A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.

Tolerance of a protein to multiple polar-to-hydrophobic surface substitutions. (1/173)

Hydrophobic substitutions at solvent-exposed positions in two alpha-helical regions of the bacteriophage P22 Arc repressor were introduced by combinatorial mutagenesis. In helix A, hydrophobic residues were tolerated individually at each of the five positions examined, but multiple substitutions were poorly tolerated as shown by the finding that mutants with more than two additional hydrophobic residues were biologically inactive. Several inactive helix A variants were purified and found to have reduced thermal stability relative to wild-type Arc, with a rough correlation between the number of polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions and the magnitude of the stability defect. Quite different results were obtained in helix B, where variants with as many as five polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions were found to be biologically active and one variant with three hydrophobic substitutions had a t(m) 6 degrees C higher than wild-type. By contrast, a helix A mutant with three similar polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions was 23 degrees C less stable than wild-type. Also, one set of three polar-to-hydrophobic substitutions in helix B was tolerated when introduced into the wild-type background but not when introduced into an equally active mutant having a nearly identical structure. Context effects occur both when comparing different regions of the same protein and when comparing the same region in two different homologues.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (2/173)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

Analysis of the role of trans-translation in the requirement of tmRNA for lambdaimmP22 growth in Escherichia coli. (3/173)

The small, stable RNA molecule encoded by ssrA, known as tmRNA or 10Sa RNA, is required for the growth of certain hybrid lambdaimmP22 phages in Escherichia coli. tmRNA has been shown to tag partially synthesized proteins for degradation in vivo by attaching a short peptide sequence, encoded by tmRNA, to the carboxyl termini of these proteins. This tag sequence contains, at its C terminus, an amino acid sequence that is recognized by cellular proteases and leads to degradation of tagged proteins. A model describing this function of tmRNA, the trans-translation model (K. C. Keiler, P. R. Waller, and R. T. Sauer, Science 271:990-993, 1996), proposes that tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as a mRNA, resulting in release of the original mRNA template from the ribosome and translocation of the nascent peptide to tmRNA. Previous work from this laboratory suggested that tmRNA may also interact specifically with DNA-binding proteins, modulating their activity. However, more recent results indicate that interactions between tmRNA and DNA-binding proteins are likely nonspecific. In light of this new information, we examine the effects on lambdaimmP22 growth of mutations eliminating activities postulated to be important for two different steps in the trans-translation model, alanine charging of tmRNA and degradation of tagged proteins. This mutational analysis suggests that, while charging of tmRNA with alanine is essential for lambdaimmP22 growth in E. coli, degradation of proteins tagged by tmRNA is required only to achieve optimal levels of phage growth. Based on these results, we propose that trans-translation may have two roles, the primary role being the release of stalled ribosomes from their mRNA template and the secondary role being the tagging of truncated proteins for degradation.  (+info)

Solution x-ray scattering-based estimation of electron cryomicroscopy imaging parameters for reconstruction of virus particles. (4/173)

Structure factor amplitudes and phases can be computed directly from electron cryomicroscopy images. Inherent aberrations of the electromagnetic lenses and other instrumental factors affect the structure factors, however, resulting in decreased accuracy in the determined three-dimensional reconstruction. In contrast, solution x-ray scattering provides absolute and accurate measurement of spherically averaged structure factor amplitudes of particles in solution but does not provide information on the phases. In the present study, we explore the merits of using solution x-ray scattering data to estimate the imaging parameters necessary to make corrections to the structure factor amplitudes derived from electron cryomicroscopic images of icosahedral virus particles. Using 400-kV spot-scan images of the bacteriophage P22 procapsid, we have calculated an amplitude contrast of 8.0 +/- 5.2%. The amplitude decay parameter has been estimated to be 523 +/- 188 A2 with image noise compensation and 44 +/- 66 A2 without it. These results can also be used to estimate the minimum number of virus particles needed for reconstruction at different resolutions.  (+info)

Folding and stability of mutant scaffolding proteins defective in P22 capsid assembly. (5/173)

Bacteriophage P22 scaffolding subunits are elongated molecules that interact through their C termini with coat subunits to direct icosahedral capsid assembly. The soluble state of the subunit exhibits a partially folded intermediate during equilibrium unfolding experiments, whose C-terminal domain is unfolded (Greene, B., and King, J. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16135-16140). Four mutant scaffolding proteins exhibiting temperature-sensitive defects in different stages of particle assembly were purified. The purified mutant proteins adopted a similar conformation to wild type, but all were destabilized with respect to wild type. Analysis of the thermal melting transitions showed that the mutants S242F and Y214W further destabilized the C-terminal domain, whereas substitutions near the N terminus either destabilized a different domain or affected interactions between domains. Two mutant proteins carried an additional cysteine residue, which formed disulfide cross-links but did not affect the denaturation transition. These mutants differed both from temperature-sensitive folding mutants found in other P22 structural proteins and from the thermolabile temperature-sensitive mutants described for T4 lysozyme. The results suggest that the defects in these mutants are due to destabilization of domains affecting the weak subunit-subunit interactions important in the assembly and function of the virus precursor shell.  (+info)

Mutant forms of Salmonella typhimurium sigma54 defective in transcription initiation but not promoter binding activity. (6/173)

Transcription initiation with sigma54-RNA polymerase holoenzyme (sigma54-holoenzyme) has absolute requirements for an activator protein and ATP hydrolysis. sigma54's binding to core RNA polymerase and promoter DNA has been well studied, but little is known about its role in the subsequent steps of transcription initiation. Following random mutagenesis, we isolated eight mutant forms of Salmonella typhimurium sigma54 that were deficient in transcription initiation but still directed sigma54-holoenzyme to the promoter to form a closed complex. Four of these mutant proteins had amino acid substitutions in region I, which had been shown previously to be required for sigma54-holoenzyme to respond to the activator. From the remaining mutants, we identified four residues in region III which when altered affect the function of sigma54 at some point after closed-complex formation. These results suggest that in addition to its role in core and DNA binding, region III participates in one or more steps of transcription initiation that follow closed-complex formation.  (+info)

Mechanism of scaffolding-directed virus assembly suggested by comparison of scaffolding-containing and scaffolding-lacking P22 procapsids. (7/173)

Assembly of certain classes of bacterial and animal viruses requires the transient presence of molecules known as scaffolding proteins, which are essential for the assembly of the precursor procapsid. To assemble a procapsid of the proper size, each viral coat subunit must adopt the correct quasiequivalent conformation from several possible choices, depending upon the T number of the capsid. In the absence of scaffolding protein, the viral coat proteins form aberrantly shaped and incorrectly sized capsids that cannot package DNA. Although scaffolding proteins do not form icosahedral cores within procapsids, an icosahedrally ordered coat/scaffolding interaction could explain how scaffolding can cause conformational differences between coat subunits. To identify the interaction sites of scaffolding protein with the bacteriophage P22 coat protein lattice, we have determined electron cryomicroscopy structures of scaffolding-containing and scaffolding-lacking procapsids. The resulting difference maps suggest specific interactions of scaffolding protein with only four of the seven quasiequivalent coat protein conformations in the T = 7 P22 procapsid lattice, supporting the idea that the conformational switching of a coat subunit is regulated by the type of interactions it undergoes with the scaffolding protein. Based on these results, we propose a model for P22 procapsid assembly that involves alternating steps in which first coat, then scaffolding subunits form self-interactions that promote the addition of the other protein. Together, the coat and scaffolding provide overlapping sets of binding interactions that drive the formation of the procapsid.  (+info)

Formation of fibrous aggregates from a non-native intermediate: the isolated P22 tailspike beta-helix domain. (8/173)

In the assembly pathway of the trimeric P22 tailspike protein, the protein conformation critical for the partitioning between productive folding and off-pathway aggregation is a monomeric folding intermediate. The central domain of tailspike, a large right-handed parallel beta-helix, is essentially structured in this species. We used the isolated beta-helix domain (Bhx), expressed with a hexahistidine tag, to investigate the mechanism of aggregation without the two terminal domains present in the complete protein. Although Bhx has been shown to fold reversibly at low ionic strength conditions, increased ionic strength induced aggregation with a maximum at urea concentrations corresponding to the midpoint of urea-induced folding transitions. According to size exclusion chromatography, aggregation appeared to proceed via a linear polymerization mechanism. Circular dichroism indicated a secondary structure content of the aggregates similar to that of the native state, but at the same time their tryptophan fluorescence was largely quenched. Microscopic analysis of the aggregates revealed a variety of morphologies; among others, fibrils with fine structure were observed that exhibited bright green birefringence if viewed under cross-polarized light after staining with Congo red. These observations, together with the effects of folding mutations on the aggregation process, indicate the involvement of a partially structured intermediate distinct from both unfolded and native Bhx.  (+info)

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

"Information about bacteriophage P22". ASM Division M: Bacteriophage P22. American Society for Microbiology. Archived from the ... P22 shares many similarities in genetic structure and regulation with bacteriophage λ. It is a temperate double stranded DNA ... P22 research has focused on its differences from bacteriophage λ including the mechanisms by which it circularizes DNA upon ... Salmonella virus P22 is a bacteriophage in the Podoviridae family that infects Salmonella typhimurium. Like many phages, it has ...
The tailspike protein (P22TSP) of Enterobacteria phage P22 mediates the recognition and adhesion between the bacteriophage and ... Danner M, Fuchs A, Miller S, Seckler R (Aug 1993). "Folding and assembly of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase lacking the N- ... Steinbacher S, Baxa U, Miller S, Weintraub A, Seckler R, Huber R (Oct 1996). "Crystal structure of phage P22 tailspike protein ... Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R, Reinemer P (Jul 1994). "Crystal structure of P22 tailspike protein: ...
Schaefer KL, McClure WR (February 1997). "Antisense RNA control of gene expression in bacteriophage P22. I. Structures of sar ... RNA that is partly responsible for the negative regulation of antirepressor synthesis during development of bacteriophage P22. ...
The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... where he was awarded a PhD in 1977 for research on Enterobacteria phage P22 supervised by Jonathan King. Earnshaw completed ...
Using similar strategy, glutathione biosynthesizing enzymes were encapsulated inside bacteriophage P22 virus-like particles. In ... Dual-surface-modified bacteriophage MS2 as an ideal scaffold for a viral capsid-based drug delivery system. Bioconjug. Chem. 18 ... and bacteriophages (e.g. Qβ, AP205). VLPs can be produced in multiple cell culture systems including bacteria, mammalian cell ... protein self-assembly was used to encapsulate multiple copies of ferritin protein cages as sub-compartments inside P22 virus- ...
In bacteriophage P22, the asRNA sar helps regulate between lytic and lysogenic cycle by control the expression of Ant. Besides ... The initial asRNAs discovered were in prokaryotes including plasmids, bacteriophage and bacteria. For example, in plasmid ColE1 ...
The crAss-like phage have a podoviridae-like morphology with a tail structure similar to that of bacteriophage P22. Based on ... CrAss-like phage are a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) family that was discovered in 2014 by cross assembling reads ... November 2018). "Biology and Taxonomy of crAss-like Bacteriophages, the Most Abundant Virus in the Human Gut". Cell Host & ... November 2018). "Biology and Taxonomy of crAss-like Bacteriophages, the Most Abundant Virus in the Human Gut". Cell Host & ...
The P22 phage tail spike protein, a component of the P22 bacteriophage, has 13 turns and in its assembled homotrimer is 200 Å ( ... Both pectate lyase and P22 tailspike protein contain right-handed helices; left-handed versions have been observed in enzymes ...
... a bacteriophage Walther P22, a pistol Norfolk Southern train P22, involved in the 2005 Graniteville train crash P22, a state ... P22 may refer to: P22 (type foundry), a digital type foundry LÉ Aoife (P22), a patrol vessel of the Irish Naval Service Maltese ... patrol boat P22, of the Armed Forces of Malta Mwera language Papyrus 22, a biblical manuscript Salmonella virus P22, ... regional road in Latvia P-22, a mountain lion residing in Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California This disambiguation page lists ...
... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123.150.700. ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 - bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 - bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280.090.700. ... bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.900.150 - bacteriophage prd1 MeSH B04.265.600.400 - harvey murine sarcoma virus MeSH B04.265. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
Most Cro proteins, such as Enterobacteria phage P22 Cro and Bacteriophage 434 Cro, have an all-alpha structure that is thought ... Bacteriophage lambda encodes two repressors: the Cro repressor that acts to turn off early gene transcription during the lytic ... In molecular biology, the Cro repressor family is a family of repressor proteins in bacteriophage lambda that includes the Cro ... Ohlendorf DH, Tronrud DE, Matthews BW (July 1998). "Refined structure of Cro repressor protein from bacteriophage lambda ...
A version of bacteriophage ΦX174 has also been created where all gene overlaps were removed proving they were not necessary for ... In tombusviruses, the proteins p19 and p22 are encoded by overlapping genes that form a 549 nt coding region, and p19 is shown ... Aoyama, A; Hayashi, M (September 1985). "Effects of genome size on bacteriophage phi X174 DNA packaging in vitro". Journal of ... Feiss, Michael; Fisher, R.A.; Crayton, M.A.; Egner, Carol (March 1977). "Packaging of the bacteriophage λ chromosome: Effect of ...
Enhancement of chicken macrophage cytokine response to Salmonella Typhimurium when combined with bacteriophage P22. ... Enhancement of chicken macrophage cytokine response to Salmonella Typhimurium when combined with bacteriophage P22.. Title. ... Animals, Bacteriophage P22, Cell Line, Chickens, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Interleukin-8, Macrophages, Real-Time ... In this study, we evaluated the immune response of chicken macrophage cells (HD-11) and effects of bacteriophage P22 against ...
Bacteriophage and host proteins associated with replication and transcription are concentrated inside the phage nucleus while ... To protect from host attack, numerous jumbo bacteriophages establish a micron-scale, protein-based structure to enclose their ... numerous jumbo bacteriophages establish a phage nucleus-a micron-scale, proteinaceous structure encompassing the replicating ... Structural dynamics of bacteriophage P22 infection initiation revealed by cryo-electron tomography. 18 March 2019 ...
P22 bacteriophage head capsid. P22 bacteriophage. Packaging of viral nucleic acids. 60. Homomeric. ... P22 bacteriophage [40]), 5V74 (bacterial microcompartment [41]), 4PT2 (bacterial encapsulin [42]), 1HQK (lumazine synthase [43 ... P22 bacteriophage [40]), 5V74 (bacterial microcompartment [41]), 4PT2 (bacterial encapsulin [42]), 1HQK (lumazine synthase [43 ... Nanoreactors by programmed enzyme encapsulation inside the capsid of the bacteriophage p22. ACS Nano 2012, 6, 5000-5009. [ ...
Cryo-EM elucidation of the structure of bacteriophage P22 virions after genome release. Biophys J 114:1295-1301. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Bacteriophage P22 Preferred Concept UI. M0025982. Registry Number. txid10754. Scope Note. A species of temperate bacteriophage ... Enterobacteria phage P22 P22 Phage Phage P22 Registry Number. txid10754. Previous Indexing. Salmonella Phages (1966-1992). ... Bacteriophage P22 Preferred Term Term UI T051060. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1993). ... Bacteriophage P22. Tree Number(s). B04.123.150.700.070. B04.123.706.070. B04.280.090.700.070. Unique ID. D017100. RDF Unique ...
Bacteriophage N4 B04.123.150.700.070 Bacteriophage P22 B04.123.150.700.100 Bacteriophage T3 B04.123.150.700.230 Bacteriophage ... Bacteriophage N4 B04.280.090.700.070 Bacteriophage P22 B04.280.090.700.100 Bacteriophage T3 B04.280.090.700.230 Bacteriophage ... Bacteriophage N4 B04.123.205.300 Bacteriophage P1 B04.123.205.305 Bacteriophage P2 B04.123.205.320 Bacteriophage phi X 174 ... Bacteriophage mu B04.123.150.500.300 Bacteriophage P1 B04.123.150.500.305 Bacteriophage P2 B04.123.150.500.350 Bacteriophage T4 ...
... by developing a new computational algorithm that was instrumental in constructing a 3-D atomic-scale model of bacteriophage P22 ... Over 20,000 two-dimensional cryo-EM images of bacteriophage P22 (also known as the P22 virus that infects the common bacterium ... Complete capsid of bacteriophage P22 generated with validated atomic models that were derived from a high-resolution cryo- ... The successful rendering of bacteriophage P22s 3-D atomic-scale model allows researchers to peek inside the virus protein ...
Bacteriophage P22 - Preferred Concept UI. M0025982. Scope note. A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like ... Enterobacteria phage P22 P22 Phage P22 Phages Phage P22 Phage, P22 Phages, P22 ... Enterobacteria phage P22. P22 Phage. P22 Phages. Phage P22. Phage, P22. Phages, P22. ... fago P22 fago P22 de enterobacterias Scope note:. Especie de bacteriófago temperado del genero de virus similares a P22, ...
Bacteriophage P22 Preferred Concept UI. M0025982. Registry Number. txid10754. Scope Note. A species of temperate bacteriophage ... Enterobacteria phage P22 P22 Phage Phage P22 Registry Number. txid10754. Previous Indexing. Salmonella Phages (1966-1992). ... Bacteriophage P22 Preferred Term Term UI T051060. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1993). ... Bacteriophage P22. Tree Number(s). B04.123.150.700.070. B04.123.706.070. B04.280.090.700.070. Unique ID. D017100. RDF Unique ...
P22 Phage Shows Promising Antibacterial Activity under Pathophysiological Conditions. Gildea, Logan; Ayariga, Joseph A; ... Bacteriophages offer a unique method for the treatment of these multidrug resistant bacteria. We studied the infection dynamics ... This research helps to further define and show the versatility of bacteriophages as potential novel treatment methods. ... Furthermore, we determined the resistance dynamics of Salmonella typhimurium against P22 phage treatment. We also determined ...
Bacteriophage P22 is a temperate Salmonella phage; in the prophage state it expresses only a handful of its genes. One of these ... Finally, we show that P22s Esc allows it to circumvent the SieB-mediated exclusion system of bacteriophage lambda. ... P22 itself is insensitive to the lethal effect of SieB because it harbors a determinant called esc. We show that the sieB gene ... Superinfecting P22 synthesizes an antisense RNA, sas, that inhibits synthesis of SieB but allows continued synthesis of Esc, ...
P22 C2 repressor, DNA-binding domain [47426] (1 species). *. Species Salmonella bacteriophage P22 [TaxId:10754] [47427] (1 PDB ... Species Bacteriophage p22 [TaxId:10754] [109810] (1 PDB entry). *. lambda C1 repressor, DNA-binding domain [47420] (1 species) ... Species Bacteriophage 434 [TaxId:10712] [47425] (3 PDB entries). contains a short additional helix at C-terminus. ...
Bacteriophage N4. *Bacteriophage P22. *Bacteriophage T3. *Bacteriophage T7. *T-Phages. *Bacteriophage T3 ... Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It ... "Bacteriophage T7" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacteriophage T7" by people in this website by year, and ...
p22 Dynactin Light Chain use Dynactin Complex P22 Phage use Bacteriophage P22 ... P1 Bacteriophage Artificial Chromosomes use Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage P1 CDC21 Protein use Minichromosome ... P1-Derived Artificial Chromosome use Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage P1-Derived Artificial Chromosomes use ...
Bacteriophage N4. *Bacteriophage P22. *Bacteriophage T3. *Bacteriophage T7. *T-Phages. *Bacteriophage T3 ... Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It ... "Bacteriophage T7" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacteriophage T7" by people in this website by year, and ...
Kaiser of this department have performed experiments similar to ours and have obtained similar results using bacteriophage P22 ... Lobban and Kaiser (unpublished) found that P22 phage DNA became a better primer for homopolymer synthesis after incubation of ... Lobban and Kaiser first observed the need for exonuclease III in the joining of P22 molecules; we confirmed their finding with ... tions of the A bacteriophage required for autonomous repli- cation of circular DNA molecules in &. colt. Each of these § The ...
Bacteriophage N4 Bacteriophage P1 Bacteriophage P2 Bacteriophage P22 Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 6 Bacteriophage phi X ... 174 Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage T3 Bacteriophage T4 Bacteriophage T7 Bacteriophage Typing Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophage HK022 Bacteriophage IKe Bacteriophage lambda Bacteriophage M13 Bacteriophage mu ... P1 Bacteriophage Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast Chromosomes, Bacterial Chromosomes, Fungal Chromosomes, Human Chromosomes, ...
M13 Bacteriophage mu Bacteriophage N4 Bacteriophage P1 Bacteriophage P2 Bacteriophage P22 Bacteriophage Pf1 Bacteriophage phi 6 ... Bacteriophage phi X 174 Bacteriophage PRD1 Bacteriophage T3 Bacteriophage T4 Bacteriophage T7 Bacteriophage Typing ... Bacteriological Techniques Bacteriology Bacteriolysis Bacteriophage HK022 Bacteriophage IKe Bacteriophage lambda Bacteriophage ... P1 Bacteriophage Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast Chromosomes, Bacterial Chromosomes, Fungal Chromosomes, Human Chromosomes, ...
Evaluation of chlorine treatment levels for inactivation of human norovirus and MS2 bacteriophage during sewage treatment. Appl ... GII.P22. 1. 1.1 × 104. 0-12. 1. 2010 Nov. −70°C. Sporadic. 0/1 (0). ...
Chapter 20 In Vivo Packaging of Protein Cargo Inside of Virus-Like Particle P22 ... Chapter 32 Engineering of M13 Bacteriophage for Development of Tissue Engineering Materials ...
MeSH Terms: Bacteriophage P22/genetics*; Bacteriophage P22/ultrastructure*; Cryoelectron Microscopy*; DNA, Viral/metabolism; ... Abstract: Genome ejection proteins are required to facilitate transport of bacteriophage P22 double-stranded DNA safely through ... Title: Cryo-EM Elucidation of the Structure of Bacteriophage P22 Virions after Genome Release. ... the first asymmetric reconstruction of mature bacteriophage P22 after double-stranded DNA has been extruded from the capsid-a ...
P22 bacteriophage sensitivity and lipopolysaccharide profiles of invasive NTS isolates from Malawi. (A) P22 bacteriophage ... Figure 7. P22 bacteriophage sensitivity and lipopolysaccharide profiles of invasive NTS isolates from Malawi. ... P22 was streaked across LB agar between the arrows and allowed to dry before the bacterial strains were cross-streaked. The ...
... derived from the bacteriophage P22). The enhancement of immunogenicity achieved by covalently attaching OVA to sHSP was ... Moreover, pretreatment with P22-VLPs enhanced production of mucosal IgA, as well as an isotype-switched OVA-specific serum IgG ... Systemic administration of Qβ bacteriophage-derived VLPs (Qβ-VLPs), but not soluble Qβ-dimer, into naive mice resulted in ...
The mature virion of the tailed bacteriophage ϕ29 is an ~33 MDa complex that contains more than 450 subunits of seven ... The structure of an infectious P22 virion shows the signal for headful DNA packaging. Science. 2006;312:1791-1795. doi: 10.1126 ... Structural assembly of the tailed bacteriophage ϕ29 Jingwei Xu 1 2 , Dianhong Wang 1 , Miao Gui 1 3 , Ye Xiang 4 ... The bacteriophage ϕ29 tail possesses a pore-forming loop for cell membrane penetration. Xu J, Gui M, Wang D, Xiang Y. Xu J, et ...
His collection of strains and bacteriophages of Salmonella typhimurium became the canonical set: LT-1 to Lt-n, and PLT-22 (or ... P22) of now storied fame. KW: OCR, sending the cultures requested; jl 8/28/99. Lederberg Grouping:. CB. Correspondence B. ...
A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22. Preferred term. Salmonella Phages ... Bacteriophage, Salmonella. Bacteriophages, Salmonella. Salmonella Bacteriophage. Salmonella Bacteriophages. Salmonella Phage. ... Un fago de Salmonella que se encuentra con frecuencia es el BACTERIÓFAGO P22.. ...
Enhancement of Transfecting Activity of Bacteriophage P22 DNA Upon Exonucleolytic Erosion (Sgaramella, V., S.D. Ehrlich, H. ... Enhancement of Transfecting Activity of Bacteriophage P22 DNA Upon Exonucleolytic Erosion (Sgaramella, V., S.D. Ehrlich, H. ... Enhancement of Transfecting Activity of Bacteriophage P22 DNA Upon Exonucleolytic Erosion (Sgaramella, V., S.D. Ehrlich, H. ... Enhancement of Transfecting Activity of Bacteriophage P22 DNA Upon Exonucleolytic Erosion (Sgaramella, V., S.D. Ehrlich, H. ...
Enhancement of Transfecting Activity of Bacteriophage P22 DNA Upon Exonucleolytic Erosion (Sgaramella, V., S.D. Ehrlich, H. ...
Sgaramella, V. (1972). Enzymatic oligomerization of bacteriophage P22 DNA and of linear simian virus 40 DNA. Proc. Nat. Acad. ... I. Enhancement of transfecting activity of bacteriophage P22 DNA upon exonucleolytic erosion. (Running title: Exonuclease and ... I. Enhancement of transfecting activity of bacteriophage P22 DNA upon exonucleolytic erosion. (Running title: Exonuclease and ... Lederberg Exonucleolytic degradations of the DNA of bacteriophage p22 increase its transfecting activity on calcium chloride ...
... inside the capsid derived from the bacteriophage P22. An enhanced peroxigenase, CYPBM3, was selected as a model enzyme because ... Bacteriófago P22/química , Capsídeo/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/administração & dosagem , Portadores de ... Cytochrome P450 activity was delivered into Human cervix carcinoma cells via transfecting P22-CYP nanoparticles with ...
Use of bacteriophage T7 displayed peptides for determination of monoclonal antibody specificity and biosensor analysis of the ... P22. 21. F. ND. CR. AR. P23. 22. M. ND. CR, house dust mite. AR. ...
... noc p1b nob p1a noa scrobiculosus p29 np9 p28 p27 uranotaenia p26 filarioid nnt p25 np5 p24 np4 nnr p23 np3 fructokinases p22 ... liveborn mcpherson calico celiotomy calici kaurene chensinensis adenophorea sacrospinous disalicylate exatecan bacteriophage ...
  • Enhancement of chicken macrophage cytokine response to Salmonella Typhimurium when combined with bacteriophage P22. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE , that infects SALMONELLA species. (nih.gov)
  • Over 20,000 two-dimensional cryo-EM images of bacteriophage P22 (also known as the P22 virus that infects the common bacterium Salmonella) from Baylor College of Medicine were used to make the model. (phys.org)
  • Especie de bacteriófago temperado del genero de virus similares a P22, familia PODOVIRIDAE, que infecta a especies de Salmonella. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, we determined the resistance dynamics of Salmonella typhimurium against P22 phage treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. (umassmed.edu)
  • To protect themselves from host attack, numerous jumbo bacteriophages establish a phage nucleus-a micron-scale, proteinaceous structure encompassing the replicating phage DNA. (nature.com)
  • Bacteriophage and host proteins associated with replication and transcription are concentrated inside the phage nucleus while other phage and host proteins are excluded, including CRISPR-Cas and restriction endonuclease host defense systems. (nature.com)
  • A subset of so-called jumbo bacteriophages, defined by having genomes exceeding 200 kb, have recently been shown to encode an elaborate system for sequestering the phage genome away from host nucleolytic attack, conveying broad resistance to DNA targeting by the host 3 . (nature.com)
  • The bacteriophage and host proteins involved in phage replication and transcription are concentrated within the phage nucleus shell while translation and nucleotide synthesis machinery, the aforementioned CRISPR-Cas and restriction endonucleases, as well as other host and exogenous proteins, are effectively excluded 3 , 4 . (nature.com)
  • Bacteriophage T7" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • There is a constant evolutionary pressure for bacteria to develop defense mechanisms against invading bacteriophages and for the phages to develop effective countermeasures 1 . (nature.com)
  • The successful rendering of bacteriophage P22's 3-D atomic-scale model allows researchers to peek inside the virus' protein coats at resolution. (phys.org)
  • Thanks to this exquisite structural detail, we have determined the protein chemistry of the P22 virus," Chiu said. (phys.org)
  • Bacteriophages offer a unique method for the treatment of these multidrug resistant bacteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacteriophage T7" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacteriophage T7" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Also, four cytokine (IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, and IFN-γ) gene expression levels in the presence of LT2 and/or P22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Genome ejection proteins are required to facilitate transport of bacteriophage P22 double-stranded DNA safely through membranes of Salmonella. (nih.gov)
  • A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE , that infects SALMONELLA species. (nih.gov)
  • His collection of strains and bacteriophages of Salmonella typhimurium became the canonical set: LT-1 to Lt-n, and PLT-22 (or P22) of now storied fame. (nih.gov)
  • Un fago de Salmonella que se encuentra con frecuencia es el BACTERIÓFAGO P22. (bvsalud.org)