Bacteriophage N4: A species in the genus N4-like viruses, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Azorhizobium caulinodans: A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cytochromes a1: A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes have a reduced alpha-band absorption of 587-592 nm. They are primarily found in microorganisms.Sesbania: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Leviviridae: A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Evodia: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.

N4 RNA polymerase II, a heterodimeric RNA polymerase with homology to the single-subunit family of RNA polymerases. (1/14)

Bacteriophage N4 middle genes are transcribed by a phage-coded, heterodimeric, rifampin-resistant RNA polymerase, N4 RNA polymerase II (N4 RNAPII). Sequencing and transcriptional analysis revealed that the genes encoding the two subunits comprising N4 RNAPII are translated from a common transcript initiating at the N4 early promoter Pe3. These genes code for proteins of 269 and 404 amino acid residues with sequence similarity to the single-subunit, phage-like RNA polymerases. The genes encoding the N4 RNAPII subunits, as well as a synthetic construct encoding a fusion polypeptide, have been cloned and expressed. Both the individually expressed subunits and the fusion polypeptide reconstitute functional enzymes in vivo and in vitro.  (+info)

The phage N4 virion RNA polymerase catalytic domain is related to single-subunit RNA polymerases. (2/14)

In vitro, bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP) recognizes in vivo sites of transcription initiation on single-stranded templates. N4 vRNAP promoters are comprised of a hairpin structure and conserved sequences. Here, we show that vRNAP consists of a single 3500 amino acid polypeptide, and we define and characterize a transcriptionally active 1106 amino acid domain (mini-vRNAP). Biochemical and genetic characterization of this domain indicates that, despite its peculiar promoter specificity and lack of extensive sequence similarity to other DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, mini-vRNAP is related to the family of T7-like RNA polymerases.  (+info)

Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein mediates template recycling during transcription by bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase. (3/14)

Coliphage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), the most distantly related member of the T7-like family of RNA polymerases, is responsible for transcription of the early genes of the linear double-stranded DNA phage genome. Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (EcoSSB) is required for N4 early transcription in vivo, as well as for in vitro transcription on super-coiled DNA templates containing vRNAP promoters. In contrast to other DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, vRNAP initiates transcription on single-stranded, promoter-containing templates with in vivo specificity; however, the RNA product is not displaced, thus limiting template usage to one round. We show that EcoSSB activates vRNAP transcription at limiting single-stranded template concentrations through template recycling. EcoSSB binds to the template and to the nascent transcript and prevents the formation of a transcriptionally inert RNA:DNA hybrid. Using C-terminally truncated EcoSSB mutant proteins, human mitochondrial SSB (Hsmt SSB), phage P1 SSB, and F episome-encoded SSB, as well as a Hsmt-EcoSSB chimera, we have mapped a determinant of template recycling to the C-terminal amino acids of EcoSSB. T7 RNAP contains an amino-terminal domain responsible for binding the RNA product as it exits from the enzyme. No sequence similarity to this domain exists in vRNAP. Hereby, we propose a unique role for EcoSSB: It functionally substitutes in N4 vRNAP for the N-terminal domain of T7 RNAP responsible for RNA binding.  (+info)

Phage N4 RNA polymerase II recruitment to DNA by a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. (4/14)

Transcription of bacteriophage N4 middle genes is carried out by a phage-coded, heterodimeric RNA polymerase (N4 RNAPII), which belongs to the family of T7-like RNA polymerases. In contrast to phage T7-RNAP, N4 RNAPII displays no activity on double-stranded templates and low activity on single-stranded templates. In vivo, at least one additional N4-coded protein (p17) is required for N4 middle transcription. We show that N4 ORF2 encodes p17 (gp2). Characterization of purified gp2revealed that it is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that activates N4 RNAPII transcription on single-stranded DNA templates through specific interaction with N4 RNAPII. On the basis of the properties of the proteins involved in N4 RNAPII transcription and of middle promoters, we propose a model for N4 RNAPII promoter recognition, in which gp2plays two roles, stabilization of a single-stranded region at the promoter and recruitment of N4 RNAPII through gp2-N4 RNAPII interactions. Furthermore, we discuss our results in the context of transcription initiation by mitochondrial RNA polymerases.  (+info)

Bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase interaction with its promoter DNA hairpin. (5/14)

Bacteriophage N4 minivirion RNA polymerase (mini-vRNAP), the RNA polymerase (RNAP) domain of vRNAP, is a member of the T7-like RNAP family. Mini-vRNAP recognizes promoters that comprise conserved sequences and a 3-base loop-5-base pair (bp) stem DNA hairpin structure on single-stranded templates. Here, we defined the DNA structural and sequence requirements for mini-vRNAP promoter recognition. Mini-vRNAP binds a 20-nucleotide (nt) N4 P2 promoter deoxyoligonucleotide with high affinity (K(d) = 2 nM) to form a salt-resistant complex. We show that mini-vRNAP interacts specifically with the central base of the hairpin loop (-11G) and a base at the stem (-8G) and that the guanine 6-keto and 7-imino groups at both positions are essential for binding and complex salt resistance. The major determinant (-11G), which must be presented to mini-vRNAP in the context of a hairpin loop, appears to interact with mini-vRNAP Trp-129. This interaction requires template single-strandedness at positions -2 and -1. Contacts with the promoter are disrupted when the RNA product becomes 11-12 nt long. This detailed description of vRNAP interaction with its promoter hairpin provides insights into RNAP-promoter interactions and explains how the injected vRNAP, which is present in one or two copies, recognizes its promoters on a single copy of the injected genome.  (+info)

X-ray crystal structure of the polymerase domain of the bacteriophage N4 virion RNA polymerase. (6/14)

 (+info)

Insight into DNA and protein transport in double-stranded DNA viruses: the structure of bacteriophage N4. (7/14)

 (+info)

The tail sheath of bacteriophage N4 interacts with the Escherichia coli receptor. (8/14)

 (+info)

*N4likevirus

... the Structure of Bacteriophage N4". Journal of Molecular Biology. 378 (3): 726-36. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.02.059. PMC 2396777 ... There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Escherichia phage N4. Escherichia phage N4 is the type ... N4likevirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts ... Escherichia phage N4 The virus's virion have icosahedral (T=9) heads ~70 nm and short tails (10 nm), and contain short fibers ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage m13 MeSH B04.123.205.260 --- bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.123.205.280 --- bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.205.300 --- ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...

*Bacteriophage

G4 phage P1 phage Enterobacteria phage P2 P4 phage Phi X 174 phage N4 phage Pseudomonas phage Φ6 Φ29 phage 186 phage Viruses ... Superbugs", Macmillan Phage.org general information on bacteriophages bacteriophages illustrations and genomics Bacteriophages ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL. Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ...

*DNA

However, in several bacteriophages, Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages PBS1 and PBS2 and Yersinia bacteriophage piR1-37, thymine ... N4-methylcytosine in DNA was described in 1983. In 1985 5-hydroxycytosine was found in the genomes of the Rhizobium phages ... In 1976 a bacteriophage - S-2L - which infects species of the genus Synechocystis was found to have all the adenosine bases ... Casella E, Markewych O, Dosmar M, Heman W (1978) Production and expression of dTMP-enriched DNA of bacteriophage SP15. J ...

*Dam methylase

Motif II is highly conserved among N4 and N6-adenine methylases and contains a negatively charged amino acid followed by a ... Dam methylase is unique to prokaryotes and bacteriophages. When DNA polymerase makes an error resulting in a mismatched base- ... The similarity in the catalytic domains of C5-cytosine methyltransferases and N6 and N4-adenine methyltransferases provided ... this motif can vary for N4-adenine and C5-cytosine methyltransferases. The DPPY motif has been found to be essential for AdoMet ...

*Site-directed mutagenesis

... was achieved in 1974 in the laboratory of Charles Weissmann using a nucleotide analogue N4- ... Marshall H. Edgell, Clyde A. Hutchison, III, and Morton Sclair (1972). "Specific Endonuclease R Fragments of Bacteriophage X174 ... Hutchison Ca, 3.; Edgell, M. H. (1971). "Genetic Assay for Small Fragments of Bacteriophage φX174 Deoxyribonucleic Acid". ... effect of an extracistronic mutation on the in vitro propagation of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 72 (1 ...

*Podoviridae

Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012) A novel bacteriophage of the Podoviridae family infecting Weissella cibaria ... Escherichia phage N4 Genus: P22likevirus Enterobacteria phage P22 Salmonella phage HK620 Salmonella phage ST64T Shigella phage ... "The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ...

*List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: Ba-Bc

Huang LH, Farnet CM, Ehrlich KC, Ehrlich M (March 1982). "Digestion of highly modified bacteriophage DNA by restriction ... "Cytosine modification in DNA by BcnI methylase yields N4-methylcytosine". FEBS Lett. 161 (1): 131-4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(83) ...

*Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)

Such chemicals include aminopurine, which induces AT to GC transition, while nitrosoguanidine, bisulfite, and N4- ... effect of an extracistronic mutation on the in vitro propagation of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA". Proceedings of the National ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Escherichia phage N4 Genus: P22likevirus Enterobacteria phage P22 Salmonella phage HK620 Salmonella phage ST64T Shigella phage ... Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage p23-77 Thermus thermophilus phagein in93 Family: Tectiviridae Genus: Tectivirus Bacillus ...
Define phage. phage synonyms, phage pronunciation, phage translation, English dictionary definition of phage. n. A bacteriophage. n short for bacteriophage n. bacteriophage. a combining form meaning
5121 Telomeres, centromeres, and other highly repetitive genomic regions are typically under-represented in shotgun libraries, and they are often absent from partial-digest BAC libraries. Accurate cloning of isolated fragments containing short tandem repeats, AT-rich DNA, or regions with strong secondary structure likewise can be difficult or impossible using conventional supercoiled plasmids. We have developed vectors and methods to alleviate these types of cloning bias. A transcription-free, linear plasmid was derived from the linear coliphage N15 for cloning into E.coli. The ends of the vector are free to rotate during replication, minimizing formation of secondary structures that are substrates for deletion or rearrangement. The "pJAZZ" linear vectors are shown to provide unprecedented ability to maintain regions of up to 30 kb that are unclonable in circular plasmids. Examples include regions of di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide repeats up to several kb, as well as highly AT-rich fragments of ...
N15likevirus (synonym N15-like viruses) is a genus of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Siphoviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts, with transmission achieved through passive diffusion. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Enterobacteria phage N15. Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Siphoviridae Genus: N15likevirus Enterobacteria phage N15 N15likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. The head is about 60 nm in diameter. The tail is long and flexible, at about 140 nm long, 8 nm wide, with short brush-like terminal fibers. Enterobacteria phage N15 has been fully sequenced. It has about 46k nucleotides, with 60 proteins. The complete genome is available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic. The virus attaches to the host cells adhesion receptors using its terminal fiber, and ejects the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via long flexible tail ejection system. Replication follows the replicative transposition model. DNA-templated ...
In 1869, New York attorney Albon Platt Man purchased the Lefferts and Wellings Farms in West Jamaica, an area settled before the Revolutionary War. Envisioning a garden spot and refuge from city life in Manhattan, he recruited landscape architect Edward Richmond to help lay out his proposed community. It was one of the citys first planned garden communities. All streets were well laid out with trees planted on both sides. When Edward Richmond died in 1870, real estate developer, Oliver Fowler, became Mans partner. Lefferts Avenue, now Lefferts Boulevard, became the main thoroughfare.. Man called this new community Richmond Hill. "Richmond Hill" was also the name given to the 138 foot hill located north of Metropolitan Avenue on 116th Street. The name is believed to come from the London suburb of Richmond Hill, although some sources claim that it was named after Edward Richmond, the developer. Kew Gardens, originally North Richmond Hill, was established later in 1912. It was named after the ...
Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAFAH2 gene. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. This gene encodes platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 2, a single-subunit intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). However, this lipase exhibits a broader substrate specificity than simply platelet activating factor. Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist, and both are multi-subunit enzymes. Additionally, there is a single-subunit serum isoform of this enzyme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000158006 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037366 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Hattori K, Adachi H, Matsuzawa A, Yamamoto K, Tsujimoto M, Aoki J, Hattori M, Arai H, Inoue K ...
Azorhizobium caulinodans nfrA protein: RNA-binding protein that stimulates the elongation of poly(A) tails; may be involved in the regulation of nifA; homologous to HF-I protein of Escherichia coli; Do Not confuse with nrfA, a cytochrome c nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.2.2); DO NOT confuse with NfrA protein of E. coli, a bacteriophage N4 adsorption protein; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank X76450
Looking for online definition of nucleotidyl in the Medical Dictionary? nucleotidyl explanation free. What is nucleotidyl? Meaning of nucleotidyl medical term. What does nucleotidyl mean?

Background Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80 - BET-bromodomain inhibition researchBackground Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80 - BET-bromodomain inhibition research

Background Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80. Posted on July 25, 2017. by ... Background Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80 specifically, an avian pathogenic stress ... In this study, we report for the first time the genome of a bacteriophage EC1-UPM, an N4-like bacteriophage that infects O78: ... Bacteriophage N4 which infects K-12 is currently the most studied strain for this group of bacteriophages [10]. In addition to ...
more infohttp://healthandwellnesssource.org/background-bacteriophage-ec1-upm-can-be-an-n4-like-bacteriophage-which-infects-o78k80/

The complete genome sequence of EC1-UPM, a novel N4-like bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli O78:K80 | Virology Journal...The complete genome sequence of EC1-UPM, a novel N4-like bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli O78:K80 | Virology Journal...

Leveraging on the availability of multiple N4-like bacteriophage genome sequences, the core genes of N4-like bacteriophages ... Comparative genomics analysis reveals close resemblance of bacteriophage EC1-UPM to three N4-like bacteriophages namely vB_EcoP ... We report for the first time the complete genome sequence of a N4-like bacteriophage which is lytic against avian pathogenic ... The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage EC1-UPM was analysed and compared with other closely related N4-like phage groups ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-10-308/figures/5

VpsR, a Member of the Response Regulators of the Two-Component Regulatory Systems, Is Required for Expression ofvps...VpsR, a Member of the Response Regulators of the Two-Component Regulatory Systems, Is Required for Expression ofvps...

1993) A cytoplasmic protein, NfrC, is required for bacteriophage N4 adsorption. J. Bacteriol. 175:7074-7080. ... which is required for bacteriophage N4 adsorption and encodes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase function (19). It is also ... The ligation mixture was packaged into bacteriophage lambda particles using the Gigapack III gold packaging extract (Stratagene ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/183/5/1716?ijkey=947433a4200cc88f4107b8095d8f301810dc6ead&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: hsa:29079KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: hsa:29079

sfla:SPHFLASMR4Y_00843 bacteriophage N4 receptor, outer 562 103 ( -) 29 0.357 84 -, 1 sle:sle_42380 Putative transcriptional ... sax:USA300HOU_1441 possible bacteriophage tail protein 2066 118 ( -) 33 0.314 118 -, 1 shf:CEQ32_14595 type I restriction- ...
more infohttps://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=hsa:29079

Azorhizobium caulinodans nfrA protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterAzorhizobium caulinodans nfrA protein Summary Report | CureHunter

... a bacteriophage N4 adsorption protein; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank X76450 ... a bacteriophage N4 adsorption protein; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank X76450 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC087372-Azorhizobium-caulinodans-nfrA-protein.do

Visualization of uncorrelated, tandem symmetry mismatches in the internal genome packaging apparatus of bacteriophage T7 | PNASVisualization of uncorrelated, tandem symmetry mismatches in the internal genome packaging apparatus of bacteriophage T7 | PNAS

2008) Insight into DNA and protein transport in double-stranded DNA viruses: The structure of bacteriophage N4. J Mol Biol 378( ... Inside some bacteriophages, which include T7 (19, 21, 22), P-SSP7 (11), and ε15 (17), a roughly cylindrical, multilayered ... 1983) Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA and the locations of T7 genetic elements. J Mol Biol 166(4):477-535. ... 2011) Peering down the barrel of a bacteriophage portal: The genome packaging and release valve in p22. Structure 19(4):496-502 ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/110/17/6811?ijkey=3e21a4f4b24c1227871ac83b445d893cf5313fa7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Independent Transport and Sorting of Functionally Distinct Protein Families in Tetrahymena thermophila Dense Core Secretory...Independent Transport and Sorting of Functionally Distinct Protein Families in Tetrahymena thermophila Dense Core Secretory...

The bacteriophage N4 gp65 monomer (154 kDa) peaked in fraction 52, and BSA (67 kDa) peaked in fraction 66. ... Jennifer McPartland (University of Chicago) provided the N4 gp65 gel filtration standard, and Kajari Dhar helped with FPLC ...
more infohttps://ec.asm.org/content/8/10/1575

N4likevirus - WikipediaN4likevirus - Wikipedia

... the Structure of Bacteriophage N4". Journal of Molecular Biology. 378 (3): 726-36. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.02.059. PMC 2396777 ... There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Escherichia phage N4. Escherichia phage N4 is the type ... N4likevirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts ... Escherichia phage N4 The viruss virion have icosahedral (T=9) heads ~70 nm and short tails (10 nm), and contain short fibers ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N4likevirus

Genome reannotation of Escherichia coli CFT073 with new insights into virulence | BMC Genomics | Full TextGenome reannotation of Escherichia coli CFT073 with new insights into virulence | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... bacteriophage N4 adsorption genes). However, the picture for these phage-related genes is incomplete in the original annotation ...
more infohttps://0-bmcgenomics-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-10-552

Browse the Collection AlphabeticallyBrowse the Collection Alphabetically

Regulation of bacteriophage N4 middle RNA synthesis : template and protein requirements / 1 ... Chemical composition, physical properties, and growth requirements of bacteriophages. 1 QR999 Bradford A taxonomic study of the ...
more infohttps://catalog.lib.uchicago.edu/vufind/alphabrowse/Home?from=QR999&source=lcc

Kay Choi, Ph.D. | Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | UTMB HealthKay Choi, Ph.D. | Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | UTMB Health

We use bacteriophage N4 as a model system to study the mechanism of genome and protein transport from the virus into the host ... B. Structure of bacteriophage N4 determined by cryo-EM and 3D image reconstruction techniques. ... N4 packages dsDNA as well as one or two copies of a 3,500-amino acid RNA polymerase inside the capsid, which is then ejected ... Tailed bacteriophages have to deliver their genetic information into the host cells cytoplasm across cell membranes. The tail ...
more infohttps://bmb.utmb.edu/faculty/Choi.asp

Phylogenetic tree based on the virion RNA polymerase (a | Open-iPhylogenetic tree based on the virion RNA polymerase (a | Open-i

... of N4-like bacteriophages for which genome sequences are available. Th ... f5: Phylogenetic tree based on the virion RNA polymerase (a) and large terminase subunits (b) of N4-like bacteriophages for ... f5: Phylogenetic tree based on the virion RNA polymerase (a) and large terminase subunits (b) of N4-like bacteriophages for ... We isolated phiAxp-3, an N4-like bacteriophage that infects A. xylosoxidans, from hospital waste and studied its genomic and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4837373_srep24776-f5&req=4

The genome and proteome of Serratia bacteriophage η which forms unstable lysogens | Virology Journal | Full TextThe genome and proteome of Serratia bacteriophage η which forms unstable lysogens | Virology Journal | Full Text

Fan H, Fan H, An X, Huang Y, Zhang Z, Mi Z, Tong Y: Complete genome sequence of IME11, a new N4-like bacteriophage. J Virol ... Wassermann MM, Seligmann E: Serratia marcescens bacteriophages. J Bacteriol 1953, 66: 119-120.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle ... Bacteria and bacteriophages. S. marcescens CV/rc3 (HER 1311) and phage η were obtained from the Centre de Référence pour les ... Kim SH, Park JH, Lee BK, Kwon HJ, Shin JH, Kim J, Kim S: Complete genome sequence of Salmonella bacteriophage SS3e. J Virol ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-11-6

Na+/2Cl-/K+ Cotransporter - Page 2 - BET-bromodomain inhibition researchNa+/2Cl-/K+ Cotransporter - Page 2 - BET-bromodomain inhibition research

Background Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80. Posted on July 25, 2017. by ... Background Bacteriophage EC1-UPM can be an N4-like bacteriophage which infects O78:K80 specifically, an avian pathogenic stress ... In this study, we report for the first time the genome of a bacteriophage EC1-UPM, an N4-like bacteriophage that infects O78: ... Bacteriophage N4 which infects K-12 is currently the most studied strain for this group of bacteriophages [10]. In addition to ...
more infohttp://healthandwellnesssource.org/category/na2cl-k-cotransporter/page/2/

Viruses  | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages | HTMLViruses | Free Full-Text | Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages | HTML

3.3.2. Acinetobacter Phage Presley Is an N4-Like Singleton. A single N4-like Acinetobacter phage, Presley, has been described [ ... Abedon, S.T. Bacterial immunity against bacteriophages. Bacteriophage 2012, 2, 50-54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... like N4 and the N4-like phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LUZ7, LIT1 and PEV2, the giant virion RNAP of Presley is devoid of ... Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages. by Dann Turner 1,*, Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann 2,†, Andrew M. Kropinski 3 ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/1/5/htm

Frontiers | Emerging methods to study bacteriophage infection at the single-cell level | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Emerging methods to study bacteriophage infection at the single-cell level | Microbiology

2010). Molecular and physiological analysis of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages belonging to the "N4-like viruses". Virology ... Emerging methods to study bacteriophage infection at the single-cell level. Vinh T. Dang1 and Matthew B. Sullivan1,2* ... Davis, B. M., Kimsey, H. H., Chang, W., and Waldor, M. K. (1999). The Vibrio cholerae O139 Calcutta bacteriophage CTXφ is ... Hitch, G., Pratten, J., and Taylor, P. W. (2004). Isolation of bacteriophages from the oral cavity. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 39, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00724/full

B - Virology - Central Lakes MedicalB - Virology - Central Lakes Medical

... display 512 Bacteriophage Mu genome 558 replication 558 DnaB 558 protein PriA 558 transposome formation 558 Bacteriophage N4 ... bacteriophages ssRNA see Single-stranded RNA bacteriophages T4-even phages 555. T4-like phages see T4-like bacteriophages T7- ... promoter binding 561 RNAP structure 560 Bacteriophage Bam35 genome 521 host range 519-520 Bacteriophage Bxbl 570 Bacteriophage ... dsDNA) bacteriophages double stranded RNA see Double stranded RNA. (dsRNA) bacteriophages dsDNA see Double stranded DNA (dsDNA) ...
more infohttps://www.centrallakesclinic.biz/virology/b-1.html

Nearly Identical Bacteriophage Structural Gene Sequences Are Widely Distributed in both Marine and Freshwater Environments |...Nearly Identical Bacteriophage Structural Gene Sequences Are Widely Distributed in both Marine and Freshwater Environments |...

41), clusters N1 to N4 were assigned by Wang et al. (35), and clusters 1 to 6 were assigned by Dorigo et al. (5). We assigned ... Effects of bacteriophages on the population dynamics of four strains of pelagic marine bacteria. Microb. Ecol. 42:395-406. ... Nearly Identical Bacteriophage Structural Gene Sequences Are Widely Distributed in both Marine and Freshwater Environments. ... Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the worlds a phage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/71/1/480

List of MeSH codes (B04) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (B04) - Wikipedia

... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.150.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.123.150.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.123. ... bacteriophage m13 MeSH B04.123.205.260 --- bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.123.205.280 --- bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.123.205.300 --- ... bacteriophage n4 MeSH B04.280.090.700.070 --- bacteriophage p22 MeSH B04.280.090.700.100 --- bacteriophage t3 MeSH B04.280. ... bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.660.535 --- bacteriophage pf1 MeSH B04.123.660.550 --- bacteriophage phi 6 MeSH B04.123. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(B04)

Bacteriophage - WikipediaBacteriophage - Wikipedia

Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... 2×108 bacteriophages per mL.[47] Bacteriophages are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural ... Main article: Marine bacteriophage. Metagenomics has allowed the in-water detection of bacteriophages that was not possible ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phage

Complete genomic sequence of the Vibrio alginolyticus bacteriophage Vp670 and characterization of the lysis-related genes, cwlQ...Complete genomic sequence of the Vibrio alginolyticus bacteriophage Vp670 and characterization of the lysis-related genes, cwlQ...

Biocontrol of bacterial pathogens by bacteriophages (phages) represents a promising strategy. Vibrio alginolyticus, a gram- ... Li B, Zhang S, Long L, Huang S. Characterization and complete genome sequences of three N4-like roseobacter phages isolated ... Measurement of the rate of attachment of bacteriophage to cells. In: Clokie, MRJ, Kropinski AM, editors. Bacteriophages: ... Young R. Bacteriophage lysis: mechanism and regulation. Microbiol Rev. 1992;56(3):430-81.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-018-5131-x

Bacteriophage Orphan DNA Methyltransferases: Insights from Their Bacterial Origin, Function, and Occurrence | Applied and...Bacteriophage Orphan DNA Methyltransferases: Insights from Their Bacterial Origin, Function, and Occurrence | Applied and...

N-4-methylcytosine (class II), or C-5-methylcytosine (class III). Often, these MTases are associated with a cognate restriction ... His research interests focus on bacteriophage-host interactions, including the host response to bacteriophage infection and ... Cleavage of the bacteriophage P1 packaging site (pac) is regulated by adenine methylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87: ... The genome of bacteriophage K1F, a T7-like phage that has acquired the ability to replicate on K1 strains of Escherichia coli. ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/79/24/7547?ijkey=bfa3989f07ff7240a113705595c1cfda95d6d5d4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

SMART: Secondary literature for GARS C domainSMART: Secondary literature for GARS C domain

We found that the n4 locus, and especially the nodM and nodN genes, are involved in the production of the root hair deformation ... The GART domain was expressed in E. coli under the control of bacteriophage T7 promotor and isolated by a three-step ... The nucleotide sequence of the nod box locus n4 in Rhizobium meliloti was determined and revealed six genes organized in a ... The sequences restricted only by McrB+C+ include T-even bacteriophage containing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (restriction of this ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=GARS_C
  • We use bacteriophage N4 as a model system to study the mechanism of genome and protein transport from the virus into the host cell. (utmb.edu)
  • In addition to having its complete genome buy Panipenem sequenced, the identity and locations of several of its structural proteins have been established through comparisons of three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic structures of wild-type N4 and its mutants . (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • In collaboration with Dr. Lucia Rothman-Denes laboratory (University of Chicago), we are determining the structure of N4 virions, including their tail component proteins. (utmb.edu)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help expand exploit the potential of bacteriophage EC1-UPM, it is essential to have an understanding on its genetic make-up, particularly the genes which are responsible for the infection and lysis of the host bacteria. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Phage N4 employs at least three genes encoding RNAPs for the transcription of genes in different stages of its life cycle23. (nih.gov)
  • In the N4 genome the RNAP1 gene is followed directly by RNAP2, but in the phiAxp-3 genome insertions of two small genes (ORF15 and ORF16) occur between RNAP1 and RNAP2. (nih.gov)
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • vRNAP is packed into the capsid and is injected into the host cell together with phage DNA, which makes N4 the only known phage that does not depend on host RNAP for transcription of its early genes24. (nih.gov)
  • We have used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to study the multilayer structure of the portal vertex of the bacteriophage T7 procapsid, the recipient of T7 DNA in packaging. (pnas.org)
  • As an N4 like virus, phiAxp-3 also harbours three different RNAPs, suggesting the same transcription strategy as that used by N4. (nih.gov)
  • Tailed bacteriophages have to deliver their genetic information into the host cell's cytoplasm across cell membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • Centered on the full total outcomes of our research, the full total buy Panipenem mortality price of the hens was decreased by 70% when contaminated hens had been treated with bacteriophage EC1-UPM. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • This isomerism explains rotational smearing in previously reported asymmetric reconstructions of the portal vertex of T7 and other bacteriophages. (pnas.org)