A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (1/72)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. (2/72)

Phage WPhi is a member of the nonlambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. The DNA sequence of the whole early-control region and the int and attP region of phage WPhi has been determined. The phage integration site was located at 88.6 min of the Escherichia coli K-12 map, where a 47-nucleotide sequence was found to be identical in the host and phage genomes. The WPhi Int protein belongs to the Int family of site-specific recombinases, and it seems to have the same arm binding recognition sequence as P2 Int, but the core sequence differs. The transcriptional switch contains two face-to-face promoters, Pe and Pc, and two repressors, C and Cox, controlling Pe and Pc, respectively. The early Pe promoter was found to be much stronger than the Pc promoter. Furthermore, the Pe transcript was shown to interfere with Pc transcription. By site-directed mutagenesis, the binding site of the immunity repressor was located to two direct repeats spanning the Pe promoter. A point mutation in one or the other repeat does not affect repression by C, but when it is included in both, C has no effect on the Pe promoter. The Cox repressor efficiently blocks expression from the Pc promoter, but its DNA recognition sequence was not evident. Most members of the P2 family of phages are able to function as helpers for satellite phage P4, which lacks genes encoding structural proteins and packaging and lysis functions. In this work it is shown that P4 E, known to function as an antirepressor by binding to P2 C, also turns the transcriptional switch of WPhi from the lysogenic to the lytic mode. However, in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox is unable to activate the P4 Pll promoter.  (+info)

The interaction of bacteriophage P2 B protein with Escherichia coli DnaB helicase. (3/72)

Bacteriophage P2 requires several host proteins for lytic replication, including helicase DnaB but not the helicase loader, DnaC. Some genetic studies have suggested that the loading is done by a phage-encoded protein, P2 B. However, a P2 minichromosome containing only the P2 initiator gene A and a marker gene can be established as a plasmid without requiring the P2 B gene. Here we demonstrate that P2 B associates with DnaB. This was done by using the yeast two-hybrid system in vivo and was confirmed in vitro, where (35)S-labeled P2 B bound specifically to DnaB adsorbed to Q Sepharose beads and monoclonal antibodies directed against the His-tagged P2 B protein were shown to coprecipitate the DnaB protein. Finally, P2 B was shown to stabilize the opening of a reporter origin, a reaction that is facilitated by the inactivation of DnaB. In this respect, P2 B was comparable to lambda P protein, which is known to be capable of binding and inactivating the helicase while acting as a helicase loader. Even though P2 B has little similarity to other known or predicted helicase loaders, we suggest that P2 B is required for efficient loading of DnaB and that this role, although dispensable for P2 plasmid replication, becomes essential for P2 lytic replication.  (+info)

The multifunctional bacteriophage P2 cox protein requires oligomerization for biological activity. (4/72)

The Cox protein of bacteriophage P2 is a multifunctional protein of 91 amino acids. It is directly involved in the site-specific recombination event leading to excision of P2 DNA out of the host chromosome. In this context, it functions as an architectural protein in the formation of the excisome. Cox is also a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter, thereby ensuring lytic growth. Finally it promotes derepression of prophage P4, a nonrelated defective satellite phage, by activating the P4 P(LL) promoter that controls P4 DNA replication. In this case it binds upstream of the P(LL) promoter, which normally is activated by the P4 Delta protein. In this work we have analyzed the native form of the Cox protein in vivo, using a bacteriophage lambda cI-based oligomerization assay system, and in vitro, using gel filtration, cross-linking agents, and gel retardation assays. We found that P2 Cox has a strong oligomerization function in vivo as well as in vitro. The in vitro analysis indicates that its native form is a tetramer that can self-associate to octamers. Furthermore we show that oligomerization is necessary for the biological activity by characterizing different cox mutants and that oligomerization is mediated by the C-terminal region.  (+info)

Capsid size determination in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system: suppression of sir mutations in P2's capsid gene N by supersid mutations in P4's external scaffold gene sid. (5/72)

The sid gene of the P2-dependent phage P4 provides an external scaffold so P2 N gene encoded protomers assemble as T = 4 capsids rather than as P2's T = 7 capsids. Mutations (sir) in the middle of N interfere with Sid's function. We describe a new P4 mutant class, nms ("supersid") mutations, which direct also P2 sir to provide small capsids. Three different nms mutations were located near the sid end, commingled with sid(-) mutations. Suppression of sir by nms is not allele-specific. Our results favor this interpretation of capsid size control: (i) sir mutations reduce pN protomer flexibility and thereby interfere with the generation of T = 4 compatible hexons; (ii) the C-termini of Sid molecules link up when forming the scaffold; nms mutations strengthen these Sid-Sid contacts and thus allow the scaffold to force even sir-type protomers to form T = 4 compatible hexons. Some related findings concern suppression of N ts mutations by P4.  (+info)

Control of directionality in integrase-mediated recombination: examination of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) including Xis and Cox proteins. (6/72)

Similarity between the DNA substrates and products of integrase-mediated site-specific recombination reactions results in a single recombinase enzyme being able to catalyze both the integration and excision reactions. The control of directionality in these reactions is achieved through a class of small accessory factors that favor one reaction while interfering with the other. These proteins, which we will refer to collectively as recombination directionality factors (RDFs), play architectural roles in reactions catalyzed by their cognate recombinases and have been identified in conjunction with both tyrosine and serine integrases. Previously identified RDFs are typically small, basic and have diverse amino acid sequences. A subset of RDFs, the cox genes, also function as transcriptional regulators. We present here a compilation of all the known RDF proteins as well as those identified through database mining that we predict to be involved in conferring recombination directionality. Analysis of this group of proteins shows that they can be grouped into distinct sub-groups based on their sequence similarities and that they are likely to have arisen from several independent evolutionary lineages. This compilation will prove useful in recognizing new proteins that confer directionality upon site-specific recombination reactions encoded by plasmids, transposons, phages and prophages.  (+info)

Differentiation between Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobater coli using genotypic and phenotypic analyses. (7/72)

Genotypic and phenotypic methods were applied to investigate differences between the closely related species Campylobacter hyoilei and Campylobacter coli. A unique DNA sequence from C. hyoilei was used to design a specific PCR assay that amplified a DNA product of 383 bp for all C. hyoilei strains, but not other Campylobacter species, including C. coli. The PCR assay could detect 100 fg pure C. hyoilei DNA, 2 x 10(2) c.f.u. ml(-1) using cultured cells and 8.3 x 10(3) c.f.u. 0.1 g(-1) in faeces. The C. hyoilei sequence utilized for specific detection and identification of this species showed similarities to sequences from bacteriophages Mu, P2 and 186, suggesting lysogination of the ancestral C. hyoilei genome. Activities of a set of 15 enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular functions, including biosynthesis, catabolism, energy generation, maintenance of redox balance and phosphate utilization, were tested using sets of strains of C. hyoilei and C. coli. Comparison of mean rates of enzyme activities revealed significant differences between species in the values determined for seven of these activities. Both the genetic and phenotypic data indicate that C. hyoilei is a unique Campylobacter species.  (+info)

Protein and DNA requirements of the bacteriophage HP1 recombination system: a model for intasome formation. (8/72)

A fundamental step in site-specific recombination reactions involves the formation of properly arranged protein-DNA structures termed intasomes. The contributions of various proteins and DNA binding sites in the intasome determine not only whether recombination can occur, but also in which direction the reaction is likely to proceed and how fast the reaction will go. By mutating individual DNA binding sites and observing the effects of various mixtures of recombination proteins on the mutated substrates, we have begun to categorize the requirements for intasome formation in the site-specific recombination system of bacteriophage HP1. These experiments define the binding site occupancies in both integrative and excessive recombination for the three recombination proteins: HP1 integrase, HP1 Cox and IHF. This data has allowed us to create a model which explains many of the biochemical features of HP1 recombination, demonstrates the importance of intasome components on the directionality of the reaction and predicts further ways in which the role of the intasome can be explored.  (+info)

2WZP: Structures of Lactococcal Phage p2 Baseplate Shed Light on a Novel Mechanism of Host Attachment and Activation in Siphoviridae
We report here the complete EM structure of a lactococcal phage determined by single-particle analysis. Phage p2 is the flagship of the 936 group, which are the most prevalent lactococcal phages in industrial dairy fermentations worldwide. This phage is highly virulent and requires Ca2+ to infect specific L. lactis cells, which is in contrast with the less prevalent lactococcal phages belonging to the P335 subgroup II (e.g., TP901-1 and Tuc2009) (15).. The shape of p2 icosahedral capsid is comparable to that of other siphophages. The capsid pentons are, however, more prominent than those of phage TP901-1 but akin to those of coliphage HK97. In contrast, the size of the p2 portal protein (ORF-4) is among the smallest, particularly in comparison to those of phage TP901-1 and Bacillus phage SPP1 (Table 3). The two putative head completion proteins of p2 (ORF-8 and ORF-9) are comparable to those of phage SPP1. The fit of the SPP1 portal and head completion protein 1 (gp15) into the p2 connector EM ...
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P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. A developmental switch determines whether a temperate phage will grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. The Cox protein, the first gene of the lytic operon, is multifunctional. It represses the lysogenic promoter, acts as a directionality factor in site-specific recombination and activates the PLL promoter of satellite phage P4.. This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Particle size determination for Pt/alumina catalysts.. AU - Kooyman, PJ. N1 - 19 photos.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - ZX Int.klas.verslagjaar , 2002. M3 - Report. VL - 991012a. BT - Particle size determination for Pt/alumina catalysts.. PB - Delft University of Technology. CY - Delft. ER - ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
Biochemical studies of proteins are crucial for a more detailed view of the world around us. The focus of biochemical studies can vary, from a complex mammalian system to a more simple viral entity, but the same methods and principles apply. In biochemistry one rely on both in vitro and in vivo analyses to understand biological processes. Protein crystallography has since the late 1950s been an additional important tool. By visualizing the structures of molecules involved in a biological process one can truly comprehend the molecular mechanisms of an organism or cell at the chemical level. This thesis includes structural biochemical work in combination with mutational and functional studies of proteins from both human and virus.. Human tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins grouped by their conserved structural features. Many of them have been shown to regulate cell migration, fusion, and signalling in the cell by functioning as organizers of multi-molecular membrane complexes. Several ...
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CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
rat PP1delta protein: study indicates, the phosphorylation of Ser910 of FAK by ERK5 and its dephosphorylation by PP1d, and suggested a role for Ser910 in the control of cell shape and proliferation.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
Holin of 77 aas and 1 central TMS from E. coli phage ECBP5, Orf46. This protein is nearly identical to the pin-holin characterized for E. coli phage KBNP1315 (Lee et al. 2015). It infects a pathogenic avian E. coli strain (Lee et al. 2015 ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Precise, Small Sample Size Determinations of Lithium Isotopic Compositions of Geological Reference Materials and Modern Seawater by MC-ICP-MS. AU - Jeffcoate, A. AU - Elliott, TR. AU - Thomas, A. AU - Bouman, C. N1 - Publisher: Blackwell. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 28 (1). SP - 161. EP - 172. JO - Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research. JF - Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research. SN - 1639-4488. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two-dimensional color doppler imaging for precision preoperative mapping and size determination of tram flap perforators. AU - Chang, Bernard W.. AU - Luethke, Ronald. AU - Berg, Wendie A.. AU - Hamper, Ulrike Maria. AU - Manson, Paul. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027976539&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8278479. AN - SCOPUS:0027976539. VL - 93. SP - 197. EP - 200. JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. SN - 0032-1052. IS - 1. ER - ...
54 Sample size determination Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention from BIO 100 at Arizona Agribusiness and Equine Center- Estrella Mountain
Gordon Robertson DIY. Aug Uploaded by Matt H Service Manual - Dana Media Library - Spicer Parts media. Power divider bench work. If this occurs, disassembly of the power divider assembly will be necessary.. Remove shoulder washer in cylindrical design lockouts. Cast iron cover lockout. How the lAD Lockout Works. Inter-Axle Lockout Types - Forward.. Note: Before disassembling the power divider, measure and. AVAILABLE INTER-AXLE POWER DIVIDER LOCK OUT.. A lockout mechanism is incorporated in the power divider to enable the vehicle driver to lock out the inter-axle differential and provide maximum traction under. If that truck is a gas engine good luck on it working never worked in mine and then the cable seized up.. Nov post power divider lock-out warning light wiring (air chassis) firetrucksandequipment. Feb If a Mack has a power divider switch its to lock the power divider out. Product Description. Describe the operation of the various drive axle configurations.. Identify the components used ...
Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision when estimating unknown parameters. For example, if we wish to know the proportion of a certain species of fish that is infected with a pathogen, we would generally have a more precise estimate of this proportion if we sampled and examined 200 rather than 100 fish. Several fundamental facts of mathematical statistics describe this phenomenon, including the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem.. In some situations, the increase in precision for larger sample sizes is minimal, or even non-existent. This can result from the presence of systematic errors or strong dependence in the data, or if the data follows a heavy-tailed distribution.. Sample sizes are judged based on the quality of the resulting estimates. For example, if a proportion is being estimated, one may wish to have the 95% confidence interval be less than 0.06 units wide. Alternatively, sample size may be assessed based on the power of a hypothesis test. For ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Get this from a library! Sample Size Methodology.. [M M Desu] -- One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling ...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
This is not a static framework, but a highly dynamic internal scaffolding. It is dynamic in many ways. On one hand, it shows extreme flexibility of movement when acted upon by muscles. At another extreme, the cells of skeletal tissue are constantly monitoring and changing the micro-structure of this amazing tissue called bone, providing it with maximal strength, toughness, and resilience. In addition to its dynamic role of support it also provides a protective and stabilizing function. The skull and vertebral column surround the delicate central nervous structures, the brain and spinal cord, providing a strong, protective shell. This protective case, called the cranium, also fixes in space important nervous structures, such as the internal ear, that would not be able to function properly in an unstable environment. This dynamic framework also exhibits a tremendous capacity for growth and repair. It is a dynamic storehouse of calcium ions, ions that play a significant role in many of the bodys ...
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Gene cassettes of class 1 integrons may be differently expressed depending on the Pc promoter variant as well as occasionally from a second promoter located downstream of Pc, named P2. So far, the distribution of the variants has only been described in an in silico study. In this study, the prevalence of these variants in vivo was analysed in a population of 85 Escherichia coli strains from a variety of phylogenetic groups isolated from healthy subjects and clinical samples in Spain and France from 2004 to 2007. The weakest variants (PcW and PcH1) prevailed (variants associated with the integrase having the most efficient excision activity), whilst the two strongest variants, PcW(TGN-10) and PcS, were less frequent. Furthermore, a new variant of P2 associated with PcW was characterised in one integron (harbouring the gene cassette bla(OXA-1)-aadA1) from a French strain of a healthy subject. This variant was hereafter named P2m3 and shows a G→A substitution in its -10 element (TACAGT to TACAAT), a
Kasim, Jamaludin and Mahmud, Siti Zalifah and Ahmad, Nurrohana and Yamani, Shaikh Abdul Karim and Tamiran, Siti Nor Ain and Shahriman, Nor Suziana and Razak, Nor Ashikin (2010) Effects of particle sizes, resin content and board densities on the properties of phenol formaldehyde particleboard from oil palm trunk particles / Jamaludin Kasim ... [et al.]. Scientific Research Journal, 7 (1). pp. 1-12. ISSN 1675-7009 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains) of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant) bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular) DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement ...
The Commission provided in its RFA statement that the proposed rule would have a direct effect on numerous entities, specifically designated contract markets, swap data repository (SDRs), swap execution facilities (SEFs), swap dealers (SDs), major swap participants (MSPs), and certain single end-users. In the Proposing Release, the Commission then provided that it previously had established that certain entities subject to its jurisdiction are not small entities for purposes of the RFA. The Commission also provided that certain entities that would be subject to the proposed rule namely SDRs, SEFs, SDs, and MSPs are entities for which the Commission had not previously made a size determination for RFA purposes. The Commission proposed that these entities should not be considered to be small entities based upon their size and other characteristics. The Commission recognized that the proposed rule could have an economic effect on certain single end users, in particular those end users that enter ...
5crx_A mol:protein length:343 PROTEIN (BACTERIOPHAGE P1 CRE GENE) MSNLLTVHQNLPALPVDATSDEVRKNLMDMFRDRQAFSEHTWKMLLSVCRSWAAWCKLN NRKWFPAEPEDVRDYLLYLQARGLAVKTIQQHLGQLNMLHRRSGLPRPSDSNAVSLVMR RIRKENVDAGERAKQALAFERTDFDQVRSLMENSDRCQDIRNLAFLGIAYNTLLRIAEI ARIRVKDISRTDGGRMLIHIGRTKTLVSTAGVEKALSLGVTKLVERWISVSGVADDPNN YLFCRVRKNGVAAPSATSQLSTRALEGIFEATHRLIYGAKDDSGQRYLAWSGHSARVGA ARDMARAGVSIPEIMQAGGWTNVNIVMNFIRNLDSETGAMVRLLEDGD ...
Complete information for GPN1 gene (Protein Coding), GPN-Loop GTPase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Precise Size Determination of Amphotericin B and Nystatin Channels Formed in Erythrocyte and Liposomal Membranes Based on Osmotic Protection Experiments. AU - Katsu, Takashi. AU - Okada, Shiho. AU - Imamura, Tomonori. AU - Komagoe, Keiko. AU - Masuda, Kazufumi. AU - Inoue, Tsuyoshi. AU - Nakao, Satoshi. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - The colloid osmotic nature of the cell lysis can be prevented by adding osmotic protectants of appropriate sizes to the outer medium. We introduced inorganic and organic electrolytes as protectants to determine the precise channel sizes of the polyene antibiotics, amphotericin B and nystatin, in addition to the sugars so far widely used for this purpose. Because colloid osmotic cell lysis is evidenced by the loss of membrane permeability barriers for small sizes of ions, such as K + , preceding hemolysis, we firstly simultaneously monitored the time response of the K + efflux and ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
This note presents a technique which looks at the light scattered from individual nanoparticles as they move under Brownian motion in the path of a laser beam. The speed at which the particles move is related to particle size, temperature and solvent viscosity. With knowledge of the temperature and solvent viscosity, particle size can be directly calculated. A case study involving orthopedic implants is described.
Phages HK97 and λ are model systems that have aided in the understanding of capsid and tail assembly. HK97 capsid assembly involves the formation of a T=7 icosahedral lattice from 415 monomers of the major capsid protein (mcp), 12 monomers of portal protein, and ~120 copies of the protease. Salt bridges have been found to play a critical role in the assembly pathway, but it is not clear how capsid size is determined. Phage phi1026b is larger than HK97 but the mcp shares 50% sequence similarity with HK97. We hypothesize that comparing the atomic models of phi1026b and HK97 will help illuminate conserved and unique interactions that may play a role in assembly and potentially size determination. By utilizing the FEI Krios microscope, Falcon II camera, and EPU data acquisition software, high-resolution structures were generated which allowed for the generation of atomic models of the phi1026b Prohead I and Head capsids. Differences were observed in the organization of the delta domain, capsomers, ...
Bacteriophages infect prokaryotic cells by injecting their genome through the bacterial cell wall. In gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella enterica, the cell wall is ∼150Å thick barrier formed by two lipid bilayers surrounding a thin la
Abstract: Currently established and projected regulatory frameworks require the classification of materials (whether nano or non-nano) as specified by respective definitions, most of which are based on the size of the constituent particles. This brings up the question if currently available techniques for particle size determination are capable of reliably classifying materials that potentially fall under these definitions. In this study, a wide variety of characterisation techniques, including counting, fractionating, and spectroscopic techniques, has been applied to the same set of materials under harmonised conditions. The selected materials comprised well-defined quality control materials (spherical, monodisperse) as well as industrial materials of complex shapes and considerable polydispersity. As a result, each technique could be evaluated with respect to the determination of the number-weighted median size. Recommendations on the most appropriate and efficient use of techniques for ...
Intermediate/inner baseplate protein (PubMed:27193680, PubMed:15315755). The gp25-(gp6)2-gp7 module is involved in sheath contraction (PubMed:27193680). Involved in the tail assembly (PubMed:21129200).
The GPO RANGETRACKER™ 1800 handheld rangefinder incorporates the best optical and electronic technology, wrapped into a small durable multi-use rangefinding tool. Key features of the GPO RANGETRACKER™ 1800 include a high-transmission optical system coated with GPOs proprietary high transmission GPObright™ lens coating
Up to June 26, 2011, this site provided access to the draft Modeling for the Future, a report commissioned by GPO and being done by Ithaka S+R. Currently the following message is shown on the website: GPO has received Ithakas final report and will be moving forward with the creation of practical and sustainable models to ensure the vibrant future of the FDLP. The community viewpoints and suggestions contained within Ithakas report will assist GPO in creating a foundation to build these models. As of March, 2011, the fdlpmodeling.net website provided the following outline: ...
The router, for its simple design, is one of the most versatile tools you can own. You can shape decorative profiles, cut grooves, flush-trim, raise panels, and cut almost any joint. In the Complete Illustrated Guide to Routers, youll learn how to unleash this versatility by choosing the appropriate bit, and guiding the cut in the proper manner. Youll also learn that while a multitude of bits are available, a few essential bits will enable you to accomplish many of your routing tasks. More than 800 photo and drawings show you how to use and care for your router and how to get the most from it. In addition to mastering the use of your router, youll also learn about router tables, and how to make one that works perfectly in your shop. 240 pages. Contents: Section 1: Choosing Routers and Accessories Making a Custom Baseplate Making a Straight-Sided Baseplate Constructing an Edge Guide Router Maintenance Section 2: All About Bits Changing Bits Changing Bearings Adjusting a Stacking Bit Section 3: ...
Particle & Surface Sciences distribute NanoSight Technology throughout Australia and New Zealand. Particle size and particle size distribution remain core measures in determining the functional and handling properties of pigment-based inkjet inks.
First there were colloids. These materials found applications in paints, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more. Now there are nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have driven advances in materials science, medicine, and chemistry. Analyzing these materials for size has been critical to fully exploiting their potential. This webinar introduces the dominant technique for nanoparticle size analysis: dynamic light scattering (DLS); how DLS works, how to make good measurements, and the advantages of using DLS.
Intelligent well technology has provided facility for real time production control through use of subsurface instrumentation. Early detection of water production allows for a prompt remedial action. Effective water control requires the appropriate performance of individual devices in wells on maintaining the equilibrium between water and oil production over the entire field life. However, there is still an incomplete understanding of using intelligent well concept to control unwanted fluids and the way this leads to improving hydrocarbon recovery. The present study proposes using intelligent well technology to develop a new integrated methodology for selecting/ranking the candidate wells/fields, interval control valve (ICV) size determination, and ICV setting optimization. Various technical and economical parameters weighted by expert opinions are used for candidate well/field ranking to implement the intelligent technology. A workflow is proposed for ICV size determination based on its effect on a
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
Holin je u vodi rastvoran esencijalni nutrijent.[4][5][6][7] On se obično svrstava u B-kompleks vitamina. Holin se normalno javlja u obliku raznih kvaternarnih amonijum soli koje sadrže N,N,N-trimetiletanolamonijum katjon.. Katjon holina se javlja kao čeona grupa fosfatidilholina i sfingomijelina, dve klase fosfolipida koje su široko rasprostranjene u ćelijskim membranama. Holin je prekursorni molekul za neurotransmiter acetilholin koji ima veliki broj funkcija, kao što su memorija i kontrola mišića.. Holin se mora uneti putem hrane da bi telo ostalo zdravo.[8] On se koristi u sintezi gradivnih komponenti ćelijskih membrana.[9]. ...
Holin se v organizmu presnovi zlasti do trimetilamina, ki ima vonj po ribah. Velika količina zaužitega holina lahko zato povzroči neprijeten telesni vonj. Pri določeni genetski motnji, trimetilaminuriji, bolniki niso zmožni nadalje razgraditi trimetilamina in posledica je močan telesni vonj po ribah. Pri ublažitvi telesnega vonja pomaga dieta, ki vsebuje čim manj holina.. ...
Sironi G, Bialy H, Lorenzon HA, Calendar R (1971). "Bacteriophage P2:interaction with phage lambda and with recombination- ... Nature Biotechnology 2, p. 109 (01 Feb 1984). Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R (1970). "Bacteriophage Lambda; Abortive ... Infection of Bacteria Lysogenic for Phage P2". PNAS. 66 (3): 587-94. doi:10.1073/pnas.66.3.587. PMC 283090. PMID 4913204. ...
... a P2-related plague diagnostic bacteriophage". Virology. 372 (1): 85-96. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2007.10.032. PMID 18045639. v t e ... The propagation of the virions includes the attaching to a host cell (a bacterium, as Yersinia virus L413C is a bacteriophage) ...
T4 phage, Mu, PBSX, P1Puna-like, P2, I3, Bcep 1, Bcep 43, Bcep 78 ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of a P2 family lysogenic bacteriophage, varphiMhaA1-PHL101, from Mannheimia haemolytica serotype ... as Mannheimia virus PHL101 is a bacteriophage) and the injection of the double stranded DNA; the host transcribes and ...
... is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 within genus Peduovirus (formerly P2-like viruses, P2virus ... It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosahedral head ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. It generally ... Christie, GE; Calendar, R (1990). "Interactions between satellite bacteriophage P4 and its helpers". Annual Review of Genetics ...
... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.280.090.500.300 - bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280.090.500. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 - bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.150.700 ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ...
The family Chaseviridae, a group of bacteriophages in order Caudovirales, was named in honor of Martha Chase. Hershey, A. D. ... "Reactivation Of Phage-P2 Damaged By Ultraviolet Light :: University of Southern California Dissertations and Theses". ... The experiment involved radioactively labeling either protein or nucleic acid of the bacteriophage T2 (a virus that infects ... "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage." J. Gen. Physiol., 36 (1): 39-56, September ...
... a 2007 flash memory based Yepp portable media player P2 audio connector Bacteriophage P2, a temperate phage of the family ... P2, P02, P.2, or P-2 might refer to several subjects: P2 (storage media), a "Professional Plug-in" solid state data storage ... an iconic 1920s racing automobile Prodrive P2, an automobile built by Prodrive Volvo P2 platform, an automobile platform P2 ( ... "P2", a 2020 song by Lil Uzi Vert from the album Eternal Atake P2 (panel building), a design for blocks of flats used in East ...
N4 phage P1 phage P2 phage P4 phage R17 phage T2 phage T4 phage (169 kbp genome, 200 nm long) T7 phage T12 phage Viruses portal ... coli bacteria Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages get a ... The largest bacteriophage genomes reach a size of 735 kb. Bacteriophage genomes can be highly mosaic, i.e. the genome of many ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ...
... contain P2-like prophages . Of these P2-like prophages is P2 best characterized. The P2 phage was found to be able to multiply ... Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a ... This genus of viruses includes many P2-like phages as well as the satellite phage P4. Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ...
In the interior of the shell formed by P1 is the P2 viral replicase and transcriptase protein. The spikes binding to receptors ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... P2, and released into the host cell cytosol. The four proteins translated from the large segment spontaneously assemble into ...
Talk:Bacteriophage Mu. *Talk:Bacteriophage P2. *Talk:Bacteriophage PBC1. *Talk:Bacteriophage Qβ ...
In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. He had ... Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi:10.1128/JB.186.3.595-600.2004. PMC 321500. ...
Of these, SpeB has a preference for hydrophobic P2 and positively charged P1 residues, with greater importance of the P2 amino ... Bacteriophage T12 infection of S. pyogenes enables the production of speA, and increases virulence. SpeB was identified in 1919 ... In contrast, speA, speC and speH-M are encoded by bacteriophages. There is a lack of consensus over the location of the speG ... Bacteriophages, Part A. 82. pp. 91-118. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-394621-8.00014-5. ISBN 9780123946218. PMID 22420852. Media ...
Additionally, NucE can complement lysis-defective bacteriophage mutants to allow for plaque formation and release of phage. ... positive control by a homolog of P2 Ogr encoded by a cryptic prophage". Journal of Molecular Biology. 256 (2): 264-278. doi: ...
Citron M, Schuster H (August 1990). "The c4 repressors of bacteriophages P1 and P7 are antisense RNAs". Cell. 62 (3): 591-598. ... The terminus of the stem designated as "P2" very often conforms to highly stable tetraloop motifs that were previously ...
The p2 protein cleaves the viral strand of the RF DNA, and host DNA polymerase III synthesizes a new viral strand. The old ... Filamentous bacteriophage Rasched I, Oberer E (December 1986). "Ff coliphages: structural and functional relationships". ... Three gene products (p2, p5, and p10) are cytoplasmic proteins needed for DNA synthesis and the rest are membrane proteins ... When a circle is complete, the covalently linked p2 cuts the displaced viral strand at the junction between the old and newly ...
Bacteriophages are able to infect most bacteria and are easily found in most environments colonized by bacteria, and have been ... "To Become Vegetarians", Mansfield (O.) News, 17 January 1910, p2. *"150,000 at Cleveland Stop the Use of Meat" Syracuse Herald- ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ... antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial infections.[133] While further research is needed in this ...
Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... Additional functions associated with S-layers include: protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ... These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, ...
The precise location, in the GRCh38.p2 assembly, is from base pair 50,384,290 to base pair 50,418,018 on chromosome 19. The ... Tyrosine Y701 functions similarly to tyrosine Y567 in the RB69 bacteriophage orthologue as the sugar steric gate that prevents ...
FERM domain FERM domains contain basic residues capable of binding PtdIns(4,5)P2. Talin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are two ... the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations defective in the same gene were often ... "Intragenic Complementation among Tempterature Sensitive Mutants of Bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 51: 987-1002. PMC 1210828. ...
In 2001, the first genome sequence of Sulfolobus, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, was published. In P2's genome, the genes related ... Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the host cells are not lysed after the induction of ... The complete genomes have been sequenced for S. acidocaldarius DSM 639 (2,225,959 nucleotides), S. solfataricus P2 (2,992,245 ... "The complete genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
Asfarviridae is either a sister group to Poxviridae (building together Pokkesviricetes) or a member of the P2 clade. The ICTV ... from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1341 (1): 10-24. Bibcode: ... "P2" thereafter). Poxviridae is consistently treated as a basal branch. ...
These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, ... protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis. *resistance against low pH. *barrier against high-molecular ... Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ...
For example, if p is the frequency of allele A, and q is the frequency of allele a then the terms p2, 2pq, and q2 are the ... Bernstein H; Fisher KM (March 1968). "Dominance in bacteriophage T4D". Genetics. 58 (3): 307-18. PMC 1211863. PMID 5662621. ... and bacteriophage T4 GP37. In humans, many genetic traits or diseases are classified simply as "dominant" or "recessive". ... reporting a mutant protein inhibiting the normal function of a wild-type protein in a mixed multimer was with the bacteriophage ...
Bacteriophages are able to infect most bacteria and are easily found in most environments colonized by bacteria, and have been ... Reported locally in these: "To Become Vegetarians", Mansfield (O.) News, 17 January 1910, p2 "150,000 at Cleveland Stop the Use ... Another research team was able to use bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ...
When a microbe is invaded by a bacteriophage, the first stage of the immune response is to capture phage DNA and insert it into ... Han D, Lehmann K, Krauss G (June 2009). "SSO1450-a CAS1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with high affinity for RNA and ... CRISPR-Cas prevents bacteriophage infection, conjugation and natural transformation by degrading foreign nucleic acids that ... These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote. They are used to ...
... -Cas prevents bacteriophage infection, conjugation and natural transformation by degrading foreign nucleic acids that ... Han D, Lehmann K, Krauss G (June 2009). "SSO1450--a CAS1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with high affinity for RNA and ... November 2010). "The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA". Nature. 468 (7320): 67-71. ... A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. The researchers ...
E2F (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) • FOX proteini (C1, C2, D3, E1, G1, H1, K2, L2, M1, N3, O1, O3, O4, P1, P2, P3) ... Anderson WF, Ohlendorf DH, Takeda Y, Matthews BW (1981). "Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage lambda and its ...
... contain P2-like prophages . Of these P2-like prophages is P2 best characterized. The P2 phage was found to be able to multiply ... Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a ... This genus of viruses includes many P2-like phages as well as the satellite phage P4. Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ...
Proteins matched: Bacteriophage P2, GpY, holin (IPR007633) The following proteins are predicted to be part of this family: ...
Lactococcal Bacteriophage P2 Receptor-Binding Protein Structure Suggests a Common Ancestor Gene with Bacterial and Mammalian ... Structure of Lactococcal Bacteriophage p2 Receptor Binding Protein. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2BSD/pdb ... The double-stranded DNA bacteriophage p2 infects specific L. lactis strains using a receptor-binding protein (RBP) located at ... The double-stranded DNA bacteriophage p2 infects specific L. lactis strains using a receptor-binding protein (RBP) located at ...
The Receptor Binding Protein P2 of PRD1, a Virus Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Has a Novel Fold Suggesting Multiple ... THE RECEPTOR-BINDING PROTEIN P2 OF BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1: CRYSTAL FORM I. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1n7u/pdb ... Adsorption protein P2 A 554 Salmonella virus prd1 Gene Name(s): II ...
The temperate bacteriophage P2 is a virus, which can enter both the lytic and the lysogenic cycle upon infection of its host. ... The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. It is involved in site-specific ... Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2. Berntsson, ... We have solved the structure of P2 Cox to 2.4 angstrom resolution. Interestingly, P2 Cox crystallized in a continuous ...
The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host ... Regulation of int gene expression in bacteriophage P2. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Regulation of int gene expression in bacteriophage P2.. A Yu, V Barreiro, E Haggård-Ljungquist ... In vitro recombination assays have indicated that in P2 an overproduction of Int is deleterious to the integrative process. We ...
Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage. Helene S. Smith, Lewis I. Pizer, Laird Pylkas, Seymour ... Abortive Infection of Shigella dysenteriae P2 by T2 Bacteriophage Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ... P2 prophages have been known to inhibit DNA replication and growth of T-even phages. We show here that this inhibition is due ... to poisoning of the T-even single-stranded DNA binding protein gp32 by the product of the nonessential P2 tin gene. Synthesis ...
A novel mechanism of virus-virus interactions: Bacteriophage P2 Tin protein inhibits phage T4 DNA synthesis by poisoning the T4 ...
Bacteriophage P2: genes involved in baseplate assembly.. Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth Stockholms universitet, ... Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ ...
... the C repressor of the P2 bacteriophage (P2 C). P2 C represses the lytic genes of the P2 bacteriophage, thereby directing the ... NMR Structure Note: The C Repressor of the P2 Bacteriophage. Massad, Tariq Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department ... In the model, P2 C binds DNA cooperatively and two homodimeric P2 C molecules are close enough to interact and bind one direct ... P2 C repressor, DNA-binding protein, direct repeats Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-42016DiVA: ...
... based on the known molecular weight of P2 DNA. The extinction (1 cm.) of suspensions of 1011 particles per ml. was 0.09 at 260 ... Summary P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 107 daltons, ... Preparation and Characterization of Temperate, Non-inducible Bacteriophage P2 (host: Escherichia coli) * L. Elizabeth Bertani ... P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 107 daltons, based on ...
... Bertani, G. ... Bacteriophage P2: recombination in the superinfection preprophage state and under replication control by phage P4. Login ... P2 DNA, either replicating under the control of another replicon, or not actively replicating, would undergo normal ...
Fullscreen (supported by IE11, latest versions of Firefox, Chrome, Safari (not including iOS Safari), Edge, Chrome for Android, Samsung Internet) ...
Crystals of P2 have been obtained in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with two trimers in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a ... for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. Structural analysis of PM2 has been initiated and virus-derived P2 has been ... In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the ... is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. ...
Enterobacterial bacteriophages (φ): HK620, CP-933V, and P2. * ↵‡ Clone derived from RNA isolated in air sacs (A) or pericardium ...
C1.00194: Mechanical Properties of Bacteriophage P2 Capsid. Van Chien Bui, Kyoung Jin Kim, Seong Soo Choi Preview Abstract. ...
T4 phage, Mu, PBSX, P1Puna-like, P2, I3, Bcep 1, Bcep 43, Bcep 78 ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
Regulation of gene expression in the P2:P4 bacteriophage system.. · Laboratory of Microbial Gene Technology, The Norwegian ... Gene regulation in the Escherichia coli P2:P4 system.. . Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University ... Lillehaug D and Birkeland NK (1994): Bacteriophage ΦLC-3-based vector system for transformation of bacteria. WO 9419460. ... and expression of the genes encoding the lytic functions of lactococcal bacteriophage phi-LC3: a dual lysis system og modular ...
Sironi G, Bialy H, Lorenzon HA, Calendar R (1971). "Bacteriophage P2:interaction with phage lambda and with recombination- ... Nature Biotechnology 2, p. 109 (01 Feb 1984). Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R (1970). "Bacteriophage Lambda; Abortive ... Infection of Bacteria Lysogenic for Phage P2". PNAS. 66 (3): 587-94. doi:10.1073/pnas.66.3.587. PMC 283090. PMID 4913204. ...
DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated ... Evidence for gene exchange via homologous recombination among P2-related bacteriophages Wφ, φD, HK111, and HK241, which was ... Detection of homologous recombination among bacteriophage P2 relatives. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21:259-269. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ...
1971) in The Role of Recombination in Growth of Bacteriophage Lambda: II. Inhibition of Growth by Prophage P2, ed Hershey A D( ... The titer of λ Spi− phage was measured by plating on E. coli WL95 P2 lysogen. The titer of total phage was measured by plating ... coli P2 lysogen (Spi− phenotype) to avoid defective transducing phage (21). λ Spi− phages are rarely detected in lysates ...
φX216, a P2-like bacteriophage with broad Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei strain infectivity. ...
Complete Genome Sequence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophage UFV-P2.. Eller MR, Salgado RL, Vidigal PM, Alves MP, Dias ... Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic bacteriophage PA1O which resembles temperate bacteriophage D3112. ... UFV-P2 as a member of the Luz24likevirus genus: a new overview on comparative functional genome analyses of the LUZ24-like ... A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its ...
1] "Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene." Ziermann R.et.al. ...
P2-16. Page 82. Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of ... Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of frankfurters. Meeting ... Meeting Abstract.IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC, July 28-31, 2013., 76:144(P2-55). ... IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC., July 28-31, 2013., 76:177-178(P2-159). ...
P2-16. Page 82. Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of ... Effectiveness of bacteriophage to control the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of frankfurters. Meeting ... Meeting Abstract.IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC, July 28-31, 2013., 76:144(P2-55). ... Abstract] Internatinal Association for Food Protections Annual Meeting P2-37. pg. 126. ...
The transcriptional switch of bacteriophage WPhi, a P2-related but heteroimmune coliphage. J. Virol.73:9816-9826. ... Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive genetic mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages. J. Mol. Biol. ... Bacteriophage-enhanced sporulation: comparison of spore-converting bacteriophages PMB12 and SP10. J. Bacteriol.172:1948-1953. ... Bacteriophages, Transposons, and Plasmids. Genomic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Bacteriophage φ3626, Which Integrates ...
  • This genus of viruses includes many P2-like phages as well as the satellite phage P4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the late genes of P2 can also be activated by the δ proteins of satellite phages P4 and ΦR73 directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the lytic cycle, similar to other double-stranded phages, bacteriophage P2 applies a holin-endolysin system to lyse the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • P2 prophages have been known to inhibit DNA replication and growth of T-even phages. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although the existence of bacteriophages infecting C. perfringens has been reported ( 43 ) and a certain phenotypic effect of temperate phages of this organism has demonstrated ( 61 ), we were surprised to find that no sequences or other molecular data on C. perfringens phages were available, except for a preliminary mapping of the integration sites of two phages ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • UFV-P2 as a member of the Luz24likevirus genus: a new overview on comparative functional genome analyses of the LUZ24-like phages. (nih.gov)
  • It is now accepted that bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities in most ecosystems and soda lakes are no exception, with studies conducted on Mono Lake placing viral abundance at 10 9 ml -1 , among the highest in natural aquatic environments [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophages, sometimes simply referred to as phages, are considered the most abundant biological entities on the planet [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The scientists had isolated phages P1 and P2 in 2017 from raw sewage that they screened for viruses that would infect ST258 - an indication that phages can be found just about any place. (scienceblog.com)
  • Phages P1 and P2 are viruses from the order Caudovirales, which naturally infect bacteria. (scienceblog.com)
  • P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Analysis of TUD-based phylogeny indicates that host influences are important in bacteriophage evolution, and phylogenies containing both phages and their hosts support their co-evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides cox, the early operon contains two other genes which are essential for P2 DNA replication, genes A and B. Replication of P2 genome is initiated by A protein and takes place from a fixed origin (ori) via a modified rolling-circle mechanism that generates double-stranded monomeric circles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Functional analyses of alanine mutants in P2 Cox argue for the importance of key residues for protein function. (diva-portal.org)
  • We here present the first structure from the Cox protein family and, together with previous biochemical observations, propose that P2 Cox achieves its various functions by specific binding of DNA while wrapping the DNA around its helical oligomer. (diva-portal.org)
  • We show here that this inhibition is due to poisoning of the T-even single-stranded DNA binding protein gp32 by the product of the nonessential P2 tin gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • The second part of the thesis is a structural study of a DNA-binding protein, the C repressor of the P2 bacteriophage (P2 C). P2 C represses the lytic genes of the P2 bacteriophage, thereby directing the P2 lifecycle toward the lysogenic lifemode. (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 phage particles contained DNA (38%) and protein (62%), and were assigned a particle weight of 5.8 × 10 7 daltons, based on the known molecular weight of P2 DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The loss of outer capsid protein P2 results in nontransmissibility by the insect vector of rice dwarf phytoreovirus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified virus showed that among six structural proteins, the P2 outer capsid protein (encoded by genome segment S2) was absent from the TD isolate, whereas all six proteins were present in the transmission-competent (TC) isolate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The P2 protein of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is required for adsorption of the virus to cells of the insect vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • P2 protein encoded by genome segment S2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The P4 ε protein can derepress the developmental switch of P2 Hy dis . (diva-portal.org)
  • Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 343: The Bacteriophage T4 MotB Protein, a DNA-Binding Protein, Improves Phage Fitness Viruses doi: 10.3390/v10070343 Authors: Jennifer Patterson-West Melissa Arroyo-Mendoza Meng-Lun Hsieh Danielle Harrison Morgan M. Walker Leslie Knipling Deborah M. (bionity.com)
  • Activation of P2 late transcription by P2 ogr protein requires a discrete contact site on the C terminus of the α subunit of Escherichia coli RNA p. (growkudos.com)
  • The S-type pyocin is a colicin-like protein, whereas the R-type pyocin resembles a contractile but non-flexible tail structure of bacteriophage, and the F-type a flexible but non-contractile one. (elsevier.com)
  • All members of this family have an inner core composed of 120 molecules of the major structural protein P1, 12 hexamers of the packaging NTPase P4, 12 molecules of polymerase P2 and about 30 molecules of auxilliary protein P7. (beds.ac.uk)
  • P2 have two essential lysis genes (gene K and gene Y) and two ancillary lysis genes (lysA and lysB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage P2 : genes involved in baseplate assembly. (diva-portal.org)
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Potential impact of environmental bacteriophages in spreading antibiotic resistance genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Casadaban MJ, Cohen SA (1979) Lactose genes fused to exogenous promoters in one step using a Mu -lac bacteriophage: in vivo probe for transcriptional control sequence. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of R2 pyocin genes, along with those for F2 pyocin, which are located downstream of the R2 gene cluster on the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAO1, was analysed in order to elucidate the relationship between the pyocins and bacteriophages. (elsevier.com)
  • The base sequences for many of the genes and for the segment termini were similar but not identical to those of bacteriophage Φ12. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Xenorhabdus bovienii ( Xb-Sj ), the symbiont of Steinernema jollieti, possesses a remnant P2-like phage tail cluster, xbp 1, that encodes genes for xenorhabdicin production. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1988, Nucleotide sequence of the large double-stranded RNA segment of bacteriophage φ6: genes specifying the viral replicase and transcriptase, J Virol, 62, 4, 1180-5}], Segment M (4.1 kb) [{Gottlieb et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • 1988, Nucleotide sequence of the middle dsRNA segment of bacteriophage φ6: placement of the genes of membrane-associated proteins, Virology, 163, 1, 183-90}], and Segment S (2.9 kb) [{McGraw et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • Furthermore, a number of open reading frames (ORFs) is found in P2 genome, which may encode functional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there was no ORF that might encode mec DNA-specific transposase or integrase proteins, indicating that the mec DNA is not a transposon or a bacteriophage in nature. (asm.org)
  • Functional characterizations of the C repressors and Cox proteins of P2 and WΦ show that both C repressors induce bending of their respective DNA targets. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both proteins show a capacity to oligomerize, but P2 Cox has a higher tendency to form oligomers than WΦ Cox. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this paper we describe bacteriophage Φ2954 which has similarity to Φ12 [ 3 ] in the amino acid composition of several of its proteins but whereas Φ12 attaches to rough LPS, Φ2954 attaches to type IV pili. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Temperate bacteriophage can adopt either a lytic or a lysogenic lifestyle. (wku.edu)
  • In the lysogenic lifestyle the bacteriophage genome is integrated into the bacterial genome to generate a prophage. (wku.edu)
  • The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. (diva-portal.org)
  • P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the P2 lysogenic promoter, excision of a P2 prophage and activation of P4 P LL . (diva-portal.org)
  • Complete nucleotide sequence of a P2 family lysogenic bacteriophage, varphiMhaA1-PHL101, from Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1. (bcm.edu)
  • Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the lytic lifestyle, the bacteriophage infects a cell, uses the host's cellular machinery to replicate, and lyses the cell to release the phage progeny. (wku.edu)
  • A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. (bvsalud.org)
  • A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its remedial action. (nih.gov)
  • This study highlights how genomic characterization of Burkholderia prophages can lead to the discovery of novel bacteriophages with potential therapeutic or biotechnological applications. (mdpi.com)
  • A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Isolation of large bacterial plasmids and characterization of the P2 incompatibility group plasmids pMG1 and pMG5. (naver.com)
  • Molecular characterization of L-413C, a P2-related plague diagnostic bacteriophage. (scirp.org)
  • [1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comparative analysis of bacteriophage genome sequences has greatly enhanced our understanding of their diversity, revealing relationships between phage genomes often infecting distantly related host bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wide spread resistance against antibiotics has prompted a renewed surge of interest in bacteriophages which are viruses capable of infecting and sometimes killing bacteria, as safe and effective therapy alternatives [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A chewing gum composition produced by mixing an effective amount of lysin enzyme produced by group C streptococcal bacteria infected with a C1 bacteriophage and a carrier for delivering said lysin enzyme to a mouth, throat, or nasal passage. (google.com)
  • Using viruses instead of antibiotics to tame troublesome drug-resistant bacteria is a promising strategy, known as bacteriophage or " phage therapy . (scienceblog.com)
  • Myoviruses are a family of bacteriophages (from 'bacteria' and the Greek ''phagein'', 'to eat'), or viruses that infect bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities in the biosphere, and as the natural predators of bacteria, have important roles in bacterial ecology and evolution [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Myoviruses, being bacteriophages, infect bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Engelberg-Kulka H, Reches M, Narasimhan S, Schoulaker-Schwarz R, Klemes Y, Aizenman E, Glaser G (1998) rexB of bacteriophage lambda is an anti-cell death gene. (springer.com)
  • Lambda ZAP: a bacteriophage lambda expression vector with in vivo excision properties. (naver.com)
  • The int gene of bacteriophage P2 is the only viral gene necessary for the integration of P2 into the Escherichia coli host chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Of these P2-like prophages is P2 best characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contributions of P2- and P22-like prophages to understanding the enormous diversity and abundance of tailed bacteriophages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The approximately 100 currently published bacterial genome complete nucleotide sequences, and about 285 prophages are related to known bacteriophages. (asmscience.org)
  • Of the more than 280 prophages in the currently sequenced bacterial genomes, only a few are known to be fully functional bacteriophages. (asmscience.org)
  • Comparison of the genome architecture with those of other bacteriophages revealed significant similarities to the P2 phage family and especially to the prophages of Aeromonas salmonicida and the Vibrio cholerae phage K139. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The cos site of the bacteriophage λ chromosome contains the sites required for DNA processing and packaging during virion assembly. (genetics.org)
  • The P2 integrase mediates site-specific recombination leading to integration or excision of the P2 genome in or out of the host chromosome. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our ideas about how bacteriophages have affected the nature of the bacterial chromosome are necessarily based on extrapolations from things we know about bacteriophage biology and from inferences based on the current structure of the bacterial genomes, and not on direct observation of those processes over evolutionary time. (asmscience.org)
  • 1] "Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene. (tcdb.org)
  • This notion was supported by identification of a lysis gene cassette similar to those for bacteriophages. (elsevier.com)
  • One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage). (beds.ac.uk)
  • This technique involves precipitation of intact bacteriophage particles with ammonium sulfate, followed by phage lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate, proteinase K, and alkaline treatment. (naver.com)
  • It has been reasoned that the similarities of some toxins of C. perfringens with toxins found in other organisms are due to horizontal gene transfer based on conjugative plasmids, transposons, or bacteriophages ( 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Whereas species have long been established among sexual eukaryotes, achieving a meaningful species concept for prokaryotes has been an onerous task and has proven exceedingly difficult for describing viruses and bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages exist in numerous forms and are capable of infecting disparate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have investigated some of the biochemical events that accompany the abortive infection by T2 of Shigella dysenteriae lysogenized with the temperate phage P2. (asm.org)
  • Modeling the infection dynamics of bacteriophages in enteric Escherichia coli: estimating the contribution of transduction to antimicrobial gene spread. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They treated the mice with either phage P1, phage P2, or a combination of the two, all injected at different times following ST258 infection. (scienceblog.com)
  • We studied the effect of mazEF on the development of bacteriophage P1 upon thermoinduction of the prophage P1CM c1 ts and upon infection with virulent phage particles (P1 vir ). (springer.com)
  • The difficulties related to the antibiotic treatment of P. aeruginosa and the often damaging nature of its infection have prompted investigations of viruses (bacteriophages) as antimicrobial agents against this species [ 35 , 36 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The de novo initiating RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), P2, forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage phi6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome in the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • The P2 phage was found to be able to multiply in many strains of E. coli, as well as in strains of many other species including Serratia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Yersinia sp, which suggested that it played an important role in horizontal gene transfer in bacterial evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • With classical genetic experiments, it was shown that mec is not transferable between S. aureus strains by conjugation ( 21 ) but is transferable by bacteriophage-mediated generalized transduction ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • In the present work, we have isolated and characterized a new bacteriophage, named Pseudomonas phage BrSP1, and investigated its host range against 36 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from diseased animals and against P. aeruginosa ATCC strain 27853. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phage P2 has a double stranded DNA genome packaged in an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 60 nanometers that is connected to a 135 nanometer long tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the adsorption process, the tail fiber of phage P2 recognizes and binds to the core region of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli, and then the phage would inject its DNA into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myoviruses, along with several other bacteriophages, have a 'head and tail' morphology that is not found in other groups of viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • The well-studied model of tail morphology in bacteriophage classification was used for comparison with nucleotide usage patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tail morphology forms the basis for bacteriophage classification into 3 separate families: Myoviridae (contractile tails), Podoviridae (short tail stubs), and Siphoviridae (long tails) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A lytic bacteriophage RG-2014 infecting a biofilm forming multidrug resistant bacterium Delftia tsuruhatensis strain ARB-1 as its host was isolated from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previously, we isolated a multi-drug resistant D. tsuruhatensis strain ARB-1 from a municipal wastewater treatment plant along with the lytic bacteriophage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lytic bacteriophage RG-2014 belongs to the Podoviridae family in the order Caudovirales . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage, which means that it can propagate lytically (i.e. directing the host cell to produce phage progenies and finally lysing the host when the phage progenies exit), as well as establish lysogeny (i.e. injecting and fusing its genetic material into the genome of the host without lysing the cell) and maintain as a prophage in host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in site-specific recombination leading to P2 prophage excision and functions as a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of 142 bacteriophages infecting Salmonella enterica subsp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A majority of the phamilies, 4330 out of 5796 (74.7%), occurred in just one prophage underscoring the high degree of diversity among Salmonella bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Salmonella Enteritidis bacteriophage candidates for phage therapy of poultry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For bacteriophages, such dissections of genomic sequences reveal fundamental flaws in the Linnaean paradigm that necessitate a new view of viral evolution, classification, and taxonomy. (asm.org)
  • Although the evolution of tailed bacteriophages has increasingly been better understood through comparisons of their DNA sequences, the functional consequences of this evolution on phage infectious strategies have remained unresolved. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of bacteriophage phi6 transcribes mRNA from the three segments of the dsRNA viral genome. (proteopedia.org)
  • For the first time, the nucleotide sequence of a bacteriophage infecting Clostridium species was determined. (asm.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of phi CTX, a cytotoxin-converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Phage therapy investigation with P. aeruginosa bacteriophages has aimed mainly the control of human diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presence of phage P4 can cause P2 to form smaller capsids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro recombination assays have indicated that in P2 an overproduction of Int is deleterious to the integrative process. (asm.org)
  • P2 DNA, either replicating under the control of another replicon, or not actively replicating, would undergo normal recombination. (nasa.gov)
  • The genome of bacteriophage P2 is 33,592 bp of double-stranded, linear DNA with cohesive ends (accession number AF063097). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is, however, not possible to change the DNA specificity of P2 Cox to that of WΦ Cox by swapping the presumed recognition helix. (diva-portal.org)
  • Measurements of the production of acid-soluble fragments and sedimentation analyses failed to detect enzymatic degradation of the infecting viral DNA which could be specifically related to the presence of the prophage P2. (asm.org)
  • We have isolated a new member of the bacteriophage family Cystoviridae and find that although it shows similarity to other members of the family, it has unique properties that help to elucidate viral strategies for genomic packaging and gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophage UFV-P2. (nih.gov)
  • PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the model, P2 C binds DNA cooperatively and two homodimeric P2 C molecules are close enough to interact and bind one direct DNA repeat each. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast to P2 Cox, WΦ Cox binds with a stronger affinity to the switch region than to the attachment site ( attP ). (diva-portal.org)
  • Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are considered to be the most prevalent entities in the biosphere [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Bertani G (2004) Lysogeny at mid-twentieth century: P1, P2, and other experimental systems. (springer.com)
  • Comparative transcriptomics analyses reveal the conservation of an ancestral infectious strategy in two bacteriophage genera. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Structural similarity between the recognition-head domain of phage p2 and those of adenoviruses and reoviruses, which invade mammalian cells, suggests that these viruses, despite evolutionary distant targets, lack of sequence similarity and the different chemical nature of their genomes (DNA versus RNA), might have a common ancestral gene. (rcsb.org)
  • In this article, we have investigated the structural determinants to understand how P2 Cox performs these different functions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Structural analysis of PM2 has been initiated and virus-derived P2 has been crystallized by sitting-nanodrop vapour diffusion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • WΦ C, like P2 C, has a strong dimerization activity in vivo , but there are no indications of higher oligomeric forms. (diva-portal.org)