Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.TritiumBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Glycoside HydrolasesMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Thyminebeta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Microviridae: A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.UracilCircular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bacteriophage HK022: A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.Corticoviridae: A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.ThymidineReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cytosine NucleotidesSite-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (1/72)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. (2/72)

Phage WPhi is a member of the nonlambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. The DNA sequence of the whole early-control region and the int and attP region of phage WPhi has been determined. The phage integration site was located at 88.6 min of the Escherichia coli K-12 map, where a 47-nucleotide sequence was found to be identical in the host and phage genomes. The WPhi Int protein belongs to the Int family of site-specific recombinases, and it seems to have the same arm binding recognition sequence as P2 Int, but the core sequence differs. The transcriptional switch contains two face-to-face promoters, Pe and Pc, and two repressors, C and Cox, controlling Pe and Pc, respectively. The early Pe promoter was found to be much stronger than the Pc promoter. Furthermore, the Pe transcript was shown to interfere with Pc transcription. By site-directed mutagenesis, the binding site of the immunity repressor was located to two direct repeats spanning the Pe promoter. A point mutation in one or the other repeat does not affect repression by C, but when it is included in both, C has no effect on the Pe promoter. The Cox repressor efficiently blocks expression from the Pc promoter, but its DNA recognition sequence was not evident. Most members of the P2 family of phages are able to function as helpers for satellite phage P4, which lacks genes encoding structural proteins and packaging and lysis functions. In this work it is shown that P4 E, known to function as an antirepressor by binding to P2 C, also turns the transcriptional switch of WPhi from the lysogenic to the lytic mode. However, in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox is unable to activate the P4 Pll promoter.  (+info)

The interaction of bacteriophage P2 B protein with Escherichia coli DnaB helicase. (3/72)

Bacteriophage P2 requires several host proteins for lytic replication, including helicase DnaB but not the helicase loader, DnaC. Some genetic studies have suggested that the loading is done by a phage-encoded protein, P2 B. However, a P2 minichromosome containing only the P2 initiator gene A and a marker gene can be established as a plasmid without requiring the P2 B gene. Here we demonstrate that P2 B associates with DnaB. This was done by using the yeast two-hybrid system in vivo and was confirmed in vitro, where (35)S-labeled P2 B bound specifically to DnaB adsorbed to Q Sepharose beads and monoclonal antibodies directed against the His-tagged P2 B protein were shown to coprecipitate the DnaB protein. Finally, P2 B was shown to stabilize the opening of a reporter origin, a reaction that is facilitated by the inactivation of DnaB. In this respect, P2 B was comparable to lambda P protein, which is known to be capable of binding and inactivating the helicase while acting as a helicase loader. Even though P2 B has little similarity to other known or predicted helicase loaders, we suggest that P2 B is required for efficient loading of DnaB and that this role, although dispensable for P2 plasmid replication, becomes essential for P2 lytic replication.  (+info)

The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity. (4/72)

The Cox protein of bacteriophage P2 is a multifunctional protein of 91 amino acids. It is directly involved in the site-specific recombination event leading to excision of P2 DNA out of the host chromosome. In this context, it functions as an architectural protein in the formation of the excisome. Cox is also a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter, thereby ensuring lytic growth. Finally it promotes derepression of prophage P4, a nonrelated defective satellite phage, by activating the P4 P(LL) promoter that controls P4 DNA replication. In this case it binds upstream of the P(LL) promoter, which normally is activated by the P4 Delta protein. In this work we have analyzed the native form of the Cox protein in vivo, using a bacteriophage lambda cI-based oligomerization assay system, and in vitro, using gel filtration, cross-linking agents, and gel retardation assays. We found that P2 Cox has a strong oligomerization function in vivo as well as in vitro. The in vitro analysis indicates that its native form is a tetramer that can self-associate to octamers. Furthermore we show that oligomerization is necessary for the biological activity by characterizing different cox mutants and that oligomerization is mediated by the C-terminal region.  (+info)

Capsid size determination in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system: suppression of sir mutations in P2's capsid gene N by supersid mutations in P4's external scaffold gene sid. (5/72)

The sid gene of the P2-dependent phage P4 provides an external scaffold so P2 N gene encoded protomers assemble as T = 4 capsids rather than as P2's T = 7 capsids. Mutations (sir) in the middle of N interfere with Sid's function. We describe a new P4 mutant class, nms ("supersid") mutations, which direct also P2 sir to provide small capsids. Three different nms mutations were located near the sid end, commingled with sid(-) mutations. Suppression of sir by nms is not allele-specific. Our results favor this interpretation of capsid size control: (i) sir mutations reduce pN protomer flexibility and thereby interfere with the generation of T = 4 compatible hexons; (ii) the C-termini of Sid molecules link up when forming the scaffold; nms mutations strengthen these Sid-Sid contacts and thus allow the scaffold to force even sir-type protomers to form T = 4 compatible hexons. Some related findings concern suppression of N ts mutations by P4.  (+info)

Control of directionality in integrase-mediated recombination: examination of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) including Xis and Cox proteins. (6/72)

Similarity between the DNA substrates and products of integrase-mediated site-specific recombination reactions results in a single recombinase enzyme being able to catalyze both the integration and excision reactions. The control of directionality in these reactions is achieved through a class of small accessory factors that favor one reaction while interfering with the other. These proteins, which we will refer to collectively as recombination directionality factors (RDFs), play architectural roles in reactions catalyzed by their cognate recombinases and have been identified in conjunction with both tyrosine and serine integrases. Previously identified RDFs are typically small, basic and have diverse amino acid sequences. A subset of RDFs, the cox genes, also function as transcriptional regulators. We present here a compilation of all the known RDF proteins as well as those identified through database mining that we predict to be involved in conferring recombination directionality. Analysis of this group of proteins shows that they can be grouped into distinct sub-groups based on their sequence similarities and that they are likely to have arisen from several independent evolutionary lineages. This compilation will prove useful in recognizing new proteins that confer directionality upon site-specific recombination reactions encoded by plasmids, transposons, phages and prophages.  (+info)

Differentiation between Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobater coli using genotypic and phenotypic analyses. (7/72)

Genotypic and phenotypic methods were applied to investigate differences between the closely related species Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobacter coli. A unique DNA sequence from C. hyoilei was used to design a specific PCR assay that amplified a DNA product of 383 bp for all C. hyoilei strains, but not other Campylobacter species, including C. coli. The PCR assay could detect 100 fg pure C. hyoilei DNA, 2 x 10(2) c.f.u. ml(-1) using cultured cells and 8.3 x 10(3) c.f.u. 0.1 g(-1) in faeces. The C. hyoilei sequence utilized for specific detection and identification of this species showed similarities to sequences from bacteriophages Mu, P2 and 186, suggesting lysogination of the ancestral C. hyoilei genome. Activities of a set of 15 enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular functions, including biosynthesis, catabolism, energy generation, maintenance of redox balance and phosphate utilization, were tested using sets of strains of C. hyoilei and C. coli. Comparison of mean rates of enzyme activities revealed significant differences between species in the values determined for seven of these activities. Both the genetic and phenotypic data indicate that C. hyoilei is a unique Campylobacter species.  (+info)

Protein and DNA requirements of the bacteriophage HP1 recombination system: a model for intasome formation. (8/72)

A fundamental step in site-specific recombination reactions involves the formation of properly arranged protein-DNA structures termed intasomes. The contributions of various proteins and DNA binding sites in the intasome determine not only whether recombination can occur, but also in which direction the reaction is likely to proceed and how fast the reaction will go. By mutating individual DNA binding sites and observing the effects of various mixtures of recombination proteins on the mutated substrates, we have begun to categorize the requirements for intasome formation in the site-specific recombination system of bacteriophage HP1. These experiments define the binding site occupancies in both integrative and excessive recombination for the three recombination proteins: HP1 integrase, HP1 Cox and IHF. This data has allowed us to create a model which explains many of the biochemical features of HP1 recombination, demonstrates the importance of intasome components on the directionality of the reaction and predicts further ways in which the role of the intasome can be explored.  (+info)

*Bacteriophage P2

... contain P2-like prophages . Of these P2-like prophages is P2 best characterized. The P2 phage was found to be able to multiply ... This class of viruses includes many P2-like phages as well as the satellite phage P4. Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... bacteriophage P2 applies a holin-endolysin system to lyse the host cell. P2 have two essential lysis genes (gene K and gene Y) ...

*Harvey Bialy

Sironi G, Bialy H, Lorenzon HA, Calendar R (1971). "Bacteriophage P2:interaction with phage lambda and with recombination- ... Nature Biotechnology 2, p. 109 (01 Feb 1984). Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R (1970). "Bacteriophage Lambda; Abortive ... Infection of Bacteria Lysogenic for Phage P2". PNAS. 66 (3): 587-94. doi:10.1073/pnas.66.3.587. PMC 283090 . PMID 4913204. ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 --- bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.280.090.500.300 --- bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...

*Yersinia phage L-413C

... a P2-related plague diagnostic bacteriophage". Virology. 372 (1): 85-96. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2007.10.032. PMID 18045639. ... as Yersinia phage L-413C is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and translates ...

*Mannheimia phage phiMhaA1-PHL101

"Complete nucleotide sequence of a P2 family lysogenic bacteriophage, varphiMhaA1-PHL101, from Mannheimia haemolytica serotype ... as Mannheimia phage phiMhaA1-PHL101 is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and ...

*Burkholderia phage phi52237

... is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses ...

*Enterobacteria phage P4

It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosohedral head ... Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage of the family Myoviridae. ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Briani, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Forti, Francesca; Ghisotti, Daniela (2002). "The Plasmid Status of Satellite Bacteriophage P4 ...

*Bacteriophage

G4 phage P1 phage Enterobacteria phage P2 P4 phage Phi X 174 phage N4 phage Pseudomonas phage Φ6 Φ29 phage 186 phage Viruses ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL. Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...

*Enterobacteria phage Wphi

... is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses. As a member of the group I of the ... as Enterobacteria phage Wphi is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and ...

*Corticovirus

Bacteriophage PM2 was first described in 1968 after isolation from seawater sampled from the coast of Chile. Group: dsDNA Order ... The icosahedral capsid (T = 21) is 56 nanometers (nm) in diameter and is composed of 1200 P1 (spike) and 60 P2 (capsid) ... Corticoviruses are bacteriophages; that is, their natural hosts are bacteria. The genus contains only one species, the type ... Harrison, S.C., Caspar, D.L., Camerini-Otero, R.D. and Franklin, R.M. (1971). Lipid and protein arrangement in bacteriophage ...

*Lysogeny broth

In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. He had ... Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi:10.1128/JB.186.3.595-600.2004. PMC 321500 ...

*Pseudomonas phage Φ6

Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... P2, and released into the host cell cytosol. The four proteins translated from the large segment spontaneously assemble into ... Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... 2008). "Structure-Function Insights Into the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of the dsRNA Bacteriophage Φ6". Segmented Double- ...

*Erythrogenic toxin

Of these, SpeB has a preference for hydrophobic P2 and positively charged P1 residues, with greater importance of the P2 amino ... Chapter 4 - Bacteriophage-Encoded Bacterial Virulence Factors and Phage-Pathogenicity Island Interactions. Bacteriophages, Part ... In contrast, speA, speC and speH-M are encoded by bacteriophages. There is a lack of consensus over the location of the speG ... Bacteriophage T12 infection of Streptococcus pyogenes enables the production of Spe A, and increases virulence. SpeB was ...

*HP1 holin family

Additionally, NucE can complement lysis-defective bacteriophage mutants to allow for plaque formation and release of phage. ... positive control by a homolog of P2 Ogr encoded by a cryptic prophage". Journal of Molecular Biology. 256 (2): 264-278. doi: ...

*C4 antisense RNA

Citron M, Schuster H (August 1990). "The c4 repressors of bacteriophages P1 and P7 are antisense RNAs". Cell. 62 (3): 591-8. ... The terminus of the stem designated as "P2" very often conforms to highly stable tetraloop motifs that were previously ...

*S-layer

Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... Additional functions associated with S-layers include: protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ... These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, ...

*POLD1

The precise location, in the GRCh38.p2 assembly, is from base pair 50,384,290 to base pair 50,418,018 on chromosome 19. The ... Tyrosine Y701 functions similarly to tyrosine Y567 in the RB69 bacteriophage orthologue as the sugar steric gate that prevents ...

*Ff phages

P2 chops off the strand each time its extension completes a full circle and ligates the single stranded copy into a circle. ... "Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the genome of the N-specific filamentous bacteriophage IKe: Comparison with the ... This form is called the replicative form (RF). The strand which came from the virus (VS) is nicked by the viral protein p2 (pII ...

*Sulfolobus

In 2001, the first genome sequence of Sulfolobus, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, was published. In P2's genome, the genes related ... Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the host cells are not lysed after the induction of ... The complete genomes have been sequenced for S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 (2,225,959 nucleotides), S. solfataricus P2 (2,992,245 ... "The complete genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...

*Antibiotic use in livestock

Bacteriophages are able to infect most bacteria and are easily found in most environments colonized by bacteria, and have been ... Reported locally in these: "To Become Vegetarians", Mansfield (O.) News, January 17, 1910, p2 "150,000 at Cleveland Stop the ... Another research team was able to use bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ...

*Myoviridae

The Myoviridae is a family of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts. There are ... phage phi52237 Burkholderia phage phiE202 Burkholderia phage phiE12-2 Enterobacteria phage 186 Enterobacteria phage P2 ... "Bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3: A new member of "rV5-like viruses"". Archives of Virology. 157 (12): 2431-5. doi:10.1007/s00705-012- ...

*Siphoviridae

A New Bacteriophage Genus and Taxonomic Classification of T1-Like Phages". PLoS ONE. 9 (6): e100426. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... phage CB13 Lactococcus phage CB14 Lactococcus phage CB19 Lactococcus phage CB20 Lactococcus phage jj50 Lactococcus phage P2 ... "Three proposed new bacteriophage genera of staphylococcal phages: "3alikevirus", "77likevirus" and "Phietalikevirus"". Archives ...

*CRISPR

Han D, Lehmann K, Krauss G (June 2009). "SSO1450--a CAS1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with high affinity for RNA and ... CRISPR-Cas prevents bacteriophage infection, conjugation and natural transformation by degrading foreign nucleic acids that ... Seed KD, Lazinski DW, Calderwood SB, Camilli A (February 2013). "A bacteriophage encodes its own CRISPR/Cas adaptive response ... A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. The researchers ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage p23-77 Thermus thermophilus phagein in93 Family: Tectiviridae Genus: Tectivirus Bacillus ... phage CB14 Lactococcus phage CB19 Lactococcus phage CB20 Lactococcus phage jj50 Lactococcus phage P008 Lactococcus phage P2 ... phage phi52237 Burkholderia phage phiE12-2 Burkholderia phage phiE202 Enterobacteria phage 186 Enterobacteria phage P2 ...

*Dominance (genetics)

For example, if p is the frequency of allele A, and q is the frequency of allele a then the terms p2, 2pq, and q2 are the ... Bernstein H; Fisher KM (March 1968). "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863 . PMID 5662621. ... and bacteriophage T4 GP37. In humans, many genetic traits or diseases are classified simply as "dominant" or "recessive". ... reporting a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage ...

*Burkholderia phage phiE12-2

... is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses ...
2WZP: Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation in Siphoviridae
We report here the complete EM structure of a lactococcal phage determined by single-particle analysis. Phage p2 is the flagship of the 936 group, which are the most prevalent lactococcal phages in industrial dairy fermentations worldwide. This phage is highly virulent and requires Ca2+ to infect specific L. lactis cells, which is in contrast with the less prevalent lactococcal phages belonging to the P335 subgroup II (e.g., TP901-1 and Tuc2009) (15).. The shape of p2 icosahedral capsid is comparable to that of other siphophages. The capsid pentons are, however, more prominent than those of phage TP901-1 but akin to those of coliphage HK97. In contrast, the size of the p2 portal protein (ORF-4) is among the smallest, particularly in comparison to those of phage TP901-1 and Bacillus phage SPP1 (Table 3). The two putative head completion proteins of p2 (ORF-8 and ORF-9) are comparable to those of phage SPP1. The fit of the SPP1 portal and head completion protein 1 (gp15) into the p2 connector EM ...
P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. A developmental switch determines whether a temperate phage will grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. The Cox protein, the first gene of the lytic operon, is multifunctional. It represses the lysogenic promoter, acts as a directionality factor in site-specific recombination and activates the PLL promoter of satellite phage P4.. This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
Biochemical studies of proteins are crucial for a more detailed view of the world around us. The focus of biochemical studies can vary, from a complex mammalian system to a more simple viral entity, but the same methods and principles apply. In biochemistry one rely on both in vitro and in vivo analyses to understand biological processes. Protein crystallography has since the late 1950s been an additional important tool. By visualizing the structures of molecules involved in a biological process one can truly comprehend the molecular mechanisms of an organism or cell at the chemical level. This thesis includes structural biochemical work in combination with mutational and functional studies of proteins from both human and virus.. Human tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins grouped by their conserved structural features. Many of them have been shown to regulate cell migration, fusion, and signalling in the cell by functioning as organizers of multi-molecular membrane complexes. Several ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
rat PP1delta protein: study indicates, the phosphorylation of Ser910 of FAK by ERK5 and its dephosphorylation by PP1d, and suggested a role for Ser910 in the control of cell shape and proliferation.
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
Holin of 77 aas and 1 central TMS from E. coli phage ECBP5, Orf46. This protein is nearly identical to the pin-holin characterized for E. coli phage KBNP1315 (Lee et al. 2015). It infects a pathogenic avian E. coli strain (Lee et al. 2015 ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two-dimensional color doppler imaging for precision preoperative mapping and size determination of tram flap perforators. AU - Chang, Bernard W.. AU - Luethke, Ronald. AU - Berg, Wendie A.. AU - Hamper, Ulrike Maria. AU - Manson, Paul. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8278479. AN - SCOPUS:0027976539. VL - 93. SP - 197. EP - 200. JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. SN - 0032-1052. IS - 1. ER - ...
Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision when estimating unknown parameters. For example, if we wish to know the proportion of a certain species of fish that is infected with a pathogen, we would generally have a more precise estimate of this proportion if we sampled and examined 200 rather than 100 fish. Several fundamental facts of mathematical statistics describe this phenomenon, including the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem.. In some situations, the increase in precision for larger sample sizes is minimal, or even non-existent. This can result from the presence of systematic errors or strong dependence in the data, or if the data follows a heavy-tailed distribution.. Sample sizes are judged based on the quality of the resulting estimates. For example, if a proportion is being estimated, one may wish to have the 95% confidence interval be less than 0.06 units wide. Alternatively, sample size may be assessed based on the power of a hypothesis test. For ...
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Get this from a library! Sample Size Methodology.. [M M Desu] -- One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling ...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
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Kasim, Jamaludin and Mahmud, Siti Zalifah and Ahmad, Nurrohana and Yamani, Shaikh Abdul Karim and Tamiran, Siti Nor Ain and Shahriman, Nor Suziana and Razak, Nor Ashikin (2010) Effects of particle sizes, resin content and board densities on the properties of phenol formaldehyde particleboard from oil palm trunk particles / Jamaludin Kasim ... [et al.]. Scientific Research Journal, 7 (1). pp. 1-12. ISSN 1675-7009 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Commission provided in its RFA statement that the proposed rule would have a direct effect on numerous entities, specifically designated contract markets, swap data repository (SDRs), swap execution facilities (SEFs), swap dealers (SDs), major swap participants (MSPs), and certain single end-users. In the Proposing Release, the Commission then provided that it previously had established that certain entities subject to its jurisdiction are not small entities for purposes of the RFA. The Commission also provided that certain entities that would be subject to the proposed rule namely SDRs, SEFs, SDs, and MSPs are entities for which the Commission had not previously made a size determination for RFA purposes. The Commission proposed that these entities should not be considered to be small entities based upon their size and other characteristics. The Commission recognized that the proposed rule could have an economic effect on certain single end users, in particular those end users that enter ...
Complete information for GPN1 gene (Protein Coding), GPN-Loop GTPase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
This note presents a technique which looks at the light scattered from individual nanoparticles as they move under Brownian motion in the path of a laser beam. The speed at which the particles move is related to particle size, temperature and solvent viscosity. With knowledge of the temperature and solvent viscosity, particle size can be directly calculated. A case study involving orthopedic implants is described.
Intermediate/inner baseplate protein (PubMed:27193680, PubMed:15315755). The gp25-(gp6)2-gp7 module is involved in sheath contraction (PubMed:27193680). Involved in the tail assembly (PubMed:21129200).
Up to June 26, 2011, this site provided access to the draft Modeling for the Future, a report commissioned by GPO and being done by Ithaka S+R. Currently the following message is shown on the website: GPO has received Ithakas final report and will be moving forward with the creation of practical and sustainable models to ensure the vibrant future of the FDLP. The community viewpoints and suggestions contained within Ithakas report will assist GPO in creating a foundation to build these models. As of March, 2011, the fdlpmodeling.net website provided the following outline: ...
The router, for its simple design, is one of the most versatile tools you can own. You can shape decorative profiles, cut grooves, flush-trim, raise panels, and cut almost any joint. In the Complete Illustrated Guide to Routers, youll learn how to unleash this versatility by choosing the appropriate bit, and guiding the cut in the proper manner. Youll also learn that while a multitude of bits are available, a few essential bits will enable you to accomplish many of your routing tasks. More than 800 photo and drawings show you how to use and care for your router and how to get the most from it. In addition to mastering the use of your router, youll also learn about router tables, and how to make one that works perfectly in your shop. 240 pages. Contents: Section 1: Choosing Routers and Accessories Making a Custom Baseplate Making a Straight-Sided Baseplate Constructing an Edge Guide Router Maintenance Section 2: All About Bits Changing Bits Changing Bearings Adjusting a Stacking Bit Section 3: ...
Particle & Surface Sciences distribute NanoSight Technology throughout Australia and New Zealand. Particle size and particle size distribution remain core measures in determining the functional and handling properties of pigment-based inkjet inks.
First there were colloids. These materials found applications in paints, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more. Now there are nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have driven advances in materials science, medicine, and chemistry. Analyzing these materials for size has been critical to fully exploiting their potential. This webinar introduces the dominant technique for nanoparticle size analysis: dynamic light scattering (DLS); how DLS works, how to make good measurements, and the advantages of using DLS.
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
Holin je u vodi rastvoran esencijalni nutrijent.[4][5][6][7] On se obično svrstava u B-kompleks vitamina. Holin se normalno javlja u obliku raznih kvaternarnih amonijum soli koje sadrže N,N,N-trimetiletanolamonijum katjon.. Katjon holina se javlja kao čeona grupa fosfatidilholina i sfingomijelina, dve klase fosfolipida koje su široko rasprostranjene u ćelijskim membranama. Holin je prekursorni molekul za neurotransmiter acetilholin koji ima veliki broj funkcija, kao što su memorija i kontrola mišića.. Holin se mora uneti putem hrane da bi telo ostalo zdravo.[8] On se koristi u sintezi gradivnih komponenti ćelijskih membrana.[9]. ...
Holin se v organizmu presnovi zlasti do trimetilamina, ki ima vonj po ribah. Velika količina zaužitega holina lahko zato povzroči neprijeten telesni vonj. Pri določeni genetski motnji, trimetilaminuriji, bolniki niso zmožni nadalje razgraditi trimetilamina in posledica je močan telesni vonj po ribah. Pri ublažitvi telesnega vonja pomaga dieta, ki vsebuje čim manj holina.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
I have set up a Software Restriction Policy in a lab environment and have not been able to get it to apply even though ... | 33 replies | Active Directory & GPO
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The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has developed a new online course, "Enhancing Humane Science-Improving Animal Research." The course is designed to provide researchers with the tools they need to practice the most humane science possible. It covers such topics as experimental design (including statistics and sample size determination), humane endpoints, environmental enrichment, post-surgical care, pain management, and the impact of stress on the quality of data. To register please visit the CAAT website.. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Academy of Sciences) ...
Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution.: To determine the phylogenetic rel
Hi, I wonder if anybody can give me a clue to make ssDNA of pET-based plasmid with good yield. We have tried Novablue and XL1-blue as host cells and USC-M13 as a helper phage without success. I was told to use Promegas R408 helper phage instead. Any input ? Thanks in advance. Yee-yung Charng yccharng at ucdavis.edu ...
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New Click coupling for reassurance and feeling of security. With SenSura Mio Click closed, the baseplate with the elastic adhesive is separate from the pouch, so the pouch can be changed without changing the baseplate. The pouch is coupled to the baseplate by means of the new Click coupling, which gives an audible "click" when the pouch is securely locked to the baseplate. SenSura Mio Click closed is available in a broad range of flat baseplates consisting of various pre-cut or hole sizes which can be customised, with pouches in a variety of sizes available in transparent or neutral grey and with coupling systems of 40, 50, 60 or 70 mm in diameter. ...
The genes required for replication of the temperate bacteriophage P4, which are coded by the phage left operon, are expressed from a constitutive promoter (P(LE)). In the lysogenic state, repression of the P4 replication genes is achieved by premature transcription termination. The leader region of the left operon encodes all the genetic determinants required for prophage immunity, namely: (i) the P4 immunity factor, a short, stable RNA (CI RNA) that is generated by processing of the leader transcript; (ii) two specific target sequences that exhibit complementarity with the CI RNA. RNA-RNA interactions between the CI RNA and the target sites on the mRNA leader region are essential for transcription termination. To understand how transcription termination is elicited by the P4 immunity mechanism, it is relevant to identify the transcription termination site. This, however, could not be directly inferred from the 3-end of the transcription products because of the extensive and complex processing ...
Another cool gene all my strains carry is the double tail gene, my all time favorite. A Double Tail betta (dt) has two tail lobes instead of one. It also has twice (sometimes more) as many rays in the dorsal fin (top fin) as a regular Single Tail (ST) betta, resulting in a dorsal fin that is twice (or more) larger than a ST betta. Yes, you get twice as much for the price of one! hehehehe. The ideal Double Tail betta is one with two large even lobes (such as the yellow betta to the left, born in my fishroom and with which I started my Gorgeous Yellow line). Notice how even both lobes are, and how the entire finnage looks like a perfect circle. This is an outstanding Double Tail. DT is recessive, but ST bettas that carry the DT gene have better finnage and larger dorsals then bettas who dont carry DT. Pretty much all my ST bettas carry the DT gene. (indicated by the symbol: ST/dt). ...
Hi experts. Trying to install printers through GPO. Printers will install fine using the print servers DNS name. Would like to install using CNAME. This is not working. I can manualy browse and...
I am having a problem with new computers getting error Group Policy 1006/49; which is invalid credentials. I didnt not... | 13 replies | Active Directory & GPO
Attention: Either you have JavaScript disabled or your browser does not support JavaScript. To work properly, this site requires that you enable JavaScript.. ...
Rationale: Despite four decades of intense effort and substantial financial investment, the cardioprotection field has failed to deliver a single drug that effectively reduces myocardial infarct size in patients. A major reason is insufficient rigor and reproducibility in preclinical studies. Objective: To develop a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT)-like infrastructure to conduct rigorous and reproducible preclinical evaluation of cardioprotective therapies. Methods and Results: With NHLBI support, we established the Consortium for preclinicAl assESsment of cARdioprotective therapies (CAESAR), based on the principles of randomization, investigator blinding, a priori sample size determination and exclusion criteria, appropriate statistical analyses, and assessment of reproducibility. To validate CAESAR, we tested the ability of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) to reduce infarct size in three species (at two sites/species): mice (n=22-25/group), rabbits (n=11-12/group), and pigs ...
Presents fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples. Topics include discrete and continuous probability models; expectation and variance; central limit theorem; inference, including hypothesis testing and confidence for means, proportions, and counts; maximum likelihood estimation; sample size determinations; elementary non-parametric methods; graphical displays; and data transformations. ...
This research study is designed to investigate the feasibility and treatment effects of a behavioral speech treatment in adults and children with Down Syndrome (DS) and dysarthria. The speech sessions will provide an intensive, articulation-based intervention focused on increasing effort during speech production via use of clear speech. A single subject multiple baselines across subjects design will be employed in a total of six subjects divided into two groups of three. Changes in dependent measures will be determined by visual inspection, effect size determination, and time series analysis. The study follows accepted procedures in rehabilitation treatment and research and there are minimal foreseeable risks associated with participation ...
This research study is designed to investigate the feasibility and treatment effects of a behavioral speech treatment in adults and children with Down Syndrome (DS) and dysarthria. The speech sessions will provide an intensive, articulation-based intervention focused on increasing effort during speech production via use of clear speech. A single subject multiple baselines across subjects design will be employed in a total of six subjects divided into two groups of three. Changes in dependent measures will be determined by visual inspection, effect size determination, and time series analysis. The study follows accepted procedures in rehabilitation treatment and research and there are minimal foreseeable risks associated with participation ...

Corticoviridae - Corticoviridae - dsDNA Viruses - International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)Corticoviridae - Corticoviridae - dsDNA Viruses - International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)

Protein P2 is composed of two beta-barrels disposed normal to the capsid surface. The P2 trimers have pseudo-six-fold symmetry ... Bacteriophage PM2 infects Gram-negative bacteria. Currently, PM2 does not share any significant sequence similarity to any ... The capsid consists of 200 major capsid protein P2 trimers that are organized on a pseudo T=21 lattice (Abrescia et al., 2008 ... PM2 is the first bacteriophage in which the presence of lipids in the virion was demonstrated. Since only one genus ...
more infohttps://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_online_report/dsdna-viruses/w/corticoviridae/597/defaultwikipage/revision/11

Bacteriophage P2 - WikipediaBacteriophage P2 - Wikipedia

... contain P2-like prophages . Of these P2-like prophages is P2 best characterized. The P2 phage was found to be able to multiply ... This class of viruses includes many P2-like phages as well as the satellite phage P4. Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... bacteriophage P2 applies a holin-endolysin system to lyse the host cell. P2 have two essential lysis genes (gene K and gene Y) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteriophage_P2

Proteins matched: Bacteriophage P2, GpY, holin (IPR007633) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIProteins matched: Bacteriophage P2, GpY, holin (IPR007633) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Proteins matched: Bacteriophage P2, GpY, holin (IPR007633) The following proteins are predicted to be part of this family: ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR007633/proteins-matched

Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2

The temperate bacteriophage P2 is a virus, which can enter both the lytic and the lysogenic cycle upon infection of its host. ... The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. It is involved in site-specific ... Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2. Berntsson, ... We have solved the structure of P2 Cox to 2.4 angstrom resolution. Interestingly, P2 Cox crystallized in a continuous ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:710505

Bacteriophage P2 : genes involved in baseplate assembly.Bacteriophage P2 : genes involved in baseplate assembly.

Bacteriophage P2: genes involved in baseplate assembly.. Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth Stockholms universitet, ... Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?faces-redirect=true&language=no&searchType=SIMPLE&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&pid=diva2%3A178741&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity.The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity.

... Eriksson, Jesper M ... Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:178175

A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4...A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4...

A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ... P2 prophages have been known to inhibit DNA replication and growth of T-even phages. We show here that this inhibition is due ... to poisoning of the T-even single-stranded DNA binding protein gp32 by the product of the nonessential P2 tin gene. Synthesis ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:112865

A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4...A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4...

A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:99683

RCSB PDB 









- 1N7U: THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I Literature Report PageRCSB PDB - 1N7U: THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I Literature Report Page

The Receptor Binding Protein P2 of PRD1, a Virus Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Has a Novel Fold Suggesting Multiple ... THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1n7u/pdb ... Adsorption protein P2 A 554 Salmonella virus prd1 Gene Name(s): II ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1N7U

Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage | Journal of VirologyAbortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage | Journal of Virology

Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/4/2/162?ijkey=0ee17b2d3a08460b492a86c3649e8433662365fc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

5C6K BACTERIOPHAGE P2 INTEGRASE CATALYTIC DOMAIN | 5C6K B | P15056 | BRAF | Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf | 3D...5C6K BACTERIOPHAGE P2 INTEGRASE CATALYTIC DOMAIN | 5C6K B | P15056 | BRAF | Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf | 3D...

Fullscreen (supported by IE11, latest versions of Firefox, Chrome, Safari (not including iOS Safari), Edge, Chrome for Android, Samsung Internet) ...
more infohttps://cansarblack.icr.ac.uk/target/P15056/3d/5C6K_B

Harvey Bialy - WikipediaHarvey Bialy - Wikipedia

Sironi G, Bialy H, Lorenzon HA, Calendar R (1971). "Bacteriophage P2:interaction with phage lambda and with recombination- ... Nature Biotechnology 2, p. 109 (01 Feb 1984). Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R (1970). "Bacteriophage Lambda; Abortive ... Infection of Bacteria Lysogenic for Phage P2". PNAS. 66 (3): 587-94. doi:10.1073/pnas.66.3.587. PMC 283090 . PMID 4913204. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_Bialy

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1] "Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene." Ziermann R.et.al. ...
more infohttp://www.tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=1.E.3.1.1

APS -2009 APS March Meeting 
- Session Index MAR09APS -2009 APS March Meeting - Session Index MAR09

C1.00194: Mechanical Properties of Bacteriophage P2 Capsid. Van Chien Bui, Kyoung Jin Kim, Seong Soo Choi Preview Abstract. ...
more infohttp://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAR09/Session/C1

Imbroglios of Viral Taxonomy: Genetic Exchange and Failings of Phenetic Approaches | Journal of BacteriologyImbroglios of Viral Taxonomy: Genetic Exchange and Failings of Phenetic Approaches | Journal of Bacteriology

DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated ... Evidence for gene exchange via homologous recombination among P2-related bacteriophages Wφ, φD, HK111, and HK241, which was ... Detection of homologous recombination among bacteriophage P2 relatives. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21:259-269. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/184/17/4891

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Interplay of Multifaceted Stress Response in Escherichia coli on Exposure to Glutathione and...Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Interplay of Multifaceted Stress Response in Escherichia coli on Exposure to Glutathione and...

Bacteriophage P2 late transcription. control. 945404. CAAGCCGCTATATCACTGAC. TAATTTGCTGCCCTGACG. 165. 21. oxc. Oxalate-induced ...
more infohttps://msystems.asm.org/content/3/1/e00001-18/figures-only

Table of Contents | Journal of VirologyTable of Contents | Journal of Virology

An Escherichia coli gene required for bacteriophage P2-lambda interference. D Ghisotti, S Zangrossi, G Sironi ... Protease-sensitive transfection of Streptococcus pneumoniae with bacteriophage Cp-1 DNA. C Ronda, R López, A Gómez, E García ... In vitro recombination of bacteriophage T7 DNA detected by a direct physical assay. D Lee, P D Sadowski ... Accessibility of phosphatidylethanolamine in bacteriophage PM2 and in its gram-negative host. G J Brewer, R M Goto ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/48/3

Viral infection modulation and neutralization by camelid nanobodies | PNASViral infection modulation and neutralization by camelid nanobodies | PNAS

2006) Lactococcal bacteriophage p2 receptor-binding protein structure suggests a common ancestor gene with bacterial and ... 2004) Bacteriophage Tuc2009 encodes a tail-associated cell wall-degrading activity. J Bacteriol 186(11):3480-3491. ... 2004) Three-dimensional rearrangement of proteins in the tail of bacteriophage T4 on infection of its host. Cell 118(4):419-429 ... This groove was also found to be the epitope of a nanobody-neutralizing (VHH5) phage p2 (14, 15, 24, 26). This groove-directed ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/110/15/E1371?ijkey=dad36b897fd19b3b52cd36a7064962efb268a788&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RCSB PDB - 2WZP: Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation...RCSB PDB - 2WZP: Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation...

Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation in Siphoviridae ... Lactococcal Bacteriophage P2 Receptor-Binding Protein Structure Suggests a Common Ancestor Gene with Bacterial and Mammalian ... Structure of Lactococcal Phage P2 Baseplate and its Mechanism of Activation.. Sciara, G., Bebeacua, C., Bron, P., Tremblay, D. ... Here, we report analysis of the p2 phage baseplate structure by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy and propose a ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/2wzp

Mosaic Structure of the smpB-nrdEIntergenic Region of Salmonella enterica | Journal of BacteriologyMosaic Structure of the smpB-nrdEIntergenic Region of Salmonella enterica | Journal of Bacteriology

1991) Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the major tail sheath and tail tube proteins of bacteriophage P2. Virology 181: ... 2) (8). These nucleotide sequences showed homology to several genes located in the tail synthesis region of bacteriophage P2 ... 1986) Coliphage P2 late control gene ogr. DNA sequence and product identification. J. Mol. Biol. 188:487-490. ... It should be mentioned in this context that an attachment site (atdA) for bacteriophage P14 has been mapped close to nrdE in ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/180/8/2220?ijkey=391ab0b8c8ff76622b1a59086b224456f84f9d5e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Kudos - helping increase the reach and impact of researchKudos - helping increase the reach and impact of research

Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the major tail sheath and tail tube proteins of bacteriophage P2. Published in: ... Bacteriophage P2 late promoters. Published in:Journal of Molecular Biology. Publication date:1985-02-01 ... Bacteriophage P2 late promoters. Published in:Journal of Molecular Biology. Publication date:1983-07-01 ... Nucleotide sequence of the DNA packaging and capsid synthesis geges of bacteriophage P2. Published in:Nucleic Acids Research. ...
more infohttps://www.growkudos.com/profiles/74006

Sylvain Moineau - Google Scholar CitationsSylvain Moineau - Google Scholar Citations

Lactococcal bacteriophage p2 receptor-binding protein structure suggests a common ancestor gene with bacterial and mammalian ... The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. JE Garneau, M Dupuis, M Villion, DA Romero, R ... Bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on milk fermentations. JE Garneau, S Moineau ... Evolution of a lytic bacteriophage via DNA acquisition from the Lactococcus lactis chromosome. S Moineau, S Pandian, TR ...
more infohttps://scholar.google.ca/citations?user=PFcT-xsAAAAJ&hl=en&oe=ASCII

Items where Option is Biology - CaltechTHESISItems where Option is "Biology" - CaltechTHESIS

Bertani, Lillian Elizabeth (1957) Studies on the establishment of lysogeny by bacteriophage P2. Dissertation (Ph.D.), ... Roller, Ann (1961) Studies on the replication and transfer to progeny of the DNA of bacteriophage T4. Dissertation (Ph.D.), ... Flatgaard, Jeffrey Edward (1969) The role of the gene 9 product in the assembly and triggering of bacteriophage T4. ... Strauss, James Henry (1968) Studies on the RNA of bacteriophage MS2. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. ...
more infohttps://thesis.library.caltech.edu/view/option/biology.html
  • Here, we report analysis of the p2 phage baseplate structure by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy and propose a mechanism for the baseplate activation during attachment to the host cell. (rcsb.org)
  • For bacteriophages, such dissections of genomic sequences reveal fundamental flaws in the Linnaean paradigm that necessitate a new view of viral evolution, classification, and taxonomy. (asm.org)
  • The S-type pyocin is a colicin-like protein, whereas the R-type pyocin resembles a contractile but non-flexible tail structure of bacteriophage, and the F-type a flexible but non-contractile one. (elsevier.com)
  • A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. (diva-portal.org)
  • A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its remedial action. (nih.gov)
  • Functional analyses of alanine mutants in P2 Cox argue for the importance of key residues for protein function. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast to P2 Cox, WΦ Cox binds with a stronger affinity to the switch region than to the attachment site ( attP ). (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 Cox recognizes a sequence repeated at least six times in the different targets, while WΦ Cox seems to recognize a single direct repeat. (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 Cox controls the direction by inhibiting integration and promoting excision. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this article, we have investigated the structural determinants to understand how P2 Cox performs these different functions. (diva-portal.org)
  • We here present the first structure from the Cox protein family and, together with previous biochemical observations, propose that P2 Cox achieves its various functions by specific binding of DNA while wrapping the DNA around its helical oligomer. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. (diva-portal.org)
  • Despite the high degree of identity in the C-terminus, required for dimerization in P2 C, they seem to be unable to form heterodimers. (diva-portal.org)