsid protein (N) of human α coronavirus NL63 (HCo NL63). (edu.pl)
  • Unlike protein A it is capable of cleaving the phi X viral DNA in the presence of single-stranded binding protein of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage Phi O18P was induced from the Aeromonas media isolate O18. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The complex of T7 RNA polymerase with the phage phi 10 promoter has been visualized indirectly by exploiting the ability of the polymerase to protect DNA sequences from cleavage by methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II). (pnas.org)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After screening and a two week pre-study evaluation, all eligible participants will receive a primary, secondary and tertiary immunization with 2 x 10(9) PFU/kg of bacteriophage phi X174 six weeks apart. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study endpoints are: safety (as measured by incidence of adverse events, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma RNA), kinetics of bacteriophage clearance following primary immunization, quantitation of bacteriophage phi X174 specific antibody titers following primary, secondary and tertiary immunizations and determination of qualitative and quantitative antibody isotype switching following secondary and tertiary immunizations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • C. A. Hutchison III and R. L. Sinsheimer, "The process of infection with bacteriophage phi-X174. (hindawi.com)
  • 6. ASTM F1671/F1671M-13: Standard test method for resistance of materials used in protective clothing to penetration by blood-borne pathogens using phi-X174 bacteriophage penetration as a test system. (cambridge.org)
  • We isolated a virulent bacteriophage, SPC35, that can infect both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Φ6 has been studied as a model to understand how segmented RNA viruses package their genomes, its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model organism to test evolutionary theory such as Muller's ratchet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystoviridae 0 questions A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). (lookformedical.com)
  • Under these laboratory-simulated Western indoor hospital conditions, we assessed the suitability of phi 6 as a surrogate for environmental persistence research related to enveloped viruses, including EBOV and coronaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human enveloped viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • I initiated a study to examine the role of Muller's ratchet on the evolution of sex in RNA viruses and report here a significant decrease in fitness due to Muller's ratchet in 20 lineages of the RNA bacteriophage phi 6. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophages such as phi 6 phage represent good surrogates for the study of airborne viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ZC1 and ZG1 coatings showed moderate activity against the phi 6 phage that has been selected as a surrogate for viruses such as coronaviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • One of them is a tiny virus called bacteriophage phi-6, which researchers are studying in an effort to combat a similar, but more-complex, group of viruses that can cause life-threatening dehydration in young children. (blogspot.com)
  • Because the tiny virus is easy to work with in the lab and has a genetic blueprint made of RNA, bacteriophage phi-6 has proven to be a valuable model for studying rotavirus and other more complex, double-stranded RNA viruses that make people sick. (blogspot.com)
  • Inoviridae 0 questions A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. (lookformedical.com)
  • Although filamentous bacteriophages are known to target type IV pili, this is the first report of a phage that apparently uses a competence pilus as a receptor. (asm.org)
  • The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital surfaces. (cdc.gov)
  • Three double-stranded RNA segments of bacteriophage phi 6 (L, M, and S) were transcribed in vitro by a virion-associated RNA polymerase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Promoters for T7 RNA polymerase have a highly conserved sequence of 23 continuous base pairs located at position -17 to +6 relative to the initiation site for the RNA. (pnas.org)
  • Under these laboratory-simulated conditions, phi 6 was found to be a conservative surrogate for EBOV under low-AH conditions in that it persisted longer than Ebola virus in similar AH conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, phi 6 may not be a suitable surrogate for coronaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • By using two bacteriophages we can reduce the risk of resistant colonies developing at the site of infection. (ucc.ie)
  • Bacteriophage therapy is an exciting field, and this study represents an important demonstration of efficacy in validated infection models. (ucc.ie)
  • CRAϕ is the first bacteriophage reported to require the molecular machinery involved in the uptake of environmental DNA for infection. (asm.org)
  • American Society for Microbiology] (JPEG, 29.5 KB) An electron micrograph of the bacteriophage lambda showing its long tail fibers. (nbif.org)
  • Retroviruses are removed from a liquid by passing the liquid through a porous nanofiber containing filtration medium having a retrovirus LRV greater than about 6, and the nanofiber(s) has a diameter from about 10 nm to about 100 nm. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A bacteriophage carried the aminoglycoside resistance gene (AAC(3)-IId). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The permeation resistance of a fabric is classified according to EN 14325 into 6 level of performance (classes) based on the time which is required to reach a normalized breakthrough time of 1.0 min (BT0.1) when tested according to EN 374-3 or ISO 6529. (dupont.co.uk)
  • An ethanol-based spray disinfectant significantly reduced bacteriophage MS2 contamination on material from gowns meeting ASTM standard 1671 for resistance to blood and viral penetration and on a cover gown worn by personnel. (cambridge.org)
  • To partially purify bacteriophages, two quickly acquired resistance to these drugs by acquiring assay approaches were used to optimize the method. (cdc.gov)
  • Prophages 0 questions Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of said antibiotic in the medium is in the range which causes about 1% to about 99% inhibition of the growth of said bacterial strain in the absence of said bacteriophage. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteriophages provide one of the most efficient vehicles for moving DNA sequences between bacterial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial cell envelopes (ghosts) but not S-layers activate human endothelial cells (HUVECs) through sCD14 and LBP mechanism," Vaccine , vol. 18, no. 5-6, pp. 440-448, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • A. A. Amara, M. M. Salem-Bekhit, and F. K. Alanazi, "Preparation of Bacterial Ghosts for E. coli JM109 using "Sponge-like Reduced Protocol"," Asian Journal of Biological Sciences , vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 363-369, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • 4 - 6 ] have described a new protocol for BGs preparation based on the critical concentration of chemical compounds could effect on the bacterial cell wall and could lead to the preparation of correct BGs [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The critical concentration as well as the protocol steps lead to killing the bacterial cells with the release of their cytoplasmic constituents without the deformation of the cell 3D structure [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacteriophages provide one of the most efficient vehi- Fecal coliforms were enumerated by membrane filter pro- cles for moving DNA sequences between bacterial cedures. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the presence of various β-lactamase genes within the bacteriophages in sewage. (cdc.gov)
  • Samples with contamination of animal origin genes within the bacteriophages in sewage. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the efficacy of using bacteriophages to kill the pathogen in both biofilms and in the murine lung. (ucc.ie)
  • 2008). Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms. (springer.com)
  • Isolation of the Bacteriophage DinoHI from Dichelobacter nodosus and its Interactions with other Integrated Genetic Elements. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Treatment of D. nodosus strains with ultraviolet light resulted in the isolation of DinoHI, a member of the Siphoviridae and the first bacteriophage to be identified in D. nodosus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the presence of 3 additional regions, VPaI-4 (VP2131 to VP2144), VPaI-5 (VP2900 to VP2910) and VPaI-6 (VPA1254 to VPA1270) by PCR assays and Southern blot analyses among the same set of V. parahaemolyticus isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another limitation is the rapid emergence of phage-resistant mutants ( 6 , 11 , 18 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • The study was performed with sewage samples collected during a 6-month period (November 2001 to April 2002). (cdc.gov)
  • EN 369 has been supersedes by EN ISO 6529:2001. (dupont.co.uk)
  • Physiological Chemistry and Physics, 6 (1). (caltech.edu)
  • A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22. (lookformedical.com)
  • R. H. Gilman, R. B. Hornick, and W. E. Woodward, "Evaluation of a UDP-glucose-4-epimeraseless mutant of Salmonella typhi as a live oral vaccine," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 717-723, 1977. (hindawi.com)
  • Denis AS, Bardina C, Cortes P, Liagostera M. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Environmental scanning electron microscopy for biofilm detection in tonsils This report describes a 6 1/2-year-old child who presented with recurrent severe headaches and a focal seizure of the right upper extremity. (storysteel.gq)
  • To control pathogenic E. coli in biofilm, bacteriophages were isolated from environmental samples. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However, the abundance of E. coli in biofilm was reduced by 3 log CFU/mL from 7.3 log CFU/mL after 60 min with the bacteriophage cocktail. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Therefore, we suggest that bacteriophages with depolymerase could be utilized to effectively control pathogenic E. coli in biofilm. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the retrovirus is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes. (lookformedical.com)
  • We used the segmented RNA bacteriophage ϕ6 as a model for studying the evolutionary genomics of virus adaptation in the face of host switches and parametrically varying population sizes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been reasoned that the similarities of some toxins of C. perfringens with toxins found in other organisms are due to horizontal gene transfer based on conjugative plasmids, transposons, or bacteriophages ( 52 ). (asm.org)
  • The following definitions apply: Homology -------- Homology means evolutionary relationship [6]. (uniprot.org)
  • This document describes biochemical pathways for producing adipic acid, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid, hexamethylenediamine or 1,6-hexanediol by forming two. (patents.com)
  • EN ISO 6529 Methode A describes measurements o liquid chemicals with continous contact. (dupont.co.uk)
  • Bacteriophages -lactam agents within phage particles present in sewage and Diffusion of samples. (cdc.gov)