Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.TritiumBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Glycoside HydrolasesMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Thyminebeta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Microviridae: A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.UracilCircular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bacteriophage HK022: A tentative species in the genus lambda-like viruses, family SIPHOVIRIDAE.Corticoviridae: A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.ThymidineReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cytosine NucleotidesSite-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VIII. Sequence features of the regions of 1,081,958 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 and TAC clones. (1/133)

A total of 17 Pl and TAC clones each representing an assigned region of chromosome 5 were isolated from P1 and TAC genomic libraries of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The length of the clones sequenced in this study summed up to 1,081,958 bp. As we have previously reported the sequence of 9,072,622 bp by analysis of 125 P1 and TAC clones, the total length of the sequences of chromosome 5 determined so far is now 10,154,580 bp. The sequences were subjected to similarity search against protein and EST databases and analysis with computer programs for gene modeling. As a consequence, a total of 253 potential protein-coding genes with known or predicted functions were identified. The positions of exons which do not show apparent similarity to known genes were also assigned using computer programs for exon prediction. The average density of the genes identified in this study was 1 gene per 4277 bp. Introns were observed in 74% of the potential protein genes, and the average number per gene and the average length of the introns were 4.3 and 168 bp, respectively. The sequence data and gene information are available on the World Wide Web database KAOS (Kazusa Arabidopsis data Opening Site) at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/arabi/.  (+info)

The Doc toxin and Phd antidote proteins of the bacteriophage P1 plasmid addiction system form a heterotrimeric complex. (2/133)

The toxin (Doc) and antidote (Phd) proteins of the plasmid addiction system of bacteriophage P1 were purified as a complex. Cocrystals of the complex contained a 2:1 molar ratio of Phd:Doc as assayed by dye binding following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as determined by amino acid analysis. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the two addiction proteins interact in solution to form a P2D trimer composed of one Doc and two Phd molecules. These results support a model in which Phd inhibits the toxic activity of Doc by direct binding. Circular dichroism experiments showed that changes in secondary structure accompany formation of the heterotrimeric complex, raising the possibility that Phd may act by an allosteric mechanism. Studies of Phd and Doc molecules labeled with fluorescent energy donor and acceptor groups gave an equilibrium dissociation constant of about 0.8 microM(2) and a very short, sub second half-life of complex dissociation. As a consequence, low concentrations of free Doc toxin are likely to be present both transiently and in the steady state in cells containing the Phd antidote, making mechanisms of single-hit Doc toxicity improbable.  (+info)

The CMT2D locus: refined genetic position and construction of a bacterial clone-based physical map. (3/133)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a progressive neuropathy of the peripheral nervous system, typically characterized by muscle weakness of the distal limbs. CMT is noted for its genetic heterogeneity, with four distinct loci already identified for the axonal form of the disease (CMT2). In 1996, linkage analysis of a single large family revealed the presence of a CMT2 locus on chromosome 7p14 (designated CMT2D). Additional families have been linked subsequently to the same genomic region, including one with distal spinal muscular atrophy (dSMA) and one with mixed features of dSMA and CMT2; symptoms in both of these latter families closely resemble those seen in the original CMT2D family. There is thus a distinct possibility that CMT2 and dSMA encountered in these families reflect allelic heterogeneity at a single chromosome 7 locus. In the study reported here, we have performed more detailed linkage analysis of the original CMT2D family based on new knowledge of the physical locations of various genetic markers. The region containing the CMT2D gene, as defined by the original family, overlaps with those defined by at least two other families with CMT2 and/or dSMA symptoms. Both yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial clone-based [bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)] contig maps spanning approximately 3.4 Mb have been assembled across the combined CMT2D critical region, with the latter providing suitable clones for systematic sequencing of the interval. Preliminary analyses have already revealed at least 28 candidate genes and expressed-sequence tags (ESTs). The mapping information reported here in conjunction with the evolving sequence data should expedite the identification of the CMT2D/dSMA gene or genes.  (+info)

Finding new human minisatellite sequences in the vicinity of long CA-rich sequences. (4/133)

Microsatellites and minisatellites are two classes of tandem repeat sequences differing in their size, mutation processes, and chromosomal distribution. The boundary between the two classes is not defined. We have developed a convenient, hybridization-based human library screening procedure able to detect long CA-rich sequences. Analysis of cosmid clones derived from a chromosome 1 library show that cross-hybridizing sequences tested are imperfect CA-rich sequences, some of them showing a minisatellite organization. All but one of the 13 positive chromosome 1 clones studied are localized in chromosomal bands to which minisatellites have previously been assigned, such as the 1pter cluster. To test the applicability of the procedure to minisatellite detection on a larger scale, we then used a large-insert whole-genome PAC library. Altogether, 22 new minisatellites have been identified in positive PAC and cosmid clones and 20 of them are telomeric. Among the 42 positive PAC clones localized within the human genome by FISH and/or linkage analysis, 25 (60%) are assigned to a terminal band of the karyotype, 4 (9%) are juxtacentromeric, and 13 (31%) are interstitial. The localization of at least two of the interstitial PAC clones corresponds to previously characterized minisatellite-containing regions and/or ancestrally telomeric bands, in agreement with this minisatellite-like distribution. The data obtained are in close agreement with the parallel investigation of human genome sequence data and suggest that long human (CA)s are imperfect CA repeats belonging to the minisatellite class of sequences. This approach provides a new tool to efficiently target genomic clones originating from subtelomeric domains, from which minisatellite sequences can readily be obtained. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ000377-AJ000383.]  (+info)

A 3-Mb high-resolution BAC/PAC contig of 12q22 encompassing the 830-kb consensus minimal deletion in male germ cell tumors. (5/133)

Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses have shown that the 12q22 region is recurrently deleted in male germ cell tumors (GCTs), suggesting that this site may harbor a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Previous loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses identified a consensus minimal deleted region between the markers D12S377 and D12S296, and a YAC clone contig covering the region was generated. Here, we describe a high-resolution sequence-ready physical map of this contig covering a 3-Mb region. The map comprised of 52 cosmids, 49 PACs, and 168 BACs that were anchored to the previous YAC contig; 99 polymorphic, nonpolymorphic, EST, and gene-based markers are now placed on this map in a unique order. Of these, 61 markers were isolated in the present study, including one that was polymorphic. In addition, we have narrowed the minimal deletion to approximately 830 kb between D12S1716 (proximal) and P382A8-AG (distal) by LOH analysis of 108 normal-tumor DNAs from GCT patients using 21 polymorphic STSs. These physical and deletion maps should prove useful for identification of the candidate TSG in GCTs, provide framework to generate complete DNA sequence, and ultimately generate a gene map of this segment of the chromosome 12. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the Genome Survey Sequence under accession nos. AQ254896-AQ254955 and AQ269251-AQ269266. Online supplementary material is available at http://www.genome.org]  (+info)

P1 ParB domain structure includes two independent multimerization domains. (6/133)

ParB is one of two P1-encoded proteins that are required for active partition of the P1 prophage in Escherichia coli. To probe the native domain structure of ParB, we performed limited proteolytic digestions of full-length ParB, as well as of several N-terminal and C-terminal deletion fragments of ParB. The C-terminal 140 amino acids of ParB form a very trypsin-resistant domain. In contrast, the N terminus is more susceptible to proteolysis, suggesting that it forms a less stably folded domain or domains. Because native ParB is a dimer in solution, we analyzed the ability of ParB fragments to dimerize, using both the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro chemical cross-linking of purified proteins. These studies revealed that the C-terminal 59 amino acids of ParB, a region within the protease-resistant domain, are sufficient for dimerization. Cross-linking and yeast two-hybrid experiments also revealed the presence of a second self-association domain within the N-terminal half of ParB. The cross-linking data also suggest that the C terminus is inhibitory to multimerization through the N-terminal domain in vitro. We propose that the two multimerization domains play distinct roles in partition complex formation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage P1. (7/133)

The genome of bacteriophage P1 harbors a gene coding for a 162-amino-acid protein which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB). The expression of the P1 gene is tightly regulated by P1 immunity proteins. It is completely repressed during lysogenic growth and only weakly expressed during lytic growth, as assayed by an ssb-P1/lacZ fusion construct. When cloned on an intermediate-copy-number plasmid, the P1 gene is able to suppress the temperature-sensitive defect of an E. coli ssb mutant, indicating that the two proteins are functionally interchangeable. Many bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids do not rely on the SSB protein provided by their host organism but code for their own SSB proteins. However, the close relationship between SSB-P1 and the SSB protein of the P1 host, E. coli, raises questions about the functional significance of the phage protein.  (+info)

The bacteriophage P1 HumD protein is a functional homolog of the prokaryotic UmuD'-like proteins and facilitates SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. (8/133)

The Escherichia coli umuD and umuC genes comprise an operon and encode proteins that are involved in the mutagenic bypass of normally replication-inhibiting DNA lesions. UmuD is, however, unable to function in this process until it undergoes a RecA-mediated cleavage reaction to generate UmuD'. Many homologs of umuDC have now been identified. Most are located on bacterial chromosomes or on broad-host-range R plasmids. One such putative homolog, humD (homolog of umuD) is, however, found on the bacteriophage P1 genome. Interestingly, humD differs from other umuD homologs in that it encodes a protein similar in size to the posttranslationally generated UmuD' protein and not UmuD, nor is it in an operon with a cognate umuC partner. To determine if HumD is, in fact, a bona fide homolog of the prokaryotic UmuD'-like mutagenesis proteins, we have analyzed the ability of HumD to complement UmuD' functions in vivo as well as examined HumD's physical properties in vitro. When expressed from a high-copy-number plasmid, HumD restored cellular mutagenesis and increased UV survival to normally nonmutable recA430 lexA(Def) and UV-sensitive DeltaumuDC recA718 lexA(Def) strains, respectively. Complementing activity was reduced when HumD was expressed from a low-copy-number plasmid, but this observation is explained by immunoanalysis which indicates that HumD is normally poorly expressed in vivo. In vitro analysis revealed that like UmuD', HumD forms a stable dimer in solution and is able to interact with E. coli UmuC and RecA nucleoprotein filaments. We conclude, therefore, that bacteriophage P1 HumD is a functional homolog of the UmuD'-like proteins, and we speculate as to the reasons why P1 might require the activity of such a protein in vivo.  (+info)

Biotechnical production processes often operate with plasmid-based expression systems in well-established prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Genetically engineered organisms produce important chemicals, biopolymers, biofuels and high-value proteins like insulin. In those bioprocesses plasmids in recombinant hosts have an essential impact on productivity. Plasmid-free cells lead to losses in the entire product recovery and decrease the profitability of the whole process. Use of antibiotics in industrial fermentations is not an applicable option to maintain plasmid stability. Especially in pharmaceutical or GMP-based fermentation processes, deployed antibiotics must be inactivated and removed. Several plasmid addiction systems (PAS) were described in the literature. However, not every system has reached a full applicable state. This review compares most known addiction systems and is focusing on biotechnical applications.. ...
Many canonical processes in molecular biology rely on the dynamic assembly of higher-order nucleoprotein complexes. In bacteria, the assembly mechanism of ParABS, the nucleoprotein super-complex that actively segregates the bacterial chromosome and many plasmids, remains elusive. We combined super-resolution microscopy, quantitative genome-wide surveys, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling to investigate the assembly of ParB at the centromere-like sequences parS. We found that nearly all ParB molecules are actively confined around parS by a network of synergistic protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Interrogation of the empirically determined, high-resolution ParB genomic distribution with modeling suggests that instead of binding only to specific sequences and subsequently spreading, ParB binds stochastically around parS over long distances. We propose a new model for the formation of the ParABS partition complex based on nucleation and caging: ParB forms a dynamic lattice with the DNA
Hi All, Does anyone know if your undergraduate transcript from a Canadian U is accepted at par when you apply to US grad schools or do you need to get it evaluated through one of those services?
The Canadian Dollar and the US Dollar are at par, once again! The last time this happened was back in September 2007, and the time before that was in November 1976. Great… Im Canadian! So now what can I do? Well, if you dont live far from the U.S. border, now might be a good… [Read More]. ...
A plasmid partition system is a mechanism that assures the stable transmission of plasmids during bacterial cell division. Each plasmid has its independent replication system which controls the number of copies of the plasmid in a cell. The higher the copy number is, the more likely the two daughter cells will contain the plasmid. Generally, each molecule of plasmid diffuses randomly, so the probability of having a plasmid-less daughter cell is 21−N, where N is the number of copies. For instance, if there are 2 copies of a plasmid in a cell, there is a 50% chance of having one plasmid-less daughter cell. However, high-copy number plasmids have a cost for the hosting cell. This metabolic burden is lower for low-copy plasmids, but those have a higher probability of plasmid loss after a few generations. To control vertical transmission of plasmids, in addition to controlled-replication systems, bacterial plasmids use different maintenance strategies, such as multimer resolution systems, ...
Read more about Indian IT BPM now at par with customers after tech shift: Roy on Business Standard. Emergence of new technology has brought Indian business process management (BPM) at par with their customers during business discussions, IT industry body Nasscom Chairman Raman Roy said today. Earlier as we sat on table with our customers we were
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs
The bacterial genome is organized in a structure called the nucleoid by a variety of associated proteins. These proteins can form complexes on DNA that play a central role in various biological processes, including chromosome segregation. A prominent example is the large ParB-DNA complex, which forms an essential component of the segregation machinery in many bacteria. ChIP-Seq experiments show that ParB proteins localize around centromere-like parS sites on the DNA to which ParB binds specifically, and spreads from there over large sections of the chromosome. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that DNA-bound ParB proteins can interact with each other to condense into a coherent 3D complex on the DNA. However, the structural organization of this protein-DNA complex remains unclear, and a predictive quantitative theory for the distribution of ParB proteins on DNA is lacking. Here, we propose the Looping and Clustering (LC) model, which employs a statistical physics approach to describe
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
36bp LoxP site: the LoxP site is the naturally-occurring substrate for the Cre recombinase. In nature (and in previous biobricks) it is a palindromic sequence 34 base pairs long. Because this is not a multiple of three, when used inside a transcribed ORF the 34bp LoxP site can throw off the frame of the translated parts. To get around this, previous teams had to either add or take away bases from surrounding parts to keep their systems in frame (painstakingly and sometimes unsuccessfully). To get around this restriction, we designed and Biobricked a 36bp LoxP site that Registry users can include in transcribed regions without worrying about keeping everything in frame ...
Tornadoes, the ultimate manufacturer, begins at par. 8. This hub uses limits to define e, and it explains why 1 raised to an infinite power may not be anywhere near one when limits are involved.
The country has come a long way in the development of its infrastructure, which is now almost at par with many developed countries. The installation, operation and maintenance of these facilities do not come free of charge. They come at a cost. This cost has to be paid either by the Government or the private sector. Truly the Government does not have the funds to build all the infrastructure for the people from taxes collected. If we wait until the Government has the funds, then it would take a long time for the infrastructure to the built. Because of this the private sector will have to invest. They will not invest unless they get a reasonable return. Users must therefore be prepared to pay a reasonable fee for the services rendered. Nevertheless the Government will support to the extent that it can. In fact the payment by Malaysian consumers is very much lower than is paid by consumers in other countries. For the good of everyone consumers must accept the concept of "user pays". It is grossly ...
The purpose of Symbiosis is to deliver full spectrum Therapy services within a fun and therapeutic environment by creating an atmosphere of warmth, caring and assurance for the children as well as the parents. Our mission is to provide excellent therapy services to children with special needs. We strive to enhance the lives of children, so they can play and learn at par with their peers ...
Specificity of the Mnt protein determined by binding to randomized operators.: The relative binding affinities of Mnt protein from bacteriophage P22 are determi
It appears that your web browser doesnt support JavaScript or JavaScript is disabled. You must enable JavaScript or upgrade to a newer web browser to shop at our online store. If you continue to have trouble, please contact customer service to place an order for you ...
... is a special type of site-specific recombination. The Cre protein is a site-specific DNA recombinase. It can catalyze the recombination of DNA between specific sites in a DNA molecule. These sites, known as loxP sequences, contain specific binding sites for Cre that surround a directional core sequence where recombination can occur. It is often used in the generation of knockout and conditional knockout animals. - Cre-Lox Recombination - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
MICER is a method developed by Allan Bradley. It consists of four sets of genomic clones that contain a loxP site in either orientation site and either the proximal or the distal half of a HPRT mini gene. After Cre mediated recombination between the loxP sites of two different MICER clones a complete HPRT mini gene is reconstituted and one can select for the Cre induced alteration of the genome. If the two loxP sites are located within the same chromosome and have the same orientation one will end up with a deletion of the sequences located between the loxP sites. If the loxP sites are inversely orientated Cre mediated recombination will induce an inversion of the sequences between the two loxP sites (it should be noticed though, that without selection prolonged presence of Cre can lead to a reversion of the fragment). If the loxP sites are situated on different chromosomes Cre mediated recombination will lead to reciprocal translocation between the two chromosomes, which is indeed the situation ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. mikrobiologi. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
I absolutely believe that the digital product out of India is at par with the best in the world and in many cases, even better. We are an incubator of digital talent.
you didnt get the gist. its a commonplace today that the average young lady (not the useless feminists/lesbians) prioritizes education and white collar job in a bid be at par or even surpass the average man........but the irony is, when she eventually attains the age of marriage she settles with a man old enough to be her father or a guy in the fine-boy-no-money class. its no only war that reduces the number of men but the growing number of women competing with men in work environment ...
We also use the Cre-loxP system, in which a gene of interest is engineered to contain loxP sites flanking a critical region of the gene. A mouse containing the "floxed" gene is normal, because the loxP sites are silent. Upon expression of the Cre recombinase, which removes DNA sequences flanked by loxP sites, that gene is inactivated. We use three methods for inducing Cre in a region-specific manner in brain. In one, we breed mice containing a floxed gene to mice in which Cre is inducibly expressed under the tetracycline system described above. In the second, we breed them to mice that express modified forms of Cre, which can be activated upon local injection of a chemical in brain. In the third, we use viral vectors encoding Cre to create localized knockouts of the floxed gene. Together, these various approaches enable us to exert powerful control over a drug- or stress-regulated protein ...
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道客巴巴(doc88.com)是一个在线文档分享平台。你可以上传论文,研究报告,行业标准,设计方案,电子书等电子文档,可以自由交换文档,还可以分享最新的行业资讯。
道客巴巴(doc88.com)是一个在线文档分享平台。你可以上传论文,研究报告,行业标准,设计方案,电子书等电子文档,可以自由交换文档,还可以分享最新的行业资讯。
Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriophage P2/genetics/*metabolism, DNA/metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligopeptides/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Trans-Activation (Genetics), Viral Proteins/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ...
We have mapped determinants for species‐specific interactions of Par components (Figure 6). Operon repression involves a specific interaction between ParA and the operator DNA. The specific determinant includes a HTH motif in the N‐terminal region of ParA and probably contacts the operator directly. Direct binding of ParA to the operator sequence has been shown previously (Davis et al., 1992).. Specific enhancement of repression by ParB was shown to be due to a protein-protein interaction with ParA rather than direct recognition of the operator by ParB. This is consistent with the observation that ParB does not appear to bind to the operator by itself, and does not cause any qualitative modification of the footprint of ParA bound to operator DNA (Davis et al., 1992). The ParA-ParB interaction involves determinants in the C‐terminal region of ParA and the N‐terminal end of ParB (Figure 6). ParA and ParB interact directly in vitro (Davis et al., 1992). Thus it is likely that the mapped ...
Eligibility: Passed Intermediate/ 10+2/ equivalent examination in any stream/subjects approved by Central/State Education Boards, with minimum of 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English. Passed two year Vocational Course affiliated/recognised by CBSE / State Education Boards/Councils duly recognised at par with 10+2 by AIU with minimum 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English in Vocational Course or in Intermediate / Matriculation, if English is not a subject in Vocational Course. ...
Every time I pass a relatively green patch here in Ahmedabad, I can immediately feel the coolness on my skin and the freshness of the air I breathe in. Guess, everyone must be experiencing the same thing. If not better, the impact is at par when compared to that of ACs ...
The NucleoBond BAC 100 Kit is designed to purify large DNA fragments such as cosmids, bacteriophage P1 clones, PACs, and BACs, without phenol/chloroform extraction. 1 hour protocol accomodates vectors up to to 300 kb.
The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Unit at the UCL Institute of Child Health has embarked on a major programme to help children with memory problems resulting from brain damage.
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bacteriophage P2/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure, Base Sequence, Capsid/genetics/ultrastructure, Cloning; Molecular, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA; Viral/analysis, Electrophoresis; Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation; Viral, Genes; Viral/*genetics, Genome; Viral, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Rabbits, Recombinant Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support; U.S. Govt; P.H.S., Transcription; Genetic, Viral Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Viral Structural Proteins/*genetics, Virus Assembly/*physiology ...
Addresses: Mosig G, VANDERBILT UNIV, DEPT MOL BIOL, NASHVILLE, TN 37235. UNIV CALIF BERKELEY, DEPT MOL & CELL BIOL, BERKELEY, CA 94720. UNIV STOCKHOLM, DEPT GENET, S-10691 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN. UNIV UPPSALA, DEPT MICROBIOL, S-75105 UPPSALA, SWEDEN.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-15 ...
crispgg: I expect ANAN to take advantage of this situation. All those with ACCA need is the ability to set up there own firms in Nigeria. With ANAN membership, they can do that. Imagine the credibility that they will gain when they have a huge number of ACCA members joining them. In a few years, they will be at par with ICAN ...
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IHK boasts an 8 - bed Level II Special Care Nursery Unit at par with international standards. It is fully equipped to handle any type of emergency that may befall preterm babies or other newborn babies. These emergencies include breathing problems, heart conditions, digestive system problems, jaundice and infections among others.. The neonatal services are overseen by a team of paediatricians alongside a team of specially trained and dedicated neonatal nurses and backed up by several other specialists including surgeons, eye specialists and heart specialists among others. These all have a different role to play in ensuring that premature babies and sick newborns have a good chance at overcoming their illness or prematurity and living a full productive life.. The Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit service offers 3 dedicated and fully equipped beds at par with international standards. The Level III service looks after the sickest babies who usually require life support machines. In this unit, ...
People from the West travel to India in search of medical aid. The primary reason is the cost advantage. It takes a fraction of the cost for the same procedure done with the same quality. Even after spending for the airfare to and accommodation in Kerala they will still have savings when compared to having the treatment done in their country. They are also convinced that the technology and professional skill in Kerala are at par with any of the international health centres.. Details provided by Dr Rajkrishnan ...
Batman Vs Superman: Dawn of Justice" is one of the most anticipated movies of the year 2016. It is expected that the movie will have a strong opening weekend.. Get the Free Tracker App to find a Nintendo Switch in Stock. By looking at the statistics it looks like the pre-release tickets are about to break the records of many famous movies. It has already gotten more sales than "The Avengers" which opened at $200 million. Early ticket sales dont give an indication about the success of a movie. However these pre-release numbers do tell about the interest the viewers have in a movie.. The stats are showing that "Batman Vs Superman: Dawn of Justice" has sold tickets of $25 million up till now. This number is definitely bigger than the recent hit movie Deadpools before-release tickets earnings.. Deadpools opening week earnings were $132.4 million. "Deadpool" had an opening at par with "The Dark Knight".. Box Office analyst Mojo, which studies the trends of ticket buying among the audience gave an ...
The Department of Gastroenterology offers advanced treatment for disorders of the liver, biliary tree, pancreas and other gastro-intestinal diseases, by diagnostic and therapeutic upper and lower GI endoscopy and ERCP. Our team comprises of highly skilled Gastroenterologists and GI surgeons with vast experience in performing high-end procedures and offer medical care at par with international standards.. ...
These R26CreER mutant mice have a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-mediated recombination system driven by the endogenous mouse |i|Gt(ROSA)26Sor|/i| promoter. When crossed with a strain containing a |i|loxP|/i| site-flanked sequence of interest, this mutant is useful for generating tamoxifen-induced, Cre-mediated targeted deletions.
|i|Cre|/i| expression in these transgenic mice can be seen in the embryo and in adult endothelium of developing and quiescent vessels, as well as in a subset of hematopoietic cells. When bred with mice carrying a |i|loxP|/i|-flanked sequence of interest, Cre-mediated recombination will result in deletion of the flanked genome. These mice may be useful in studies of the cardiovascular system.
The BCD is a file, not a partition. The BCD file would be included if the partition that contained it was included. For example, if the System Reserved partition is used then you would want to include the System Reserved partition in your backup ...
Find A PhD. Search Funded PhD Projects in Pathology in Paderborn. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Find A PhD. Search Funded PhD Projects in Pathology in Huddersfield. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.
Okay I went to the doc today and he said that my cervix is starting to open. That is good because last time I was there he said that nothing was happening. Does...
須田智、大久保誠二、阿部新、金丸拓也、斉藤智成、神谷信雄、酒巻雅典、三品雅洋、上田雅之、桂研一郎、片山泰朗:椎骨動脈解離による Wallenberg症候群。日医大医会誌 7(4):175-178、2011. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
And there is a neat trick to maintain a tree well-balanced by simply grafting the less vigorous cultivars over the more vigorous limbs. Do that for 3 seasons, and the tree would have stabilized in terms of shape and balance, but of course surprisingly, you may end up with something like 5 interstems on a single limb, but hey, it works! So if I never lose any cultivar that I like. They are always transferred, and grafting doesnt stop for me. I like doing it, and would treat it much the same way like pruning. If you prune the tree each year, then there is no reason why you cant graft your trees each year for balance. And besides, it doesnt take that much time anyway, and allows you to sample many many cultivars at a very cheap price through time. When you graft unto mature trees, the very same year or most often the next season, the fruits on the newly added cultivars would be at par with a mature tree. Unlike grafting unto seedlings, it is going to take 3 or 4 years before the fruits achieve ...
And there is a neat trick to maintain a tree well-balanced by simply grafting the less vigorous cultivars over the more vigorous limbs. Do that for 3 seasons, and the tree would have stabilized in terms of shape and balance, but of course surprisingly, you may end up with something like 5 interstems on a single limb, but hey, it works! So if I never lose any cultivar that I like. They are always transferred, and grafting doesnt stop for me. I like doing it, and would treat it much the same way like pruning. If you prune the tree each year, then there is no reason why you cant graft your trees each year for balance. And besides, it doesnt take that much time anyway, and allows you to sample many many cultivars at a very cheap price through time. When you graft unto mature trees, the very same year or most often the next season, the fruits on the newly added cultivars would be at par with a mature tree. Unlike grafting unto seedlings, it is going to take 3 or 4 years before the fruits achieve ...
Madrid, November 03, 2006 -- Moodys Investors Service has assigned the following provisional ratings to the debt to be issued by GC FTPYME SABADELL 5, Fondo de Titulización de Activos: (P)Aaa to the EUR 220.0 million Series A1 notes (P)Aaa to the EUR 880.3 million Series A2 notes (P)Aaa to the EUR 82.8 million Series A3(G) notes (P)A2 to the EUR 40.0 million Series B notes (P)Baa3 to the EUR 26.9 million Series C notes The provisional ratings address the expected loss posed to investors by the legal final maturity (31 March 2039). In Moodys opinion, the structure allows for timely payment of interest and ultimate payment of principal at par on or before the final legal maturity date. GC FTPYME SABADELL 5, Fondo de Titulización de Activos, a securitisation of small- and medium-sized entreprises (SMEs) loans under the FTPYME programme carried out by Banco Sabadell, S.A., comes after the concession by the Spanish Ministry of Economy of a new guarantee budget for the current year. In line with ...
Dotted with several mosques, palaces, forts and mausoleums, the ancient city of Vijayapura (erstwhile Bijapur), in Karnataka, holds the keys to some of the precious treasures of Indian history. Start with the surreal Ibrahim Rauza, a mausoleum that has been inspired by the Taj Mahal. It is said that it would have been at par with the Taj if it had been constructed in marble. Another historical wonder is the Gol Gumbaz, which is said to be the second-largest dome in the world. Vijayapura is scattered with many such architectural marvels, thanks to its legacy as the capital of Adil Shahi kings from 1489 to 1686.. ...
Titan pharma through its associates, manufactures & markets chemicals & intermediates, pharmaceutical raw materials, api, drug intermediates, & finished formulations maintaining quality at par with best in the world and thereby vying for brand equity in the global context
Titan pharma through its associates, manufactures & markets chemicals & intermediates, pharmaceutical raw materials, api, drug intermediates, & finished formulations maintaining quality at par with best in the world and thereby vying for brand equity in the global context
Cre recombinase兔多克隆抗体(ab40011)经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
I need some help on this one... The doc states to charge: 27350, 27340, 20680, 27310. According to NCCI, all are included in the 27350 - hemipatellect
Oasis Solutions is an Android developer that currently has 31 apps on Google Play, is active since 2016, and has in total collected about 800 thousand installs and 4 thousand ratings. The biggest apps are: Behlool Dana (بُہلُول دَانا), Ziyarat e Ashura زیارت عاشوراء, Nahjul Balagha Urdu
SIB is a non-profit organization federating 65 Swiss research and service groups of experts in bioinformatics. SIBs 800 scientists join forces to advance biomedical research by providing life scientists and clinicians with state-of-the-art bioinformatics resources, services, expertise, and training.
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Biochemical studies of proteins are crucial for a more detailed view of the world around us. The focus of biochemical studies can vary, from a complex mammalian system to a more simple viral entity, but the same methods and principles apply. In biochemistry one rely on both in vitro and in vivo analyses to understand biological processes. Protein crystallography has since the late 1950s been an additional important tool. By visualizing the structures of molecules involved in a biological process one can truly comprehend the molecular mechanisms of an organism or cell at the chemical level. This thesis includes structural biochemical work in combination with mutational and functional studies of proteins from both human and virus.. Human tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins grouped by their conserved structural features. Many of them have been shown to regulate cell migration, fusion, and signalling in the cell by functioning as organizers of multi-molecular membrane complexes. Several ...
To the best of our knowledge, the present meta-analysis is the largest and most comprehensive evaluation of the dose-response relationship between PA and HF risk in the general population. We observed 2 important findings in this study. First, there is a linear, dose-dependent, inverse association between PA and HF risk. This relationship, observed with both categorical and continuous quantitative estimates of PA levels, is consistent across age-, sex-, and geographical region-based subgroups. Second, guideline-recommended minimum PA levels are associated with only modest reductions in HF risk, and higher doses of PA may be required to reduce the risk of HF significantly.. The dose-response association between PA and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has previously been reported.16,40 Sattelmair et al16 observed an inverse dose-response association between PA and CHD risk with a significant reductions in CHD risk with levels of PA at par with or even lower than the current ...
Two component system from phage: parS is a binding site for the ParB protein. parS is inserted in the chromosome (a single copy appears to be sufficient). ParB is expressed inducibly as a fusion protein with a GFP on a plasmid. Two organisms already adapted thus: P1 phage, and pMT phage (from Y. pestis; uses a deletion of the the 23 N-terminal amino acids of ParB instead of the whole thing). The system depends on ihf genes in E. coli, and there is the HU homolog. Alternately, make long strings of lexA sites. Mycobacterial LexA binds to Gram-positive style Cheo box. According to Movahedzadeh et al, 1997 the binding sequences are: Gram negative SOS box: taCTGTatatananaCAGta Gram positive Cheo box: GAACNNNNGTTC Ligate 25 sites one after another, with lexA-YFP fusion? Use pMV361 as the carrier so as to get nice integration. First 83 residues of LexA encode the DNA binding domain. 84-85 is the autocleavage site, so stay before that. Need to get antibodies against both that piece of LexA and the ...
Hello, are you looking for article ://www.docstoc.com/docs/71896829/NursingCarePlanDownloadNowDOC? If it is true we are very fortunate in being able to provide information ://www.docstoc.com/docs/71896829/NursingCarePlanDownloadNowDOC And good article ://www.docstoc.com/docs/71896829/NursingCarePlanDownloadNowDOC This could benefit/solution for you. ...
Its my understanding that if you plan to get a Masters in nursing to work as an NP you will need a PhD instead of a Masters degree by 2010. This might be on a state by state basis....? Im in
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Blood Culture Media segment is expected to grow at par level owing to its standardized techniques for the Sepsis diagnostics. By Technology, Microbiology segment is estimated to be the largest growing segment in order to the increasing inclination of physicians and patients towards use of rapid diagnostic products for accurate and quick identification and diagnosis of sepsis. North America is dominating the global market owing to high prevalence of sepsis, rising number of invasive procedures, and rising government support towards sepsis researches. However, Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing market owing to increasing number of surgical procedures, and growing number of clinical studies. Some of the key players of the Sepsis Diagnostics market include Beckman Coulter (Danaher), Becton, Dickinson & Co. (BD), bioMérieux, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Bruker Corporation, Cepheid, Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Nanosphere, Inc., Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Roche Diagnostics, Siemens ...
Between 1845 and 1939, Singapore used the Straits dollar.[3] This was replaced by the Malayan dollar,[3] and, from 1953, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar, which were issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo.[3]. Singapore continued to use the common currency upon joining Malaysia in 1963,[3] but only two years after Singapores expulsion and independence from Malaysia in 1965, the monetary union between Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei broke down.[3] Singapore established the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on 7 April 1967[4] and issued its first coins and notes.[3] Nevertheless, the Singapore dollar was exchangeable at par with the Malaysian ringgit until 1973,[3] and interchangeability with the Brunei dollar is still maintained.[3]. Initially, the Singaporean dollar was pegged to the British pound sterling at a rate of S$60 = £7. This peg lasted until the demise of the Sterling Area due to the Nixon Shock in the early 1970s, after which the ...
Venom from the worlds deadliest snake - the black mamba, which can kill a person within half an hour, could actually be a painkiller at par with morphine, researchers say. Anne Baron from the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology in
The Davidson/Missouri Western multidisciplinary team is using synthetic biology to address a mathematical problem in Escherichia coli. Specifically, we are addressing the Knapsack Problem, an NP-complete problem that asks, "Given a finite number of weighted items, can one find a subset of these items that completely fills a knapsack of fixed capacity?" In our design, weighted items are represented by versions of TetA genes that confer measurably distinct levels of tetracycline resistance. We have altered the codons of the wild type TetA gene, optimizing and de-optimizing several segments of the coding sequence. Each TetA variant is coupled with a distinctive fluorescent gene, and each pair of genes is flanked by lox sites. In the presence of Cre protein, the lox mechanism either inverts or excises the coding sequence, yielding different combinations of expressed TetA variants. An expressed variant corresponds to an item being placed in the knapsack. Over-expression of ...
Author: matju Date: Fri Oct 8 11:52:50 2010 New Revision: 6404 Log: split numops in two kinds again, and add the new ones Added: trunk/doc/numop1.pd Modified: trunk/doc/numop2.pd Modified: trunk/doc/numop2.pd ============================================================================== --- trunk/doc/numop2.pd (original) +++ trunk/doc/numop2.pd Fri Oct 8 11:52:50 2010 @@ -1,353 +1,385 @@ -#N canvas 0 0 916 640 10; +#N canvas 0 0 916 522 10; #X obj 0 0 doc_demo; -#X obj 0 30 cnv 15 906 22 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 20 -66577 0; +#X obj 0 30 cnv 15 906 22 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -195568 -66577 +0; #X text 10 30 op name; #X text 96 30 description; #X text 446 30 effect on pixels; #X text 676 30 effect on coords; -#X obj 0 70 cnv 15 906 17 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -249792 -66577 0; +#X obj 0 70 cnv 15 906 17 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -249792 -66577 +0; #X msg 10 70 op ignore; -#X text 96 70 A ; +#X text 96 70 A; #X text 446 70 no effect; #X text 676 70 no effect; -#X obj 0 89 cnv 15 ...
Went to doc today and had my drugs changed, as i mentioned in a previous post. One thing that shes doing is changing me from zoloft to prozac. Question is: How....
The genes required for replication of the temperate bacteriophage P4, which are coded by the phage left operon, are expressed from a constitutive promoter (P(LE)). In the lysogenic state, repression of the P4 replication genes is achieved by premature transcription termination. The leader region of the left operon encodes all the genetic determinants required for prophage immunity, namely: (i) the P4 immunity factor, a short, stable RNA (CI RNA) that is generated by processing of the leader transcript; (ii) two specific target sequences that exhibit complementarity with the CI RNA. RNA-RNA interactions between the CI RNA and the target sites on the mRNA leader region are essential for transcription termination. To understand how transcription termination is elicited by the P4 immunity mechanism, it is relevant to identify the transcription termination site. This, however, could not be directly inferred from the 3-end of the transcription products because of the extensive and complex processing ...
AMRI Hospital Mukundapur started as the first boutique multi super specialty healthcare facility in Eastern India AMRI Mukundapur is a comprehensive healthcare treatment facility equipped with state-of-the art International standard equipment. The unit is currently functioning as a 170 bedded multi super specialty hospital. The best aspect about the hospital is the soothing ambience at par International Standards and highly professional staff who manage the latest technology. Having being geographically located at the heart of southland in Kolkata surrounded by landmarks like Satyajit Ray Film Institute, Metro Cash & Carry and Delhi Public School it is not only very easy to reach but easy transit is availed by the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass which touches the hospital premises. Internationally acclaimed consultants are attached on full time basis with the unit hence highest standards of clinical service is always maintained. The facility has advanced infrastructure and expert team of dedicated ...
We have three independently functioning Professorial Neurosurgery Units along with team of 2 Associate Professors,12 Assistant Professors, 9 Senior Registrars and 70 postgraduate trainees distributed among three units. There is Professorial department of Neurology .We have two dedicated operation theatres only for Emergency surgery with round the clock anesthesia cover. At present there are three theatres dedicated to elective Neurosurgery which will be increased to 8 in few months. There is robust teaching and training program with grand teaching rounds, CPC, journal club and mortality meetings. There is 12 stations Neurosurgery skill lab. The biannual journal of Neurosurgery is published from here. Our Motto is to train doctors in Neurosurgery at par with international standards and provide congenial environment for clinical research that will help future generations of Pakistan.. ...
One family, ccdAB, interferes with replication and transcription via interactions with gyrase. This family has been extensively studied in the last five years, leading to a detailed understanding on how the toxin CcdB poisons DNA-bound-gyrase and how the intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin CcdA is able to rejuvenated CcdB-poisoned gyrase. The latter proves to be an example on how intrinsically disordered proteins act in mechanistic terms and why intrinsic disorder is required in certain biochemical contexts.. Another family of TA modules, phd/doc, inhibit translation by interfering with the action of the ribosome. The phd/doc module of bacteriophage P1 is being used to study transcription regulation by conditional co-operativity. This is a novel regulatory mechanism used by bacteria that involves allosteric communication between two (partly) disordered protein domains. While such a form of allostery has been predicted based on theoretical arguments, our work provided the first ...
Marianne Baernholdt, PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN; Ivora D. Hinton, PhD; Guofen Yan, PhD; Wenjun Xin, MS; Emily Cramer, PhD; & Nancy Dunton, PhD, FAAN (March 15, 2017 ...
... This article shows how you can modify the partitioning of your Linux system with GParted (...
"Bacteriophage P1". In The Bacteriophages, Vol. 1, ed. Richard Calendar, pp. 291-438 (Plenum; 1988) Research papers Nat ... "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs ... "Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. I. Recombination between loxP sites", Journal of Molecular Biology, 150: 467-86, ... where he started to study the phage P1. From 1981 he directed his own group, continuing to research the P1 phage, as well as ...
loxP (locus of X-over P1) is a site on the bacteriophage P1 consisting of 34 bp. The site includes an asymmetric 8 bp sequence ... The Cre enzyme and the original Lox site called the LoxP sequence are derived from bacteriophage P1. Placing Lox sequences ... Sauer, B.; Henderson, N. (1988). "Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1 ... Sternberg, N; R Hoess (1983). "The Molecular Genetics of Bacteriophage P1". Annual Review of Genetics. 17 (1): 123-154. doi: ...
"Bacteriophage P1 Site-specific Recombination." Journal of Molecular Biology 150 (1981):467-86. Sulston, J.E., E. Schierenberg, ... became an extremely powerful approach when Nat Sternberg and Daniel Hamilton identified a topoisomerase in P1 bacteriophage ...
P1' had a unique site specific recombination system. EcoRI fragments of the P1 Bacteriophage genome were generated and cloned ... Cre recombinase plays important roles in the life cycle of the P1 Bacteriophage. Upon infection of a cell the Cre-loxP system ... The enzyme plays important roles in the life cycle of the P1 Bacteriophage such as cyclization of the linear genome and ... Cre recombinase is a tyrosine recombinase enzyme derived from the P1 Bacteriophage. The enzyme uses a topoisomerase I like ...
Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ... P1 vectors also contain a P1 plasmid replicon, which ensures only one copy of the vector is present in a cell. However, there ...
"Three functions of bacteriophage P1 involved in cell lysis". Journal of Bacteriology. 178 (4): 1099-1104. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC ...
Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... In this article he described the modified single-burst experiment and the isolation of the phages P1, P2, and P3. He had ... P1, P2, and other experimental systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (3): 595-600. doi:10.1128/JB.186.3.595-600.2004. PMC ...
"Site-Specific DNA Recombination in Mammalian Cells by the Cre Recombinase of Bacteriophage P1". Proceedings of the National ... The founding member of the YR family is the lambda integrase, encoded by bacteriophage λ, enabling the integration phage DNA ... The enzyme recognizes 34 base pair DNA sequences called loxP ("locus of crossover in phage P1"). Depending on the orientation ... This dream became reality when groups in the USA were able to introduce bacteriophage and yeast-derived site-specific ...
Citron M, Schuster H (August 1990). "The c4 repressors of bacteriophages P1 and P7 are antisense RNAs". Cell. 62 (3): 591-8. ... It was initially identified in the P1 and P7 phages of E. coli. The identification of c4 antisense RNAs solved the mystery of ... The presence of c4 antisense RNAs in bacteria is to be expected, since the P1 and P7 phages are temperate and can stably ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. ...
Some proteins known to contain a KilA-N domain are listed below: Bacteriophage P1 protein kilA Fowlpox virus (FPV) protein ...
Lehnherr H, Maguin E, Jafri S, Yarmolinsky MB (October 1993). "Plasmid addiction genes of bacteriophage P1: doc, which causes ... P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells ... part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1 ...
"Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 CS1 maint: ... "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: Evolution of Bacteriophage Tail Fiber Genes". Journal of ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ... P1 is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli and some other bacteria. When undergoing a lysogenic cycle the ...
... p1 bacteriophage MeSH A11.284.187.178.200 - chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.190 - chromosomes, bacterial MeSH ...
... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 --- bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500.350 --- bacteriophage t4 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.280.090.500.300 --- bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 --- bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...
... p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.162.178.200 --- chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.162.190.170 --- chromosomes, artificial, ... p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.337.249.200 --- chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.340.024.079 --- attachment sites, ...
The P1-derived artificial chromosome are DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. They can carry large ... "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition. ... P1 was developed as a cloning vector by Nat Sternberg and colleagues in the 1990s. Bacterial artificial chromosome Human ...
Actinomyces phage Av-1 Mycoplasma phage P1 Streptococcus phage Cp-1 Two bacteriophages in this family have been found to infect ... Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012). "Novel Podoviridae family bacteriophage infecting Weissella cibaria ... "Molecular characterization of podoviral bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and their comparison with members ...
Eqolosins prefer bulky amino acid residues at the P1 site and small amino acid residues at the P1′ site. A characteristic of ... A convergently evolved glutamic peptidase, the pre-neck appendage protein (bacteriophage phi-29), uses a Glu and Asp dyad at ...
G4 phage P1 phage Enterobacteria phage P2 P4 phage Phi X 174 phage N4 phage Pseudomonas phage Φ6 Φ29 phage 186 phage Viruses ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL. Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...
The high level of similarities in the tail fiber genes of phage P2, P1, Mu, λ, K3 and T2, which belong to different families, ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a contractile sheath and is thus ...
Bacteriophage PM2 was first described in 1968 after isolation from seawater sampled from the coast of Chile. Group: dsDNA Order ... The icosahedral capsid (T = 21) is 56 nanometers (nm) in diameter and is composed of 1200 P1 (spike) and 60 P2 (capsid) ... Corticoviruses are bacteriophages; that is, their natural hosts are bacteria. The genus contains only one species, the type ... Harrison, S.C., Caspar, D.L., Camerini-Otero, R.D. and Franklin, R.M. (1971). Lipid and protein arrangement in bacteriophage ...
The bacteriophages used for cloning are the phage λ and M13 phage. There is an upper limit on the amount of DNA that can be ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Insert of up to 3,000 kb ... Some plasmids contain an M13 bacteriophage origin of replication and may be used to generate single-stranded DNA. These are ... Cosmids are plasmids that incorporate a segment of bacteriophage λ DNA that has the cohesive end site (cos) which contains ...
Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ... Main article: Marine bacteriophage. Metagenomics has allowed the in-water detection of bacteriophages that was not possible ...
The bacteriophage λ-red operon consists of the exo, bet, and gam genes which, together, are responsible for recombineering. ... recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. ISSN ... In this system, the red operon from bacteriophage λ is transfected into E. coli cells to facilitate incorporation of linear ... In this system, sequences matching foreign bacteriophage or plasmid DNA are incorporated as "spacer" sequences into the ...
As proteins homologous to Beta and RecT are found in many bacteria and bacteriophages (>100 as of February 2010), ... recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. PMC ... link) Murphy K. C. (1998). "Use of bacteriophage λ recombination functions to promote gene replacement in Escherichia coli". J ... Recombineering is based on homologous recombination in Escherichia coli mediated by bacteriophage proteins, either RecE/RecT ...
Depending on the lattice symmetry, each morphological unit of the S-layer is composed of one (p1), two (p2), three (p3), four ( ... protection against bacteriophages, Bdellovibrios, and phagocytosis. *resistance against low pH. *barrier against high-molecular ... In general, S-layers exhibit either an oblique (p1, p2), square (p4) or hexagonal (p3, p6) lattice symmetry. ...
Chapter 4 - Bacteriophage-Encoded Bacterial Virulence Factors and Phage-Pathogenicity Island Interactions. Bacteriophages, Part ... It requires three amino acids before the cleavage site, known as P1, P2 and P3. Of these, SpeB has a preference for hydrophobic ... In contrast, speA, speC and speH-M are encoded by bacteriophages. There is a lack of consensus over the location of the speG ... Bacteriophage T12 infection of Streptococcus pyogenes enables the production of Spe A, and increases virulence. SpeB was ...
1976; Bacteriophage T4-induced shut-off of host-specific translation. J Virol17:326-334 ... 1995; Control of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter strength by ppGpp. J Biol Chem270:11181-11189 ... 1993; A cytotoxic early gene of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1. J Bacteriol175:7887-7900 ... CRISPR elements in Yersinia pestis acquire new repeats by preferential uptake of bacteriophage DNA, and provide additional ...
P1 is composed of three beta-barrel domains arranged end to end. The distal C-terminal domains of P1 are used for receptor ... Bacteriophage PM2 infects Gram-negative bacteria. Currently, PM2 does not share any significant sequence similarity to any ... PM2 is the first bacteriophage in which the presence of lipids in the virion was demonstrated. Since only one genus ... The N-termini of P1 form pentagonal assemblies at the vertices. The inner membrane (47 nm in diameter) contains host plasma ...
Buy our Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase peptide. Ab41101 is a Synthetic peptide for ab40011. Abcam provides free protocols, ... Cre-recombinase is a 38 kDa DNA recombinase derived from the P1 bacteriophage. It is highly specific for a 34 bp DNA sequence ( ... Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase peptide. See all Cre recombinase proteins and peptides. ... loxP) found in P1 DNA. It catalyzes site-specific recombination between two 34-base-pair LOXP sites. Its role is to maintain ...
TRANSDUCTIONAL INSTABILITY OF Tn5-INDUCED MUTATIONS: GENERALIZED AND SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION OF Tn5 BY BACTERIOPHAGE P1. ... TRANSDUCTIONAL INSTABILITY OF Tn5-INDUCED MUTATIONS: GENERALIZED AND SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION OF Tn5 BY BACTERIOPHAGE P1. ... TRANSDUCTIONAL INSTABILITY OF Tn5-INDUCED MUTATIONS: GENERALIZED AND SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION OF Tn5 BY BACTERIOPHAGE P1. ... TRANSDUCTIONAL INSTABILITY OF Tn5-INDUCED MUTATIONS: GENERALIZED AND SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION OF Tn5 BY BACTERIOPHAGE P1 ...
Isolation of bacteriophage-P1-derived constructs using the QIAGEN® Plasmid Midi Kit - (EN). ... The procedure has been used successfully for isolation of 110 kb P1 DNA (pAdsacBII with an 80 kb insert) from Escherichia coli ... Yield of P1 DNA was typically 10-50 µg from 500 ml culture. ...
Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ...
Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ... such as P1 bacteriophage (=-=Sternberg, 1990-=-), bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 ... The genome of bacteriophage P1 by Malgorzata B. Lobocka, Debra J. Rose, Guy Plunkett Iii, Marek Rusin, Arkadiusz Samojedny, ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ...
Productive infection and transduction by bacteriophage P1 in the species Salmonella bongori ... Productive infection and transduction by bacteriophage P1 in the species Salmonella bongori ... Productive infection and transduction by bacteriophage P1 in the species Salmonella bongori ... Conclusion: Therefore, bacteriophage P1 can be used as a tool for the genetic manipulation in the species S. bongori. ...
Use of a biotinylated DNA probe to detect bacteria transduced by bacteriophage P1 in soil.. L R Zeph, G Stotzky ... Presumptive bacteriophage P1 transductants of Escherichia coli, isolated from soil inoculated with lysates of transducing phage ... Use of a biotinylated DNA probe to detect bacteria transduced by bacteriophage P1 in soil. ... Use of a biotinylated DNA probe to detect bacteria transduced by bacteriophage P1 in soil. ...
Bacteriophage LM33_P1, a fast-acting weapon against the pandemic ST131-O25b: H4 Escherichia coli clonal complex. ... Bacteriophage LM33_P1 exclusively infects O25b E. coli strains with a 70% coverage on sequence types associated with high ... A large panel of E. coli strains (n = 283) was used to assess both the specificity and the activity of bacteriophage LM33_P1. ... Bacteriophage LM33_P1 represents the first weapon that specifically and quickly kills O25b E. coli strains. Therapeutic ...
P1 adsorption and sensitivity assays.P1 adsorption assays were performed using a P1 lysate grown on E. coli K-12 strain MC4100 ... Wild-type EHEC O157:H7 strains are resistant to P1, but O157:H7 gal mutants were found to be P1 sensitive and permitted P1- ... To test for sensitivity of strains to P1 lysis, each strain was cross-streaked against P1. A single line of P1 (100 μl; ∼109 ... serves as the receptor for bacteriophage P1. Phage P1 has been a workhorse for genetic manipulation of E. coli K-12 for many ...
A restriction fragment of the bacteriophage P1 genome known to serv ... The sequence of the bacteriophage P1 genome region serving as hot target for IS2 insertion.: ... The sequence of the bacteriophage P1 genome region serving as hot target for IS2 insertion.. Authors * C Sengstag ... A restriction fragment of the bacteriophage P1 genome known to serve as a hot target for IS2 insertion in its host, Escherichia ...
Since the ban gene of bacteriophage P1 suppresses a number of conditionally lethal dnaB mutations in Escherichia coli, it was ... Genome of bacteriophage P1.. *Małgorzata B Łobocka, Debra J Rose, +5 authors Frederick R Blattner ... Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein.. *Jannick Dyrløv Bendtsen, ... Bacteriophage P1 Ban protein is a hexameric DNA helicase that interacts with and substitutes for Escherichia coli DnaB.. @ ...
Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in Salmonella spp. resistant to third generation cephalosporins ... Corrigendum: Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in Salmonella spp. resistant to third generation ... Rights & permissionsfor article Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in ,i,Salmonella spp.,/i, ... Rights & permissionsfor article Corrigendum: Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in ,i,Salmonella spp ...
Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 (ATCC® 25404-B1™) ATCC® Number: 25404-B1™ Deposited As P1 ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC® 15597-B1™) ATCC® Number: 15597-B1™ Deposited As MS2 ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage T2 (ATCC® 11303-B2™) ATCC® Number: 11303-B2™ Deposited As T2 ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 (ATCC® 11303-B4™) ATCC® Number: 11303-B4™ Deposited As T4 ...
4.4 Bacteriophage P1 derived vector. 4.5 P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC). 4.6 Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) ...
"Bacteriophage P1". In The Bacteriophages, Vol. 1, ed. Richard Calendar, pp. 291-438 (Plenum; 1988) Research papers Nat ... "Bacteriophage P1 Cloning System for the Isolation, Amplification, and Recovery of DNA Fragments as Large as 100 Kilobase Pairs ... "Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. I. Recombination between loxP sites", Journal of Molecular Biology, 150: 467-86, ... where he started to study the phage P1. From 1981 he directed his own group, continuing to research the P1 phage, as well as ...
Bacterial and Bacteriophage Strains. Bacteriophage P1 lysates of galR::kanR (from Keio collection; (Baba et al., 2006)) were ... E. coli MG1655 galR-TAP (AMD032) was constructed by bacteriophage P1 transduction of the kanR-linked TAP tag cassette from ... coli K-12 MG1655 galR deletion strains were constructed from MG655 by bacteriophage P1 transduction using the lysate. Cells ... For galE the tsps are indicated as (+1) for P1 and (−5) for P2. The amino terminus of the first protein in each operon is ...
Bacteriophage P1-mediated transduction experiments: Bacteriophage P1-mediated transduction was carried out essentially as ... cotransducible with the groESgroEL operon by bacteriophage P1 (Fayetet al. 1989). P1 lysates were grown on the putative Tr+ ... Each culture was supplemented with 5 × 10-3 m CaCl2 to ensure efficient bacteriophage P1 adsorption. Infected cultures were ... 1984 Bacteriophage T4 bypass31 mutations that make gene 31 nonessential for bacteriophage T4 replication: mapping bapass31 ...
"Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 CS1 maint: ... "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: Evolution of Bacteriophage Tail Fiber Genes". Journal of ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ... P1 is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli and some other bacteria. When undergoing a lysogenic cycle the ...
... coli temperate bacteriophages P1 and N15. P1 and N15 are temperate bacteriophages that are stably maintained as a circular ... the antitoxin and the toxin in bacteriophage P1 (38). The bacteriophage N15 encodes a TA system homologous to the tad-ata ... Plasmid addiction genes of bacteriophage P1: doc, which causes cell death on curing of prophage, and phd, which prevents host ... the sequences of new bacteriophage genomes will help to ascertain the implication of temperate bacteriophages in the virulence ...
1984) Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. Purification and properties of the Cre recombinase protein. J Biol Chem 259 ... 1984) Site-specific recombination by the bacteriophage P1 lox-Cre system. Cre-mediated synapsis of two lox sites. J Mol Biol ...
Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ... P1 vectors also contain a P1 plasmid replicon, which ensures only one copy of the vector is present in a cell. However, there ...
About half of it was isolated in P1 and PAC clones. The region harbors the genes FGR, SLC9A1, HMG17, EXTL1, AML2, RH, OP18, ...
1988) Bacteriophage P1. in The bacteriophages, ed Callendar R. (Plenum Press, New York, N.Y), 1:291-438. ... Of these broad-host-range phages, P1 and Mu are the best studied. Bacteriophage P1 is a generalized transducing virus capable ... Bacteria and bacteriophages.Bacterial strains used for bacteriophage propagation and titration were E. coli AB1157 (5), P. ... Bacteriophage SN-T produced transductants at a frequency of 3 × 10−9 per input PFU, while bacteriophage SN-1 produced ...
  • Casadaban MJ, Cohen SA (1979) Lactose genes fused to exogenous promoters in one step using a Mu -lac bacteriophage: in vivo probe for transcriptional control sequence. (springer.com)
  • I believe the P1 origins use the par set of genes to maintain single copy whereas the F origins use the sop set of genes. (openwetware.org)
  • The physical maps that we derived by using these markers as well as markers isolated from bacteriophage clones spanning the S 8 haplotype revealed a high degree of synteny at the submegabase scale between the two homeologous regions. (plantcell.org)
  • While virion particles are capable of independent existence outside the host, all bacteriophages are obligate intracellular parasites and must enter a host bacterium to replicate. (asm.org)
  • protective Immune Responses Induced by the Immunization of Mice with a Recombinant Bacteriophage Displaying a Epitope of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus" Virology 234: 118-122 (1997). (patentgenius.com)
  • Only three S. pneumoniae bacteriophage genomes have been characterized in detail, and their sequences have been determined. (asm.org)
  • In 1976, Sternberg joined the group being established by Michael Yarmolinsky in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the National Cancer Institute's Frederick Cancer Research Center at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, where he started to study the phage P1. (wikipedia.org)
  • P1 phage had been discovered in 1951, but was little understood when Sternberg began to research the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, E. coli O157 cannot be genetically manipulated using the generalized transducing phage P1, presumably because its extensive O antigen obscures the P1 receptor, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core subunit. (asm.org)
  • 1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of inactive form of P1 endolysin Lyz. (wisc.edu)
  • The high prevalence of P1-like prophages suggests their role may be underestimated. (jove.com)
  • S. marcescens bacteriophages were chosen as the focus of our research because of the growing importance of the host and its increasing prevalence as a nosocomial pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that a multiple-host enrichment protocol may be more effective for the isolation of broad-host-range bacteriophages by avoiding the selection bias inherent in single-host methods. (asm.org)
  • Virology methods and sequencing were used to characterize this bacteriophage in vitro, while three relevant mouse models were employed to show its in vivo efficacy. (ovid.com)
  • Phage P1 has been a workhorse for genetic manipulation of E. coli K-12 for many decades. (asm.org)
  • Presumably, the combined size of the latter fragment and the vector DNA (13 kbp) exceeds the headful capacity of P1. (pnas.org)
  • P1 can also be used to create the P1-derived artificial chromosome cloning vector which can carry relatively large fragments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain PWH3a was infected with a lytic virus (PWH3a-P1) and the resulting 36.0 µ mol L −1 of dissolved organic N (DON) in the lysate was added to cultures containing cyanobacteria ( Synechococcus sp. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Surprisingly, systematic studies of broad-host-range interactions of bacteriophages and of the relative frequencies with which such bacteriophages may be isolated are lacking. (asm.org)