The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (1/72)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. (2/72)

Phage WPhi is a member of the nonlambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. The DNA sequence of the whole early-control region and the int and attP region of phage WPhi has been determined. The phage integration site was located at 88.6 min of the Escherichia coli K-12 map, where a 47-nucleotide sequence was found to be identical in the host and phage genomes. The WPhi Int protein belongs to the Int family of site-specific recombinases, and it seems to have the same arm binding recognition sequence as P2 Int, but the core sequence differs. The transcriptional switch contains two face-to-face promoters, Pe and Pc, and two repressors, C and Cox, controlling Pe and Pc, respectively. The early Pe promoter was found to be much stronger than the Pc promoter. Furthermore, the Pe transcript was shown to interfere with Pc transcription. By site-directed mutagenesis, the binding site of the immunity repressor was located to two direct repeats spanning the Pe promoter. A point mutation in one or the other repeat does not affect repression by C, but when it is included in both, C has no effect on the Pe promoter. The Cox repressor efficiently blocks expression from the Pc promoter, but its DNA recognition sequence was not evident. Most members of the P2 family of phages are able to function as helpers for satellite phage P4, which lacks genes encoding structural proteins and packaging and lysis functions. In this work it is shown that P4 E, known to function as an antirepressor by binding to P2 C, also turns the transcriptional switch of WPhi from the lysogenic to the lytic mode. However, in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox is unable to activate the P4 Pll promoter.  (+info)

The interaction of bacteriophage P2 B protein with Escherichia coli DnaB helicase. (3/72)

Bacteriophage P2 requires several host proteins for lytic replication, including helicase DnaB but not the helicase loader, DnaC. Some genetic studies have suggested that the loading is done by a phage-encoded protein, P2 B. However, a P2 minichromosome containing only the P2 initiator gene A and a marker gene can be established as a plasmid without requiring the P2 B gene. Here we demonstrate that P2 B associates with DnaB. This was done by using the yeast two-hybrid system in vivo and was confirmed in vitro, where (35)S-labeled P2 B bound specifically to DnaB adsorbed to Q Sepharose beads and monoclonal antibodies directed against the His-tagged P2 B protein were shown to coprecipitate the DnaB protein. Finally, P2 B was shown to stabilize the opening of a reporter origin, a reaction that is facilitated by the inactivation of DnaB. In this respect, P2 B was comparable to lambda P protein, which is known to be capable of binding and inactivating the helicase while acting as a helicase loader. Even though P2 B has little similarity to other known or predicted helicase loaders, we suggest that P2 B is required for efficient loading of DnaB and that this role, although dispensable for P2 plasmid replication, becomes essential for P2 lytic replication.  (+info)

The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity. (4/72)

The Cox protein of bacteriophage P2 is a multifunctional protein of 91 amino acids. It is directly involved in the site-specific recombination event leading to excision of P2 DNA out of the host chromosome. In this context, it functions as an architectural protein in the formation of the excisome. Cox is also a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter, thereby ensuring lytic growth. Finally it promotes derepression of prophage P4, a nonrelated defective satellite phage, by activating the P4 P(LL) promoter that controls P4 DNA replication. In this case it binds upstream of the P(LL) promoter, which normally is activated by the P4 Delta protein. In this work we have analyzed the native form of the Cox protein in vivo, using a bacteriophage lambda cI-based oligomerization assay system, and in vitro, using gel filtration, cross-linking agents, and gel retardation assays. We found that P2 Cox has a strong oligomerization function in vivo as well as in vitro. The in vitro analysis indicates that its native form is a tetramer that can self-associate to octamers. Furthermore we show that oligomerization is necessary for the biological activity by characterizing different cox mutants and that oligomerization is mediated by the C-terminal region.  (+info)

Capsid size determination in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system: suppression of sir mutations in P2's capsid gene N by supersid mutations in P4's external scaffold gene sid. (5/72)

The sid gene of the P2-dependent phage P4 provides an external scaffold so P2 N gene encoded protomers assemble as T = 4 capsids rather than as P2's T = 7 capsids. Mutations (sir) in the middle of N interfere with Sid's function. We describe a new P4 mutant class, nms ("supersid") mutations, which direct also P2 sir to provide small capsids. Three different nms mutations were located near the sid end, commingled with sid(-) mutations. Suppression of sir by nms is not allele-specific. Our results favor this interpretation of capsid size control: (i) sir mutations reduce pN protomer flexibility and thereby interfere with the generation of T = 4 compatible hexons; (ii) the C-termini of Sid molecules link up when forming the scaffold; nms mutations strengthen these Sid-Sid contacts and thus allow the scaffold to force even sir-type protomers to form T = 4 compatible hexons. Some related findings concern suppression of N ts mutations by P4.  (+info)

Control of directionality in integrase-mediated recombination: examination of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) including Xis and Cox proteins. (6/72)

Similarity between the DNA substrates and products of integrase-mediated site-specific recombination reactions results in a single recombinase enzyme being able to catalyze both the integration and excision reactions. The control of directionality in these reactions is achieved through a class of small accessory factors that favor one reaction while interfering with the other. These proteins, which we will refer to collectively as recombination directionality factors (RDFs), play architectural roles in reactions catalyzed by their cognate recombinases and have been identified in conjunction with both tyrosine and serine integrases. Previously identified RDFs are typically small, basic and have diverse amino acid sequences. A subset of RDFs, the cox genes, also function as transcriptional regulators. We present here a compilation of all the known RDF proteins as well as those identified through database mining that we predict to be involved in conferring recombination directionality. Analysis of this group of proteins shows that they can be grouped into distinct sub-groups based on their sequence similarities and that they are likely to have arisen from several independent evolutionary lineages. This compilation will prove useful in recognizing new proteins that confer directionality upon site-specific recombination reactions encoded by plasmids, transposons, phages and prophages.  (+info)

Differentiation between Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobater coli using genotypic and phenotypic analyses. (7/72)

Genotypic and phenotypic methods were applied to investigate differences between the closely related species Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobacter coli. A unique DNA sequence from C. hyoilei was used to design a specific PCR assay that amplified a DNA product of 383 bp for all C. hyoilei strains, but not other Campylobacter species, including C. coli. The PCR assay could detect 100 fg pure C. hyoilei DNA, 2 x 10(2) c.f.u. ml(-1) using cultured cells and 8.3 x 10(3) c.f.u. 0.1 g(-1) in faeces. The C. hyoilei sequence utilized for specific detection and identification of this species showed similarities to sequences from bacteriophages Mu, P2 and 186, suggesting lysogination of the ancestral C. hyoilei genome. Activities of a set of 15 enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular functions, including biosynthesis, catabolism, energy generation, maintenance of redox balance and phosphate utilization, were tested using sets of strains of C. hyoilei and C. coli. Comparison of mean rates of enzyme activities revealed significant differences between species in the values determined for seven of these activities. Both the genetic and phenotypic data indicate that C. hyoilei is a unique Campylobacter species.  (+info)

Protein and DNA requirements of the bacteriophage HP1 recombination system: a model for intasome formation. (8/72)

A fundamental step in site-specific recombination reactions involves the formation of properly arranged protein-DNA structures termed intasomes. The contributions of various proteins and DNA binding sites in the intasome determine not only whether recombination can occur, but also in which direction the reaction is likely to proceed and how fast the reaction will go. By mutating individual DNA binding sites and observing the effects of various mixtures of recombination proteins on the mutated substrates, we have begun to categorize the requirements for intasome formation in the site-specific recombination system of bacteriophage HP1. These experiments define the binding site occupancies in both integrative and excessive recombination for the three recombination proteins: HP1 integrase, HP1 Cox and IHF. This data has allowed us to create a model which explains many of the biochemical features of HP1 recombination, demonstrates the importance of intasome components on the directionality of the reaction and predicts further ways in which the role of the intasome can be explored.  (+info)

2WZP: Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation in Siphoviridae
We report here the complete EM structure of a lactococcal phage determined by single-particle analysis. Phage p2 is the flagship of the 936 group, which are the most prevalent lactococcal phages in industrial dairy fermentations worldwide. This phage is highly virulent and requires Ca2+ to infect specific L. lactis cells, which is in contrast with the less prevalent lactococcal phages belonging to the P335 subgroup II (e.g., TP901-1 and Tuc2009) (15).. The shape of p2 icosahedral capsid is comparable to that of other siphophages. The capsid pentons are, however, more prominent than those of phage TP901-1 but akin to those of coliphage HK97. In contrast, the size of the p2 portal protein (ORF-4) is among the smallest, particularly in comparison to those of phage TP901-1 and Bacillus phage SPP1 (Table 3). The two putative head completion proteins of p2 (ORF-8 and ORF-9) are comparable to those of phage SPP1. The fit of the SPP1 portal and head completion protein 1 (gp15) into the p2 connector EM ...
P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. A developmental switch determines whether a temperate phage will grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. The Cox protein, the first gene of the lytic operon, is multifunctional. It represses the lysogenic promoter, acts as a directionality factor in site-specific recombination and activates the PLL promoter of satellite phage P4.. This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Particle size determination for Pt/alumina catalysts.. AU - Kooyman, PJ. N1 - 19 photos.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - ZX Int.klas.verslagjaar , 2002. M3 - Report. VL - 991012a. BT - Particle size determination for Pt/alumina catalysts.. PB - Delft University of Technology. CY - Delft. ER - ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
Biochemical studies of proteins are crucial for a more detailed view of the world around us. The focus of biochemical studies can vary, from a complex mammalian system to a more simple viral entity, but the same methods and principles apply. In biochemistry one rely on both in vitro and in vivo analyses to understand biological processes. Protein crystallography has since the late 1950s been an additional important tool. By visualizing the structures of molecules involved in a biological process one can truly comprehend the molecular mechanisms of an organism or cell at the chemical level. This thesis includes structural biochemical work in combination with mutational and functional studies of proteins from both human and virus.. Human tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins grouped by their conserved structural features. Many of them have been shown to regulate cell migration, fusion, and signalling in the cell by functioning as organizers of multi-molecular membrane complexes. Several ...
Everything relating to Particle Size Determination: compilations of facts, news, background knowledge, product information and market trends can be found here in the form of a comprehensive, up-to-date dossier.
Learn to write a winning Health essay by scrutinizing an essay sample about «Heredity and Genetics in Body Size Determination» presented at PrimeWritings.com
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
rat PP1delta protein: study indicates, the phosphorylation of Ser910 of FAK by ERK5 and its dephosphorylation by PP1d, and suggested a role for Ser910 in the control of cell shape and proliferation.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
Holin of 77 aas and 1 central TMS from E. coli phage ECBP5, Orf46. This protein is nearly identical to the pin-holin characterized for E. coli phage KBNP1315 (Lee et al. 2015). It infects a pathogenic avian E. coli strain (Lee et al. 2015 ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two-dimensional color doppler imaging for precision preoperative mapping and size determination of tram flap perforators. AU - Chang, Bernard W.. AU - Luethke, Ronald. AU - Berg, Wendie A.. AU - Hamper, Ulrike Maria. AU - Manson, Paul. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8278479. AN - SCOPUS:0027976539. VL - 93. SP - 197. EP - 200. JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. SN - 0032-1052. IS - 1. ER - ...
54 Sample size determination Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention from BIO 100 at Arizona Agribusiness and Equine Center- Estrella Mountain
Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision when estimating unknown parameters. For example, if we wish to know the proportion of a certain species of fish that is infected with a pathogen, we would generally have a more precise estimate of this proportion if we sampled and examined 200 rather than 100 fish. Several fundamental facts of mathematical statistics describe this phenomenon, including the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem.. In some situations, the increase in precision for larger sample sizes is minimal, or even non-existent. This can result from the presence of systematic errors or strong dependence in the data, or if the data follows a heavy-tailed distribution.. Sample sizes are judged based on the quality of the resulting estimates. For example, if a proportion is being estimated, one may wish to have the 95% confidence interval be less than 0.06 units wide. Alternatively, sample size may be assessed based on the power of a hypothesis test. For ...
Buy our Recombinant Human PDE6 delta protein. Ab40492 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam…
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Get this from a library! Sample Size Methodology.. [M M Desu] -- One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling ...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
HR Pharmaceuticals, Inc. GPO Affiliations page. The HR Brand has been an industry icon throughout the medical world since 1931 and we are thrilled to continue its legacy of excellence.
Gene cassettes of class 1 integrons may be differently expressed depending on the Pc promoter variant as well as occasionally from a second promoter located downstream of Pc, named P2. So far, the distribution of the variants has only been described in an in silico study. In this study, the prevalence of these variants in vivo was analysed in a population of 85 Escherichia coli strains from a variety of phylogenetic groups isolated from healthy subjects and clinical samples in Spain and France from 2004 to 2007. The weakest variants (PcW and PcH1) prevailed (variants associated with the integrase having the most efficient excision activity), whilst the two strongest variants, PcW(TGN-10) and PcS, were less frequent. Furthermore, a new variant of P2 associated with PcW was characterised in one integron (harbouring the gene cassette bla(OXA-1)-aadA1) from a French strain of a healthy subject. This variant was hereafter named P2m3 and shows a G→A substitution in its -10 element (TACAGT to TACAAT), a
Kasim, Jamaludin and Mahmud, Siti Zalifah and Ahmad, Nurrohana and Yamani, Shaikh Abdul Karim and Tamiran, Siti Nor Ain and Shahriman, Nor Suziana and Razak, Nor Ashikin (2010) Effects of particle sizes, resin content and board densities on the properties of phenol formaldehyde particleboard from oil palm trunk particles / Jamaludin Kasim ... [et al.]. Scientific Research Journal, 7 (1). pp. 1-12. ISSN 1675-7009 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Commission provided in its RFA statement that the proposed rule would have a direct effect on numerous entities, specifically designated contract markets, swap data repository (SDRs), swap execution facilities (SEFs), swap dealers (SDs), major swap participants (MSPs), and certain single end-users. In the Proposing Release, the Commission then provided that it previously had established that certain entities subject to its jurisdiction are not small entities for purposes of the RFA. The Commission also provided that certain entities that would be subject to the proposed rule namely SDRs, SEFs, SDs, and MSPs are entities for which the Commission had not previously made a size determination for RFA purposes. The Commission proposed that these entities should not be considered to be small entities based upon their size and other characteristics. The Commission recognized that the proposed rule could have an economic effect on certain single end users, in particular those end users that enter ...
5crx_A mol:protein length:343 PROTEIN (BACTERIOPHAGE P1 CRE GENE) MSNLLTVHQNLPALPVDATSDEVRKNLMDMFRDRQAFSEHTWKMLLSVCRSWAAWCKLN NRKWFPAEPEDVRDYLLYLQARGLAVKTIQQHLGQLNMLHRRSGLPRPSDSNAVSLVMR RIRKENVDAGERAKQALAFERTDFDQVRSLMENSDRCQDIRNLAFLGIAYNTLLRIAEI ARIRVKDISRTDGGRMLIHIGRTKTLVSTAGVEKALSLGVTKLVERWISVSGVADDPNN YLFCRVRKNGVAAPSATSQLSTRALEGIFEATHRLIYGAKDDSGQRYLAWSGHSARVGA ARDMARAGVSIPEIMQAGGWTNVNIVMNFIRNLDSETGAMVRLLEDGD ...
Complete information for GPN1 gene (Protein Coding), GPN-Loop GTPase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
This note presents a technique which looks at the light scattered from individual nanoparticles as they move under Brownian motion in the path of a laser beam. The speed at which the particles move is related to particle size, temperature and solvent viscosity. With knowledge of the temperature and solvent viscosity, particle size can be directly calculated. A case study involving orthopedic implants is described.
Phages HK97 and λ are model systems that have aided in the understanding of capsid and tail assembly. HK97 capsid assembly involves the formation of a T=7 icosahedral lattice from 415 monomers of the major capsid protein (mcp), 12 monomers of portal protein, and ~120 copies of the protease. Salt bridges have been found to play a critical role in the assembly pathway, but it is not clear how capsid size is determined. Phage phi1026b is larger than HK97 but the mcp shares 50% sequence similarity with HK97. We hypothesize that comparing the atomic models of phi1026b and HK97 will help illuminate conserved and unique interactions that may play a role in assembly and potentially size determination. By utilizing the FEI Krios microscope, Falcon II camera, and EPU data acquisition software, high-resolution structures were generated which allowed for the generation of atomic models of the phi1026b Prohead I and Head capsids. Differences were observed in the organization of the delta domain, capsomers, ...
Bacteriophages infect prokaryotic cells by injecting their genome through the bacterial cell wall. In gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella enterica, the cell wall is ∼150Å thick barrier formed by two lipid bilayers surrounding a thin la
Intermediate/inner baseplate protein (PubMed:27193680, PubMed:15315755). The gp25-(gp6)2-gp7 module is involved in sheath contraction (PubMed:27193680). Involved in the tail assembly (PubMed:21129200).
Up to June 26, 2011, this site provided access to the draft Modeling for the Future, a report commissioned by GPO and being done by Ithaka S+R. Currently the following message is shown on the website: GPO has received Ithakas final report and will be moving forward with the creation of practical and sustainable models to ensure the vibrant future of the FDLP. The community viewpoints and suggestions contained within Ithakas report will assist GPO in creating a foundation to build these models. As of March, 2011, the fdlpmodeling.net website provided the following outline: ...
The router, for its simple design, is one of the most versatile tools you can own. You can shape decorative profiles, cut grooves, flush-trim, raise panels, and cut almost any joint. In the Complete Illustrated Guide to Routers, youll learn how to unleash this versatility by choosing the appropriate bit, and guiding the cut in the proper manner. Youll also learn that while a multitude of bits are available, a few essential bits will enable you to accomplish many of your routing tasks. More than 800 photo and drawings show you how to use and care for your router and how to get the most from it. In addition to mastering the use of your router, youll also learn about router tables, and how to make one that works perfectly in your shop. 240 pages. Contents: Section 1: Choosing Routers and Accessories Making a Custom Baseplate Making a Straight-Sided Baseplate Constructing an Edge Guide Router Maintenance Section 2: All About Bits Changing Bits Changing Bearings Adjusting a Stacking Bit Section 3: ...
Particle & Surface Sciences distribute NanoSight Technology throughout Australia and New Zealand. Particle size and particle size distribution remain core measures in determining the functional and handling properties of pigment-based inkjet inks.
First there were colloids. These materials found applications in paints, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more. Now there are nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have driven advances in materials science, medicine, and chemistry. Analyzing these materials for size has been critical to fully exploiting their potential. This webinar introduces the dominant technique for nanoparticle size analysis: dynamic light scattering (DLS); how DLS works, how to make good measurements, and the advantages of using DLS.
Intelligent well technology has provided facility for real time production control through use of subsurface instrumentation. Early detection of water production allows for a prompt remedial action. Effective water control requires the appropriate performance of individual devices in wells on maintaining the equilibrium between water and oil production over the entire field life. However, there is still an incomplete understanding of using intelligent well concept to control unwanted fluids and the way this leads to improving hydrocarbon recovery. The present study proposes using intelligent well technology to develop a new integrated methodology for selecting/ranking the candidate wells/fields, interval control valve (ICV) size determination, and ICV setting optimization. Various technical and economical parameters weighted by expert opinions are used for candidate well/field ranking to implement the intelligent technology. A workflow is proposed for ICV size determination based on its effect on a
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
Holin je u vodi rastvoran esencijalni nutrijent.[4][5][6][7] On se obično svrstava u B-kompleks vitamina. Holin se normalno javlja u obliku raznih kvaternarnih amonijum soli koje sadrže N,N,N-trimetiletanolamonijum katjon.. Katjon holina se javlja kao čeona grupa fosfatidilholina i sfingomijelina, dve klase fosfolipida koje su široko rasprostranjene u ćelijskim membranama. Holin je prekursorni molekul za neurotransmiter acetilholin koji ima veliki broj funkcija, kao što su memorija i kontrola mišića.. Holin se mora uneti putem hrane da bi telo ostalo zdravo.[8] On se koristi u sintezi gradivnih komponenti ćelijskih membrana.[9]. ...
Holin se v organizmu presnovi zlasti do trimetilamina, ki ima vonj po ribah. Velika količina zaužitega holina lahko zato povzroči neprijeten telesni vonj. Pri določeni genetski motnji, trimetilaminuriji, bolniki niso zmožni nadalje razgraditi trimetilamina in posledica je močan telesni vonj po ribah. Pri ublažitvi telesnega vonja pomaga dieta, ki vsebuje čim manj holina.. ...
Phage genomic DNA was isolated from the lysate (6), and a DNA library was prepared (Nextera XT DNA library preparation kit). Sequencing was performed with an Illumina MiSeq system (250-nucleotide [nt] paired-end reads). The 557,108 reads were assembled with Ray v3.0.0 (7) using a k-mer length of 31, which led to a single contig with a coverage of 1,384×. Redundant contig ends were removed to produce the final complete genome. Functional genes were predicted with GeneMarkS (http://topaz.gatech.edu/genemark/genemarks.cgi), PECAAN Auto Annotation Tool (https://discover.kbrinsgd.org/autoannotate/), Geneious v11.0.5, and Glimmer v1.5 (plugin of Geneious v11.0.5) using the following principles: genes started with ATG, GTG, or TTG codons and were preceded with a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence similar to AGGAGGU (5′ to 3′). Only coding sequences (CDS) with more than 30 amino acids were annotated with Blast2GO v5.2.1 (8) and the deduced proteins were searched for function using the NCBI nonredundant ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
I have set up a Software Restriction Policy in a lab environment and have not been able to get it to apply even though ... | 33 replies | Active Directory & GPO
British Pathe, the worlds leading multimedia resource with a history stretching back over a century. The finest and most comprehensive archive of fabulous footage and stunning stills.
The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has developed a new online course, Enhancing Humane Science-Improving Animal Research. The course is designed to provide researchers with the tools they need to practice the most humane science possible. It covers such topics as experimental design (including statistics and sample size determination), humane endpoints, environmental enrichment, post-surgical care, pain management, and the impact of stress on the quality of data. To register please visit the CAAT website.. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Academy of Sciences) ...
Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution.: To determine the phylogenetic rel
Hi, I wonder if anybody can give me a clue to make ssDNA of pET-based plasmid with good yield. We have tried Novablue and XL1-blue as host cells and USC-M13 as a helper phage without success. I was told to use Promegas R408 helper phage instead. Any input ? Thanks in advance. Yee-yung Charng yccharng at ucdavis.edu ...
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MEDAN. RZ cabang Medan untuk memperingati Hari Menanam Pohon Indonesia 2013 menggelar kegiatan menanam pohon tembakau sebanyak 300 pohon di Kelurahan Sicanang
ここはラグナロクオンラインのフェンリル鯖にて活動しているINT商人しろっくまの日常と中の人の平穏を日々綴っているブログです。 INT商人考察あります。
Heraclià Bruniquer sintagma cofassis cabrafigant desatendés serrat autocompadís prevenia entaulelli encorbàreu mioles disserten alicatats calivoses miraries caplletràveu revel·lisquen menejats parifiquéssem regolfessin desesperancessis encoratjats encebàs [email protected] ...
... is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 within genus Peduovirus (formerly P2-like viruses, P2virus ... It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosahedral head ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Christie, GE; Calendar, R (1990). "Interactions between satellite bacteriophage P4 and its helpers". Annual Review of Genetics ...
T4 phage, Mu, PBSX, P1Puna-like, P2, I3, Bcep 1, Bcep 43, Bcep 78 ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. He had ... Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi:10.1128/JB.186.3.595-600.2004. PMC 321500. ...
Of these, SpeB has a preference for hydrophobic P2 and positively charged P1 residues, with greater importance of the P2 amino ... Bacteriophage T12 infection of S. pyogenes enables the production of speA, and increases virulence. SpeB was identified in 1919 ... In contrast, speA, speC and speH-M are encoded by bacteriophages. There is a lack of consensus over the location of the speG ... Bacteriophages, Part A. 82. pp. 91-118. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-394621-8.00014-5. ISBN 9780123946218. PMID 22420852. Media ...
Additionally, NucE can complement lysis-defective bacteriophage mutants to allow for plaque formation and release of phage. ... positive control by a homolog of P2 Ogr encoded by a cryptic prophage". Journal of Molecular Biology. 256 (2): 264-278. doi: ...
Citron M, Schuster H (August 1990). "The c4 repressors of bacteriophages P1 and P7 are antisense RNAs". Cell. 62 (3): 591-598. ... The terminus of the stem designated as "P2" very often conforms to highly stable tetraloop motifs that were previously ...
Talk:Bacteriophage Mu. *Talk:Bacteriophage P2. *Talk:Bacteriophage PBC1. *Talk:Bacteriophage Qβ ...
In 2001, the first genome sequence of Sulfolobus, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, was published. In P2's genome, the genes related ... Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the host cells are not lysed after the induction of ... The complete genomes have been sequenced for S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 (2,225,959 nucleotides), S. solfataricus P2 (2,992,245 ... "The complete genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
Bacteriophages are able to infect most bacteria and are easily found in most environments colonized by bacteria, and have been ... "To Become Vegetarians", Mansfield (O.) News, 17 January 1910, p2. *"150,000 at Cleveland Stop the Use of Meat" Syracuse Herald- ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ... antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial infections.[133] While further research is needed in this ...
These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, ... protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis. *resistance against low pH. *barrier against high-molecular ... Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ...
Tyrosine Y701 functions similarly to tyrosine Y567 in the RB69 bacteriophage orthologue as the sugar steric gate that prevents ... in the GRCh38.p2 assembly, is from base pair 50,384,290 to base pair 50,418,018 on chromosome 19.[26] The mouse orthologue maps ...
... -Cas prevents bacteriophage infection, conjugation and natural transformation by degrading foreign nucleic acids that ... Han D, Lehmann K, Krauss G (June 2009). "SSO1450--a CAS1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with high affinity for RNA and ... November 2010). "The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA". Nature. 468 (7320): 67-71. ... A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. The researchers ...
E2F (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) • FOX proteini (C1, C2, D3, E1, G1, H1, K2, L2, M1, N3, O1, O3, O4, P1, P2, P3) ... Anderson WF, Ohlendorf DH, Takeda Y, Matthews BW (1981). "Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage lambda and its ...
The temperate bacteriophage P2 is a virus, which can enter both the lytic and the lysogenic cycle upon infection of its host. ... The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. It is involved in site-specific ... Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2. Berntsson, ... We have solved the structure of P2 Cox to 2.4 angstrom resolution. Interestingly, P2 Cox crystallized in a continuous ...
A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ...
Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation in Siphoviridae ... Lactococcal Bacteriophage P2 Receptor-Binding Protein Structure Suggests a Common Ancestor Gene with Bacterial and Mammalian ... Structure of Lactococcal Phage P2 Baseplate and its Mechanism of Activation.. Sciara, G., Bebeacua, C., Bron, P., Tremblay, D. ... Here, we report analysis of the p2 phage baseplate structure by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy and propose a ...
Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Characterization of the developmental switch region of bacteriophage P2 Hy dis. ... P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the P2 lysogenic promoter, excision of a P2 prophage and activation of ... Bacteriophage P2 integrase (Int) mediates site-specific recombination leading to integration or excision of the phage genome in ... 4. Cooperative interactions between bacteriophage P2 integrase and its accessory factors IHF and Cox. Open this publication in ...
Proteins matched: Bacteriophage P2, GpY, holin (IPR007633) The following proteins are predicted to be part of this family: ...
The Receptor Binding Protein P2 of PRD1, a Virus Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Has a Novel Fold Suggesting Multiple ... THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1n7u/pdb ... Adsorption protein P2 A 554 Salmonella virus prd1 Gene Name(s): II ...
The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host ... Regulation of int gene expression in bacteriophage P2. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Regulation of int gene expression in bacteriophage P2.. A Yu, V Barreiro, E Haggård-Ljungquist ... In vitro recombination assays have indicated that in P2 an overproduction of Int is deleterious to the integrative process. We ...
Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ... P2 prophages have been known to inhibit DNA replication and growth of T-even phages. We show here that this inhibition is due ... to poisoning of the T-even single-stranded DNA binding protein gp32 by the product of the nonessential P2 tin gene. Synthesis ...
Bacteriophage P2: genes involved in baseplate assembly.. Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth Stockholms universitet, ... Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ ...
... the C repressor of the P2 bacteriophage (P2 C). P2 C represses the lytic genes of the P2 bacteriophage, thereby directing the ... NMR Structure Note: The C Repressor of the P2 Bacteriophage. Massad, Tariq Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department ... In the model, P2 C binds DNA cooperatively and two homodimeric P2 C molecules are close enough to interact and bind one direct ... P2 C repressor, DNA-binding protein, direct repeats Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-42016DiVA: ...
... based on the known molecular weight of P2 DNA. The extinction (1 cm.) of suspensions of 1011 particles per ml. was 0.09 at 260 ... Summary P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 107 daltons, ... Preparation and Characterization of Temperate, Non-inducible Bacteriophage P2 (host: Escherichia coli) * L. Elizabeth Bertani ... P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 107 daltons, based on ...
... Bertani, G. ... Bacteriophage P2: recombination in the superinfection preprophage state and under replication control by phage P4. Login ... P2 DNA, either replicating under the control of another replicon, or not actively replicating, would undergo normal ...
Fullscreen (supported by IE11, latest versions of Firefox, Chrome, Safari (not including iOS Safari), Edge, Chrome for Android, Samsung Internet) ...
Crystals of P2 have been obtained in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with two trimers in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a ... for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. Structural analysis of PM2 has been initiated and virus-derived P2 has been ... In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the ... is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. ...
Enterobacterial bacteriophages (φ): HK620, CP-933V, and P2. * ↵‡ Clone derived from RNA isolated in air sacs (A) or pericardium ...
C1.00194: Mechanical Properties of Bacteriophage P2 Capsid. Van Chien Bui, Kyoung Jin Kim, Seong Soo Choi Preview Abstract. ...
Regulation of gene expression in the P2:P4 bacteriophage system.. · Laboratory of Microbial Gene Technology, The Norwegian ... Gene regulation in the Escherichia coli P2:P4 system.. . Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University ... Lillehaug D and Birkeland NK (1994): Bacteriophage ΦLC-3-based vector system for transformation of bacteria. WO 9419460. ... and expression of the genes encoding the lytic functions of lactococcal bacteriophage phi-LC3: a dual lysis system og modular ...
T4 phage, Mu, PBSX, P1Puna-like, P2, I3, Bcep 1, Bcep 43, Bcep 78 ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
... is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 within genus Peduovirus (formerly P2-like viruses, P2virus ... It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosahedral head ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Christie, GE; Calendar, R (1990). "Interactions between satellite bacteriophage P4 and its helpers". Annual Review of Genetics ...
DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated ... Evidence for gene exchange via homologous recombination among P2-related bacteriophages Wφ, φD, HK111, and HK241, which was ... Detection of homologous recombination among bacteriophage P2 relatives. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21:259-269. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ...
1971) in The Role of Recombination in Growth of Bacteriophage Lambda: II. Inhibition of Growth by Prophage P2, ed Hershey A D( ... The titer of λ Spi− phage was measured by plating on E. coli WL95 P2 lysogen. The titer of total phage was measured by plating ... coli P2 lysogen (Spi− phenotype) to avoid defective transducing phage (21). λ Spi− phages are rarely detected in lysates ...
φX216, a P2-like bacteriophage with broad Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei strain infectivity. ...
Complete Genome Sequence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophage UFV-P2.. Eller MR, Salgado RL, Vidigal PM, Alves MP, Dias ... Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic bacteriophage PA1O which resembles temperate bacteriophage D3112. ... UFV-P2 as a member of the Luz24likevirus genus: a new overview on comparative functional genome analyses of the LUZ24-like ... A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its ...
1] "Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene." Ziermann R.et.al. ...
P2-16. Page 82. Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of ... Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of frankfurters. Meeting ... Meeting Abstract.IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC, July 28-31, 2013., 76:144(P2-55). ... Abstract] Internatinal Association for Food Protections Annual Meeting P2-37. pg. 126. ...
The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. J. Virol.73:9816-9826. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ... Bacteriophage-enhanced sporulation: comparison of spore-converting bacteriophages PMB12 and SP10. J. Bacteriol.172:1948-1953. ... Bacteriophages, Transposons, and Plasmids. Genomic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Bacteriophage φ3626, Which Integrates ...
1973 Bacteriophage P4: a satellite virus depending on a helper such as prophage P2. Virology 51: 327-344. ... 1974 Bacteriophage lambda derivatives carrying two copies of the cohesive end site. J. Mol. Biol. 83: 511-525. ... 2001 The bacteriophage ϕ29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force. Nature 413: 748-752. ... 1975 Studies on the cleavage of bacteriophage lambda DNA with EcoRI restriction endonuclease. J. Mol. Biol. 91: 315-328. ...
... which might explain the absence of P2 in the TD isolate. These results demonstrate that the P2 protein is one of the factors ... P2 was not detected on immunoblots of rice plants infected with the TD isolate. Genome segment S2 and its transcript were ... the P2 outer capsid protein (encoded by genome segment S2) was absent from the TD isolate, whereas all six proteins were ... Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4. U. K. Laemmli ...
  • Here, we report analysis of the p2 phage baseplate structure by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy and propose a mechanism for the baseplate activation during attachment to the host cell. (rcsb.org)
  • Lactococcal Bacteriophage P2 Receptor-Binding Protein Structure Suggests a Common Ancestor Gene with Bacterial and Mammalian Viruses. (rcsb.org)
  • The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 within genus Peduovirus (formerly P2-like viruses, P2virus, and P2likevirus), subfamily Peduovirinae, family Myoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modeling the infection dynamics of bacteriophages in enteric Escherichia coli: estimating the contribution of transduction to antimicrobial gene spread. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of P2 late transcription by P2 ogr protein requires a discrete contact site on the C terminus of the α subunit of Escherichia coli RNA p. (growkudos.com)
  • P2 prophages have been known to inhibit DNA replication and growth of T-even phages. (diva-portal.org)
  • UFV-P2 as a member of the Luz24likevirus genus: a new overview on comparative functional genome analyses of the LUZ24-like phages. (nih.gov)
  • Although the existence of bacteriophages infecting C. perfringens has been reported ( 43 ) and a certain phenotypic effect of temperate phages of this organism has demonstrated ( 61 ), we were surprised to find that no sequences or other molecular data on C. perfringens phages were available, except for a preliminary mapping of the integration sites of two phages ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • It is now accepted that bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities in most ecosystems and soda lakes are no exception, with studies conducted on Mono Lake placing viral abundance at 10 9 ml -1 , among the highest in natural aquatic environments [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophages, sometimes simply referred to as phages, are considered the most abundant biological entities on the planet [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. (wikipedia.org)
  • P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Analysis of TUD-based phylogeny indicates that host influences are important in bacteriophage evolution, and phylogenies containing both phages and their hosts support their co-evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophage P2 : genes involved in baseplate assembly. (diva-portal.org)
  • The second part of the thesis is a structural study of a DNA-binding protein, the C repressor of the P2 bacteriophage (P2 C). P2 C represses the lytic genes of the P2 bacteriophage, thereby directing the P2 lifecycle toward the lysogenic lifemode. (diva-portal.org)
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Potential impact of environmental bacteriophages in spreading antibiotic resistance genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of R2 pyocin genes, along with those for F2 pyocin, which are located downstream of the R2 gene cluster on the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAO1, was analysed in order to elucidate the relationship between the pyocins and bacteriophages. (elsevier.com)
  • Casadaban MJ, Cohen SA (1979) Lactose genes fused to exogenous promoters in one step using a Mu -lac bacteriophage: in vivo probe for transcriptional control sequence. (springer.com)
  • The base sequences for many of the genes and for the segment termini were similar but not identical to those of bacteriophage Φ12. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Xenorhabdus bovienii ( Xb-Sj ), the symbiont of Steinernema jollieti, possesses a remnant P2-like phage tail cluster, xbp 1, that encodes genes for xenorhabdicin production. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1988, Nucleotide sequence of the large double-stranded RNA segment of bacteriophage φ6: genes specifying the viral replicase and transcriptase, J Virol, 62, 4, 1180-5}], Segment M (4.1 kb) [{Gottlieb et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • 1988, Nucleotide sequence of the middle dsRNA segment of bacteriophage φ6: placement of the genes of membrane-associated proteins, Virology, 163, 1, 183-90}], and Segment S (2.9 kb) [{McGraw et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified virus showed that among six structural proteins, the P2 outer capsid protein (encoded by genome segment S2) was absent from the TD isolate, whereas all six proteins were present in the transmission-competent (TC) isolate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional characterizations of the C repressors and Cox proteins of P2 and WΦ show that both C repressors induce bending of their respective DNA targets. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both proteins show a capacity to oligomerize, but P2 Cox has a higher tendency to form oligomers than WΦ Cox. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, there was no ORF that might encode mec DNA-specific transposase or integrase proteins, indicating that the mec DNA is not a transposon or a bacteriophage in nature. (asm.org)
  • In this paper we describe bacteriophage Φ2954 which has similarity to Φ12 [ 3 ] in the amino acid composition of several of its proteins but whereas Φ12 attaches to rough LPS, Φ2954 attaches to type IV pili. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Whereas species have long been established among sexual eukaryotes, achieving a meaningful species concept for prokaryotes has been an onerous task and has proven exceedingly difficult for describing viruses and bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages exist in numerous forms and are capable of infecting disparate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its remedial action. (nih.gov)
  • A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Molecular characterization of L-413C, a P2-related plague diagnostic bacteriophage. (scirp.org)
  • Isolation of large bacterial plasmids and characterization of the P2 incompatibility group plasmids pMG1 and pMG5. (naver.com)
  • It has been reasoned that the similarities of some toxins of C. perfringens with toxins found in other organisms are due to horizontal gene transfer based on conjugative plasmids, transposons, or bacteriophages ( 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The loss of outer capsid protein P2 results in nontransmissibility by the insect vector of rice dwarf phytoreovirus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comparative analysis of bacteriophage genome sequences has greatly enhanced our understanding of their diversity, revealing relationships between phage genomes often infecting distantly related host bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wide spread resistance against antibiotics has prompted a renewed surge of interest in bacteriophages which are viruses capable of infecting and sometimes killing bacteria, as safe and effective therapy alternatives [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A chewing gum composition produced by mixing an effective amount of lysin enzyme produced by group C streptococcal bacteria infected with a C1 bacteriophage and a carrier for delivering said lysin enzyme to a mouth, throat, or nasal passage. (google.com)
  • Myoviruses are a family of bacteriophages (from 'bacteria' and the Greek ''phagein'', 'to eat'), or viruses that infect bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Myoviruses, being bacteriophages, infect bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is involved in site-specific recombination leading to P2 prophage excision and functions as a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, it transcriptionally activates the unrelated, defective prophage P4 that depends on phage P2 late gene products for lytic growth. (diva-portal.org)
  • Measurements of the production of acid-soluble fragments and sedimentation analyses failed to detect enzymatic degradation of the infecting viral DNA which could be specifically related to the presence of the prophage P2. (asm.org)
  • A majority of the phamilies, 4330 out of 5796 (74.7%), occurred in just one prophage underscoring the high degree of diversity among Salmonella bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the effect of mazEF on the development of bacteriophage P1 upon thermoinduction of the prophage P1CM c1 ts and upon infection with virulent phage particles (P1 vir ). (springer.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein the lysis-defective phage is a temperate phage selected from lambda phage, 186, P2, a hybrid of 186 and P2, and P4 and/or wherein the lysis-defective phage is a prophage. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate and Mechanism of Action. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • The cos site of the bacteriophage λ chromosome contains the sites required for DNA processing and packaging during virion assembly. (genetics.org)
  • The P2 integrase mediates site-specific recombination leading to integration or excision of the P2 genome in or out of the host chromosome. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our ideas about how bacteriophages have affected the nature of the bacterial chromosome are necessarily based on extrapolations from things we know about bacteriophage biology and from inferences based on the current structure of the bacterial genomes, and not on direct observation of those processes over evolutionary time. (asmscience.org)
  • The approximately 100 currently published bacterial genome complete nucleotide sequences, and about 285 prophages are related to known bacteriophages. (asmscience.org)
  • Bacteriophages and the Bacterial Genome, p 39-52. (asmscience.org)
  • The recently sequenced 218 kb genome of morphologically atypical Bacillus thuringiensis phage 0305φ8-36 exhibited only limited detectable homology to known bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For bacteriophages, such dissections of genomic sequences reveal fundamental flaws in the Linnaean paradigm that necessitate a new view of viral evolution, classification, and taxonomy. (asm.org)
  • Although the evolution of tailed bacteriophages has increasingly been better understood through comparisons of their DNA sequences, the functional consequences of this evolution on phage infectious strategies have remained unresolved. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • 1] "Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene. (tcdb.org)
  • This notion was supported by identification of a lysis gene cassette similar to those for bacteriophages. (elsevier.com)
  • One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage). (beds.ac.uk)
  • This technique involves precipitation of intact bacteriophage particles with ammonium sulfate, followed by phage lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate, proteinase K, and alkaline treatment. (naver.com)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of phi CTX, a cytotoxin-converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • For the first time, the nucleotide sequence of a bacteriophage infecting Clostridium species was determined. (asm.org)
  • The S-type pyocin is a colicin-like protein, whereas the R-type pyocin resembles a contractile but non-flexible tail structure of bacteriophage, and the F-type a flexible but non-contractile one. (elsevier.com)
  • The well-studied model of tail morphology in bacteriophage classification was used for comparison with nucleotide usage patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tail morphology forms the basis for bacteriophage classification into 3 separate families: Myoviridae (contractile tails), Podoviridae (short tail stubs), and Siphoviridae (long tails) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myoviruses, along with several other bacteriophages, have a 'head and tail' morphology that is not found in other groups of viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated some of the biochemical events that accompany the abortive infection by T2 of Shigella dysenteriae lysogenized with the temperate phage P2. (asm.org)
  • P2 protein encoded by genome segment S2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The de novo initiating RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), P2, forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome in the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Contributions of P2- and P22-like prophages to understanding the enormous diversity and abundance of tailed bacteriophages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of the more than 280 prophages in the currently sequenced bacterial genomes, only a few are known to be fully functional bacteriophages. (asmscience.org)
  • Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In the lytic lifestyle, the bacteriophage infects a cell, uses the host's cellular machinery to replicate, and lyses the cell to release the phage progeny. (wku.edu)
  • Here, we report analysis of the p2 phage baseplate structure by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy and propose a mechanism for the baseplate activation during attachment to the host cell. (rcsb.org)
  • All members of this family have an inner core composed of 120 molecules of the major structural protein P1, 12 hexamers of the packaging NTPase P4, 12 molecules of polymerase P2 and about 30 molecules of auxilliary protein P7. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It is, however, not possible to change the DNA specificity of P2 Cox to that of WΦ Cox by swapping the presumed recognition helix. (diva-portal.org)
  • The substrate specificity of proteolytically active recombinant rSar s 3 was elucidated by screening a bacteriophage library. (edu.au)
  • We have isolated a new member of the bacteriophage family Cystoviridae and find that although it shows similarity to other members of the family, it has unique properties that help to elucidate viral strategies for genomic packaging and gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The bacteriophage/pathogenicity island system under study in this project is of special interest for its role in the horizontal spread and long-term establishment of pathogenicity in the population. (grantome.com)
  • Mobilization of pathogenicity islands by Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman bacteriophages. (uab.edu)
  • 2012. fX216, a P2-like bacteriophage with broad Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei strain infectivity. (colostate.edu)
  • Functional analyses of alanine mutants in P2 Cox argue for the importance of key residues for protein function. (diva-portal.org)
  • By measurement and quantitative analysis of multiple-quantum spin-relaxation data for the delta1 positions of Ile residues that are distributed over the 3D-fold of P2, we find that the enzyme is dynamic both on the fast (ps-ns) and slow (micros-ms) timescales. (nih.gov)
  • The scaling factor used in the y-axis is the ratio (4) of the number of scans used in experiments A and B. (b) η values for the Ile residues in P2 are plotted against residue number. (nih.gov)
  • With classical genetic experiments, it was shown that mec is not transferable between S. aureus strains by conjugation ( 21 ) but is transferable by bacteriophage-mediated generalized transduction ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus strains and the renewed interest in therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat such infections, the phage-induced mobilization of SaPI1 will be an important consideration. (grantome.com)
  • P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 10 7 daltons, based on the known molecular weight of P2 DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Comparative transcriptomics analyses reveal the conservation of an ancestral infectious strategy in two bacteriophage genera. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • WΦ C, like P2 C, has a strong dimerization activity in vivo , but there are no indications of higher oligomeric forms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lambda ZAP: a bacteriophage lambda expression vector with in vivo excision properties. (naver.com)