Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.TritiumBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Glycoside HydrolasesMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Thyminebeta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Microviridae: A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.UracilCircular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bacteriophage HK022: A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.Corticoviridae: A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.ThymidineReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cytosine NucleotidesSite-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Tolerance of a protein to multiple polar-to-hydrophobic surface substitutions. (1/173)

Hydrophobic substitutions at solvent-exposed positions in two alpha-helical regions of the bacteriophage P22 Arc repressor were introduced by combinatorial mutagenesis. In helix A, hydrophobic residues were tolerated individually at each of the five positions examined, but multiple substitutions were poorly tolerated as shown by the finding that mutants with more than two additional hydrophobic residues were biologically inactive. Several inactive helix A variants were purified and found to have reduced thermal stability relative to wild-type Arc, with a rough correlation between the number of polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions and the magnitude of the stability defect. Quite different results were obtained in helix B, where variants with as many as five polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions were found to be biologically active and one variant with three hydrophobic substitutions had a t(m) 6 degrees C higher than wild-type. By contrast, a helix A mutant with three similar polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions was 23 degrees C less stable than wild-type. Also, one set of three polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions in helix B was tolerated when introduced into the wild-type background but not when introduced into an equally active mutant having a nearly identical structure. Context effects occur both when comparing different regions of the same protein and when comparing the same region in two different homologues.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (2/173)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

Analysis of the role of trans-translation in the requirement of tmRNA for lambdaimmP22 growth in Escherichia coli. (3/173)

The small, stable RNA molecule encoded by ssrA, known as tmRNA or 10Sa RNA, is required for the growth of certain hybrid lambdaimmP22 phages in Escherichia coli. tmRNA has been shown to tag partially synthesized proteins for degradation in vivo by attaching a short peptide sequence, encoded by tmRNA, to the carboxyl termini of these proteins. This tag sequence contains, at its C terminus, an amino acid sequence that is recognized by cellular proteases and leads to degradation of tagged proteins. A model describing this function of tmRNA, the trans-translation model (K. C. Keiler, P. R. Waller, and R. T. Sauer, Science 271:990-993, 1996), proposes that tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as a mRNA, resulting in release of the original mRNA template from the ribosome and translocation of the nascent peptide to tmRNA. Previous work from this laboratory suggested that tmRNA may also interact specifically with DNA-binding proteins, modulating their activity. However, more recent results indicate that interactions between tmRNA and DNA-binding proteins are likely nonspecific. In light of this new information, we examine the effects on lambdaimmP22 growth of mutations eliminating activities postulated to be important for two different steps in the trans-translation model, alanine charging of tmRNA and degradation of tagged proteins. This mutational analysis suggests that, while charging of tmRNA with alanine is essential for lambdaimmP22 growth in E. coli, degradation of proteins tagged by tmRNA is required only to achieve optimal levels of phage growth. Based on these results, we propose that trans-translation may have two roles, the primary role being the release of stalled ribosomes from their mRNA template and the secondary role being the tagging of truncated proteins for degradation.  (+info)

Solution x-ray scattering-based estimation of electron cryomicroscopy imaging parameters for reconstruction of virus particles. (4/173)

Structure factor amplitudes and phases can be computed directly from electron cryomicroscopy images. Inherent aberrations of the electromagnetic lenses and other instrumental factors affect the structure factors, however, resulting in decreased accuracy in the determined three-dimensional reconstruction. In contrast, solution x-ray scattering provides absolute and accurate measurement of spherically averaged structure factor amplitudes of particles in solution but does not provide information on the phases. In the present study, we explore the merits of using solution x-ray scattering data to estimate the imaging parameters necessary to make corrections to the structure factor amplitudes derived from electron cryomicroscopic images of icosahedral virus particles. Using 400-kV spot-scan images of the bacteriophage P22 procapsid, we have calculated an amplitude contrast of 8.0 +/- 5.2%. The amplitude decay parameter has been estimated to be 523 +/- 188 A2 with image noise compensation and 44 +/- 66 A2 without it. These results can also be used to estimate the minimum number of virus particles needed for reconstruction at different resolutions.  (+info)

Folding and stability of mutant scaffolding proteins defective in P22 capsid assembly. (5/173)

Bacteriophage P22 scaffolding subunits are elongated molecules that interact through their C termini with coat subunits to direct icosahedral capsid assembly. The soluble state of the subunit exhibits a partially folded intermediate during equilibrium unfolding experiments, whose C-terminal domain is unfolded (Greene, B., and King, J. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16135-16140). Four mutant scaffolding proteins exhibiting temperature-sensitive defects in different stages of particle assembly were purified. The purified mutant proteins adopted a similar conformation to wild type, but all were destabilized with respect to wild type. Analysis of the thermal melting transitions showed that the mutants S242F and Y214W further destabilized the C-terminal domain, whereas substitutions near the N terminus either destabilized a different domain or affected interactions between domains. Two mutant proteins carried an additional cysteine residue, which formed disulfide cross-links but did not affect the denaturation transition. These mutants differed both from temperature-sensitive folding mutants found in other P22 structural proteins and from the thermolabile temperature-sensitive mutants described for T4 lysozyme. The results suggest that the defects in these mutants are due to destabilization of domains affecting the weak subunit-subunit interactions important in the assembly and function of the virus precursor shell.  (+info)

Mutant forms of Salmonella typhimurium sigma54 defective in transcription initiation but not promoter binding activity. (6/173)

Transcription initiation with sigma54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme (sigma54-holoenzyme) has absolute requirements for an activator protein and ATP hydrolysis. sigma54's binding to core RNA polymerase and promoter DNA has been well studied, but little is known about its role in the subsequent steps of transcription initiation. Following random mutagenesis, we isolated eight mutant forms of Salmonella typhimurium sigma54 that were deficient in transcription initiation but still directed sigma54-holoenzyme to the promoter to form a closed complex. Four of these mutant proteins had amino acid substitutions in region I, which had been shown previously to be required for sigma54-holoenzyme to respond to the activator. From the remaining mutants, we identified four residues in region III which when altered affect the function of sigma54 at some point after closed-complex formation. These results suggest that in addition to its role in core and DNA binding, region III participates in one or more steps of transcription initiation that follow closed-complex formation.  (+info)

Mechanism of scaffolding-directed virus assembly suggested by comparison of scaffolding-containing and scaffolding-lacking P22 procapsids. (7/173)

Assembly of certain classes of bacterial and animal viruses requires the transient presence of molecules known as scaffolding proteins, which are essential for the assembly of the precursor procapsid. To assemble a procapsid of the proper size, each viral coat subunit must adopt the correct quasiequivalent conformation from several possible choices, depending upon the T number of the capsid. In the absence of scaffolding protein, the viral coat proteins form aberrantly shaped and incorrectly sized capsids that cannot package DNA. Although scaffolding proteins do not form icosahedral cores within procapsids, an icosahedrally ordered coat/scaffolding interaction could explain how scaffolding can cause conformational differences between coat subunits. To identify the interaction sites of scaffolding protein with the bacteriophage P22 coat protein lattice, we have determined electron cryomicroscopy structures of scaffolding-containing and scaffolding-lacking procapsids. The resulting difference maps suggest specific interactions of scaffolding protein with only four of the seven quasiequivalent coat protein conformations in the T = 7 P22 procapsid lattice, supporting the idea that the conformational switching of a coat subunit is regulated by the type of interactions it undergoes with the scaffolding protein. Based on these results, we propose a model for P22 procapsid assembly that involves alternating steps in which first coat, then scaffolding subunits form self-interactions that promote the addition of the other protein. Together, the coat and scaffolding provide overlapping sets of binding interactions that drive the formation of the procapsid.  (+info)

Formation of fibrous aggregates from a non-native intermediate: the isolated P22 tailspike beta-helix domain. (8/173)

In the assembly pathway of the trimeric P22 tailspike protein, the protein conformation critical for the partitioning between productive folding and off-pathway aggregation is a monomeric folding intermediate. The central domain of tailspike, a large right-handed parallel beta-helix, is essentially structured in this species. We used the isolated beta-helix domain (Bhx), expressed with a hexahistidine tag, to investigate the mechanism of aggregation without the two terminal domains present in the complete protein. Although Bhx has been shown to fold reversibly at low ionic strength conditions, increased ionic strength induced aggregation with a maximum at urea concentrations corresponding to the midpoint of urea-induced folding transitions. According to size exclusion chromatography, aggregation appeared to proceed via a linear polymerization mechanism. Circular dichroism indicated a secondary structure content of the aggregates similar to that of the native state, but at the same time their tryptophan fluorescence was largely quenched. Microscopic analysis of the aggregates revealed a variety of morphologies; among others, fibrils with fine structure were observed that exhibited bright green birefringence if viewed under cross-polarized light after staining with Congo red. These observations, together with the effects of folding mutations on the aggregation process, indicate the involvement of a partially structured intermediate distinct from both unfolded and native Bhx.  (+info)

1LKT: Phage P22 tailspike protein: crystal structure of the head-binding domain at 2.3 A, fully refined structure of the endorhamnosidase at 1.56 A resolution, and the molecular basis of O-antigen recognition and cleavage.
1LKT: Phage P22 tailspike protein: crystal structure of the head-binding domain at 2.3 A, fully refined structure of the endorhamnosidase at 1.56 A resolution, and the molecular basis of O-antigen recognition and cleavage.
Amber mutations have been isolated and mapped to more than 60 sites in gene 9 of P22 encoding the thermostable phage tailspike protein. Gene 9 is the locus of over 30 sites of temperature sensitive folding (tsf) mutations, which affect intermediates in the chain folding and subunit association pathway. The phenotypes of the amber missense proteins produced on tRNA suppressor hosts inserting serine, glutamine, tryosine and leucine have been determined at different temperatures. Thirty-three of the sites are tolerant, producing functional proteins with any of the four amino acids inserted at the sites, independent of temperature. Tolerant sites are concentrated at the N-terminal end of the protein indicating that this region is not critical for conformation or function. Sixteen of the sites yield temperature sensitive missense proteins on at least one nonsense suppressing host. Most of the sites with ts phenotypes map to the central region of the gene which is also the region where most of the tsf ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
Wang M., Quinn C.M., Perilla J.R., Zhang H., Shirra Jr. R., Hou G., Byeon I.J., Suiter C.L., Ablan S., Urano E., Nitz T.J., Aiken C., Freed E.O., Zhang P., Schulten K., Gronenborn A.M., Polenova T. (2017) Modulation of protein dynamics during HIV capsid maturation. Nat Commun, in press. ...
TSF (thymocyte stimulating factor) information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
Background Non-typhoid Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) accounts for a high number of registered salmonellosis cases, and O-serotyping is one important tool for monitoring epidemiology and spread of the disease. Moreover, variations in glucosylated O-antigens are related to immunogenicity and spread in the host. However, classical autoagglutination tests combined with the analysis of specific genetic markers cannot always reliably register phase variable glucose modifications expressed on Salmonella O-antigens and additional tools to monitor O-antigen glucosylation phenotypes of S. Typhimurium would be desirable. Results We developed a test for the phase variable O-antigen glucosylation state of S. Typhimurium using the tailspike proteins (TSP) of Salmonella phages 9NA and P22. We used this ELISA like tailspike adsorption (ELITA) assay to analyze a library of 44 Salmonella strains. ELITA was successful in discriminating strains that carried glucose 1-6 linked to the galactose of ...
Background Non-typhoid Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) accounts for a high number of registered salmonellosis cases, and O-serotyping is one important tool for monitoring epidemiology and spread of the disease. Moreover, variations in glucosylated O-antigens are related to immunogenicity and spread in the host. However, classical autoagglutination tests combined with the analysis of specific genetic markers cannot always reliably register phase variable glucose modifications expressed on Salmonella O-antigens and additional tools to monitor O-antigen glucosylation phenotypes of S. Typhimurium would be desirable. Results We developed a test for the phase variable O-antigen glucosylation state of S. Typhimurium using the tailspike proteins (TSP) of Salmonella phages 9NA and P22. We used this ELISA like tailspike adsorption (ELITA) assay to analyze a library of 44 Salmonella strains. ELITA was successful in discriminating strains that carried glucose 1-6 linked to the galactose of ...
Three bacterial pectate lyases, a pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger, thestructures of rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus, RGase A,and the P22-phage tailspike protein, TSP, display the right-handedparallel beta-helix architecture first seen in pectate lyase. The lyaseshave 7 complete coils while RGase A and TSP have 11 and 12, respectively.Each coil contains three beta-strands and three turn regions named PB1,T1, PB2, T2, PB3, and T3 in their order of occurrence. The lyases havehomologous sequences but RGase A and TSP do not show obvious sequencehomology either to the lyases or to each other. However, the structuralsimilarities between all these molecules are so extensive that divergencefrom a common ancestor is much more probable than convergence to the samefold. The region PB2-T2-PB3 is the best conserved region in the lyases andshows the clearest structural similarity. Not only is the pleating and thedirection of the hydrogen bonding in the sheets conserved, but so is ...
Among the picornaviridae, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is unique in that its assembly is driven by domain 2A of P1-2A, the precursor of the structural proteins (Probst, C., Jecht, M., and Gauss-Müller, V. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 4527-4531). Whereas infected individuals excrete in stool mature HAV capsids with VP1 as the major structural protein, its C-terminal extended form VP1-2A is the main component of immature procapsids produced in HAV-infected cells in culture. Obviously, a postassembly proteolytic step is required to remove the primary assembly signal 2A from VP1-2A of procapsids. Mutants of VP1-2A were expressed in COS7 cells to determine the cleavage site in VP1-2A and to test for the cleavage potential of viral and host proteinases (factor Xa and thrombin). Site-specific in vitro cleavage by factor Xa and thrombin occurred in procapsids that contained VP1-2A with engineered cognate cleavage sites for these proteinases. Interestingly, factor Xa but not thrombin liberated mature VP1 also from
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*GP*AP*GP*GP*AP*U ONEP *AP*CP*CP*CP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*GP*AP*GP*GP*AP*U ONEP *AP*CP*CP*CP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3 ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*CP*GP*CP*GP*AP*UP *UP*AP*CP*GP*GP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*CP*GP*CP*GP*AP*UP *UP*AP*CP*GP*GP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3 ...
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Biochemical studies of proteins are crucial for a more detailed view of the world around us. The focus of biochemical studies can vary, from a complex mammalian system to a more simple viral entity, but the same methods and principles apply. In biochemistry one rely on both in vitro and in vivo analyses to understand biological processes. Protein crystallography has since the late 1950s been an additional important tool. By visualizing the structures of molecules involved in a biological process one can truly comprehend the molecular mechanisms of an organism or cell at the chemical level. This thesis includes structural biochemical work in combination with mutational and functional studies of proteins from both human and virus.. Human tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins grouped by their conserved structural features. Many of them have been shown to regulate cell migration, fusion, and signalling in the cell by functioning as organizers of multi-molecular membrane complexes. Several ...
Forms a portal in the viral capsid through which viral DNA is translocated during DNA packaging. Assembles as a dodecamer at a single fivefold axe of the T=16 icosahedric capsid. Binds to the molecular motor that translocates the viral DNA, termed terminase.
The capsid protein of HK97, gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a concatenated chain-mail like structure ... The bacteriophage undergoes a maturation process upon DNA packaging during which it expands by nearly 5 nm and changes from spherically symmetrical to icosahedrally symmetrical ... of gp5 monomers comprise further capsid maturation and lead to formation of a mature phage head ...
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Kodiak, Alaska, is not only home to abundant fishing grounds, but also to one of the most innovative power grids in the country. As the cost of diesel rose a decade ago, a local electric co-op decided to aim for 100 percent renewable energy by harnessing the wind and water. Special correspondent Rachel Waldholz of Alaska Public Media reports on their engineering feat. This report comes from Alaskas Energy Desk, a public media collaboration focused on energy and the environment.
Schaefer, KL; McClure WR (1997). "Antisense RNA control of gene expression in bacteriophage P22. I. Structures of sar RNA and ... RNA that is partly responsible for the negative regulation of antirepressor synthesis during development of bacteriophage P22. ...
The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... where he was awarded a PhD in 1977 for research on Enterobacteria phage P22 supervised by Jonathan King. Earnshaw completed ...
In bacteriophage P22, the asRNA sar helps regulate between lytic and lysogenic cycle by control the expression of Ant. Besides ... The initial asRNAs discovered were in prokaryotes including plasmids, bacteriophage and bacteria. For example, in plasmid ColE1 ...
The P22 phage tailspike protein, a component of the P22 bacteriophage, has 13 turns and in its assembled homotrimer is 200 Å ( ... Left-handed) Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R and Reinemer P. (1994) "Crystal structure of P22 tailspike ... Both pectate lyase and P22 tailspike protein contain right-handed helices; left-handed versions have been observed in enzymes ...
... filamentous bacteriophage composed of circular single stranded DNA P22 phage, virus that infects salmonella Phi-X174 phage, the ... Phage is the shortened form of bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. Phage (from Greek φαγεῖν phagein, 'to eat') may ... the study of the interaction of bacteriophage with their environments Phage monographs, books published on the topic of ... temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli M13 phage, ... the best-studied bacteriophage of the family Cystoviridae T7 ...
... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.900.150 --- bacteriophage prd1 MeSH B04.265.600.400 --- harvey murine sarcoma virus MeSH B04.265 ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...
Most Cro proteins, such as Enterobacteria phage P22 Cro and Bacteriophage 434 Cro, have an all-alpha structure that is thought ... In molecular biology, the Cro repressor family of proteins includes the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor. Bacteriophage ... Ohlendorf DH, Tronrud DE, Matthews BW (July 1998). "Refined structure of Cro repressor protein from bacteriophage lambda ...
... can refer to: P22 phage, a bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria P22 phosphor, a common phosphor used in CRTs Walther ... P22, a semi-automatic pistol manufactured by Walther Sportwaffen P22 type foundry, a digital type foundry that creates fonts P- ...
"Information about bacteriophage P22". ASM Division M: Bacteriophage P22. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the ... The Enterobacteria phage P22 is a bacteriophage that infects Salmonella typhimurium. Like many phage viruses, it has been used ... P22 shares many similarities in genetic structure and regulation with bacteriophage λ. It is a temperate double stranded DNA ... P22 research has focused on its differences from bacteriophage λ including the mechanisms by which it circularizes DNA upon ...
The tailspike protein (P22TSP) of Enterobacteria phage P22 mediates the recognition and adhesion between the bacteriophage and ... Danner M, Fuchs A, Miller S, Seckler R (Aug 1993). "Folding and assembly of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase lacking the N- ... Steinbacher S, Baxa U, Miller S, Weintraub A, Seckler R, Huber R (Oct 1996). "Crystal structure of phage P22 tailspike protein ... Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R, Reinemer P (Jul 1994). "Crystal structure of P22 tailspike protein: ...
Testing revealed that the Det7 strain was capable of infecting all hosts affected by Salmonella P22 and 9NA, along with a ... Viunalikevirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the Myoviridae family. Currently, this genus contains seven species. Members of ... Edgar, Robert H (4 February 2014). Evolution of Bacteriophage Host Attachment using DET7 as a Model (MSc). University of ... October 2012). "A suggested new bacteriophage genus: "Viunalikevirus"". Archives of Virology. 157 (10): 2035-46. doi:10.1007/ ...
Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012) A novel bacteriophage of the Podoviridae family infecting Weissella cibaria ... Enterobacteria phage P22 Salmonella phage HK620 Salmonella phage ST64T Shigella phage Sf6 Genus: Phieco32likevirus ... "The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ...
... P22, a member of the Podoviridae by morphology due to its short, non-contractile tail ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
Enterobacteria phage P22 Salmonella phage HK620 Salmonella phage ST64T Shigella phage Sf6 Genus: Phieco32likevirus ... Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage p23-77 Thermus thermophilus phagein in93 Family: Tectiviridae Genus: Tectivirus Bacillus ...
Kil protein, bacteriophage P22-type (IPR020298). Short name: Kil_phage_P22-type ... The bacteriophage P22 kil gene, like lambda kil, kills the host cell when it is expressed. The two kil genes, although ... The functions of the P22 and lambda kil genes are not known; however, P22 kil is essential for lytic growth in the absence of ... Genetic structure of the bacteriophage P22 PL operon.. J. Mol. Biol. 207 1-13 1989 ...
Electron micrograph of bacteriophage P22 P22 is genetically a member of the lambda-like bacteriophage family, and ... Links to other sites on the World Wide Web that are primarily about bacteriophages or generally about viruses.. Oddments The ... The phage facts pages of this site give more information about P22 ...
Architecture of the Complex Formed by Large and Small Terminase Subunits from Bacteriophage P22.. McNulty R1, Lokareddy RK2, ... Architecture of the Complex formed by Large and Small Terminase Subunits from Bacteriophage P22 ... Architecture of the Complex formed by Large and Small Terminase Subunits from Bacteriophage P22 ... Architecture of the Complex formed by Large and Small Terminase Subunits from Bacteriophage P22 ...
Bacteriophage P22, Computer Model is a photograph by Gabriel Lander which was uploaded on May 2nd, 2013. The photograph may be ... Bacteriophage P22, Computer Model. Bacteriophage P22, computer model. Four views of P22 created with molecular modelling ... Bacteriophage P22, computer model. Four views of P22 created with molecular modelling software and data from cryo-electron ... p22 virus phage bacteriophage biology microbiology molecular biology structural biology virology artwork molecular model cryo- ...
The P22 Xis Protein: Regulation of Bacteriophage P22 Site -Specific Recombination. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... The P22 Xis Protein: Regulation of Bacteriophage P22 Site -Specific Recombination. Mattis, Aras Nikodemas ... Mutants of P22 Xis were isolated and assayed for excision system in vivo, to quantify their excision activity relative to wild- ...
... serotype-converting bacteriophage P22 has been completed. The genome is 41,724 bp with an overall moles percent GC content of ... article{Byl2000SequenceOT, title={Sequence of the genome of Salmonella bacteriophage P22.}, author={C Vander Byl and Andrew M ... Sequence of the genome of Salmonella bacteriophage P22.. @ ... serotype-converting bacteriophage P22 has been completed. The ... A proposed new bacteriophage subfamily: "Jerseyvirinae". *Hany Anany, Andrea I. Moreno Switt, +9 authors Dann Turner ...
It has been suggested that gene product 16 of bacteriophage P22 forms a pore for DNA transfer and/or that it functions as a ... Bacteriophage P22 gene 16, complete cds. (EMBL: M74136). Sequence length: 2246. Download in FASTA format ... Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of gene 16 of salmonella bacteriophage P22. Umlauf B, Dreiseikelmann B (1992) Virology ... Corrected sequence of the bacteriophage p22 genome.. Pedulla ML, Ford ME, Karthikeyan T, Houtz JM, Hendrix RW, Hatfull GF, ...
DNA packaging initiation of Salmonella bacteriophage P22: determination of cut sites within the DNA sequence coding for gene 3 ... DNA packaging initiation of Salmonella bacteriophage P22: determination of cut sites within the DNA sequence coding for gene 3. ... DNA packaging of Salmonella phage P22 starts at a defined site on a concatemer of P22 genomes. The molecular ends formed at the ...
Development of a novel method of lytic phage delivery by use of a bacteriophage P22 site-specific recombination system. Primary ... Development of a novel method of lytic phage delivery by use of a bacteriophage P22 site-specific recombination system ... Development of a novel method of lytic phage delivery by use of a bacteriophage P22 site-specific recombination system. Fems ... Bacteriophage therapy represents a potential alternative to the use of antibiotics to control proliferation of pathogenic ...
1988) Bacteriophage P22. in The bacteriophages. ed Calendar R. (Plenum Press, New York, N.Y), pp 647-682. ... 1980) A physical gene map of the bacteriophage P22 late region: genetic analysis of cloned fragments of P22 DNA. Virology 102: ... The P22 homologue, C1 protein, also stimulates transcription fromP RE and P a23 (the P22Q homologue) (27). P22 C1-binding sites ... 1968) The P22 bacteriophage DNA molecule. II. Circular intracellular forms. J. Mol. Biol. 37:41-61. ...
Lysozyme genes from the intragenic revertant phages were introduced into unmutagenized P22, and found to confer the revertant ... The suppression patterns of 11 phage P22 mutants bearing different amber mutations in the gene encoding lysozyme (19) were ... Rennell, Dale and Poteete, Anthony R., "Genetic analysis of bacteriophage P22 lysozyme structure" (1989). GSBS Student ... The suppression patterns of 11 phage P22 mutants bearing different amber mutations in the gene encoding lysozyme (19) were ...
P22 TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease research ... enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 ATCC ® 19585-B1™ Designation: ... enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 (ATCC® 19585-B1™) Strain Designations: P22 [PLT-22(22)] / Type Strain: no / ... choleraesuis serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage Transducing phage for Salmonella Groups B and D ...
PHAGE P22. Genetic Background Page 1 PHAGE P22 Growth of P22 . P22 is a temperate phage that infects Salmonella by binding to ... Chapter 7 Bacteriophage Bacteriophage or phage for short are viruses that infect only bacteria. In contrast to cells that grow ... BACTERIOPHAGE. The phage nucleic acid takes over the host biosynthetic machinery and phage specified m-RNAs and proteins are ... Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against .... Payne RJ, Phil D, Jansen VA. Phage therapy: the peculiar kinetics of ...
This domain is found in Mnt and Arc, two structurally homologous repressors encoded by bacteriophage P22 [PMID: 7999761, PMID: ...
DNA Packaging by Bacteriophage P22. Casjens, Sherwood (et al.). Pages 80-88 ...
Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as ... This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor ... For example, Singh et al. immobilized genetically engineered tailspike proteins (TSP) from P22 bacteriophage onto the gold- ... Recent Advances in Bacteriophage Based Biosensors for Food-Borne Pathogen Detection. Amit Singh 1,2,*, Somayyeh Poshtiban 1,2 ...
Bacteriophage P22, like other double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, packages DNA in a preassembled, DNA-free procapsid. The P22 ... "Bacteriophage P22, like other double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, packages DNA in a preassembled, DNA-free procapsid. The P22 ... Bacteriophage P22, like other double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, packages DNA in a preassembled, DNA-free procapsid. The P22 ... Bacteriophage P22, like other double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, packages DNA in a preassembled, DNA-free procapsid. The P22 ...
"Information about bacteriophage P22". ASM Division M: Bacteriophage P22. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the ... The Enterobacteria phage P22 is a bacteriophage that infects Salmonella typhimurium. Like many phage viruses, it has been used ... P22 shares many similarities in genetic structure and regulation with bacteriophage λ. It is a temperate double stranded DNA ... P22 research has focused on its differences from bacteriophage λ including the mechanisms by which it circularizes DNA upon ...
Salmonella phage P22 (Bacteriophage P22). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ... IPR012332 P22_tailspike-like_C_sf. IPR015331 P22_tailspike_C. IPR009093 P22_tailspike_N. IPR036730 P22_tailspike_N_sf. ... IPR012332 P22_tailspike-like_C_sf. IPR015331 P22_tailspike_C. IPR009093 P22_tailspike_N. IPR036730 P22_tailspike_N_sf. ... "Interactions of phage P22 tails with their cellular receptor, Salmonella O-antigen polysaccharide.". Baxa U., Steinbacher S., ...
Salmonella phage P22 (Bacteriophage P22). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ... sp,P09964,RCRO_BPP22 Regulatory protein cro OS=Salmonella phage P22 OX=10754 GN=cro PE=1 SV=1 ...
The tail-related proteins p19 to p22, encoded in a 5.9-kb region, share 33-44% identity (55-63% similarity) with ORFs of the X ... Bacteria, bacteriophages, and growth conditions. X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) was cultivated in Tryptic Soy Broth or Agar (Bacto ... Wang J, Jiang Y, Vincent M, Sun Y, Yu H, Wang J, Bao Q, Kong H, Hu S: Complete genome sequence of bacteriophage T5. Virology. ... Tetart F, Repoila F, Monod C, Krisch HM: Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the tail ...
In contrast, bacteriophage P22 (132) has substantial numbers of genes in common with HK97; genetic differences lead to ... Sequence of the genome of Salmonella bacteriophage P22. J. Bacteriol. 182:6472-6481. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ... In the case of bacteriophage N15, 50% of its genome is clearly related to lambdoid bacteriophages (Fig. 3), whereas the ...
2011) Peering down the barrel of a bacteriophage portal: The genome packaging and release valve in p22. Structure 19(4):496-502 ... Tilting was also observed for the inner body of bacteriophage phiKZ around which was spooled the packaged DNA (42, 43). The P22 ... 2006) Cryo-EM asymmetric reconstruction of bacteriophage P22 reveals organization of its DNA packaging and infecting machinery ... Localization of the Houdinisome (Ejection Proteins) inside the Bacteriophage P22 Virion by Bubblegram Imaging ...
Media in categorie "Bacteriophages". Deze categorie bevat de volgende 77 bestanden, van in totaal 77. ... ADVERTISEMENT; Antivirus and bacteriophages Wellcome L0032605.jpg 5.228 × 3.451; 7,23 MB. ... The arrangement of known genes of bacteriophage T12 after integration into host.png 917 × 456; 28 kB. ... Overgenomen van "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Bacteriophages&oldid=310610186" ...
1976 Specialized transduction by bacteriophage P22 in Salmonella typhimurium: genetic and physical structure of the transducing ... 1978 Properties of the translocatable tetracycline-resistance element Tn10 in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. ... specificity of illegitimate recombination by the translocatable ampicillin-resistance element Tn1 in the genome of phage P22. ...
  • Construction of this E. coli strain was accomplished by development of a plasmid-based system utilizing the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to integrate DNA constructs into the host chromosome. (islandscholar.ca)
  • After host infection, the linear P22 virion DNA is circularized by a homologous recombination event between the direct repeats at both ends of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain is found in Mnt and Arc, two structurally homologous repressors encoded by bacteriophage P22 [ PMID: 7999761 , PMID: 12646376 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Mutants of P22 Xis were isolated and assayed for excision system in vivo, to quantify their excision activity relative to wild-type Xis. (illinois.edu)
  • Four views of P22 created with molecular modelling software and data from cryo-electron microscopy. (fineartamerica.com)
  • Complete capsid of bacteriophage P22 generated with validated atomic models that were derived from a high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy density map. (lbl.gov)
  • Gope, R & Serwer, P 1983, ' Bacteriophage P22 in vitro DNA packaging monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis: Rate of DNA entry into capsids ', Journal of Virology , vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 96-105. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Architecture of the Complex Formed by Large and Small Terminase Subunits from Bacteriophage P22. (nih.gov)
  • A ) Domain organization of P22 S- and L-terminase subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophage HK97 is a lambdoid phage with a head assembled from 415 copies of a 42 kDa subunit arranged in an icosahedrally symmetrical lattice with a triangulation number of 7. (factbites.com)
  • We have used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to study the multilayer structure of the portal vertex of the bacteriophage T7 procapsid, the recipient of T7 DNA in packaging. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, structures of bacteriophage λ were determined at subnanometer resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. (scripps.edu)
  • Interaction between the P22 operator and 434 cI repressor was achieved simply by replacing five original surface‐exposed amino acids of 434 cI recognition helix (red) by corresponding amino acids of P22 cI repressor (blue). (els.net)
  • Thanks to the 3-D atomic-scale model, it's now "possible to see the interactions between the pieces making up the P22 virus, which are critical to making it stable," Adams said. (lbl.gov)
  • The growth of farmacias viagra comprar en espaГ±olas bk virus-transformed mouse broblasts. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)