A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.

Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development. (1/14)

Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids. However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development thereafter, a bacteriophage capable of superinfecting and lysing the P. aeruginosa parent strain was detected in the fluid effluent from the biofilm. The bacteriophage implicated in biofilm killing was closely related to the filamentous phage Pf1 and existed as a prophage within the genome of P. aeruginosa. We propose that prophage-mediated cell death is an important mechanism of differentiation inside microcolonies that facilitates dispersal of a subpopulation of surviving cells.  (+info)

Prediction of charge-induced molecular alignment of biomolecules dissolved in dilute liquid-crystalline phases. (2/14)

Alignment of macromolecules in nearly neutral aqueous lyotropic liquid-crystalline media such as bicelles, commonly used in macromolecular NMR studies, can be predicted accurately by a steric obstruction model (Zweckstetter and Bax, 2000). A simple extension of this model is described that results in improved predictions for both the alignment orientation and magnitude of protein and DNA solutes in charged nematic media, such as the widely used medium of filamentous phage Pf1. The extended model approximates the electrostatic interaction between a solute and an ordered phage particle as that between the solute's surface charges and the electric field of the phage. The model is evaluated for four different proteins and a DNA oligomer. Results indicate that alignment in charged nematic media is a function not only of the solute's shape, but also of its electric multipole moments of net charge, dipole, and quadrupole. The relative importance of these terms varies greatly from one macromolecule to another, and evaluation of the experimental data indicates that these terms scale differently with ionic strength. For several of the proteins, the calculated alignment is sensitive to the precise position of the charged groups on the protein surface. This suggests that NMR alignment measurements can potentially be used to probe protein electrostatics. Inclusion of electrostatic interactions in addition to steric effects makes the extended model applicable to all liquid crystals used in biological NMR to date.  (+info)

Therapy of experimental pseudomonas infections with a nonreplicating genetically modified phage. (3/14)

Bacteriophage therapy of bacterial infections has received renewed attention owing to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. A side effect of many antibiotics as well as of phage therapy with lytic phage is the release of cell wall components, e.g., endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, which mediate the general pathological aspects of septicemia. Here we explored an alternative strategy by using genetically engineered nonreplicating, nonlytic phage to combat an experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An export protein gene of the P. aeruginosa filamentous phage Pf3 was replaced with a restriction endonuclease gene. This rendered the Pf3 variant (Pf3R) nonreplicative and concomitantly prevented the release of the therapeutic agent from the target cell. The Pf3R phage efficiently killed a wild-type host in vitro, while endotoxin release was kept to a minimum. Treatment of P. aeruginosa infections of mice with Pf3R or with a replicating lytic phage resulted in comparable survival rates upon challenge with a minimal lethal dose of 3. However, the survival rate after phage therapy with Pf3R was significantly higher than that with the lytic phage upon challenge with a minimal lethal dose of 5. This higher survival rate correlated with a reduced inflammatory response elicited by Pf3R treatment relative to that with the lytic phage. Therefore, this study suggests that the increased survival rate of Pf3R-treated mice could result from reduced endotoxin release. Thus, the use of a nonreplicating modified phage for the delivery of genes encoding proteins toxic to bacterial pathogens may open up a new avenue in antimicrobial therapy.  (+info)

The polybasic region that follows the plant homeodomain zinc finger 1 of Pf1 is necessary and sufficient for specific phosphoinositide binding. (4/14)

The plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc finger is one of 14 known zinc-binding domains. PHD domains have been found in more than 400 eukaryotic proteins and are characterized by a Cys(4)-His-Cys(3) zinc-binding motif that spans 50-80 residues. The precise function of PHD domains is currently unknown; however, the PHD domains of the ING1 and ING2 tumor suppressors have been shown recently to bind phosphoinositides (PIs). We have recently identified a novel PHD-containing protein, Pf1, as a binding partner for the abundant and ubiquitous transcriptional corepressor mSin3A. Pf1 contains two PHD zinc fingers, PHD1 and PHD2, and functions to bridge mSin3A to the TLE1 corepressor. Here, we show that PHD1, but not PHD2, binds several monophosporylated PIs but most strongly to PI(3)P. Surprisingly, a polybasic region that follows the PHD1 is necessary for PI(3)P binding. Furthermore, this polybasic region binds specifically to PI(3)P when fused to maltose-binding protein, PHD2, or as an isolated peptide, demonstrating that it is sufficient for specific PI binding. By exchanging the polybasic regions between different PHD fingers we show that this region is a strong determinant of PI binding specificity. These findings establish the Pf1 polybasic region as a phosphoinositide-binding module and suggest that the PHD domains function down-stream of phosphoinositide signaling triggered by the interaction between polybasic regions and phosphoinositides.  (+info)

Proteomic, microarray, and signature-tagged mutagenesis analyses of anaerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa at pH 6.5, likely representing chronic, late-stage cystic fibrosis airway conditions. (5/14)

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Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of a membrane protein in biphenyl phospholipid bicelles with the bilayer normal parallel to the magnetic field. (6/14)

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Liquid crystalline phase of G-tetrad DNA for NMR study of detergent-solubilized proteins. (7/14)

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Conformational dynamics of an intact virus: order parameters for the coat protein of Pf1 bacteriophage. (8/14)

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Bacteriophage Pf1 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a filamentous phage, meaning that it has a long, thread-like structure. The genetic material of Pf1 is double-stranded DNA. This bacteriophage is often used in research as a tool to study various aspects of bacterial and viral biology, including the molecular mechanisms of infection, gene regulation, and protein function. It is also being investigated for its potential use in phage therapy, which involves using bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections.

Pseudomonas phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. These phages are important in the study of Pseudomonas species, which include several significant human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Phages can be used for therapeutic purposes to treat bacterial infections, including those caused by Pseudomonas. Additionally, they are also useful tools in molecular biology and genetic research.

It's worth noting that while "Pseudomonas phages" refers specifically to phages that infect Pseudomonas bacteria, the term "phage" on its own is used to describe any virus that infects and replicates within a bacterial host.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

Bacteriophage lambda, often simply referred to as phage lambda, is a type of virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that integrates its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome as a prophage when it infects the host cell. This allows the phage to replicate along with the bacterium until certain conditions trigger the lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing, or breaking open, the host cell.

Phage lambda is widely studied in molecular biology due to its well-characterized life cycle and genetic structure. It has been instrumental in understanding various fundamental biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA recombination, and lysis-lysogeny decision.

Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.

Bacteriophage T7 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that specifically recognizes and binds to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria through its tail fibers. After attachment, the viral genome is injected into the host cell, where it hijacks the bacterial machinery to produce new phage particles. The rapid reproduction of T7 phages within the host cell often results in lysis, or rupture, of the bacterial cell, leading to the release of newly formed phage virions. Bacteriophage T7 is widely studied as a model system for understanding virus-host interactions and molecular biology.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. T-phages are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of molecular biology and virology. T-phages refer to specific bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that belong to the family of Podoviridae and have a tail structure with a contractile sheath.

To be more specific, T-even phages are a group of T-phages that include well-studied bacteriophages like T2, T4, and T6. These phages infect Escherichia coli bacteria and have been extensively researched to understand their life cycles, genetic material packaging, and molecular mechanisms of infection.

In summary, T-phages are not a medical term but rather refer to specific bacteriophages used in scientific research.

Bacteriophage mu, also known as Mucoid Bacteriophage or Phage Mu, is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the genetic material of specific bacteria, primarily belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. This phage is characterized by its unique ability to integrate its genome into the host bacterium's chromosome at random locations, which can result in mutations or alterations in the bacterial genome.

Phage Mu has a relatively large genome and encodes various proteins that facilitate its replication, packaging, and release from the host cell. When Phage Mu infects a bacterium, it injects its genetic material into the host cytoplasm, where it circularizes and then integrates itself into the host's chromosome via a process called transposition. This integration can lead to significant changes in the host bacterium's genome, potentially altering its phenotype or even converting it into a lysogenic state, where the phage remains dormant within the host cell until environmental conditions trigger its replication and release.

Phage Mu is widely used as a tool for genetic research due to its ability to introduce random mutations into bacterial genomes, facilitating the study of gene function and regulation. Additionally, Phage Mu has been explored for potential applications in phage therapy, where it could be used to target and eliminate specific bacterial pathogens without adversely affecting other beneficial microorganisms present in the host organism or environment.

Bacteriophage phi 6, also known as Phi 6 or Pseudomonas phage Phi 6, is a double-stranded RNA virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is a member of the family Cystoviridae and has an icosahedral head and a tail structure, which allows it to attach to and inject its genetic material into the host cell. Bacteriophage phi 6 is often used as a model system for studying RNA replication and transcription, as well as for understanding the mechanisms of virus-host interactions. It has also been studied as a potential candidate for use in phage therapy, which is the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bacteriophage phi X 174, also known as Phi X 174 or ΦX174, is a bacterial virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a small, icosahedral-shaped virus with a diameter of about 30 nanometers and belongs to the family Podoviridae in the order Caudovirales.

Phi X 174 has a single-stranded DNA genome that is circular and consists of 5,386 base pairs. It is one of the smallest viruses known to infect bacteria, and its simplicity has made it a model system for studying bacteriophage biology and molecular biology.

Phi X 174 was first discovered in 1962 by American scientist S.E. Luria and his colleagues. It is able to infect E. coli cells that lack the F-pilus, a hair-like structure on the surface of the bacterial cell. Once inside the host cell, phi X 174 uses the host's machinery to replicate its DNA and produce new viral particles, which are then released from the host cell by lysis, causing the cell to burst open and release the new viruses.

Phi X 174 has been extensively studied for its unique biological properties, including its small size, simple genome, and ability to infect E. coli cells. It has also been used as a tool in molecular biology research, such as in the development of DNA sequencing techniques and the study of gene regulation.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Bacteriophage P2 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within a specific bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli). It's a double-stranded DNA virus that was first isolated in the 1950s. Bacteriophage P2 is known for its ability to integrate its genetic material into the host bacterium's chromosome and establish lysogeny, where it can remain dormant until environmental conditions trigger its replication.

Bacteriophage P2 has been extensively studied as a model system in molecular biology due to its unique life cycle and genetic characteristics. It has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, and lysogeny. However, it's important to note that bacteriophage P2 is not typically used for medical purposes like treating bacterial infections.

Bacteriophage M13 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a filamentous phage, meaning it has a long, thin, and flexible structure. The M13 phage specifically infects only the F pili of E. coli bacteria, which are hair-like appendages found on the surface of certain strains of E. coli.

Once inside the host cell, the M13 phage uses the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles, or progeny phages, without killing the host cell. The phage genome is made up of a single-stranded circular DNA molecule that encodes for about 10 genes. These genes are involved in various functions such as replication, packaging, and assembly of the phage particles.

Bacteriophage M13 is widely used in molecular biology research due to its ability to efficiently incorporate foreign DNA sequences into its genome. This property has been exploited for a variety of applications, including DNA sequencing, gene cloning, and protein expression. The M13 phage can display foreign peptides or proteins on the surface of its coat protein, making it useful for screening antibodies or identifying ligands in phage display technology.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Bacteriophage T3 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within specific bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains that have the F+ fertility factor. It is a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage with an icosahedral head and a contractile tail. The T3 phage binds to the bacterial host using its tail fibers, injects its genetic material into the cell, and hijacks the host's machinery to produce more viral particles.

After replicating, the new phages are assembled, and the bacterial cell eventually lyses, releasing the progeny phages to infect other susceptible bacteria. Bacteriophage T3 is known for its rapid replication cycle and precise host recognition, making it a valuable tool in molecular biology research.

Bacteriophage typing is a laboratory method used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their susceptibility to specific bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. In this technique, a standard set of bacteriophages with known host ranges are allowed to infect and form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells grown on a solid medium, such as agar. The pattern and number of plaques formed are then used to identify the specific bacteriophage types that are able to infect the bacterial strain, providing a unique "fingerprint" or profile that can be used for typing and differentiating different bacterial strains.

Bacteriophage typing is particularly useful in epidemiological studies, as it can help track the spread of specific bacterial clones within a population, monitor antibiotic resistance patterns, and provide insights into the evolution and ecology of bacterial pathogens. It has been widely used in the study of various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among others.

Bacteriophage P1 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within a specific host, which is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that can integrate its genetic material into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicate along with it (lysogenic cycle), or it can choose to reproduce independently by causing the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell (lytic cycle).

Bacteriophage P1 is known for its ability to package its DNA into large, head-full structures, and it has been widely studied as a model system for understanding bacterial genetics, virus-host interactions, and DNA packaging mechanisms. It also serves as a valuable tool in molecular biology for various applications such as cloning, mapping, and manipulating DNA.

Salmonella phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are composed of a protein capsid that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. They specifically target Salmonella bacteria, using the bacteria's resources to replicate and produce new phage particles. This process often leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the bacterial cell, resulting in the release of newly formed phages.

Salmonella phages have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for controlling Salmonella infections, particularly in food production settings. They offer the advantage of being highly specific to their target bacteria, reducing the risk of disrupting beneficial microbiota. However, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy before they can be widely used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

Siphoviridae is a family of tailed bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. The members of this family are characterized by their long, non-contractile tails, which are typically around 100-1000 nanometers in length. The tail fibers at the end of the tail are used to recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of bacterial cells.

The Siphoviridae family includes many well-known bacteriophages, such as the lambda phage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. The genetic material of Siphoviridae viruses is double-stranded DNA, which is packaged inside an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell of the virus).

It's worth noting that Siphoviridae is one of the five families in the order Caudovirales, which includes all tailed bacteriophages. The other four families are Myoviridae, Podoviridae, Herelleviridae, and Ackermannviridae.

RNA phages are a type of bacteriophage, which is a virus that infects bacteria. Unlike most other bacteriophages, RNA phages have an RNA genome instead of a DNA genome. These viruses infect and replicate within bacteria that have an RNA genome or those that can incorporate RNA into their replication cycle.

RNA phages are relatively simple in structure, consisting of an icosahedral capsid (protein shell) containing the single-stranded RNA genome. The genome may be either positive-sense (+) or negative-sense (-), depending on whether it can serve directly as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation or if it must first be transcribed into a complementary RNA strand before translation.

Examples of well-known RNA phages include the MS2, Qβ, and φ6 phages. These viruses have been extensively studied as model systems to understand fundamental principles of RNA biology, virus replication strategies, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the development of RNA-based vaccines and gene therapy vectors.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Bacteriolysis is the breaking down or destruction of bacterial cells. This process can occur naturally or as a result of medical treatment, such as when antibiotics target and destroy bacteria by disrupting their cell walls. The term "bacteriolysis" specifically refers to the breakdown of the bacterial cell membrane, which can lead to the release of the contents of the bacterial cell and ultimately result in the death of the organism.

Bacteriophage PRD1 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within certain bacteria. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family *Caudoviricetes* and the order *Corticovirales*. The virion (the complete viral particle) of PRD1 has an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell) and a lipid bilayer membrane enclosing the genomic DNA.

PRD1 is known to infect a limited range of Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of *Escherichia coli* and *Salmonella enterica*. The virus attaches to the bacterial cell surface and injects its genetic material into the host cell. Once inside the host, the viral DNA is replicated and used to produce new virions.

PRD1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the structure and assembly of complex viruses. Its genome encodes for about 50 proteins, many of which are involved in the construction of the virion. Additionally, PRD1 has been used in various biotechnological applications, such as the development of gene delivery vectors and vaccine candidates.

Staphylococcus phages do not have a specific medical definition, but I can provide you with some information about both concepts:

1. Staphylococcus: This term refers to a group of bacteria that can cause various infections in humans and animals. The most common species is Staphylococcus aureus, which often colonizes the skin and nasal passages of healthy individuals. However, it can lead to infections when it enters the body through wounds or other breaks in the skin.

2. Phages: These are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. They specifically target and replicate within bacterial cells, using the host's machinery for their reproduction. Once the phage has multiplied sufficiently, it causes the bacterial cell to lyse (burst), releasing new phage particles into the environment. Phages can be specific to certain bacterial species or strains, making them potential alternatives to antibiotics in treating bacterial infections without disrupting the normal microbiota.

When combining these two concepts, Staphylococcus phages refer to viruses that infect and kill Staphylococcus bacteria. These phages can be used as therapeutic agents to treat Staphylococcus infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, it is essential to note that the use of phages as a treatment option is still an experimental approach and requires further research before becoming a widely accepted therapeutic strategy.

Bacillus phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are a type of virus that is specifically adapted to infect and multiply within bacteria. They use the bacterial cell's machinery to produce new copies of themselves, often resulting in the lysis (breakdown) of the bacterial cell. Bacillus phages are widely studied for their potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and basic research.

Podoviridae is a family of viruses in the order Caudovirales, which are tailed, double-stranded DNA viruses. The members of this family are characterized by their short, noncontractile tails. The virions (virus particles) of Podoviridae are typically icosahedral in shape and measure around 60 nanometers in diameter.

The host organisms of Podoviridae are primarily bacteria, making them bacteriophages or phages. They infect and replicate within the host bacterium, often leading to its lysis (breakdown) and release of new virions. The family Podoviridae is further divided into several genera, including T7-like viruses, N4-like viruses, and P22-like viruses, among others.

It's worth noting that while Podoviridae is a well-established family of bacteriophages, the field of virology is constantly evolving as new research and discoveries are made. Therefore, it's possible that the classification and definition of Podoviridae may change over time.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Streptococcus Phages" is not a standard medical term. The term "Streptococcus" refers to a genus of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various infections in humans, such as strep throat and skin infections. A "phage," on the other hand, is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.

Therefore, if you are referring to bacteriophages that infect Streptococcus bacteria, then the term would be "Streptococcus phages" or more specifically, the name of the particular phage species that infect Streptococcus bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus phage C1, Streptococcus phage Φ29). However, it's important to note that there are many different types of bacteriophages that can infect various strains of Streptococcus bacteria, so the specific phage would need to be identified.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "viral tail proteins" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. The term "tail proteins" is used in the context of certain viruses, particularly bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), which have a tail-like structure that helps them attach to and inject their genetic material into host cells.

However, even within this context, there isn't a specific concept known as "viral tail proteins" that has a widely accepted medical definition. The proteins that make up the tail structure of bacteriophages have various functions and are referred to by different names based on their roles. These can include terms like "tail fiber proteins," "tail tube proteins," "tail terminator proteins," etc.

If you're looking for information about a specific protein or group of proteins related to viral tails, I would be happy to help further if you could provide more details.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Levivirus" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a type of small, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus that infects bacteria. They are also known as "Leviviridae" and are studied in the field of virology, not typically in medical practice. If you have any questions about bacteriophages or other types of viruses that might be more medically relevant, I'd be happy to help with those!

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

DNA packaging refers to the way in which DNA molecules are compacted and organized within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. In order to fit into the nucleus, which is only a small fraction of the size of the cell, the long DNA molecule must be tightly packed. This is accomplished through a process called "supercoiling," in which the DNA double helix twists and coils upon itself, as well as through its association with histone proteins.

Histones are small, positively charged proteins that bind to the negatively charged DNA molecule, forming structures known as nucleosomes. The DNA wraps around the outside of the histone octamer (a complex made up of eight histone proteins) in a repeating pattern, creating a "bead on a string" structure. These nucleosomes are then coiled and compacted further to form higher-order structures, ultimately resulting in the highly condensed chromatin that is found within the cell nucleus.

Proper DNA packaging is essential for the regulation of gene expression, as well as for the protection and maintenance of genetic information. Abnormalities in DNA packaging have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cancer.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A prophage is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) genome that is integrated into the chromosome of a bacterium and replicates along with it. The phage genome remains dormant within the bacterial host until an environmental trigger, such as stress or damage to the host cell, induces the prophage to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter a lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing the host cell. This process is known as lysogeny.

Prophages can play important roles in the biology of their bacterial hosts, such as contributing to genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer, modulating bacterial virulence, and providing resistance to superinfection by other phages. However, they can also have detrimental effects on the host, such as causing lysis or altering bacterial phenotypes in ways that are disadvantageous for survival.

It's worth noting that not all bacteriophages form prophages; some exist exclusively as extrachromosomal elements, while others can integrate into the host genome but do not necessarily become dormant or replicate with the host cell.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Inovirus" is not a recognized term in current medical or scientific nomenclature. It seems there might be some mistake, as it is not listed in any major virology or medical databases. Inoviruses are actually a group of filamentous bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) with a unique structure and replication strategy. If you have any more context or details about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to help further!

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

... species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 Pf1 phage genus Tertilicivirus) species Pseudomonas virus Pf3 - bacteriophages that infect ... Filamentous bacteriophages are a family of viruses (Inoviridae) that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages. They are named for ... species Escherichia virus M13 M13 bacteriophage f1 phage species Filamentous bacteriophage fd (proposal) fd phage genus ... whereas Class II includes strains Pf1 (of ICTV's species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 of genus Primolicivirus), and perhaps also Pf3 ( ...
... , PF-1, PF01, PF-01, or variant, may refer to: PSA PF1 platform, the "PF1" platform from PSA pf1, a bacteriophage code, see ... PF-1), "PF-1" ship number Thai patrol frigate HTMS Tachin Shenyang PF-1, model PF-1 jet engine from Shenyang MANOI PF01, model ... model PF-1 glider "White Knight" from Posnansky/Fronius USS Asheville (PF-1), "PF-1" ship number USN patrol frigate USS ... List of MeSH codes (B04) Pf1, a Pseudomonas phage, see List of viruses Posnansky/Fronius PF-1 White Knight, ...
... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage ike MeSH B04.123.370.400.250 - bacteriophage m13 MeSH B04.123.370.400.300 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage ike MeSH B04.280.400.400.250 - bacteriophage m13 MeSH B04.280.400.400.300 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
In particular, the series of fd and Pf1 virion structures deposited in the PDB over decades illustrate the improvements in ... 2017). Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology. Frontiers Research Topics. ... Beck E, Zink B (December 1981). "Nucleotide sequence and genome organisation of filamentous bacteriophages fl and fd". Gene. 16 ... Bennett NJ, Rakonjac J (February 2006). "Unlocking of the filamentous bacteriophage virion during infection is mediated by the ...
FILAMENTOUS BACTERIOPHAGE) STRAIN PF1 MAJOR COAT PROTEIN ASSEMBLY ...
PF1, PF-1, PF01, PF-01, or variant, may refer to: PSA PF1 platform, the "PF1" platform from PSA pf1, a bacteriophage code, see ... PF-1), "PF-1" ship number Thai patrol frigate HTMS Tachin Shenyang PF-1, model PF-1 jet engine from Shenyang MANOI PF01, model ... model PF-1 glider "White Knight" from Posnansky/Fronius USS Asheville (PF-1), "PF-1" ship number USN patrol frigate USS ... List of MeSH codes (B04) Pf1, a Pseudomonas phage, see List of viruses Posnansky/Fronius PF-1 White Knight, ...
Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus ... The three-dimensional structure of the membrane-bound form of the major coat protein of Pf1 bacteriophage was determined in ... and thus provides insights to the bacteriophage assembly process from membrane-inserted to bacteriophage-associated protein. ... Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus ...
... coli virulence genes in bacteriophage and prophage nucleotide sequences. Bacteriophage 4:e27943. doi: 10.4161/bact.27943 ... Eleven outlier strains showed phage protein signatures from Pseudomonas phage Pf1 (NC_001331), Pseudomonas phage YMC11/02/R656 ... The presence of a large number of CRISPR elements suggested that these outliers perhaps were vulnerable to bacteriophage ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 105 use Bacillus Phages Bacteriophage phi 29 use Bacillus Phages ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 105 use Bacillus Phages Bacteriophage phi 29 use Bacillus Phages ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 105 use Bacillus Phages Bacteriophage phi 29 use Bacillus Phages ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 105 use Bacillus Phages Bacteriophage phi 29 use Bacillus Phages ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 105 use Bacillus Phages Bacteriophage phi 29 use Bacillus Phages ...
Two components, namely, PF1 and PF2, were separated from the crude flavonoid of pomelo peels through Sephadex LH20 column ... Of the identified viruses, 13 RNA viruses clustered within the Fiersviridae family of bacteriophages, and 48 RNA viruses ...
... species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 Pf1 phage genus Tertilicivirus) species Pseudomonas virus Pf3 - bacteriophages that infect ... Filamentous bacteriophages are a family of viruses (Inoviridae) that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages. They are named for ... species Escherichia virus M13 M13 bacteriophage f1 phage species Filamentous bacteriophage fd (proposal) fd phage genus ... whereas Class II includes strains Pf1 (of ICTVs species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 of genus Primolicivirus), and perhaps also Pf3 ( ...
Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Pseudomonas Phages [B04.123.660] * Bacteriophage Pf1 [B04.123.660.535] * Bacteriophage phi 6 [ ... Pf1 Phage Phage Pf1 Pseudomonas phage Pf1 Registry Number. txid2011081. Previous Indexing. Bacteriophages (1980-1993). Inovirus ... Bacteriophage Pf1 Preferred Term Term UI T053544. Date10/30/1992. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Bacteriophage Pf1. Tree Number(s). B04.123.370.400.300. B04.123.660.535. B04.280.400.400.300. Unique ID. D025561. RDF Unique ...
Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Pseudomonas Phages [B04.123.660] * Bacteriophage Pf1 [B04.123.660.535] * Bacteriophage phi 6 [ ... Pf1 Phage Phage Pf1 Pseudomonas phage Pf1 Registry Number. txid2011081. Previous Indexing. Bacteriophages (1980-1993). Inovirus ... Bacteriophage Pf1 Preferred Term Term UI T053544. Date10/30/1992. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Bacteriophage Pf1. Tree Number(s). B04.123.370.400.300. B04.123.660.535. B04.280.400.400.300. Unique ID. D025561. RDF Unique ...
bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 - bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ... ... Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Pseudomonas Phages [B04.123.660] * Bacteriophage Pf1 [B04.123.660.535] * Bacteriophage phi 6 [ ... ... Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Pseudomonas Phages [B04.123.660] * Bacteriophage Pf1 [B04.123.660.535] * Bacteriophage phi 6 [ ... ... Bacteriophage N4 B04.123.205.300 Bacteriophage P1 B04.123.205.305 Bacteriophage P2 B04.123.205.320 Bacteriophage phi X 174 ... ...
measured in pf1 bacteriophage (open circles) or a PEG/hexanol mixture (open inverted triangles) for (A, B) the JD domain of ΔST ... RDCs obtained in pf1 bacteriophage for the CTD domain of ΔST-DNAJB6b (Note PEG/hexanol alignment data were not used for the CTD ... ΔST-DNAJB6b aligned in 12 mg/mL pf1 bacteriophage (600 MHz; 25 °C). The average DCH/DCC ratio for the residues shown in (A) is ...
Bacteriophage IKe B04.123.370.400.250 Bacteriophage M13 B04.123.370.400.300 Bacteriophage Pf1 B04.123.370.600 Plectrovirus ... Bacteriophage IKe B04.280.400.400.250 Bacteriophage M13 B04.280.400.400.300 Bacteriophage Pf1 B04.280.400.600 Plectrovirus ... Bacteriophage N4 B04.123.205.300 Bacteriophage P1 B04.123.205.305 Bacteriophage P2 B04.123.205.320 Bacteriophage phi X 174 ... Bacteriophage mu B04.123.150.500.300 Bacteriophage P1 B04.123.150.500.305 Bacteriophage P2 B04.123.150.500.350 Bacteriophage T4 ...
Phage Pf1 BX - Pseudomonas phage Pf1 MH - Bacteriophage PRD1 UI - D025622 MN - B4.123.205.350 MN - B4.123.900.150 MS - ... Bacteriophage P1 Artificial Chromosomes BX - Chromosomes, P1 Bacteriophage Artificial BX - P1 Bacteriophage Artificial ... HN - 2002; use BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA 1994-2001 BX - Enterobacteria phage HK022 MH - Bacteriophage IKe UI - D025543 MN - B4.123. ... Bacteriophage Pf1 UI - D025561 MN - B4.123.370.400.300 MN - B4.123.660.535 MN - B4.280.400.400.300 MS - A species of ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 [B04.123.660.535] Bacteriophage Pf1 * Bacteriophage phi 6 [B04.123.660.550] Bacteriophage phi 6 ... Bacteriophage, Pseudomonas. Bacteriophages, Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas Bacteriophage. Pseudomonas Bacteriophages. Pseudomonas ...
Bacteriophage Pf1 complex viscosity M. A. Kanso (منى قانصو); منى قانصو; V. Calabrese; Amy Q. Shen; Myong Chol Pak (박명철); 박명철; A ...
Bacteriophage N4 Bacteriophage P1 Bacteriophage P2 Bacteriophage P22 Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 6 Bacteriophage phi X ... 174 Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage T3 Bacteriophage T4 Bacteriophage T7 Bacteriophage Typing Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophage HK022 Bacteriophage IKe Bacteriophage lambda Bacteriophage M13 Bacteriophage mu ... P1 Bacteriophage Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast Chromosomes, Bacterial Chromosomes, Fungal Chromosomes, Human Chromosomes, ...
Model for bacteriophage fd from cryo-EM. nevitdilmen. HELIX, Helical virus, Structural Protein, DNA BINDING PROTEIN, virus ... PF1 VIRUS STRUCTURE: HELICAL COAT PROTEIN.... mkinners. COMPLEX(VIRAL COAT PROTEIN-DNA), Helical virus, virus ... INOVIRUS (FILAMENTOUS BACTERIOPHAGE) STRAIN.... mkinners. virus, virus coat protein, HELICAL VIRUS COAT PROTEIN, SSDNA VIRUSES ...
Bacteriophage-fused peptides for serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Feliciano, Nágilla Daliane; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva ... PF1). Inoculation with the PC12 peptide led to the highest production of antibodies. Furthermore, we used the PC12 peptide as ...
  • Comparisons between the membrane-bound form of the coat protein and the previously determined structural form found in filamentous bacteriophage particles demonstrate that it undergoes a significant structural rearrangement during the membrane-mediated virus assembly process. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast to previous structures determined solely in detergent micelles, the structure in bilayers contains information about the spatial arrangement of the protein within the membrane, and thus provides insights to the bacteriophage assembly process from membrane-inserted to bacteriophage-associated protein. (rcsb.org)
  • The N-terminal helix and the hinge that connects it to the transmembrane helix are significantly more dynamic than the rest of the protein, thus facilitating structural rearrangement during bacteriophage assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. (lookformedical.com)
  • Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). (lookformedical.com)
  • A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6. (lookformedical.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (lookformedical.com)
  • A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). (lookformedical.com)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. (lookformedical.com)