A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.

An efficient DNA sequencing strategy based on the bacteriophage mu in vitro DNA transposition reaction. (1/284)

A highly efficient DNA sequencing strategy was developed on the basis of the bacteriophage Mu in vitro DNA transposition reaction. In the reaction, an artificial transposon with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene as a selectable marker integrated into the target plasmid DNA containing a 10.3-kb mouse genomic insert to be sequenced. Bacterial clones carrying plasmids with the transposon insertions in different positions were produced by transforming transposition reaction products into Escherichia coli cells that were then selected on appropriate selection plates. Plasmids from individual clones were isolated and used as templates for DNA sequencing, each with two primers specific for the transposon sequence but reading the sequence into opposite directions, thus creating a minicontig. By combining the information from overlapping minicontigs, the sequence of the entire 10,288-bp region of mouse genome including six exons of mouse Kcc2 gene was obtained. The results indicated that the described methodology is extremely well suited for DNA sequencing projects in which considerable sequence information is on demand. In addition, massive DNA sequencing projects, including those of full genomes, are expected to benefit substantially from the Mu strategy.  (+info)

SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein essential for the peptide-tagging activity of SsrA (tmRNA). (2/284)

In bacteria, SsrA RNA recognizes ribosomes stalled on defective messages and acts as a tRNA and mRNA to mediate the addition of a short peptide tag to the C-terminus of the partially synthesized nascent polypeptide chain. The SsrA-tagged protein is then degraded by C-terminal-specific proteases. SmpB, a unique RNA-binding protein that is conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, is shown here to be an essential component of the SsrA quality-control system. Deletion of the smpB gene in Escherichia coli results in the same phenotypes observed in ssrA-defective cells, including a variety of phage development defects and the failure to tag proteins translated from defective mRNAs. Purified SmpB binds specifically and with high affinity to SsrA RNA and is required for stable association of SsrA with ribosomes in vivo. Formation of an SmpB-SsrA complex appears to be critical in mediating SsrA activity after aminoacylation with alanine but prior to the transpeptidation reaction that couples this alanine to the nascent chain. SsrA RNA is present at wild-type levels in the smpB mutant arguing against a model of SsrA action that involves direct competition for transcription factors.  (+info)

Criss-crossed interactions between the enhancer and the att sites of phage Mu during DNA transposition. (3/284)

A bipartite enhancer sequence (composed of the O1 and O2 operator sites) is essential for assembly of the functional tetramer of phage Mu transposase (MuA) on supercoiled DNA substrates. A three-site interaction (LER) between the left (L) and right (R) ends of Mu (att sites) and the enhancer (E) precedes tetramer assembly. We have dissected the role of the enhancer in tetramer assembly by using two transposase proteins that have a common att site specificity, but are distinct in their enhancer specificity. The activity of these proteins on substrates containing hybrid enhancers reveals a 'criss-crossed' pattern of interaction between att and enhancer sites. The left operator, O1, of the enhancer interacts specifically with the transposase subunit at the R1 site (within the right att sequence) that is responsible for cleaving the left end of Mu. The right operator, O2, shows a preferential interaction with the transposase subunit at the L1 site (within the left att sequence) that is responsible for cleaving the right end of Mu.  (+info)

Natural synthesis of a DNA-binding protein from the C-terminal domain of DNA gyrase A in Borrelia burgdorferi. (4/284)

We have identified a 34 kDa DNA-binding protein with an HU-like activity in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The 34 kDa protein is translated from an abundant transcript initiated within the gene encoding the A subunit of DNA gyrase. Translation of the 34 kDa protein starts at residue 499 of GyrA and proceeds in the same reading frame as full-length GyrA, resulting in an N-terminal-truncated protein. The 34 kDa GyrA C-terminal domain, although not homologous, substitutes for HU in the formation of the Type 1 complex in Mu transposition, and complements an HU-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. This is the first example of constitutive expression of two gene products in the same open reading frame from a single gene in a prokaryotic cellular system.  (+info)

Replacement of the bacteriophage Mu strong gyrase site and effect on Mu DNA replication. (5/284)

The bacteriophage Mu strong gyrase site (SGS) is required for efficient replicative transposition and functions by promoting the synapsis of prophage termini. To look for other sites which could substitute for the SGS in promoting Mu replication, we have replaced the SGS in the middle of the Mu genome with fragments of DNA from various sources. A central fragment from the transposing virus D108 allowed efficient Mu replication and was shown to contain a strong gyrase site. However, neither the strong gyrase site from the plasmid pSC101 nor the major gyrase site from pBR322 could promote efficient Mu replication, even though the pSC101 site is a stronger gyrase site than the Mu SGS as assayed by cleavage in the presence of gyrase and the quinolone enoxacin. To look for SGS-like sites in the Escherichia coli chromosome which might be involved in organizing nucleoid structure, fragments of E. coli chromosomal DNA were substituted for the SGS: first, repeat sequences associated with gyrase binding (bacterial interspersed mosaic elements), and, second, random fragments of the entire chromosome. No fragments were found that could replace the SGS in promoting efficient Mu replication. These results demonstrate that the gyrase sites from the transposing phages possess unusual properties and emphasize the need to determine the basis of these properties.  (+info)

Organization and dynamics of the Mu transpososome: recombination by communication between two active sites. (6/284)

Movement of transposable genetic elements requires the cleavage of each end of the element genome and the subsequent joining of these cleaved ends to a new target DNA site. During Mu transposition, these reactions are catalyzed by a tetramer of four identical transposase subunits bound to the paired Mu DNA ends. To elucidate the organization of active sites within this tetramer, the subunit providing the essential active site DDE residues for each cleavage and joining reaction was determined. We demonstrate that recombination of the two Mu DNA ends is catalyzed by two active sites, where one active site promotes both cleavage and joining of one Mu DNA end. This active site uses all three DDE residues from the subunit bound to the transposase binding site proximal to the cleavage site on the other Mu DNA end (catalysis in trans). In addition, we uncover evidence that the catalytic activity of these two active sites is coupled such that the coordinated joining of both Mu DNA ends is favored during recombination. On the basis of these results, we propose that the DNA joining stage requires a cooperative transition within the transposase-DNA complex. The cooperative utilization of active sites supplied in trans by Mu transposase provides an example of how mobile elements can ensure concomitant recombination of distant DNA sites.  (+info)

Identification of SoxS-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. (7/284)

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium responds to superoxide-generating agents through soxR-mediated activation of the soxS gene, whose product, SoxS, is necessary for resistance to oxidative stress. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium soxRS system also mediates redox-inducible resistance to diverse antibiotics, which may be relevant to clinical infections. In order to identify SoxS-regulated genes in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, a lacI-regulated expression system for the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium soxS gene was developed. This system was used to demonstrate that soxS expression is sufficient for the induction of resistance to the superoxide-generating drug paraquat and for the transcriptional activation of the sodA and micF genes. In addition, a library of random lacZ insertions was generated and screened for clones displaying differential beta-galactosidase activity in the presence or absence of SoxS. This selection yielded six independent chromosomal lacZ transcriptional fusions that were activated by either artificial expression of SoxS or exposure of wild-type cells to micromolar concentrations of paraquat. Moreover, disruption of the inducible genes by the insertions rendered S. enterica serovar Typhimurium hypersensitive to millimolar concentrations of paraquat. Nucleotide sequence determination identified the disrupted genes as sodA (Mn-containing superoxide dismutase), fpr (NADPH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase), and ydbK (a putative Fe-S-containing reductase).  (+info)

Mu DNA reintegration upon excision: evidence for a possible involvement of nucleoid folding. (8/284)

Mutations induced by the integration of a Mugem2ts prophage can revert at frequencies around 1x10(-6). In these revertant clones, the prophage excised from its original localization is not lost but reintegrated elsewhere in the host genome. One of the most intriguing aspects of this process is that the prophage reintegration is not randomly distributed: there is a strong correlation between the original site of insertion (the donor site) and the target site of the phage DNA migration (the receptor site). In this paper, it is shown that in the excision-reintegration process mediated by Mugem2ts, the position of the initial prophage site strongly influences the location of the reintegration site. In addition, for each donor site, the receptor site is a discrete DNA region within which the excised Mu DNA can reintegrate and the two sites implicated in phage DNA migration must be located on the same DNA molecule. These data suggest the involvement of nucleoid folding in the excision-reintegration process.  (+info)

Bacteriophage mu, also known as Mucoid Bacteriophage or Phage Mu, is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the genetic material of specific bacteria, primarily belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. This phage is characterized by its unique ability to integrate its genome into the host bacterium's chromosome at random locations, which can result in mutations or alterations in the bacterial genome.

Phage Mu has a relatively large genome and encodes various proteins that facilitate its replication, packaging, and release from the host cell. When Phage Mu infects a bacterium, it injects its genetic material into the host cytoplasm, where it circularizes and then integrates itself into the host's chromosome via a process called transposition. This integration can lead to significant changes in the host bacterium's genome, potentially altering its phenotype or even converting it into a lysogenic state, where the phage remains dormant within the host cell until environmental conditions trigger its replication and release.

Phage Mu is widely used as a tool for genetic research due to its ability to introduce random mutations into bacterial genomes, facilitating the study of gene function and regulation. Additionally, Phage Mu has been explored for potential applications in phage therapy, where it could be used to target and eliminate specific bacterial pathogens without adversely affecting other beneficial microorganisms present in the host organism or environment.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Bacteriophage lambda, often simply referred to as phage lambda, is a type of virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that integrates its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome as a prophage when it infects the host cell. This allows the phage to replicate along with the bacterium until certain conditions trigger the lytic cycle, during which new virions are produced and released by lysing, or breaking open, the host cell.

Phage lambda is widely studied in molecular biology due to its well-characterized life cycle and genetic structure. It has been instrumental in understanding various fundamental biological processes such as gene regulation, DNA recombination, and lysis-lysogeny decision.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Bacteriophage T7 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that specifically recognizes and binds to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria through its tail fibers. After attachment, the viral genome is injected into the host cell, where it hijacks the bacterial machinery to produce new phage particles. The rapid reproduction of T7 phages within the host cell often results in lysis, or rupture, of the bacterial cell, leading to the release of newly formed phage virions. Bacteriophage T7 is widely studied as a model system for understanding virus-host interactions and molecular biology.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Integration Host Factors (IHF) are small, DNA-binding proteins that play a crucial role in the organization and regulation of DNA in many bacteria. They function by binding to specific sequences of DNA and causing a bend or kink in the double helix. This bending of the DNA brings distant regions of the genome into close proximity, allowing for interactions between different regulatory elements and facilitating various DNA transactions such as transcription, replication, and repair. IHF also plays a role in protecting the genome from damage by preventing the invasion of foreign DNA and promoting the specific recognition of bacterial chromosomal sites during partitioning. Overall, IHF is an essential protein that helps regulate gene expression and maintain genomic stability in bacteria.

Transposases are a type of enzyme that are involved in the process of transposition, which is the movement of a segment of DNA from one location within a genome to another. Transposases recognize and bind to specific sequences of DNA called inverted repeats that flank the mobile genetic element, or transposon, and catalyze the excision and integration of the transposon into a new location in the genome. This process can have significant consequences for the organization and regulation of genes within an organism's genome, and may contribute to genetic diversity and evolution.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. T-phages are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of molecular biology and virology. T-phages refer to specific bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) that belong to the family of Podoviridae and have a tail structure with a contractile sheath.

To be more specific, T-even phages are a group of T-phages that include well-studied bacteriophages like T2, T4, and T6. These phages infect Escherichia coli bacteria and have been extensively researched to understand their life cycles, genetic material packaging, and molecular mechanisms of infection.

In summary, T-phages are not a medical term but rather refer to specific bacteriophages used in scientific research.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Bacteriophage phi 6, also known as Phi 6 or Pseudomonas phage Phi 6, is a double-stranded RNA virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is a member of the family Cystoviridae and has an icosahedral head and a tail structure, which allows it to attach to and inject its genetic material into the host cell. Bacteriophage phi 6 is often used as a model system for studying RNA replication and transcription, as well as for understanding the mechanisms of virus-host interactions. It has also been studied as a potential candidate for use in phage therapy, which is the use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections.

I'm not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "F factor." It is possible that it could be a term specific to certain medical specialties, research, or publications. In order to provide an accurate and helpful response, I would need more context or information about where you encountered this term.

If you meant to ask about the F-plasmid, which is sometimes referred to as the "F factor" in bacteriology, it is a type of plasmid that can be found in certain strains of bacteria and carries genes related to conjugation (the process by which bacteria transfer genetic material between each other). The F-plasmid can exist as an independent circular DNA molecule or integrate into the chromosome of the host bacterium.

If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context so I can give a better answer.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacteriophage phi X 174, also known as Phi X 174 or ΦX174, is a bacterial virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a small, icosahedral-shaped virus with a diameter of about 30 nanometers and belongs to the family Podoviridae in the order Caudovirales.

Phi X 174 has a single-stranded DNA genome that is circular and consists of 5,386 base pairs. It is one of the smallest viruses known to infect bacteria, and its simplicity has made it a model system for studying bacteriophage biology and molecular biology.

Phi X 174 was first discovered in 1962 by American scientist S.E. Luria and his colleagues. It is able to infect E. coli cells that lack the F-pilus, a hair-like structure on the surface of the bacterial cell. Once inside the host cell, phi X 174 uses the host's machinery to replicate its DNA and produce new viral particles, which are then released from the host cell by lysis, causing the cell to burst open and release the new viruses.

Phi X 174 has been extensively studied for its unique biological properties, including its small size, simple genome, and ability to infect E. coli cells. It has also been used as a tool in molecular biology research, such as in the development of DNA sequencing techniques and the study of gene regulation.

Viral regulatory and accessory proteins are a type of viral protein that play a role in the regulation of viral replication, gene expression, and host immune response. These proteins are not directly involved in the structural components of the virus but instead help to modulate the environment inside the host cell to facilitate viral replication and evade the host's immune system.

Regulatory proteins control various stages of the viral life cycle, such as transcription, translation, and genome replication. They may also interact with host cell regulatory proteins to alter their function and promote viral replication. Accessory proteins, on the other hand, are non-essential for viral replication but can enhance viral pathogenesis or modulate the host's immune response.

The specific functions of viral regulatory and accessory proteins vary widely among different viruses. For example, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the Tat protein is a regulatory protein that activates transcription of the viral genome, while the Vpu protein is an accessory protein that downregulates the expression of CD4 receptors on host cells to prevent superinfection.

Understanding the functions of viral regulatory and accessory proteins is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines, as these proteins can be potential targets for inhibiting viral replication or modulating the host's immune response.

Bacteriophage P2 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within a specific bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli). It's a double-stranded DNA virus that was first isolated in the 1950s. Bacteriophage P2 is known for its ability to integrate its genetic material into the host bacterium's chromosome and establish lysogeny, where it can remain dormant until environmental conditions trigger its replication.

Bacteriophage P2 has been extensively studied as a model system in molecular biology due to its unique life cycle and genetic characteristics. It has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, and lysogeny. However, it's important to note that bacteriophage P2 is not typically used for medical purposes like treating bacterial infections.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Bacteriophage M13 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a filamentous phage, meaning it has a long, thin, and flexible structure. The M13 phage specifically infects only the F pili of E. coli bacteria, which are hair-like appendages found on the surface of certain strains of E. coli.

Once inside the host cell, the M13 phage uses the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles, or progeny phages, without killing the host cell. The phage genome is made up of a single-stranded circular DNA molecule that encodes for about 10 genes. These genes are involved in various functions such as replication, packaging, and assembly of the phage particles.

Bacteriophage M13 is widely used in molecular biology research due to its ability to efficiently incorporate foreign DNA sequences into its genome. This property has been exploited for a variety of applications, including DNA sequencing, gene cloning, and protein expression. The M13 phage can display foreign peptides or proteins on the surface of its coat protein, making it useful for screening antibodies or identifying ligands in phage display technology.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Endopeptidase Clp is a type of enzyme found in bacteria that functions to degrade misfolded or unnecessary proteins within the cell. It is part of the ATP-dependent Clp protease family, which are complexes composed of multiple subunits, including the endopeptidase ClpP. These enzymes work together to unfold and break down proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids for recycling or removal. Endopeptidase Clp specifically recognizes and cleaves internal peptide bonds within proteins, contributing to protein quality control and maintaining cellular homeostasis in bacteria.

Bacteriophage T3 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within specific bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains that have the F+ fertility factor. It is a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage with an icosahedral head and a contractile tail. The T3 phage binds to the bacterial host using its tail fibers, injects its genetic material into the cell, and hijacks the host's machinery to produce more viral particles.

After replicating, the new phages are assembled, and the bacterial cell eventually lyses, releasing the progeny phages to infect other susceptible bacteria. Bacteriophage T3 is known for its rapid replication cycle and precise host recognition, making it a valuable tool in molecular biology research.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Bacteriophage typing is a laboratory method used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their susceptibility to specific bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. In this technique, a standard set of bacteriophages with known host ranges are allowed to infect and form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells grown on a solid medium, such as agar. The pattern and number of plaques formed are then used to identify the specific bacteriophage types that are able to infect the bacterial strain, providing a unique "fingerprint" or profile that can be used for typing and differentiating different bacterial strains.

Bacteriophage typing is particularly useful in epidemiological studies, as it can help track the spread of specific bacterial clones within a population, monitor antibiotic resistance patterns, and provide insights into the evolution and ecology of bacterial pathogens. It has been widely used in the study of various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among others.

Bacteriophage P1 is a type of bacterial virus that infects and replicates within a specific host, which is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is a double-stranded DNA virus that can integrate its genetic material into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicate along with it (lysogenic cycle), or it can choose to reproduce independently by causing the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell (lytic cycle).

Bacteriophage P1 is known for its ability to package its DNA into large, head-full structures, and it has been widely studied as a model system for understanding bacterial genetics, virus-host interactions, and DNA packaging mechanisms. It also serves as a valuable tool in molecular biology for various applications such as cloning, mapping, and manipulating DNA.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Salmonella phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are composed of a protein capsid that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. They specifically target Salmonella bacteria, using the bacteria's resources to replicate and produce new phage particles. This process often leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the bacterial cell, resulting in the release of newly formed phages.

Salmonella phages have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for controlling Salmonella infections, particularly in food production settings. They offer the advantage of being highly specific to their target bacteria, reducing the risk of disrupting beneficial microbiota. However, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy before they can be widely used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

Siphoviridae is a family of tailed bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. The members of this family are characterized by their long, non-contractile tails, which are typically around 100-1000 nanometers in length. The tail fibers at the end of the tail are used to recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of bacterial cells.

The Siphoviridae family includes many well-known bacteriophages, such as the lambda phage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. The genetic material of Siphoviridae viruses is double-stranded DNA, which is packaged inside an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell of the virus).

It's worth noting that Siphoviridae is one of the five families in the order Caudovirales, which includes all tailed bacteriophages. The other four families are Myoviridae, Podoviridae, Herelleviridae, and Ackermannviridae.

Nucleotidyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nucleotides to an acceptor molecule, such as RNA or DNA. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, as well as RNA synthesis and modification.

The reaction catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferases typically involves the donation of a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides. The reaction can be represented as follows:

NTP + acceptor → NMP + pyrophosphate

where NTP is the nucleoside triphosphate donor and NMP is the nucleoside monophosphate product.

There are several subclasses of nucleotidyltransferases, including polymerases, ligases, and terminases. These enzymes have distinct functions and substrate specificities, but all share the ability to transfer nucleotides to an acceptor molecule.

Examples of nucleotidyltransferases include DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase, and ligase. These enzymes are essential for maintaining genome stability and function, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

DNA-directed RNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules using a DNA template in a process called transcription. These enzymes read the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule and use it as a blueprint to construct a complementary RNA strand.

The RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, adding ribonucleotides one by one to the growing RNA chain. The synthesis is directional, starting at the promoter region of the DNA and moving towards the terminator region.

In bacteria, there is a single type of RNA polymerase that is responsible for transcribing all types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). In eukaryotic cells, however, there are three different types of RNA polymerases: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. Each type is responsible for transcribing specific types of RNA.

RNA polymerases play a crucial role in gene expression, as they link the genetic information encoded in DNA to the production of functional proteins. Inhibition or mutation of these enzymes can have significant consequences for cellular function and survival.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein" doesn't appear to be a recognized medical term or protein name. It's possible that there may be a misunderstanding or error in the term.

If you're referring to the protein "Inversion Stimulation Factor," also known as "Inversin," it is a protein that plays a role in regulating cell signaling pathways. Specifically, it helps to control the Wnt signaling pathway, which is important for many aspects of development and tissue homeostasis. Mutations in the gene that encodes Inversin have been associated with nephronophthisis, a genetic disorder that affects the kidneys.

If you could provide more context or clarify the term you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

RNA phages are a type of bacteriophage, which is a virus that infects bacteria. Unlike most other bacteriophages, RNA phages have an RNA genome instead of a DNA genome. These viruses infect and replicate within bacteria that have an RNA genome or those that can incorporate RNA into their replication cycle.

RNA phages are relatively simple in structure, consisting of an icosahedral capsid (protein shell) containing the single-stranded RNA genome. The genome may be either positive-sense (+) or negative-sense (-), depending on whether it can serve directly as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation or if it must first be transcribed into a complementary RNA strand before translation.

Examples of well-known RNA phages include the MS2, Qβ, and φ6 phages. These viruses have been extensively studied as model systems to understand fundamental principles of RNA biology, virus replication strategies, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the development of RNA-based vaccines and gene therapy vectors.

Bacteriolysis is the breaking down or destruction of bacterial cells. This process can occur naturally or as a result of medical treatment, such as when antibiotics target and destroy bacteria by disrupting their cell walls. The term "bacteriolysis" specifically refers to the breakdown of the bacterial cell membrane, which can lead to the release of the contents of the bacterial cell and ultimately result in the death of the organism.

Bacteriophage PRD1 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within certain bacteria. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family *Caudoviricetes* and the order *Corticovirales*. The virion (the complete viral particle) of PRD1 has an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell) and a lipid bilayer membrane enclosing the genomic DNA.

PRD1 is known to infect a limited range of Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of *Escherichia coli* and *Salmonella enterica*. The virus attaches to the bacterial cell surface and injects its genetic material into the host cell. Once inside the host, the viral DNA is replicated and used to produce new virions.

PRD1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the structure and assembly of complex viruses. Its genome encodes for about 50 proteins, many of which are involved in the construction of the virion. Additionally, PRD1 has been used in various biotechnological applications, such as the development of gene delivery vectors and vaccine candidates.

Pseudomonas phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. These phages are important in the study of Pseudomonas species, which include several significant human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Phages can be used for therapeutic purposes to treat bacterial infections, including those caused by Pseudomonas. Additionally, they are also useful tools in molecular biology and genetic research.

It's worth noting that while "Pseudomonas phages" refers specifically to phages that infect Pseudomonas bacteria, the term "phage" on its own is used to describe any virus that infects and replicates within a bacterial host.

Staphylococcus phages do not have a specific medical definition, but I can provide you with some information about both concepts:

1. Staphylococcus: This term refers to a group of bacteria that can cause various infections in humans and animals. The most common species is Staphylococcus aureus, which often colonizes the skin and nasal passages of healthy individuals. However, it can lead to infections when it enters the body through wounds or other breaks in the skin.

2. Phages: These are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. They specifically target and replicate within bacterial cells, using the host's machinery for their reproduction. Once the phage has multiplied sufficiently, it causes the bacterial cell to lyse (burst), releasing new phage particles into the environment. Phages can be specific to certain bacterial species or strains, making them potential alternatives to antibiotics in treating bacterial infections without disrupting the normal microbiota.

When combining these two concepts, Staphylococcus phages refer to viruses that infect and kill Staphylococcus bacteria. These phages can be used as therapeutic agents to treat Staphylococcus infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, it is essential to note that the use of phages as a treatment option is still an experimental approach and requires further research before becoming a widely accepted therapeutic strategy.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Bacillus phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are a type of virus that is specifically adapted to infect and multiply within bacteria. They use the bacterial cell's machinery to produce new copies of themselves, often resulting in the lysis (breakdown) of the bacterial cell. Bacillus phages are widely studied for their potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and basic research.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Podoviridae is a family of viruses in the order Caudovirales, which are tailed, double-stranded DNA viruses. The members of this family are characterized by their short, noncontractile tails. The virions (virus particles) of Podoviridae are typically icosahedral in shape and measure around 60 nanometers in diameter.

The host organisms of Podoviridae are primarily bacteria, making them bacteriophages or phages. They infect and replicate within the host bacterium, often leading to its lysis (breakdown) and release of new virions. The family Podoviridae is further divided into several genera, including T7-like viruses, N4-like viruses, and P22-like viruses, among others.

It's worth noting that while Podoviridae is a well-established family of bacteriophages, the field of virology is constantly evolving as new research and discoveries are made. Therefore, it's possible that the classification and definition of Podoviridae may change over time.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Streptococcus Phages" is not a standard medical term. The term "Streptococcus" refers to a genus of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various infections in humans, such as strep throat and skin infections. A "phage," on the other hand, is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.

Therefore, if you are referring to bacteriophages that infect Streptococcus bacteria, then the term would be "Streptococcus phages" or more specifically, the name of the particular phage species that infect Streptococcus bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus phage C1, Streptococcus phage Φ29). However, it's important to note that there are many different types of bacteriophages that can infect various strains of Streptococcus bacteria, so the specific phage would need to be identified.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "viral tail proteins" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. The term "tail proteins" is used in the context of certain viruses, particularly bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), which have a tail-like structure that helps them attach to and inject their genetic material into host cells.

However, even within this context, there isn't a specific concept known as "viral tail proteins" that has a widely accepted medical definition. The proteins that make up the tail structure of bacteriophages have various functions and are referred to by different names based on their roles. These can include terms like "tail fiber proteins," "tail tube proteins," "tail terminator proteins," etc.

If you're looking for information about a specific protein or group of proteins related to viral tails, I would be happy to help further if you could provide more details.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Levivirus" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a type of small, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus that infects bacteria. They are also known as "Leviviridae" and are studied in the field of virology, not typically in medical practice. If you have any questions about bacteriophages or other types of viruses that might be more medically relevant, I'd be happy to help with those!

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

DNA packaging refers to the way in which DNA molecules are compacted and organized within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. In order to fit into the nucleus, which is only a small fraction of the size of the cell, the long DNA molecule must be tightly packed. This is accomplished through a process called "supercoiling," in which the DNA double helix twists and coils upon itself, as well as through its association with histone proteins.

Histones are small, positively charged proteins that bind to the negatively charged DNA molecule, forming structures known as nucleosomes. The DNA wraps around the outside of the histone octamer (a complex made up of eight histone proteins) in a repeating pattern, creating a "bead on a string" structure. These nucleosomes are then coiled and compacted further to form higher-order structures, ultimately resulting in the highly condensed chromatin that is found within the cell nucleus.

Proper DNA packaging is essential for the regulation of gene expression, as well as for the protection and maintenance of genetic information. Abnormalities in DNA packaging have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cancer.

... , also known as mu phage or mu bacteriophage, is a muvirus (the first of its kind to be identified) of the ... 2002), "Bacteriophage Mu genome sequence: analysis and comparison with Mu-like prophages in Haemophilus, Neisseria and ... created a crystal structure of the Mu bacteriophage transpososome, allowing for a detailed understanding of the process Mu ... Crystal Structure of the Bacteriophage MU Transpososome". Nature. 491: 413-417. doi:10.2210/pdb4fcy/pdb. Phage Mu at ViralZone ...
Mathee, K; Howe, M M (1993-09-01). "Bacteriophage Mu Mor protein requires sigma 70 to activate the Mu middle promoter". Journal ... Mathee, Kalai (1992). Function and regulation of the bacteriophage Mu middle operon (Thesis). OCLC 28138881. Kalai, Mathee; K. ... Her early research identified the function and regulatory mechanisms of the bacteriophage Mu. Her postdoctoral research focused ... Mathee, K; Howe, M M (1990-12-01). "Identification of a positive regulator of the Mu middle operon". Journal of Bacteriology. ...
Bacteriophages. Interscience, New York. OCLC 326505 Ho, N. B., Z. T. Si, and M. X. Yu. 1959. Bacteriophages from China. An ... Phage Mu. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. OCLC 16089280, ISBN 0-87969-306-1 Ackermann, H.-W., and M. S. ... French; The Bacteriophage and its Behavior] OCLC 11981307 d'Hérelle, F., and G. H. Smith. 1926. The Bacteriophage and Its ... The Bacteriophages. Volume I Plenum Press, New York. OCLC 18686137 Calendar, R. 1988. The Bacteriophages. Volume II Plenum ...
Shapiro, James (April 1979). "Molecular model for the transposition and replication of bacteriophage Mu and other transposable ...
Shapiro JA (April 1979). "Molecular model for the transposition and replication of bacteriophage Mu and other transposable ... Mu X, Ahmad S, Hur S (2016). Endogenous Retroelements and the Host Innate Immune Sensors. Advances in Immunology. Vol. 132. pp ... Cloning vectors: These are types of hybrid plasmids with bacteriophages, used to transfer and replicate DNA . Fragments of DNA ...
gpT is a protein subunit of the phage head of phages similar to Bacteriophage Mu. This and other observations suggest that Mu- ... The Mu-like gpT Downstream Element RNA motif (Mu-gpT-DE RNA motif) is a conserved RNA structure that was discovered by ... The Mu-gpT-DE motif is only found in metagenomic sequences arising from unknown organisms. Mu-gpT-DE RNAs usually occur ... Thus, Mu-gpT-DE RNAs might function as small RNAs. Weinberg Z, Lünse CE, Corbino KA, Ames TD, Nelson JW, Roth A, Perkins KR, ...
The high level of similarities in the tail fiber genes of phage P2, P1, Mu, λ, K3 and T2, which belong to different families, ... The P2-like bacteriophages. In R. Calendar (ed.), The bacteriophages. Oxford Press, Oxford, 2005: p. 365-390 Lindahl, G., ... Bacteriophage P2 was first isolated by G. Bertani from the Lisbonne and Carrère strain of E. coli in 1951. Since that time, a ... Bacteriophage P2, scientific name Escherichia virus P2, is a temperate phage that infects E. coli. It is a tailed virus with a ...
Strong gyrase binding sites (SGS) were found in some phages (bacteriophage Mu group) and plasmids (pSC101, pBR322). Recently, ... Bacteriophage T4 gene 39". Nucleic Acids Research. 14 (19): 7751-7765. doi:10.1093/nar/14.19.7751. PMC 311794. PMID 3022233. ... Hyman, Paul (1993). "The genetics of the Luria-Latarjet effect in bacteriophage T4: Evidence for the involvement of multiple ... Mufti, Siraj; Bernstein, Harris (1974). "The DNA-Delay Mutants of Bacteriophage T4". Journal of Virology. 14 (4): 860-871. doi: ...
"Purification and properties of the Escherichia coli host factor required for inversion of the G segment in bacteriophage Mu". ... Fis was first discovered for its role in stimulating Gin catalyzed inversion of the G segment of phage Mu genome. Fis was ... In addition to bringing about overall downregulation of the Mu genome, it also ensures silencing of the advantageous but ... as the factor for inversion stimulation of the homologous Hin and Gin site-specific DNA recombinases of Salmonella and phage Mu ...
Kahmann R, Rudt F, Koch C, Mertens G (July 1985). "G inversion in bacteriophage Mu DNA is stimulated by a site within the ... Kano Y, Goshima N, Wada M, Imamoto F (1989). "Participation of hup gene product in replicative transposition of Mu phage in ...
Eisenstark, Abraham (2014). "Life in Science: Abraham Eisenstark". Bacteriophage. 4 (3): e29009. doi:10.4161/bact.29009. PMC ... mu-1, a bacterial virus that has been important for understanding gene transposition and the development of molecular genetics ... the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; and the establishment of the ...
... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.123.150.500.300 - bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.150.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.150.500. ... bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.280.090.500.300 - bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.280.090.500.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.280.090.500. ... bacteriophage lambda MeSH B04.123.205.250 - bacteriophage m13 MeSH B04.123.205.260 - bacteriophage mu MeSH B04.123.205.280 - ... bacteriophage p1 MeSH B04.123.205.305 - bacteriophage p2 MeSH B04.123.205.320 - bacteriophage phi x 174 MeSH B04.123.205.350 - ...
"Inversion of the G segment of bacteriophage Mu: analysis of a genetic switch". His study focused on transposon sequences in DNA ...
Shapiro, J. A. (1979), "Molecular model for the transposition and replication of bacteriophage Mu and other transposable ... "Transposition of phage Mu DNA", in Craig, N. L.; Craigie, R.; Gellert, M.; Lambowitz, A. M. (eds.), Mobile DNA II, American ...
... such as the Tn3 ampicillin resistance transposon and transposing bacteriophage Mu. In this model, the ends of transposable ... involved transduction to clone oppositely oriented copies of the gene inserted into two specialized transducing bacteriophages ...
... phage, a bacteriophage of the family Myoviridae of double-stranded DNA non-enveloped contractile tail bacterial viruses ... Look up MU, Mu, mu, 無, 木, 母, μ, or Μ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. MU, Mu or μ may refer to: Aries Mu, a character from ... Mu Online, a 2003 online role-playing game Mu, an ancient civilization from Mega Man Star Force 2. Mu-12, a character from the ... metric prefix for one millionth Mu (kana), む or ム, a Japanese kana Mu (cuneiform), a sign in cuneiform writing Mu (negative), a ...
Bacteriophage Bacteriophage pRNA Φ29 DNA polymerase Padilla-Sanchez, Victor (2021-07-17), Bacteriophage Φ29 structural model at ... Zhang, Long; Mu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Tinghong; Yang, Dejun; Wang, Chenou; Chen, Qiong; Tang, Lin; Fan, Luhui; Liu, Cong; Shen, ... Bacillus virus Φ29 (bacteriophage Φ29) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage with a prolate icosahedral head and a ... The pRNA in bacteriophage Φ29 can use its three-way junction in order to self-assemble into nanoparticles. One major challenge ...
CRISPR consists of genomic sequences that can be found in prokaryotic organisms, that come from bacteriophages that infected ... van Gent M, Gack MU (September 2018). "Viral Anti-CRISPR Tactics: No Success without Sacrifice". Immunity. 49 (3): 391-393. doi ... Bondy-Denomy J, Pawluk A, Maxwell KL, Davidson AR (January 2013). "Bacteriophage genes that inactivate the CRISPR/Cas bacterial ... Borges AL, Zhang JY, Rollins MF, Osuna BA, Wiedenheft B, Bondy-Denomy J (August 2018). "Bacteriophage Cooperation Suppresses ...
Lessa FC, Mu Y, Bamberg WM, Beldavs ZG, Dumyati GK, Dunn JR, et al. (February 2015). "Burden of Clostridium difficile infection ... Treatment with bacteriophages directed against specific toxin-producing strains of C difficile are also being tested. A study ...
"Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 Viralzone: ... This system has close sequence homologies to recombinational systems in the tail fibers of unrelated phages like the mu phage ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ... Sandmeier, H.; S. Iida; W. Arber (1992-06-01). "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: ...
My first standing ovation': Humble MU professor cheered after winning Nobel Prize". Kansas City Star. Retrieved 7 October 2018 ... causing the protein to be expressed on the outside of the bacteriophage. Smith first described the technique in 1985 when he ... a technique where a specific protein sequence is artificially inserted into the coat protein gene of a bacteriophage, ...
... mu N. << 1 {\displaystyle \mu N<. 95% of the time) by one specific change, an A289C change in the ntrB gene, while the Pf0-2x ... Such a pattern was observed in replicated evolving populations of bacteriophage (Sackman et al. 2017) where the mutation with ... mu _{ij}} (or μ i k {\displaystyle \mu _{ik}} ) and s i j {\displaystyle s_{ij}} (or s i k {\displaystyle s_{ik}} ) are the ... For instance, Sackman, et al (2017) studied parallel evolution in 4 related bacteriophages. In each case, they adapted 20 ...
Kresge, N., Simoni, R. D., and Hill, R. L. (July 13, 2007). "DNA Replication in Bacteriophage: the Work of Charles C. ... Pi Mu Epsilon A.M. (Hon), Harvard University, 1967 Elected Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1975 Elected Member, ... In 1998, Richardson examined the crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 Å resolution. Before ... The structural gene for polynucleotide ligase in bacteriophage T4". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
... mu ={\frac {\ln 2}{t_{d}}}} Therefore, the doubling time td becomes a function of dilution rate D in steady state: t d = ln ⁡ 2 ... specific types of bacterial mutants in culture such as auxotrophs or those that are resistant to antibiotics or bacteriophages ... mu _{\max }{S \over K_{S}+S},} where S is the substrate or nutrient concentration in the chemostat and KS is the half- ...
A bacteriophage, Listeria phage P100, has been proposed as food additive to control L. monocytogenes. Bacteriophage treatments ... Ramaswamy V, Cresence VM, Rejitha JS, Lekshmi MU, Dharsana KS, Prasad SP, Vijila HM (February 2007). "Listeria--review of ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a cocktail of six bacteriophages from Intralytix, and a one-type phage ... Carlton RM, Noordman WH, Biswas B, de Meester ED, Loessner MJ (December 2005). "Bacteriophage P100 for control of Listeria ...
H ( z , t ) = μ a I 0 e − ω t {\displaystyle H(z,t)=\mu _{a}I_{0}e^{-\omega t}} Where μ a {\displaystyle \mu _{a}} is the ... Although antibodies have been used in the past, bacteriophages have proven to be cheaper and more stable to produce. Multiple ... p ( z , t ) = μ a β F ν s 2 2 C p h ^ ( z , t ) {\displaystyle p(z,t)={\mu _{a}\beta F\nu _{s}^{2} \over 2C_{p}}{\hat {h}}(z,t ... Where μ a {\displaystyle \mu _{a}} is the absorption coefficient, is the thermal expansion coefficient, C p {\displaystyle C_{p ...
Bray, D; Robbins, P (1967). "Mechanism of ε15 conversion studied with bacteriophage mutants". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... Borowitz JL, Gunasekar PG, Isom GE (September 1997). "Hydrogen cyanide generation by mu-opiate receptor activation: possible ...
The retention of bacteriophage and bacteria, the so-called "bacteria challenge test", can also provide information about the ... mu }}\ A\left({\frac {1}{R_{m}+R}}\right)} where Vp and Q are the volume of the permeate and its volumetric flow rate ...
These aforementioned techniques all require the design of mini-Mu transposons. Thermo scientific manufactures kits for the ... This method utilizes a bacteriophage with a modified life cycle to transfer evolving genes from host to host. The phage's life ...
Nobel Prize for bacteriophage genetics Jay Lush (1896-1982), US animal geneticist who pioneered modern scientific animal ... notable contributions to the study of phage Mu T. C. Hsu (1917-2003), distinguished Chinese-American cell biologist, geneticist ...
Bacteriophage Mu, also known as mu phage or mu bacteriophage, is a muvirus (the first of its kind to be identified) of the ... 2002), "Bacteriophage Mu genome sequence: analysis and comparison with Mu-like prophages in Haemophilus, Neisseria and ... created a crystal structure of the Mu bacteriophage transpososome, allowing for a detailed understanding of the process Mu ... Crystal Structure of the Bacteriophage MU Transpososome". Nature. 491: 413-417. doi:10.2210/pdb4fcy/pdb. Phage Mu at ViralZone ...
PROTEIN (MU BACTERIOPHAGE C REPRESSOR PROTEIN)
We have studied the mechanisms of DNA transposition of the bacteriophage Mu as a model system for a wide family of DNA ... We have studied this type of DNA rearrangement reaction mechanism using transposing bacterial virus Mu, a model system for a ... Certain bacterial transposons including phage Mu selectively transpose to target DNA sites away from where a pre-existing copy ... This self-avoidance process, called transposition target immunity, in the case of the Mu system, involves along with the ...
keywords = "Animals, Bacteriophage mu/pathogenicity, Base Sequence, Biological Therapy, Campylobacter Infections/therapy, ... jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that display clear evidence ... jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that display clear evidence ... jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that display clear evidence ...
Escherichia phage Mu (Bacteriophage Mu) reference strain U2_BPP1 Escherichia phage P1 (Bacteriophage P1) reference strain ... A genetic switch in vitro: DNA inversion by Gin protein of phage Mu. R. H. Plasterk, R. Kanaar, P. van de Putte. Proc. Natl. ... Tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage defines a family of diversity-generating retroelements. Sergei Doulatov, Asher ... Escherichia phage P1 (Bacteriophage P1) reference strain Tail fiber assembly protein U (Gene product U) (gpU) ...
Monitoring bacteriophage infection in bacterial biofilms (8J23AT003) MU Researcher: Mgr. Pavel Payne, Ph.D. ...
Shapiro JA . Molecular model for the transposition and replication of bacteriophage Mu and other transposable elements. - Proc ... Transposition of R factor genes to bacteriophage lambda. ProcNatlAcadSciUSA. 1975;72:3628-3632. ...
Bille E, Zahar J-R, Perrin A, Morelle S, Kriz P et al. A chromosomally integrated bacteriophage in invasive meningococci. J Exp ... Masignani V, Giuliani MM, Tettelin H, Comanducci M, Rappuoli R et al. Mu-like prophage in serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis ... Bille E, Meyer J, Jamet A, Euphrasie D, Barnier J-P et al. A virulence-associated filamentous bacteriophage of Neisseria ... Szafrański SP, Kilian M, Yang I, Bei der Wieden G, Winkel A et al. Diversity patterns of bacteriophages infecting ...
Restriction fragments of W41 DNA were subcloned in the bacteriophage M13. Sequencing and S1 protection assays of a 5 Kb HindIII ... Restriction fragments of W41 DNA were subcloned in the bacteriophage M13. Sequencing and S1 protection assays of a 5 Kb HindIII ... Information about e-Pubs@MU. * General FAQ Elsevier - Digital Commons Home , About , FAQ , My Account , Accessibility Statement ...
This study is the report of isolation of Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis from M. himalayana. The isolation and ... IMPORTANCE Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis were isolated from M. himalayana of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China. These ... Characterization of Mu-Like Yersinia Phages Exhibiting Temperature Dependent Infection. Meng, Biao; Qi, Zhizhen; Li, Xiang; ... 23 are phylogenetically closest to Escherichia coli phages Mu, D108 and Shigella flexneri phage SfMu. The role of LPS core ...
Structure of inserted bacteriophage Mu-1 DNA and physical mapping of bacterial genes by Mu-1 DNA insertion; Proceedings of the ... 1972) Electron Microscope Studies of Heteroduplex DNA from a Deletion Mutant of Bacteriophage phi X-174; Proceedings of the ...
Adjacent insertion sequences IS2 and IS5 in bacteriophage Mu mutants and an IS5 in a lambda darg bacteriophage. J Bacteriol, ...
PluMu-A Mu-like Bacteriophage Infecting Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by Lee Julia Bartsch, Roberto Fernandez Crespo, Yunfei ... Understanding an optimal bacteriophage MOI can be beneficial to implementing effective and optimal bacteriophage treatments in ... we previously identified single genomic regions with homology to Mu-like bacteriophage and presented preliminary evidence of ... we previously identified single genomic regions with homology to Mu-like bacteriophage and presented preliminary evidence ...
The Myoviridae in the VIIIth ICTV Report comprise five genera of bacteriophages (Mu, P1, P2, SPO1, and T4-like viruses) and one ... "Background We recently described methods aimed at unifying classical and genomic classification of bacteriophages by ... we verified relationships between phages known to be similar and identified several new bacteriophage genera. At the 20-30% ...
d1rifa_ c.37.1.23 (A:) DNA helicase UvsW {Bacteriophage T4 [TaxId: 10665]} ali model 3D-neighbors follow.. 17 113. ...
Bacteriophage research nowadays increasingly focuses on the potential of phages to treat bacterial infections and ... Some temperate phages can modulate bacterial physiology, such as E. coli phage Mu, which integrates randomly within the ... Keen, E.C.; Dantas, G. Close Encounters of Three Kinds: Bacteriophages, Commensal Bacteria, and Host Immunity. Trends Microbiol ... Silva, J.B.; Storms, Z.; Sauvageau, D. Host Receptors for Bacteriophage Adsorption. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2016, 363. ...
Bacteriophage elements, like Mu which integrates randomly into the genome. *Group II introns ...
Em-Mu Transposon (EmR) (1) contains marker gene ermB, encoding erythromycin resistance. Can be used for in vitro and in vivo ... Em-Mu Transposon (EmR) (1) for grampositive bacteria. Contains marker gene ermB, encoding erythromycin resistance. Can be used ... Generation of transposon insertion mutant libraries for Gram-positive bacteria by electroporation of phage Mu DNA transposition ... Transposable bacteriophage Mu. *Applications for Mu transposition technology. *Competent cells. *. account. * 0 ...
Khan MU. Interruption of shigellosis by handwashing. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1982;76:164--8. ... Preliminary study of test methods to assess the virucidal activity of skin disinfectants using poliovirus and bacteriophages. J ... Integrity of powder-free examination gloves to bacteriophage penetration. J Biomed Mater Res 1999;48:755--8. ... isopropanol were found to reduce titers of an enveloped bacteriophage more effectively than an antimicrobial soap containing 4 ...
Bacteriophage mu. *Bacteriophage N4. *Bacteriophage P1. *Bacteriophage P2. *Bacteriophage phi X 174 ... Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued ... The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause ...
protelomerase protein, Bacteriophage N15 EC 2.7.7.- *Enzyme Precursors *Viral Proteins *Telomerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... mu-. calpain proenzyme EC 3.4.22.- *Calpain *Enzyme Precursors. Brain Res 1995 Oct 30;697(1-2):179-86 EapB protein, ...
Lazzarin M, Mu R, Fabbrini M, Ghezzo C, Rinaudo CD, Doran KS, Margarit I. Contribution of pilus type 2b to invasive disease ... Bacteriophage adhering to mucus provide a non-host-derived immunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013; 110(26):10771-6. PMID ... Mu R, Cutting AS, Del Rosario Y, Villarino N, Stewart L, Weston TA, Patras KA, Doran KS. Identification of CiaR Regulated Genes ... Mu R, Kim BJ, Paco C, Del Rosario Y, Courtney HS, Doran KS. Identification of a group B streptococcal fibronectin binding ...
Temperate bacteriophages and bacteriophage-like elements also are an important part of the bacterial flexible gene pool and ... putida KT2440 Mu SfV hybrid prophage - PP3849 through PP3920; P. entomophila L48 prophage1 - PSEEN4129 through PSEEN4186; P. ... In non-filamentous bacteriophages and bacteriophage tail-like bacteriocins, the lytic activity is provided by the combined ... Southern hybridization of DNA from 34 strains of P. fluorescens with probes targeting F-pyocin- and R-pyocin-like bacteriophage ...
Phi29 is a family B enzyme from Bacteriophage φ29. Selected Properties for Phi29:. 3-5 exo activity. 5-3 exo activity. ... Mu.... 1992. Luis Blanco, Antonio Bernad, J A Esteban, Margarita Salas. DNA-independent deoxynucleotidylation.... ... The bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase.. 2008. Yun Xu, Simon Gao, John F Bruno, Benjamin J Luft, John J Dunn. Rapid detection ... Physical map of bacteriophage phi29 DNA.. 1975. José L Carrascosa, F Jiménez, E Viñuela, Margarita Salas. Synthesis in vitro of ...
Whitworth C , Mu Y , Houston H , Martinez-Smith M , Noble-Wang J , Coulliette-Salmond A , Rose L . Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 ... Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or ... The bacteriophage Phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human ...
suitable selectable plants include download and bacteriophage transgenic, nuclear as expression, effect, and caution. ... The Gin estimation of modeling Mu can ask longitudinal study in column overheads, 1991 Mol. The nutrient ZnO baculovirus was ...
EK2 Derivatives of Bacteriophage Lambda Useful in the Cloning of DNA from Higher Organisms: The λgt WES System ...
Bacteriophage mu Bacteriophage N4 Bacteriophage P1 Bacteriophage P1 Artificial Chromosomes use Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 ... B Cell Mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ... B Lymphocyte Mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ... B-Lymphocyte Mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ...
Bacteriophage mu Bacteriophage N4 Bacteriophage P1 Bacteriophage P1 Artificial Chromosomes use Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 ... B Cell Mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ... B Lymphocyte Mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ... B-Lymphocyte mu Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain ...
  • Bacteriophage Mu, also known as mu phage or mu bacteriophage, is a muvirus (the first of its kind to be identified) of the family Myoviridae which has been shown to cause genetic transposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage Mu is nonenveloped, with a head and a tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mu phage was first discovered by Larry Taylor at UC Berkeley in the late 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • He likened the observed genetic alteration to the 'controlling elements' in maize, and named the phage 'Mu', for mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative genome analysis revealed that vB_YpM_3, vB_YpM_5, vB_YpM_6, and vB_YpM_23 are phylogenetically closest to Escherichia coli phages Mu, D108 and Shigella flexneri phage SfMu. (bvsalud.org)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / ˈ f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea . (wikizero.com)
  • Bacteriophages are known to interact with the immune system both indirectly via bacterial expression of phage-encoded proteins and directly by influencing innate immunity and bacterial clearance. (wikizero.com)
  • Pajunen MI, Pulliainen AT, Finne J, Savilahti H (2005) Generation of transposon insertion mutant libraries for Gram-positive bacteria by electroporation of phage Mu DNA transposition complexes. (domusbiotechnologies.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • DNA transposition of bacteriophage Mu. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] 1972-1975: Ahmad Bukhari shows that Mu can insert randomly and prolifically throughout an entire bacterial genome, creating stable insertions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002), "Bacteriophage Mu genome sequence: analysis and comparison with Mu-like prophages in Haemophilus, Neisseria and Deinococcus", J Mol Biol, 317 (3): 337-359, doi:10.1006/jmbi.2002.5437, PMID 11922669 Taylor, Austin L. (1963). (wikipedia.org)
  • These rearrangements were identified as intra-genomic inversions between Mu-like prophage DNA sequences to invert genomic segments up to 590 kb in size, the equivalent of one-third of the genome. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have structures that are either simple or elaborate. (wikizero.com)
  • The Mu transpositional DNA recombination machinery selects target sites by assembling a protein-DNA complex that interacts with the target DNA and reacts whenever it locates a favorable sequence composition. (nih.gov)
  • Building a replisome solution structure by elucidation of protein-protein interactions in the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme. (neb.com)
  • Dynamic protein interactions in the bacteriophage T4 replisome. (neb.com)
  • 1983: Kiyoshi Mizuuchi develops a protocol for observing transposition in vitro using mini-Mu plasmids, allowing for a greatly increased understanding of the chemical components of transposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preferential usage of different target pentamers was examined with a minimal Mu in vitro system and quantitatively compiled consensus sequences for the most preferred and the least preferred sites were generated. (nih.gov)
  • These genotypes were recovered from chickens in the presence of virulent bacteriophage but not in vitro. (herts.ac.uk)
  • The resulting strains exhibit three clear phenotypes: resistance to infection by virulent bacteriophage, inefficient colonisation of the broiler chicken intestine, and the production of infectious bacteriophage CampMu. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Anatomy and infection cycle of bacteriophage T4 . (wikizero.com)
  • The host range variation system found in phages such as Mu and P1 is a genetic system that allows some bacterial viruses to switch between two types of fibers by inversion of the DNA segment encoding the fibers. (expasy.org)
  • [2] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikizero.com)
  • BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. (umassmed.edu)
  • The isolation and characterization of four Mu-like phages of Y. pestis were reported, which were named as vB_YpM_3, vB_YpM_5, vB_YpM_6, and vB_YpM_23 according to their morphology. (bvsalud.org)
  • The phages lyse the host bacteria at 37°C, but enter the lysogenic cycle and become prophages in the chromosome of the host bacteria at 26°C. IMPORTANCE Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis were isolated from M. himalayana of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China. (bvsalud.org)
  • A switch from the lysogenic to the lytic cycle occurred when lysogenic bacteria were incubated from lower temperature to higher temperature (initially incubating at 26°C and shifting to 37°C). It is speculated that the temperature dependent lifestyle of bacteriophages may affect the population dynamics and pathogenicity of Y. pestis. (bvsalud.org)
  • He also demonstrates that the reversion of the gene to its original and undamaged form is possible with the excision Mu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reintroduction of these strains into chickens in the absence of bacteriophage results in further genomic rearrangements at the same locations, leading to reversion to bacteriophage sensitivity and colonisation proficiency. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Some bacteriophages have developed tropism-switching genetic cassettes, that allow them to modify their fibers proteins, and thus to bind to a broader range of hosts. (expasy.org)
  • While Mu was specifically involved in several distinct areas of research (including E. coli, maize, and HIV), the wider implications of transposition and insertion transformed the entire field of genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • several colonies of Hfr E. coli which had been lysogenized with Mu seemed to have a tendency to develop new nutritional markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994-2012: Because of shared mechanisms of insertion, Mu acts as a useful organism to elucidate the process of HIV integration, eventually leading to HIV integrase inhibitors such as raltegravir in 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have studied the mechanisms of DNA transposition of the bacteriophage Mu as a model system for a wide family of DNA rearrangement reactions from bacteria to humans. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophage predation is a common burden placed upon C. jejuni populations in the avian gut, and we show that amongst C. jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that display clear evidence of genomic rearrangements. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . (wikizero.com)
  • With further investigation, he was able to link the presence of these markers to the physical binding of Mu at a certain loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • created a crystal structure of the Mu bacteriophage transpososome, allowing for a detailed understanding of the process Mu amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1979: Jim Shapiro develops a Mu inspired model for transposition involving the 'Shapiro Intermediate,' in which both the donor and the target undergo two cleavages and then the donor is ligated into the target, creating two replication forks and allowing for both transposition and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The construction is described of a plasmid (pL-ner) which directs the high-level production of the bacteriophage Mu Ner protein in Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that bacteriophage Mu, which was deliberately introduced during the original construction of the widely used donor strains SM10 λpir and S17-1 λpir, is silently transferred to Escherichia coli recipient cells at high frequency, both by hfr and by release of Mu particles by the donor strain. (hal.science)
  • Comparative genome analysis revealed that vB_YpM_3, vB_YpM_5, vB_YpM_6, and vB_YpM_23 are phylogenetically closest to Escherichia coli phages Mu, D108 and Shigella flexneri phage SfMu. (bvsalud.org)
  • The protein was also shown to have in vitro biological activity, as measured by specific binding to a DNA fragment containing the consensus Ner-binding sequence, and in vivo biological activity as the protein produced by the pL-ner plasmid allowed lysogenic-like maintenance of a Mu prophage c mutant unable to synthesise a functional Mu repressor. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Jodi Vogel received her Ph.D. for her work on functions of the bacteriophage Mu repressor protein. (nih.gov)
  • The isolation and characterization of four Mu-like phages of Y. pestis were reported, which were named as vB_YpM_3, vB_YpM_5, vB_YpM_6, and vB_YpM_23 according to their morphology. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study is the report of isolation of Mu-like bacteriophages of Y. pestis from M. himalayana. (bvsalud.org)
  • This self-avoidance process, called transposition target immunity, in the case of the Mu system, involves along with the tansposase protein, MuA, which plays central roles in the transpositional recombination steps, a second protein MuB. (nih.gov)
  • A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE , composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA , which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • Colifago temperado, del género de virus similares a Mu, familia MYOVIRIDAE, compuesto de una molécula de ADN lineal de doble hebra, que es capaz de insertarse aleatoriamente en cualquier punto del cromosoma del huésped. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings suggest that bacteriophage Mu could have contaminated many random-mutagenesis experiments performed on Mu-sensitive species with these popular donor strains, leading to potential misinterpretation of the transposon mutant phenotype and therefore perturbing analysis of mutant screens. (hal.science)
  • This strain can therefore be used with most of the available transposon-delivering plasmids and should enable more efficient and easy-to-analyze mutant hunts in E. coli and other Mu-sensitive RP4 host bacteria. (hal.science)
  • There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (in epsilon and mu) constant domains (CH1 to CH4). (embl.de)
  • We have studied the mechanisms of DNA transposition of the bacteriophage Mu as a model system for a wide family of DNA rearrangement reactions from bacteria to humans. (nih.gov)