A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.
A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.

Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VIII. Sequence features of the regions of 1,081,958 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 and TAC clones. (1/133)

A total of 17 Pl and TAC clones each representing an assigned region of chromosome 5 were isolated from P1 and TAC genomic libraries of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the clones sequenced in this study summed up to 1,081,958 bp. As we have previously reported the sequence of 9,072,622 bp by analysis of 125 P1 and TAC clones, the total length of the sequences of chromosome 5 determined so far is now 10,154,580 bp. The sequences were subjected to similarity search against protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling. As a consequence, a total of 253 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions were identified. The positions of exons which do not show apparent similarity to known genes were also assigned using computer programs for exon prediction. The average density of the genes identified in this study was 1 gene per 4277 bp. Introns were observed in 74% of the potential protein genes, and the average number per gene and the average length of the introns were 4.3 and 168 bp, respectively. The sequence data and gene information are available on the World Wide Web database KAOS (Kazusa Arabidopsis data Opening Site) at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/arabi/.  (+info)

The Doc toxin and Phd antidote proteins of the bacteriophage P1 plasmid addiction system form a heterotrimeric complex. (2/133)

The toxin (Doc) and antidote (Phd) proteins of the plasmid addiction system of bacteriophage P1 were purified as a complex. Cocrystals of the complex contained a 2:1 molar ratio of Phd:Doc as assayed by dye binding following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as determined by amino acid analysis. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the two addiction proteins interact in solution to form a P2D trimer composed of one Doc and two Phd molecules. These results support a model in which Phd inhibits the toxic activity of Doc by direct binding. Circular dichroism experiments showed that changes in secondary structure accompany formation of the heterotrimeric complex, raising the possibility that Phd may act by an allosteric mechanism. Studies of Phd and Doc molecules labeled with fluorescent energy donor and acceptor groups gave an equilibrium dissociation constant of about 0.8 microM(2) and a very short, sub second half-life of complex dissociation. As a consequence, low concentrations of free Doc toxin are likely to be present both transiently and in the steady state in cells containing the Phd antidote, making mechanisms of single-hit Doc toxicity improbable.  (+info)

The CMT2D locus: refined genetic position and construction of a bacterial clone-based physical map. (3/133)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a progressive neuropathy of the peripheral nervous system, typically characterized by muscle weakness of the distal limbs. CMT is noted for its genetic heterogeneity, with four distinct loci already identified for the axonal form of the disease (CMT2). In 1996, linkage analysis of a single large family revealed the presence of a CMT2 locus on chromosome 7p14 (designated CMT2D). Additional families have been linked subsequently to the same genomic region, including one with distal spinal muscular atrophy (dSMA) and one with mixed features of dSMA and CMT2; symptoms in both of these latter families closely resemble those seen in the original CMT2D family. There is thus a distinct possibility that CMT2 and dSMA encountered in these families reflect allelic heterogeneity at a single chromosome 7 locus. In the study reported here, we have performed more detailed linkage analysis of the original CMT2D family based on new knowledge of the physical locations of various genetic markers. The region containing the CMT2D gene, as defined by the original family, overlaps with those defined by at least two other families with CMT2 and/or dSMA symptoms. Both yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial clone-based [bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)] contig maps spanning approximately 3.4 Mb have been assembled across the combined CMT2D critical region, with the latter providing suitable clones for systematic sequencing of the interval. Preliminary analyses have already revealed at least 28 candidate genes and expressed-sequence tags (ESTs). The mapping information reported here in conjunction with the evolving sequence data should expedite the identification of the CMT2D/dSMA gene or genes.  (+info)

Finding new human minisatellite sequences in the vicinity of long CA-rich sequences. (4/133)

Microsatellites and minisatellites are two classes of tandem repeat sequences differing in their size, mutation processes, and chromosomal distribution. The boundary between the two classes is not defined. We have developed a convenient, hybridization-based human library screening procedure able to detect long CA-rich sequences. Analysis of cosmid clones derived from a chromosome 1 library show that cross-hybridizing sequences tested are imperfect CA-rich sequences, some of them showing a minisatellite organization. All but one of the 13 positive chromosome 1 clones studied are localized in chromosomal bands to which minisatellites have previously been assigned, such as the 1pter cluster. To test the applicability of the procedure to minisatellite detection on a larger scale, we then used a large-insert whole-genome PAC library. Altogether, 22 new minisatellites have been identified in positive PAC and cosmid clones and 20 of them are telomeric. Among the 42 positive PAC clones localized within the human genome by FISH and/or linkage analysis, 25 (60%) are assigned to a terminal band of the karyotype, 4 (9%) are juxtacentromeric, and 13 (31%) are interstitial. The localization of at least two of the interstitial PAC clones corresponds to previously characterized minisatellite-containing regions and/or ancestrally telomeric bands, in agreement with this minisatellite-like distribution. The data obtained are in close agreement with the parallel investigation of human genome sequence data and suggest that long human (CA)s are imperfect CA repeats belonging to the minisatellite class of sequences. This approach provides a new tool to efficiently target genomic clones originating from subtelomeric domains, from which minisatellite sequences can readily be obtained. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ000377-AJ000383.]  (+info)

A 3-Mb high-resolution BAC/PAC contig of 12q22 encompassing the 830-kb consensus minimal deletion in male germ cell tumors. (5/133)

Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses have shown that the 12q22 region is recurrently deleted in male germ cell tumors (GCTs), suggesting that this site may harbor a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Previous loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses identified a consensus minimal deleted region between the markers D12S377 and D12S296, and a YAC clone contig covering the region was generated. Here, we describe a high-resolution sequence-ready physical map of this contig covering a 3-Mb region. The map comprised of 52 cosmids, 49 PACs, and 168 BACs that were anchored to the previous YAC contig; 99 polymorphic, nonpolymorphic, EST, and gene-based markers are now placed on this map in a unique order. Of these, 61 markers were isolated in the present study, including one that was polymorphic. In addition, we have narrowed the minimal deletion to approximately 830 kb between D12S1716 (proximal) and P382A8-AG (distal) by LOH analysis of 108 normal-tumor DNAs from GCT patients using 21 polymorphic STSs. These physical and deletion maps should prove useful for identification of the candidate TSG in GCTs, provide framework to generate complete DNA sequence, and ultimately generate a gene map of this segment of the chromosome 12. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the Genome Survey Sequence under accession nos. AQ254896-AQ254955 and AQ269251-AQ269266. Online supplementary material is available at http://www.genome.org]  (+info)

P1 ParB domain structure includes two independent multimerization domains. (6/133)

ParB is one of two P1-encoded proteins that are required for active partition of the P1 prophage in Escherichia coli. To probe the native domain structure of ParB, we performed limited proteolytic digestions of full-length ParB, as well as of several N-terminal and C-terminal deletion fragments of ParB. The C-terminal 140 amino acids of ParB form a very trypsin-resistant domain. In contrast, the N terminus is more susceptible to proteolysis, suggesting that it forms a less stably folded domain or domains. Because native ParB is a dimer in solution, we analyzed the ability of ParB fragments to dimerize, using both the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro chemical cross-linking of purified proteins. These studies revealed that the C-terminal 59 amino acids of ParB, a region within the protease-resistant domain, are sufficient for dimerization. Cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid experiments also revealed the presence of a second self-association domain within the N-terminal half of ParB. The cross-linking data also suggest that the C terminus is inhibitory to multimerization through the N-terminal domain in vitro. We propose that the two multimerization domains play distinct roles in partition complex formation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage P1. (7/133)

The genome of bacteriophage P1 harbors a gene coding for a 162-amino-acid protein which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB). The expression of the P1 gene is tightly regulated by P1 immunity proteins. It is completely repressed during lysogenic growth and only weakly expressed during lytic growth, as assayed by an ssb-P1/lacZ fusion construct. When cloned on an intermediate-copy-number plasmid, the P1 gene is able to suppress the temperature-sensitive defect of an E. coli ssb mutant, indicating that the two proteins are functionally interchangeable. Many bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids do not rely on the SSB protein provided by their host organism but code for their own SSB proteins. However, the close relationship between SSB-P1 and the SSB protein of the P1 host, E. coli, raises questions about the functional significance of the phage protein.  (+info)

The bacteriophage P1 HumD protein is a functional homolog of the prokaryotic UmuD'-like proteins and facilitates SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. (8/133)

The Escherichia coli umuD and umuC genes comprise an operon and encode proteins that are involved in the mutagenic bypass of normally replication-inhibiting DNA lesions. UmuD is, however, unable to function in this process until it undergoes a RecA-mediated cleavage reaction to generate UmuD'. Many homologs of umuDC have now been identified. Most are located on bacterial chromosomes or on broad-host-range R plasmids. One such putative homolog, humD (homolog of umuD) is, however, found on the bacteriophage P1 genome. Interestingly, humD differs from other umuD homologs in that it encodes a protein similar in size to the posttranslationally generated UmuD' protein and not UmuD, nor is it in an operon with a cognate umuC partner. To determine if HumD is, in fact, a bona fide homolog of the prokaryotic UmuD'-like mutagenesis proteins, we have analyzed the ability of HumD to complement UmuD' functions in vivo as well as examined HumD's physical properties in vitro. When expressed from a high-copy-number plasmid, HumD restored cellular mutagenesis and increased UV survival to normally nonmutable recA430 lexA(Def) and UV-sensitive DeltaumuDC recA718 lexA(Def) strains, respectively. Complementing activity was reduced when HumD was expressed from a low-copy-number plasmid, but this observation is explained by immunoanalysis which indicates that HumD is normally poorly expressed in vivo. In vitro analysis revealed that like UmuD', HumD forms a stable dimer in solution and is able to interact with E. coli UmuC and RecA nucleoprotein filaments. We conclude, therefore, that bacteriophage P1 HumD is a functional homolog of the UmuD'-like proteins, and we speculate as to the reasons why P1 might require the activity of such a protein in vivo.  (+info)

Biotechnical production processes often operate with plasmid-based expression systems in well-established prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Genetically engineered organisms produce important chemicals, biopolymers, biofuels and high-value proteins like insulin. In those bioprocesses plasmids in recombinant hosts have an essential impact on productivity. Plasmid-free cells lead to losses in the entire product recovery and decrease the profitability of the whole process. Use of antibiotics in industrial fermentations is not an applicable option to maintain plasmid stability. Especially in pharmaceutical or GMP-based fermentation processes, deployed antibiotics must be inactivated and removed. Several plasmid addiction systems (PAS) were described in the literature. However, not every system has reached a full applicable state. This review compares most known addiction systems and is focusing on biotechnical applications.. ...
Many canonical processes in molecular biology rely on the dynamic assembly of higher-order nucleoprotein complexes. In bacteria, the assembly mechanism of ParABS, the nucleoprotein super-complex that actively segregates the bacterial chromosome and many plasmids, remains elusive. We combined super-resolution microscopy, quantitative genome-wide surveys, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling to investigate the assembly of ParB at the centromere-like sequences parS. We found that nearly all ParB molecules are actively confined around parS by a network of synergistic protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Interrogation of the empirically determined, high-resolution ParB genomic distribution with modeling suggests that instead of binding only to specific sequences and subsequently spreading, ParB binds stochastically around parS over long distances. We propose a new model for the formation of the ParABS partition complex based on nucleation and caging: ParB forms a dynamic lattice with the DNA
BS EN 1364-1 PDF - OF BOARD PARTITION SYSTEM. Client.: PalmEco Tech Ltd. Project.: Fire Resistance Test on Board Partition System in accordance with BS EN BS EN specifies a
Hi All, Does anyone know if your undergraduate transcript from a Canadian U is accepted at par when you apply to US grad schools or do you need to get it evaluated through one of those services?
Those applicants who are completing the qualifying degree in summer of 2020 can also apply, provided they have a minimum of 60% overall marks in the completed semesters. If selected, the final degree mark sheet should be submitted by 1st November 2020. Continuation in the Ph.D. programme will be subject to the candidate obtaining a minimum 60% marks overall (converted to a percentage as per the concerned universitys rules). 5 year integrated M.S. (of IISERs) will be treated at par with 5 years integrated M.Sc. ...
The Canadian Dollar and the US Dollar are at par, once again! The last time this happened was back in September 2007, and the time before that was in November 1976. Great… Im Canadian! So now what can I do? Well, if you dont live far from the U.S. border, now might be a good… [Read More]. ...
A plasmid partition system is a mechanism that assures the stable transmission of plasmids during bacterial cell division. Each plasmid has its independent replication system which controls the number of copies of the plasmid in a cell. The higher the copy number is, the more likely the two daughter cells will contain the plasmid. Generally, each molecule of plasmid diffuses randomly, so the probability of having a plasmid-less daughter cell is 21−N, where N is the number of copies. For instance, if there are 2 copies of a plasmid in a cell, there is a 50% chance of having one plasmid-less daughter cell. However, high-copy number plasmids have a cost for the hosting cell. This metabolic burden is lower for low-copy plasmids, but those have a higher probability of plasmid loss after a few generations. To control vertical transmission of plasmids, in addition to controlled-replication systems, bacterial plasmids use different maintenance strategies, such as multimer resolution systems, ...
Read more about Indian IT BPM now at par with customers after tech shift: Roy on Business Standard. Emergence of new technology has brought Indian business process management (BPM) at par with their customers during business discussions, IT industry body Nasscom Chairman Raman Roy said today. Earlier as we sat on table with our customers we were
The segregational stability of bacterial, low-copy-number plasmids is promoted primarily by active partition. The plasmid-specified components of the prototypical P1 plasmid partition system consist of two proteins, ParA (44.3 kDa) and ParB (38.5 kDa), which, in conjunction with integration host fac …
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
The bacterial genome is organized in a structure called the nucleoid by a variety of associated proteins. These proteins can form complexes on DNA that play a central role in various biological processes, including chromosome segregation. A prominent example is the large ParB-DNA complex, which forms an essential component of the segregation machinery in many bacteria. ChIP-Seq experiments show that ParB proteins localize around centromere-like parS sites on the DNA to which ParB binds specifically, and spreads from there over large sections of the chromosome. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that DNA-bound ParB proteins can interact with each other to condense into a coherent 3D complex on the DNA. However, the structural organization of this protein-DNA complex remains unclear, and a predictive quantitative theory for the distribution of ParB proteins on DNA is lacking. Here, we propose the Looping and Clustering (LC) model, which employs a statistical physics approach to describe
At the bottom of the GeneCards homepage are gene statistics. The first column contains the total number of genes and the total number of HGNC approved genes. The numbers link to graphs showing the gene distributions. The first column also has links to both the most popular GeneCards genes (hot genes and disease genes) The second and third columns list the number of genes in each category, with links to the statistics page which includes both gene distribution graphs and tools to search for genes within a particular category. The rightmost column contains links to sample genes for each category. The bottom of each page has links to the GeneCards gene index, which lists all of the GeneCards genes. ...
The Future of Work - Trends at Work and Workplace study highlights employer sentiments on the trends that will impact the future of work, enabled by disruptive technologies. The study purports to identify the leading elements impacting the workforce, and its immediate ramifications for organisations.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
36bp LoxP site: the LoxP site is the naturally-occurring substrate for the Cre recombinase. In nature (and in previous biobricks) it is a palindromic sequence 34 base pairs long. Because this is not a multiple of three, when used inside a transcribed ORF the 34bp LoxP site can throw off the frame of the translated parts. To get around this, previous teams had to either add or take away bases from surrounding parts to keep their systems in frame (painstakingly and sometimes unsuccessfully). To get around this restriction, we designed and Biobricked a 36bp LoxP site that Registry users can include in transcribed regions without worrying about keeping everything in frame ...
36bp LoxP site: the LoxP site is the naturally-occurring substrate for the Cre recombinase. In nature (and in previous biobricks) it is a palindromic sequence 34 base pairs long. Because this is not a multiple of three, when used inside a transcribed ORF the 34bp LoxP site can throw off the frame of the translated parts. To get around this, previous teams had to either add or take away bases from surrounding parts to keep their systems in frame (painstakingly and sometimes unsuccessfully). To get around this restriction, we designed and Biobricked a 36bp LoxP site that Registry users can include in transcribed regions without worrying about keeping everything in frame ...
Tornadoes, the ultimate manufacturer, begins at par. 8. This hub uses limits to define e, and it explains why 1 raised to an infinite power may not be anywhere near one when limits are involved.
The country has come a long way in the development of its infrastructure, which is now almost at par with many developed countries. The installation, operation and maintenance of these facilities do not come free of charge. They come at a cost. This cost has to be paid either by the Government or the private sector. Truly the Government does not have the funds to build all the infrastructure for the people from taxes collected. If we wait until the Government has the funds, then it would take a long time for the infrastructure to the built. Because of this the private sector will have to invest. They will not invest unless they get a reasonable return. Users must therefore be prepared to pay a reasonable fee for the services rendered. Nevertheless the Government will support to the extent that it can. In fact the payment by Malaysian consumers is very much lower than is paid by consumers in other countries. For the good of everyone consumers must accept the concept of user pays. It is grossly ...
The purpose of Symbiosis is to deliver full spectrum Therapy services within a fun and therapeutic environment by creating an atmosphere of warmth, caring and assurance for the children as well as the parents. Our mission is to provide excellent therapy services to children with special needs. We strive to enhance the lives of children, so they can play and learn at par with their peers ...
Predlagan je bil drug aktiven mehanizem (mehanizem sistema parABS), ki je podoben mehanizmu delitvenega vretena pri mitozi. Sistem parABS sodeluje pri razporejanju celih kromosomov kot tudi plazmidov po citoplazmi pred celično delitvijo. Sistem je zgrajen iz proteina ParA z ATP-aznim delovanjem, iz DNA vezavnega proteinskega dimera ParB in parS zaporedja. Kromosom ima več takih zaporedij (lahko tudi 22). ParA in parB gena se nahajata na istem operonu, za katerim takoj leži zaporedje parS. ParB protein se veže na parS zaporedje in DNA v okolici parS. ParB-DNA kompleks se veže na ATP-vezan ParA protein, pri čemer vzpodbudi ATP-azno aktivnost ParA proteina. Od ATP-ja se odcepi fosfatni ion, ADP-ParA pa se tudi odcepi od ParB-DNA kompleksa, ki se veže na naslednji ATP-vezan ParA protein. Ta interakcija pripomore k usmerjanju oriC regij kromosoma in njegovemu premikanju proti celičnima poloma. Pri podrobnejši razlagi mehanizma in nahajanju ATP-ParA proteina v celici so si maloštevilni ...
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
It appears that your web browser doesnt support JavaScript or JavaScript is disabled. You must enable JavaScript or upgrade to a newer web browser to shop at our online store. If you continue to have trouble, please contact customer service to place an order for you ...
Gene disruption by targeted integration of transfected constructs becomes increasingly popular for studies of gene function. The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model for gene knock-outs due to its high targeted integration activity. Disruption of multiple genes and complementation of the phenotypes is, however, restricted by the number of available selectable marker genes. It is therefore highly desirable to recycle the selectable markers using a site-specific recombination system like Cre/loxP. We constructed three plasmid vectors (neoR, puroR and bsr), which carry selectable marker genes flanked by two different mutant loxP sites. After stable transfection, the marker genes can be excised from the genome by transient induction of Cre recombinase expression. This excision converts the two mutant loxP sites to an inactive double-mutant loxP. Furthermore we constructed a versatile expression vector to clone cDNA expression cassettes between mutant loxP sites. This vector can also be
Cre-Lox recombination is a special type of site-specific recombination. The Cre protein is a site-specific DNA recombinase. It can catalyze the recombination of DNA between specific sites in a DNA molecule. These sites, known as loxP sequences, contain specific binding sites for Cre that surround a directional core sequence where recombination can occur. It is often used in the generation of knockout and conditional knockout animals. - Cre-Lox Recombination - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
MICER is a method developed by Allan Bradley. It consists of four sets of genomic clones that contain a loxP site in either orientation site and either the proximal or the distal half of a HPRT mini gene. After Cre mediated recombination between the loxP sites of two different MICER clones a complete HPRT mini gene is reconstituted and one can select for the Cre induced alteration of the genome. If the two loxP sites are located within the same chromosome and have the same orientation one will end up with a deletion of the sequences located between the loxP sites. If the loxP sites are inversely orientated Cre mediated recombination will induce an inversion of the sequences between the two loxP sites (it should be noticed though, that without selection prolonged presence of Cre can lead to a reversion of the fragment). If the loxP sites are situated on different chromosomes Cre mediated recombination will lead to reciprocal translocation between the two chromosomes, which is indeed the situation ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
FRT flanked, Pro and Euk. Neomycin Selection Cassette plus loxP site(FRT-PGK-gb2-neo-FRT-loxP) from Gene Bridges GmbH,The with a eukaryotic promoter (PGK) for expression of n,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Read the whole thing. Peter Oborne is even more distressed.. I am in the skeptical camp. My line is that as long as you have bad debt that is priced at par, you have an active crisis. To the extent that the ECB is trying to keep the price of weak-country debt close to par, it is not offering a credible solution. Uncertainty will prevail in the markets. On the other hand, if it were to set prices that were far below par but which it is willing and able to pay, then it can remove the uncertainty. The resolution to the original Kipper- und Wipperzeit did that, where the new bank would weigh the debased coins issued under the previous regime and set prices based on those weights. The Brady Bonds did that for the Latin American debt crisis. If you ask me, somebody needs to produce a Brady Bond sort of resolution to the European debt crisis. It will be ugly, and some European banks will be insolvent, which in turn will require re-pricing some of their liabilities (presumably not their deposits) and ...
I absolutely believe that the digital product out of India is at par with the best in the world and in many cases, even better. We are an incubator of digital talent.
you didnt get the gist. its a commonplace today that the average young lady (not the useless feminists/lesbians) prioritizes education and white collar job in a bid be at par or even surpass the average man........but the irony is, when she eventually attains the age of marriage she settles with a man old enough to be her father or a guy in the fine-boy-no-money class. its no only war that reduces the number of men but the growing number of women competing with men in work environment ...
Svartrygget sjakal regnes som døgnaktiv, men den er gjerne mest aktiv i grålysningen og skumringen. I områder der de gjerne forfølges av mennesker blir de gjerne nattaktive. Det har også blitt registrert at denne sjakalen er mest aktiv i den intermediære månefasen natterstid, mens de blir mindre aktive når det er fullmåne eller nymåne (Ferguson m.fl.[11], 1988). Svartryggsjakalen er kjent for å være svært vokale og har et stort forråd av lyder. Svartryggsjakaler er monogame og danner parforhold som normalt varer livet ut. De er svært territoriale og forsvarer reviret aggressivt mot inntrengere. Territoriene varierer i størrelse etter tilgangen på mat. I sør er gjennomsnittet cirka 18,2 km², mens det i Kalahari er cirka 4,3 km². Sjakalene danner små grupper, som består av foreldre og deres nærmeste avkom. Eldre søsken fungerer som «hjelpere» og bidrar til oppdragelsen og pass av valper. Studier har vist at par som ikke har slike hjelpere i større grad taper valpene til ...
Priced a private offering to eligible purchases of 7.750% senior unsecured notes due 2029 at par. Proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes, including repaying the borrowings outstanding under its senior secured credit facility.
We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the floxed gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
道客巴巴(doc88.com)是一个在线文档分享平台。你可以上传论文,研究报告,行业标准,设计方案,电子书等电子文档,可以自由交换文档,还可以分享最新的行业资讯。
道客巴巴(doc88.com)是一个在线文档分享平台。你可以上传论文,研究报告,行业标准,设计方案,电子书等电子文档,可以自由交换文档,还可以分享最新的行业资讯。
道客巴巴(doc88.com)是一个在线文档分享平台。你可以上传论文,研究报告,行业标准,设计方案,电子书等电子文档,可以自由交换文档,还可以分享最新的行业资讯。
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
We have mapped determinants for species‐specific interactions of Par components (Figure 6). Operon repression involves a specific interaction between ParA and the operator DNA. The specific determinant includes a HTH motif in the N‐terminal region of ParA and probably contacts the operator directly. Direct binding of ParA to the operator sequence has been shown previously (Davis et al., 1992).. Specific enhancement of repression by ParB was shown to be due to a protein-protein interaction with ParA rather than direct recognition of the operator by ParB. This is consistent with the observation that ParB does not appear to bind to the operator by itself, and does not cause any qualitative modification of the footprint of ParA bound to operator DNA (Davis et al., 1992). The ParA-ParB interaction involves determinants in the C‐terminal region of ParA and the N‐terminal end of ParB (Figure 6). ParA and ParB interact directly in vitro (Davis et al., 1992). Thus it is likely that the mapped ...
It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains) of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant) bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular) DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement ...
b) On an expected yield basis, the expected capital gains yield will always be positive because an investor would not purchase a bond with an expected capital loss.. (c) On an expected yield basis, the expected current yield will always be positive because an investor would not purchase a bond that is not expected to pay any cash coupon interest.. (d) If a coupon bond is selling at par, its current yield equals its yield to maturity.. (e) The current yield on Bond A exceeds the current yield on Bond B; therefore, Bond A must have. (8 ) (TCO D) Ezzell Enterprises noncallable bonds currently sell for $1,165. They have a 15-year maturity, an annual coupon of $95, and a par value of $1,000. What is their yield to maturity? (Points : 10). 6.20%. 6.53%. 6.87%. 7.24%. 7.62%. (9 ) (TCO C) Niendorf Corporations five-year bonds yield 6.75%, and five-year T-bonds yield 4.80%. The real risk-free rate is r* = 2.75%, the inflation premium for five-year bonds is IP = 1.65%, the default risk premium for ...
Eligibility: Passed Intermediate/ 10+2/ equivalent examination in any stream/subjects approved by Central/State Education Boards, with minimum of 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English. Passed two year Vocational Course affiliated/recognised by CBSE / State Education Boards/Councils duly recognised at par with 10+2 by AIU with minimum 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English in Vocational Course or in Intermediate / Matriculation, if English is not a subject in Vocational Course. ...
Every time I pass a relatively green patch here in Ahmedabad, I can immediately feel the coolness on my skin and the freshness of the air I breathe in. Guess, everyone must be experiencing the same thing. If not better, the impact is at par when compared to that of ACs ...
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
5crx_A mol:protein length:343 PROTEIN (BACTERIOPHAGE P1 CRE GENE) MSNLLTVHQNLPALPVDATSDEVRKNLMDMFRDRQAFSEHTWKMLLSVCRSWAAWCKLN NRKWFPAEPEDVRDYLLYLQARGLAVKTIQQHLGQLNMLHRRSGLPRPSDSNAVSLVMR RIRKENVDAGERAKQALAFERTDFDQVRSLMENSDRCQDIRNLAFLGIAYNTLLRIAEI ARIRVKDISRTDGGRMLIHIGRTKTLVSTAGVEKALSLGVTKLVERWISVSGVADDPNN YLFCRVRKNGVAAPSATSQLSTRALEGIFEATHRLIYGAKDDSGQRYLAWSGHSARVGA ARDMARAGVSIPEIMQAGGWTNVNIVMNFIRNLDSETGAMVRLLEDGD ...
Doc. V. Ščemeliovas - Vilniaus universiteto Hidrologijos ir klimatologijos katedros ilgametis darbuotojas, žymus Lietuvos klimatologas ir mokslo apie orus populiarintas.. Didelį ačiū jums taria mokiniai, linki tvirtos sveikatos ir dar ne vieno atradimo tiriant tėviškės orus.. Sveikinimą galite perskaityti čia.. ...
① 주어와 동사, 목적어 및 보어군에 핵심 메시지를 표현하라. ② 명사의 과도한 연결을 피하라. ③ 짧은 문장을 사용하라. ④ 명확한 대명사를 사용하라. ⑤ 대비되는 개념은 대비되는 형태로 배열하라. 우리는..
The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Unit at the UCL Institute of Child Health has embarked on a major programme to help children with memory problems resulting from brain damage.
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
Legal tender status guaranteed that creditors would have to accept the notes despite the fact that they were not backed by gold, bank deposits, or government reserves, and had no interest. However, the First Legal Tender Act did not make the notes an unlimited legal tender as they could not be used by merchants to pay customs duties on imports and could not be used by the government to pay interest on its bonds. The Act did provide that the notes be receivable by the government for short term deposits at 5% interest, and for the purchase of 6% interest 20-year bonds at par. The rationale for these terms was that the Union government would preserve its credit-worthiness by supporting the value of its bonds by paying their interest in gold. Early in the war, customs duties were a large part of government tax revenue and by making these payable in gold, the government would generate the coin necessary to make the interest payments on the bonds. Lastly, by making the bonds available for purchase at ...
CDH an ISO 9001: 2008 and cGMP certified company has been serving the scientific community with the largest range of Laboratory Fine Chemicals & Dehydrated Culture Media since 1981. CDH is presently manufacturing and marketing over 9000 products. CDH is recognised as a benchmark for wide range of products of high purity. We are having the best combination of Bio chemicals, Research Chemicals, Rare Earth Metals, Laboratory Reagents, HPLC/AAS/EL/DRY Solvents, Stains & Indicators and Dehydrated Culture Media. Our Dehydrated Culture Media products are manufactured and marketed under the brand name as Microgen awarded with CE certification to prove its quality at par with International Standards.. ...
To improve the existing school infrastructures, encouraging kids to join schools, opening libraries, providing vocational training to rural youth and adult education. AdiVidya Mandir & Library. Education plays a key role in any developmental work. In March 2007, a small elementary school AdiVidya Mandir was started at village Jahangirabad, Orissa for 4-7 yr old kids with K.G and 1st grade. The school started with fifteen kids from the nearby villages, all from extremely poor and socially & economically challenged families. These children are the first time learners in their families. Our objective is to provide these children a conducive environment where they can grow physically, mentally and be at par with other children. The school has been affiliated with Sri Aurobindo Integral Education system and focus more on integral development of a child. Adding one grade every year, currently (2011) the school has six grades K.G - V and forty students are currently enrolled with outside sponsorship ...
crispgg: I expect ANAN to take advantage of this situation. All those with ACCA need is the ability to set up there own firms in Nigeria. With ANAN membership, they can do that. Imagine the credibility that they will gain when they have a huge number of ACCA members joining them. In a few years, they will be at par with ICAN ...
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Ref A: 2D0D1DFD7FF74E9FA87E109E2B54B004 Ref B: AMBEDGE0612 Ref C: 2021-09-21T04:25:31Z. Ref A: 048C0B89731946D4B4A1CADD4D43E752 Ref B: AMBEDGE0717 Ref C: 2021-09-21T04:25:31Z. Ref A: D6C2F2ECBC5B40628A99D98144F6C641 Ref B: AMBEDGE0806 Ref C: 2021-09-21T04:25:31Z ...
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"Bacteriophage P1". In The Bacteriophages, Vol. 1, ed. Richard Calendar, pp. 291-438 (Plenum; 1988) Research papers Nat ... "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs ... "Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. I. Recombination between loxP sites", Journal of Molecular Biology, 150 (4): 467- ... where he started to study the phage P1. From 1981 he directed his own group, continuing to research the P1 phage, as well as ...
loxP (locus of X-over P1) is a site on the bacteriophage P1 consisting of 34 bp. The site includes an asymmetric 8 bp sequence ... The Cre enzyme and the original Lox site called the LoxP sequence are derived from bacteriophage P1. Placing Lox sequences ... Sternberg N, Hoess R (1983). "The molecular genetics of bacteriophage P1". Annual Review of Genetics. 17 (1): 123-54. doi: ... November 2004). "Genome of bacteriophage P1". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (21): 7032-68. doi:10.1128/JB.186.21.7032-7068.2004 ...
P1' had a unique site specific recombination system. EcoRI fragments of the P1 bacteriophage genome were generated and cloned ... Cre recombinase plays important roles in the life cycle of the P1 bacteriophage. Upon infection of a cell the Cre-loxP system ... The enzyme plays important roles in the life cycle of the P1 bacteriophage, such as cyclization of the linear genome and ... Cre recombinase is a tyrosine recombinase enzyme derived from the P1 bacteriophage. The enzyme uses a topoisomerase I-like ...
"Three functions of bacteriophage P1 involved in cell lysis". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (4): 1099-1104. doi:10.1128/jb.178.4. ...
Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ... P1 vectors also contain a P1 plasmid replicon, which ensures only one copy of the vector is present in a cell. However, there ...
Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. He had ... P1, P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi:10.1128/JB.186.3.595-600.2004. PMC ...
"Visualization of bacteriophage P1 infection by cryo-electron tomography of tiny Escherichia coli". Virology. 417 (2): 304-311. ...
"Site-Specific DNA Recombination in Mammalian Cells by the Cre Recombinase of Bacteriophage P1". Proceedings of the National ... The founding member of the YR family is the lambda integrase, encoded by bacteriophage λ, enabling the integration of phage DNA ... The enzyme recognizes 34 base pair DNA sequences called loxP ("locus of crossover in phage P1"). Depending on the orientation ... This dream became reality when groups in the USA were able to introduce bacteriophage and yeast-derived site-specific ...
Citron M, Schuster H (August 1990). "The c4 repressors of bacteriophages P1 and P7 are antisense RNAs". Cell. 62 (3): 591-598. ... It was initially identified in the P1 and P7 phages of E. coli. The identification of c4 antisense RNAs solved the mystery of ... The presence of c4 antisense RNAs in bacteria is to be expected, since the P1 and P7 phages are temperate and can stably ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. BACs are often used to sequence ...
Some proteins known to contain a KilA-N domain are listed below: Bacteriophage P1 protein kilA Fowlpox virus (FPV) protein ...
To determine the anti-viral capacity of beeswax wrap bacteriophages M13 and P1 were incubated in a liquid phase with the ...
P1 is a major capsid protein which is responsible of forming the skeleton of the polymerase complex. In the interior of the ... Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. It is a lytic phage, ... Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae. It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant ... its structure has been studied by scientists interested in lipid-containing bacteriophages, and it has been used as a model ...
... p1 bacteriophage MeSH A11.284.187.178.200 - chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.190 - chromosomes, bacterial MeSH ...
... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.280.090.500.300 - bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280.090.500. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 - bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.150.700 ... bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123.205.891.230 - bacteriophage t7 MeSH B04.123.230.070 - bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123.370.400 - ...
... p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.337.249.200 - chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.340.024.079 - attachment sites, microbiological ... p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.162.178.200 - chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.162.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, ...
... see C1 and P1 (neuroscience) DSC-P100, a digital camera HMAS Buccaneer (P 100), a patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy NNS ... a bacteriophage Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 P100, a NIOSH air filtration rating P100, an event-related ...
186 phage λ phage Φ6 phage Φ29 phage ΦX174 Bacteriophage φCb5 G4 phage M13 phage MS2 phage (23-28 nm in size) N4 phage P1 phage ... The largest bacteriophage genomes reach a size of 735 kb. Bacteriophage genomes can be highly mosaic, i.e. the genome of many ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... "T4 Bacteriophage targeting E. coli bacteria". Animation by Hybrid Animation Medical. 21 December 2009. Bacteriophages: What are ...
The high level of similarities in the tail fiber genes of phage P2, P1, Mu, λ, K3 and T2, which belong to different families, ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a ...
"Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 Viralzone: ... "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: Evolution of Bacteriophage Tail Fiber Genes". Journal of ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ... P1 is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli and some other bacteria. When undergoing a lysogenic cycle the ...
The p1 protein of Ff phage (i. e. genus Inovirus), which is required for phage assembly at the membrane, has a membrane- ... species Escherichia virus M13 M13 bacteriophage f1 phage species Filamentous bacteriophage fd (proposal) fd phage genus ... inactivated infectivity as predicted for a filamentous bacteriophage morphology. Three filamentous bacteriophages, fd, f1 and ... Filamentous bacteriophage is a family of viruses (Inoviridae) that infect bacteria. The phages are named for their filamentous ...
A P1-derived artificial chromosome, or PAC, is a DNA construct derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophages and Bacterial ... The bacteriophage P1 was first isolated by Dr. Giuseppe Bertani. In his study, he noticed that the lysogen produced abnormal ... Sternberg, N.; Cohen, G. (1989-05-05). "Genetic analysis of the lytic replicon of bacteriophage P1. II. Organization of ... Sternberg N (January 1990). "Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as ...
Eqolosins prefer bulky amino acid residues at the P1 site and small amino acid residues at the P1′ site. A characteristic of ... A convergently evolved glutamic peptidase, the pre-neck appendage protein (bacteriophage phi-29), uses a Glu and Asp dyad at ...
Bacteriophage PM2 was first described in 1968 after isolation from seawater sampled from the coast of Chile. The genus contains ... The icosahedral capsid (T = 21) is 56 nanometers (nm) in diameter and is composed of 1200 P1 (spike) and 60 P2 (capsid) ... Corticoviruses are bacteriophages; that is, their natural hosts are bacteria. The genus contains two species. The name is ... Harrison, S.C., Caspar, D.L., Camerini-Otero, R.D. and Franklin, R.M. (1971). Lipid and protein arrangement in bacteriophage ...
The bacteriophages used for cloning are the λ phage and M13 phage. There is an upper limit on the amount of DNA that can be ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Yeast artificial chromosome ... Some plasmids contain an M13 bacteriophage origin of replication and may be used to generate single-stranded DNA. These are ... Cosmids are plasmids that incorporate a segment of bacteriophage λ DNA that has the cohesive end site (cos) which contains ...
During an infection, bacteriophages hijack transcription and translation, which could prevent antitoxin replenishment and ... "Escherichia coli mazEF-mediated cell death as a defense mechanism that inhibits the spread of phage P1". Molecular Genetics and ... Dy RL, Przybilski R, Semeijn K, Salmond GP, Fineran PC (April 2014). "A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system ... Type III toxin-antitoxin (AbiQ) systems have been shown to protect bacteria from bacteriophages altruistically. ...
The bacteriophage λ-red operon consists of the exo, bet, and gam genes which, together, are responsible for recombineering. ... recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. ISSN ... In this system, the red operon from bacteriophage λ is transfected into E. coli cells to facilitate incorporation of linear ... In this system, sequences matching foreign bacteriophage or plasmid DNA are incorporated as "spacer" sequences into the ...
Bacteriophage P2, a temperate phage of the family Myoviridae that infects E. coli P2 laboratory, biosafety-level-2 laboratory ... a variant of the 1923 P-1 Hawk biplane fighter of the United States Army Air Corps P-2 Neptune, known as "P2V Neptune" until ...
Bacteriophage T12 infection of S. pyogenes enables the production of speA, and increases virulence. SpeB was identified in 1919 ... It requires three amino acids before the cleavage site, known as P1, P2 and P3. Of these, SpeB has a preference for hydrophobic ... In contrast, speA, speC and speH-M are encoded by bacteriophages. There is a lack of consensus over the location of the speG ... Bacteriophages, Part A. Vol. 82. pp. 91-118. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-394621-8.00014-5. ISBN 9780123946218. PMID 22420852. Media ...
As proteins homologous to Beta and RecT are found in many bacteria and bacteriophages (>100 as of February 2010), ... recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. PMC ... Murphy K. C. (1998). "Use of bacteriophage λ recombination functions to promote gene replacement in Escherichia coli". Journal ... Recombineering is based on homologous recombination in Escherichia coli mediated by bacteriophage proteins, either RecE/RecT ...
The genes of bacteriophage (phage) T4 that encode proteins with a role in determining phage T4 structure were identified using ... Mammalian HSP60 was first reported as a mitochondrial P1 protein. It was subsequently cloned and sequenced by Radhey Gupta and ... Snustad DP (August 1968). "Dominance interactions in Escherichia coli cells mixedly infected with bacteriophage T4D wild-type ... Mitochondrial matrix protein P1, P60 lymphocyte protein, HSPD1 Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a mitochondrial chaperonin that ...
Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... Additional functions associated with S-layers include: protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ...
P1(xQ) 62.5%. While other studies identify this as R(xR2)/R1b, the subject remains controversial (see Hammer, Michael F. et al ... Hershey A, Chase M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". J Gen Physiol ...
The bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (family A) was also initially used in PCR. It has a higher fidelity of replication than the ... automatable amplification and sequencing of insert end fragments from P1 and YAC clones for chromosome walking". Genomics. 25 ( ...
... site P element P1 P53 Palindrome Panmictic Paralogous genes Paramecin Parameters Parental Parental ditype Parental imprinting ... mutant Axoneme B form DNA Bacillus Back mutation Backcross Bacteria Bacterial conjugation Bacterial lawn Bacteriophage Balbiani ...
Recombinant Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 2 to 343 aa range, , 90% purity ... Cre-recombinase is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. It is highly specific for a 34 bp DNA sequence ( ... loxP) found in P1 DNA. It catalyzes site-specific recombination between two 34-base-pair LOXP sites. Its role is to maintain ...
Lox P (locus of X-over P1) is a site on the Bacteriophage P1 consisting of 34 bp which is recognised by the site specific Cre ... Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1.pdf [ English. ] ...
"Bacteriophage P1". In The Bacteriophages, Vol. 1, ed. Richard Calendar, pp. 291-438 (Plenum; 1988) Research papers Nat ... "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs ... "Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. I. Recombination between loxP sites", Journal of Molecular Biology, 150 (4): 467- ... where he started to study the phage P1. From 1981 he directed his own group, continuing to research the P1 phage, as well as ...
Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. Virology. 1955;1:190-206. ... The secret life of the anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis: bacteriophage-mediated ecological adaptations. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6532. ...
Abremski, K. & Hoess, R. Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. Purification and properties of the Cre recombinase ...
Isolation of bacteriophage-P1-derived constructs using the QIAGEN® Plasmid Midi Kit - (EN). EN. ... Do you have a protocol for the isolation of bacteriophage P1 derived constructs with any of your plasmid kits? ... Yes, please follow the User-Developed Protocol Isolation of bacteriophage P1 derived constructs using the QIAGEN Plasmid Midi ... If cells have been resuspended properly in P1, "brownish areas" after P2 addition just indicate poor mixing of P1 and P2. To ...
Sharrocks AD & Hornby DP (1991) Transcriptional analysis of the restriction and modification genes of bacteriophage P1.. Mol ...
Abremski K, Hoess R. Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. Purification and properties of the Cre recombinase protein. ...
Bacteriophage P1 34% * Cre recombinase 28% * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 28% * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2 27% ...
Bacteriophage P1 23% * Co-Repressor Proteins 18% * Homeostasis 10% 24 Citations (Scopus) ...
and Cre recombinase system from bacteriophage P1, see Kilby et al. , 1993, Trends. Genetics 9: 413-421, as well as US Patent ... constructed in a bacteriophage or plasmid shuttle vector with a partial cDNA. encoding the RAMP1 protein. This partial cDNA is ... library constructed in a bacteriophage or plasmid shuttle vector with a partial cDNA. or oligonucleotide with homology to a ... containing cDNA library constructed in a bacteriophage or plasmid shuttle vector. with a labeled degenerate oligonucleotide ...
Site-specific recombination induced in transgenic plants by PVX virus vector expressing bacteriophage P1 recombinase. Plant Sci ...
3,A). To map the gene within the mouse genome, a bacteriophage P1 clone was used to FISH-localize a single MR1 locus within ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning and FISH. The following two oligonucleotides, 5′-CAGACCTGTGTGGTGGTGTC-3′ and 3′-CTAATACACCGAGTGTAGTG-5 ... However, because of the lack of the entire transcriptional unit within the obtained λ clones, a murine bacteriophage P1 library ... Three new developments in P1 cloning: increased cloning efficiency, improved clone recovery, and a new P1 mouse library. Genet ...
Microinjection of P1-derived artificial chromosome with an entire COL7A1 gene construct. Keratinocytes. 99. ... ΦC31 bacteriophage integrase vector. Fibroblasts. 57,65. Knotted polymers - poly(β-amino ester)s. Keratinocytes. 66-68. ...
Zahradka, K. (2007) Bacteriophage DNA extraction. U: Ambriović Ristov, A., Brozović, A., Bruvo Mađarić, B., Ćetković, H., Herak ... Zahradka, D. & Zahradka, K. (2007) Gene transfer by P1 transduction. U: Ambriović Ristov, A., Brozović, A., Bruvo Mađarić, B., ...
Bacteriophage LM33_P1, a fast-acting weapon against the pandemic ST131-O25b:H4 Escherichia coli clonal complex. Dufour Nicolas ...
The bacteriophage P1kc from the laboratory collectionwas used for routine transduction tomove a locus from one strain to ... anotherand is referred to as P1 throughout this thesis.Table 2.1 E. coli strains used in this study ...
Lennox, E. S. (1955). Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. Virology. 1:190-206. PMID ... "My first paper on lysogeny, describing the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of P1, P2, and P3, also contained ... In the Postscript to his 2004 paper, "Lysogeny at Mid-Twentieth Century: P1, P2, and Other Experimental Systems", Giuseppe ... Bertani, G. (2004). Lysogeny at mid-twentieth century: P1, P2, and other experimental systems. J. Bacteriology. 186:595-600. ...
Cre Recombinase: A bacteriophage P1-derived topoisomerase that can act as a site-specific recombinase. Cre recombinase ...
Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage. *Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast. *Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. *Chromosomes, Human, ...
Bacteriophage typing was done according to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS), London, United Kingdom guidelines (4). ... sequence data of the region of p981123 essential for replication indicated a gene coding for a protein similar to protein p1 of ... showed RDNC-a in bacteriophage typing, and all the RDNC-a strains (n = 40) were resistant to at least ampicillin including two ... reactions against the phages used in bacteriophage typing did not conform to any known reaction patterns (phage type [PT] RDNC- ...
bacteriophage P1 c4 repressor. *lymphocryptovirus encoded RNA 1. *lymphocryptovirus encoded RNA 2 ...
CRE protein, from bacteriophage P1, catalyzes recombination between 34 base pair target sequences, named lox sites. CRE ...
... of bacteriophage P1. Cre (Causes recombination with Cyclization recombinase) is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 ... Cre-recombinase is a 38 kD DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. It is highly specific for a 34 bp DNA sequence ( ... Cre-recombinase is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. It is highly specific for a 34 bp DNA sequence ( ... Recombinant anticre length protein corresponding to Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase aa 1 to the C-terminus, anticre. The ...
Westwater, et al.. Development of a P1 phagemid system for the delivery of DNA into Gram-negative bacteria, Microbiology, 2002 ... Garneau, et al., The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA, Nature, Nov. 4, 2010, vol. 468, ... In embodiments, the phagemids encode one or more bacteriophage proteins. In one embodiment, the phagemids comprise a ...
... derived from the P1 bacteriophage. It is widely used for conditional mutagenesis of transgenes and insert DNA cassettes into ... Bacteriophage genome inserted into that of the host which requires gene products from "helper" phages to complete its ...
Sauer, B. & Henderson, N. (1988)Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. ...
Architecture of Fis-activated transcription complexes at the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 and rrnE P1 promoters. J MOL BIOL. , 316( ... Thomas MS & Drabble WT (1986) Secondary attachment site for bacteriophage lambda in the guaB gene of Escherichia coli. Journal ... Kedzierska B, Glinkowska M, Iwanicki A, Obuchowski M, Sojka P, Thomas MS & Wegrzyn G (2003) Toxicity of the bacteriophage ... Szalewska-Palasz A, Strzelczyk B, Herman-Antosiewicz A, Wegrzyn G & Thomas MS (2003) Genetic analysis of bacteriophage lambda N ...
  • Cre-recombinase is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. (abcam.com)
  • Lox P (locus of X-over P1) is a site on the Bacteriophage P1 consisting of 34 bp which is recognised by the site specific Cre recombinase. (cbd.int)
  • Recombinant anticre length protein corresponding to Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase aa 1 to the C-terminus, anticre. (arquisef.cf)
  • Recombinase cre (UniProt P06956) is encoded by the cre gene (Gene ID 2777477) of bacteriophage P1. (arquisef.cf)
  • Cre (Causes recombination with Cyclization recombinase) is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. (arquisef.cf)
  • Cre Recombinase antibody LS-C179954 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to bacteriophage Cre Recombinase. (arquisef.cf)
  • The Cre Recombinase is a DNA breaking and rejoining enzyme (from tyrosine recombinase family) derived from the P1 bacteriophage . (unesp.br)
  • Recombinant Cre recombinase (TAT-Cre) was purified from an HEK293 cell line expressing enhanced form of Cre Recombinase from bacteriophage P1. (excellgen.com)
  • Cre is a DNA recombinase originally derived from the Escherichia coli (E. coli) P1 bacteriophage that recognizes specific 34 base-pair loxP sites of DNA recombination. (elsevier.com)
  • Between 1958 and 1960 Arber worked as a research associate in the laboratory of Joe Bertani at the University of Southern California investigating the genetics of P1, a bacteriophage of Escherichia coli. (whatisbiotechnology.org)
  • H7, Listeria monocytogenes and hepatitis A virus (HAV)) and 5 surrogates (Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli P1, Listeria innocua, murine Norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2) had been inoculated on blueberries and reductions had been measured after totally different remedy mixtures. (pharmaceutical-logistics.com)
  • Kuhstoss and Rao, download призрачная реальность культуры фетишизм и наглядность невидимого of the Integration Function of the Streptomycete Bacteriophage PhiC31, 1991 J. A capability for office subject and an repeated DNA in Escherichia sites K-12, 1985 Gene, metastatic. (posaunenchor-talheim.de)
  • Nat L. Sternberg (August 2, 1942 - September 26, 1995) was an American molecular biologist and bacteriophage researcher, particularly known for his work on DNA recombination and the phage P1. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1981 he directed his own group, continuing to research the P1 phage, as well as branching out to study DNA recombination in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daniel Hamilton (1981), "Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRE protein, from bacteriophage P1, catalyzes recombination between 34 base pair target sequences, named lox sites . (gentarget.com)
  • In 1976, Sternberg joined the group being established by Michael Yarmolinsky in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the National Cancer Institute's Frederick Cancer Research Center at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, where he started to study the phage P1. (wikipedia.org)
  • P1 phage had been discovered in 1951, but was little understood when Sternberg began to research the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A correlation existed between drug resistance and phage types in that all the R-AS strains (n = 37) showed RDNC-a in bacteriophage typing, and all the RDNC-a strains (n = 40) were resistant to at least ampicillin including two R-A and one R-AST strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Phage typing is concerned with Identification of strains or species of bacteria on the basis of their susceptibility to bacteriophage or phage. (biotechfront.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T4 ), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (nih.gov)
  • The long-term goal of our studies is to elucidate unknown aspects of bacteriophage biology that underlie the wide host range of certain phages, their survival strategies among hosts in various environments, and their evasion of bacterial phage-defense mechanisms. (edu.pl)
  • Contributions to the genomic characteristic of obligatory lytic staphylococcal bacteriophages that represent the Rosenblumvirus and Kayvirus genera and uncovering the main mechanism that protects Rosenblumvirus phages from the action of staphylococcal type I restriction-modification systems. (edu.pl)
  • A potential structural relationship is suggested between the beta subunit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, the eukaryotic polymerase delta [and epsilon] processivity factor), and the gene 45 protein of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In most cases, sRNA-mediated regulation requires the presence of Hfq, a host protein that is required for Qβ bacteriophage replication ( Vogel and Luisi, 2011 ). (molcells.org)
  • Hired to assist in Kellenberg's electron microscopic investigation of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), the position allowed Arber to pursue doctoral research. (whatisbiotechnology.org)
  • To investigate the characters of the R-AS strains more extensively, we surveyed isolates from outbreaks that occurred from 1997 to 2002 for antimicrobial drug susceptibility and bacteriophage typing. (cdc.gov)
  • He and his coworkers also developed P1-derived cloning vectors, enabling the cloning of very long stretches of DNA, which have been used in mapping the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • His interest in the field was sparked in part by a visit to the laboratory by Jean Weigle and the work of Larry Morse and Esther and Joshua Lederberg who were working on gene transfer from one strain of the lambda bacteriophage to another. (whatisbiotechnology.org)
  • A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. (jefferson.edu)
  • Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. (protocolsonline.com)
  • 1988) Research papers Nat Sternberg (1990), "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87 (1): 103-7, Bibcode:1990PNAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • My first paper on lysogeny, describing the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of P1, P2, and P3, also contained the formula of the LB medium which I had concocted in order to optimize Shigella growth and plaque formation. (protocolsonline.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T7 ) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Our interests include bacteriophages of a wide host range, especially those that infect pathogenic bacteria. (edu.pl)
  • Dynamic structural insights into the molecular mechanism of DNA unwinding by the bacteriophage T7 helicase. (donga.ac.kr)
  • It is highly specific for a 34 bp DNA sequence (loxP) found in P1 DNA. (abcam.com)
  • Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE . (nih.gov)
  • [11] [12] Disse to lange strenge flettes omkring hinanden i form af en dobbelthelix . (dkwiki.dk)
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics , 892 , P1. (ucsb.edu)
  • subject above-mentioned expression by handy bacteriophage Patients for a categorical review of components. (scoutconnection.com)
  • Complete Genomic DNA Sequence of the Temperate Bacteriophage AaÖ23 of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (evergreen.edu)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. (lookformedical.com)
  • Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. (lookformedical.com)
  • If both the methylase and restriction enzyme genes are mutated the cell survives quite nicely except that it's more susceptible to bacteriophage infection. (blogspot.com)
  • Isolation of bacteriophages lytic against E. coli strains collected from infected birds. (evergreen.edu)
  • He explained the title by noting the distinct resemblance of P1 coliphage to the Discovery One spacecraft dreamed up by Arthur C Clarke and Stanley Kubrick - and then went on to exuberantly and idiosyncratically recount a brief history of bacteriophages and their use in biotechnology since their discovery. (rybicki.blog)
  • A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. (lookformedical.com)
  • The bacteriophage P1 hot gene product. (neb.com)
  • This is an effective way of restricting bacteriophage infection except for one minor problem. (blogspot.com)
  • In the absence of bacterial infection, bacteriophage 536_P1 promoted a weak increase in the production of antiviral cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and interleukin-12 [IL-12]) and chemokines in the lungs but not in the blood. (pasteur.fr)
  • The infection of Escherichia coli by T2 and T4 bacteriophages as seen in the electron microscope. (wikidata.org)
  • The size of the replicon, which is able to provide replication of the P1 chromosome in the lysogenic state, is only 1.5 kb. (genomequebecplatforms.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage specific to the salmonid pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. (evergreen.edu)
  • Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. (wikidata.org)
  • Linker-amplified shotgun subclone viral metagenomic libraries were constructed from all environments and a bacteriophage culture collection was constructed from the activated sludge sample for use in comparison of the two culture assessment methods. (auburn.edu)
  • Isolation and initial charcterization of three bacteriophages that infect Vibrio species associated with lesions of epizootic lobster shell disease. (evergreen.edu)
  • Cost of host radiation in the dsRNA bacteriophage phi6. (evergreen.edu)
  • This means there's a good chance of cutting any bacteriophage DNA that enters the cell since most bacteriophage genomes are much larger than 4096 base pairs. (blogspot.com)
  • Bacteriophage treatment was not associated with overinflammation but in contrast tended to lower inflammation and provided a faster correction of blood cell count abnormalities than did antibiotics. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our results suggest that an intermediate structure can strand displace the P1 helix allowing the riboswitch to switch between ribosome binding site sequestering and anti-sequestering stem. (luckslab.org)
  • How common are bacteriophage in the feces of U.S. feedlot cattle? (evergreen.edu)
  • The efficacy of bacteriophage to decrease bacterial load was faster than with antibiotics, but the two displayed similar endpoints. (pasteur.fr)
  • The rapid lysis of bacteria by bacteriophages does not increase the innate inflammatory response compared to that with antibiotic treatment. (pasteur.fr)
  • Bacteriophages Against Aeromonas salmonicida for the Treatment of Furunculosis in Salmonids. (evergreen.edu)
  • A bacteriophage lysin, PlyC, may aid in detection and treatment of bovine mastitis. (evergreen.edu)
  • Local treatment of purulent complications of wounds casued by fire-arm by means of bacteriophage. (evergreen.edu)
  • The severity of pulmonary edema, acute inflammatory cytokine concentration (blood and lung homogenates), complete blood counts, and bacterial and bacteriophage counts were determined at early (≤12 h) and late (≥20 h) time points. (pasteur.fr)