DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Bacteriophage phi 6
Bacteriophage phi X 174
N4 RNA polymerase II, a heterodimeric RNA polymerase with homology to the single-subunit family of RNA polymerases. (1/14)Bacteriophage N4 middle genes are transcribed by a phage-coded, heterodimeric, rifampin-resistant RNA polymerase, N4 RNA polymerase II (N4 RNAPII). Sequencing and transcriptional analysis revealed that the genes encoding the two subunits comprising N4 RNAPII are translated from a common transcript initiating at the N4 early promoter Pe3. These genes code for proteins of 269 and 404 amino acid residues with sequence similarity to the single-subunit, phage-like RNA polymerases. The genes encoding the N4 RNAPII subunits, as well as a synthetic construct encoding a fusion polypeptide, have been cloned and expressed. Both the individually expressed subunits and the fusion polypeptide reconstitute functional enzymes in vivo and in vitro. (+info)
The phage N4 virion RNA polymerase catalytic domain is related to single-subunit RNA polymerases. (2/14)In vitro, bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP) recognizes in vivo sites of transcription initiation on single-stranded templates. N4 vRNAP promoters are comprised of a hairpin structure and conserved sequences. Here, we show that vRNAP consists of a single 3500 amino acid polypeptide, and we define and characterize a transcriptionally active 1106 amino acid domain (mini-vRNAP). Biochemical and genetic characterization of this domain indicates that, despite its peculiar promoter specificity and lack of extensive sequence similarity to other DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, mini-vRNAP is related to the family of T7-like RNA polymerases. (+info)
Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein mediates template recycling during transcription by bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase. (3/14)Coliphage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), the most distantly related member of the T7-like family of RNA polymerases, is responsible for transcription of the early genes of the linear double-stranded DNA phage genome. Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (EcoSSB) is required for N4 early transcription in vivo, as well as for in vitro transcription on super-coiled DNA templates containing vRNAP promoters. In contrast to other DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, vRNAP initiates transcription on single-stranded, promoter-containing templates with in vivo specificity; however, the RNA product is not displaced, thus limiting template usage to one round. We show that EcoSSB activates vRNAP transcription at limiting single-stranded template concentrations through template recycling. EcoSSB binds to the template and to the nascent transcript and prevents the formation of a transcriptionally inert RNA:DNA hybrid. Using C-terminally truncated EcoSSB mutant proteins, human mitochondrial SSB (Hsmt SSB), phage P1 SSB, and F episome-encoded SSB, as well as a Hsmt-EcoSSB chimera, we have mapped a determinant of template recycling to the C-terminal amino acids of EcoSSB. T7 RNAP contains an amino-terminal domain responsible for binding the RNA product as it exits from the enzyme. No sequence similarity to this domain exists in vRNAP. Hereby, we propose a unique role for EcoSSB: It functionally substitutes in N4 vRNAP for the N-terminal domain of T7 RNAP responsible for RNA binding. (+info)
Phage N4 RNA polymerase II recruitment to DNA by a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. (4/14)Transcription of bacteriophage N4 middle genes is carried out by a phage-coded, heterodimeric RNA polymerase (N4 RNAPII), which belongs to the family of T7-like RNA polymerases. In contrast to phage T7-RNAP, N4 RNAPII displays no activity on double-stranded templates and low activity on single-stranded templates. In vivo, at least one additional N4-coded protein (p17) is required for N4 middle transcription. We show that N4 ORF2 encodes p17 (gp2). Characterization of purified gp2revealed that it is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that activates N4 RNAPII transcription on single-stranded DNA templates through specific interaction with N4 RNAPII. On the basis of the properties of the proteins involved in N4 RNAPII transcription and of middle promoters, we propose a model for N4 RNAPII promoter recognition, in which gp2plays two roles, stabilization of a single-stranded region at the promoter and recruitment of N4 RNAPII through gp2-N4 RNAPII interactions. Furthermore, we discuss our results in the context of transcription initiation by mitochondrial RNA polymerases. (+info)
Bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase interaction with its promoter DNA hairpin. (5/14)Bacteriophage N4 minivirion RNA polymerase (mini-vRNAP), the RNA polymerase (RNAP) domain of vRNAP, is a member of the T7-like RNAP family. Mini-vRNAP recognizes promoters that comprise conserved sequences and a 3-base loop-5-base pair (bp) stem DNA hairpin structure on single-stranded templates. Here, we defined the DNA structural and sequence requirements for mini-vRNAP promoter recognition. Mini-vRNAP binds a 20-nucleotide (nt) N4 P2 promoter deoxyoligonucleotide with high affinity (K(d) = 2 nM) to form a salt-resistant complex. We show that mini-vRNAP interacts specifically with the central base of the hairpin loop (-11G) and a base at the stem (-8G) and that the guanine 6-keto and 7-imino groups at both positions are essential for binding and complex salt resistance. The major determinant (-11G), which must be presented to mini-vRNAP in the context of a hairpin loop, appears to interact with mini-vRNAP Trp-129. This interaction requires template single-strandedness at positions -2 and -1. Contacts with the promoter are disrupted when the RNA product becomes 11-12 nt long. This detailed description of vRNAP interaction with its promoter hairpin provides insights into RNAP-promoter interactions and explains how the injected vRNAP, which is present in one or two copies, recognizes its promoters on a single copy of the injected genome. (+info)
X-ray crystal structure of the polymerase domain of the bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase. (6/14)(+info)
Insight into DNA and protein transport in double-stranded DNA viruses: the structure of bacteriophage N4. (7/14)(+info)
The tail sheath of bacteriophage N4 interacts with the Escherichia coli receptor. (8/14)(+info)
Bacteriophage N4 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus, which means that its genetic material is made up of two strands of DNA. The virus specifically targets E. coli bacteria that have the F plasmid, a type of extra genetic material that some strains of E. coli carry.
Bacteriophage N4 has a complex structure and replication cycle. After infecting an E. coli cell, it first uses the host's machinery to produce early and late proteins, which are necessary for the virus to replicate its genetic material and assemble new viral particles. The virus then packages its DNA into newly assembled capsids (the protein shell of the virus) and releases them from the host cell by causing it to lyse, or burst.
Bacteriophage N4 has been studied for its potential use in bacterial genetics and as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand its properties and potential applications.
Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.
Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.
Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.
Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.
DNA-directed RNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules using a DNA template in a process called transcription. These enzymes read the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule and use it as a blueprint to construct a complementary RNA strand.
The RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, adding ribonucleotides one by one to the growing RNA chain. The synthesis is directional, starting at the promoter region of the DNA and moving towards the terminator region.
In bacteria, there is a single type of RNA polymerase that is responsible for transcribing all types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). In eukaryotic cells, however, there are three different types of RNA polymerases: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. Each type is responsible for transcribing specific types of RNA.
RNA polymerases play a crucial role in gene expression, as they link the genetic information encoded in DNA to the production of functional proteins. Inhibition or mutation of these enzymes can have significant consequences for cellular function and survival.
'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.
While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.
E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.
Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.
T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.
Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.
T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.
Bacteriophage lambda, often simply referred to as phage lambda, is a type of virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that integrates its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome as a prophage when it infects the host cell. This allows the phage to replicate along with the bacterium until certain conditions trigger the lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing, or breaking open, the host cell.
Phage lambda is widely studied in molecular biology due to its well-characterized life cycle and genetic structure. It has been instrumental in understanding various fundamental biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA recombination, and lysis-lysogeny decision.
Bacteriophage T7 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that specifically recognizes and binds to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria through its tail fibers. After attachment, the viral genome is injected into the host cell, where it hijacks the bacterial machinery to produce new phage particles. The rapid reproduction of T7 phages within the host cell often results in lysis, or rupture, of the bacterial cell, leading to the release of newly formed phage virions. Bacteriophage T7 is widely studied as a model system for understanding virus-host interactions and molecular biology.
Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.
The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.
However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.
Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.
I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. T-phages are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of molecular biology and virology. T-phages refer to specific bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that belong to the family of Podoviridae and have a tail structure with a contractile sheath.
To be more specific, T-even phages are a group of T-phages that include well-studied bacteriophages like T2, T4, and T6. These phages infect Escherichia coli bacteria and have been extensively researched to understand their life cycles, genetic material packaging, and molecular mechanisms of infection.
In summary, T-phages are not a medical term but rather refer to specific bacteriophages used in scientific research.
Bacteriophage mu, also known as Mucoid Bacteriophage or Phage Mu, is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the genetic material of specific bacteria, primarily belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. This phage is characterized by its unique ability to integrate its genome into the host bacterium's chromosome at random locations, which can result in mutations or alterations in the bacterial genome.
Phage Mu has a relatively large genome and encodes various proteins that facilitate its replication, packaging, and release from the host cell. When Phage Mu infects a bacterium, it injects its genetic material into the host cytoplasm, where it circularizes and then integrates itself into the host's chromosome via a process called transposition. This integration can lead to significant changes in the host bacterium's genome, potentially altering its phenotype or even converting it into a lysogenic state, where the phage remains dormant within the host cell until environmental conditions trigger its replication and release.
Phage Mu is widely used as a tool for genetic research due to its ability to introduce random mutations into bacterial genomes, facilitating the study of gene function and regulation. Additionally, Phage Mu has been explored for potential applications in phage therapy, where it could be used to target and eliminate specific bacterial pathogens without adversely affecting other beneficial microorganisms present in the host organism or environment.
Bacteriophage phi 6, also known as Phi 6 or Pseudomonas phage Phi 6, is a double-stranded RNA virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is a member of the family Cystoviridae and has an icosahedral head and a tail structure, which allows it to attach to and inject its genetic material into the host cell. Bacteriophage phi 6 is often used as a model system for studying RNA replication and transcription, as well as for understanding the mechanisms of virus-host interactions. It has also been studied as a potential candidate for use in phage therapy, which is the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections.
Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.
Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.
Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.
Bacteriophage phi X 174, also known as Phi X 174 or ΦX174, is a bacterial virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a small, icosahedral-shaped virus with a diameter of about 30 nanometers and belongs to the family Podoviridae in the order Caudovirales.
Phi X 174 has a single-stranded DNA genome that is circular and consists of 5,386 base pairs. It is one of the smallest viruses known to infect bacteria, and its simplicity has made it a model system for studying bacteriophage biology and molecular biology.
Phi X 174 was first discovered in 1962 by American scientist S.E. Luria and his colleagues. It is able to infect E. coli cells that lack the F-pilus, a hair-like structure on the surface of the bacterial cell. Once inside the host cell, phi X 174 uses the host's machinery to replicate its DNA and produce new viral particles, which are then released from the host cell by lysis, causing the cell to burst open and release the new viruses.
Phi X 174 has been extensively studied for its unique biological properties, including its small size, simple genome, and ability to infect E. coli cells. It has also been used as a tool in molecular biology research, such as in the development of DNA sequencing techniques and the study of gene regulation.
Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.
List of MeSH codes (B04)
DNA adenine methylase
List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: Ba-Bc
Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)
Enquatrovirus - Wikipedia
German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH: Projects
Complete list of original publications - Mikrobiologie
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Burst size in lymphoid memory T cell (in vitr - HIV - BNID 105872
LYNNE L HAYNES VOICE - HOME
Статьи в международных журналах - Institute of Molecular Biology
Propolis Inclusion into Broiler Diets Improves the Immunomodulation and Productive Performance After Challenge with Escherichia...
Bacteriophage - wikidoc
Diflucan 150mg capsule N4 - In Stock - $29.00
Viral genome ejection through host cell envelope ~ ViralZone
小野 慎 (Shin Ono) - マイポータル - researchmap
Browse by Warwick Author - WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal
DeCS 2019 - June 12, 2019 version
DeCS 2018 - July 31, 2018 version
DeCS 2017 - July 04, 2017 version
DeCS 2016 - June 12, 2016 version
DeCS 2017 - December 21, 2017 version
Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk positively impacts intestinal cytokine expression and morphology.下载|翻译|阅读
Hacking for Healing at SXSW Interactive | PPT
1 - Trading strategy 2017
SMART: Schnipsel domain POLBc
Development of an in vitro bacteriophage N4 DNA replication system<...
German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH: Projects
Discovery of an expansive bacteriophage family that includes the most abundant viruses from the human gut - PubMed
TREE NUMBER DESCRIPTOR
Publications 2013 | CHESS
DNA-directed RNA polymerase ~ ViralZone
Pesquisa | Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BRASIL
Bacteriophage phi 6. Medical search
Bacteriophage orphan DNA methyltransferases: insights from their bacterial origin, function, and occurrence. - PacBio
NEW (2002) MESH HEADINGS WITH SCOPE NOTES (UNIT RECORD FORMAT; 8/27/2001
Publications | CCAMP
Histone H1 eviction by the histone chaperone SET reduces cell survival following DNA damage | Journal of Cell Science | The...
Export Users With Content | NIH 3D Print Exchange
Aggregator | NIH Library
Optimization and validation of sample preparation for metagenomic sequencing of viruses in clinical samples | Microbiome | Full...
MULTIEPITOPE SELF-ASSEMBLED NANOPARTICLE VACCINE PLATFORM (MSN-VACCINE PLATFORM) AND USES THERE OF - TRANSLATIONAL HEALTH...
VU Biochemijos institutas
OCA Query Results
An RNA aptamer that shifts the reduction potential of metabolic cofactors | Nature Chemical Biology
DeCS 2018 - July 31, 2018 version
Stephen Kowalczykowski | UC Davis Profiles
Protein Concepts Dictionary
- There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Escherichia virus N4. (wikipedia.org)
- Escherichia virus N4 is the type species of this genus and was originally isolated from sewers in Genoa, Italy and infects Escherichia coli K-12. (wikipedia.org)
- Recently, a number of genetically related phages were isolated, infecting Silicibacter and Sulfitobacter (DSS3ɸ2 and EE36ɸ1) as well as a number of Pseudomonas phages (LUZ7, LIT1 and PEV2) Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Podoviridae Genus: Enquatrovirus Escherichia virus N4 The virus's virion have icosahedral (T=9) heads ~70 nm and short tails (10 nm), and contain short fibers originating from the junction between the head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
- A Novel Locally c-di-GMP-Controlled Exopolysaccharide Synthase Required for Bacteriophage N4 Infection of Escherichia coli . (hu-berlin.de)
- Enquatrovirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
- In particular, the taxonomy of N4-like viruses lies in our responsibility. (dsmz.de)
- A bacteriophage (from ' bacteria ' and Greek phagein , 'to eat') is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria. (wikidoc.org)
- Bacteriophages may have a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle , but a few viruses are capable of carrying out both. (wikidoc.org)
- PhagoMed Biopharma GmbH, a biotech company located in Vienna focusses on bacteriophage to overcome infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (dsmz.de)
- The phages lyse the host bacteria at 37°C, but enter the lysogenic cycle and become prophages in the chromosome of the host bacteria at 26°C. IMPORTANCE Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis were isolated from M. himalayana of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China. (bvsalud.org)
- A switch from the lysogenic to the lytic cycle occurred when lysogenic bacteria were incubated from lower temperature to higher temperature (initially incubating at 26°C and shifting to 37°C). It is speculated that the temperature dependent lifestyle of bacteriophages may affect the population dynamics and pathogenicity of Y. pestis. (bvsalud.org)
- Bacteriophages are much smaller than the bacteria they destroy - usually between 20 and 200 nm in size. (wikidoc.org)
- D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage or bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein meaning to eat). (wikidoc.org)
- Typically, bacteriophages consist of an outer protein hull enclosing genetic material . (wikidoc.org)
- This study is the report of isolation of Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis from M. himalayana. (bvsalud.org)
- In 2006 the UK Ministry of Defence took responsibility for a G8-funded Global Partnership Priority Eliava Project as a retrospective study to explore the potential of bacteriophages for the 21st century. (wikidoc.org)
- Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). (lookformedical.com)
- BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (lookformedical.com)
- A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6. (lookformedical.com)
- Basu RS, Murakami KS, " Watching the bacteriophage N4 RNA polymerase transcription by time-dependent soak-trigger-freeze X-ray crystallography ," J. Biol. (cornell.edu)
- We have determined the solution structure of a TCC-loop hairpin in the cruciform promoter for the bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase (N4 vRNAP). (bvsalud.org)
- Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105. (lookformedical.com)
- 2021. A Novel N4-Like Bacteriophage Isolated from a Wastewater Source in South India with Activity against Several Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates [Next Gen Genomics & National Electron Cryo-Microscopy Facilities] . (ccamp.res.in)