Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.TritiumGenetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.ThymineGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).PolynucleotidesSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ATP-Dependent Proteases: Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Galactokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.1.6.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins: A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.

Transplacement mutagenesis: a novel in situ mutagenesis system using phage-plasmid recombination. (1/2257)

Site-specific mutagenesis provides the ability to alter DNA with precision so that the function of any given gene can be more fully understood. Several methods of in vitro mutagenesis are time-consuming and imprecise, requiring the subcloning and sequencing of products. Here we describe a rapid, high fidelity method of in situ mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda using transplacement. Using this method, mutations are transferred from oligonucleotides to target phages using a plasmid interface. A small (50 bp) homology region bearing a centred point mutation is generated from oligonucleotides and subcloned into a transplacement plasmid bearing positive and negative phage selectable markers. Following a positive/negative selection cycle of integrative recombination and excision, the point mutation is transferred precisely from plasmid to phage in a subset ( approximately 25-50%) of recombinants. As the fidelity of both oligonucleotide synthesis and phage-plasmid recombination is great, this approach is extremely reliable. Using transplacement, point mutations can be accurately deposited within large phage clones and we demonstrate the utility of this technique in the construction of gene targeting vectors in bacteriophages.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (2/2257)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

General method of analysis of kinetic equations for multistep reversible mechanisms in the single-exponential regime: application to kinetics of open complex formation between Esigma70 RNA polymerase and lambdaP(R) promoter DNA. (3/2257)

A novel analytical method based on the exact solution of equations of kinetics of unbranched first- and pseudofirst-order mechanisms is developed for application to the process of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaPR promoter (P) open complex formation, which is described by the minimal three-step mechanism with two kinetically significant intermediates (I1, I2), [equation: see text], where the final product is an open complex RPo. The kinetics of reversible and irreversible association (pseudofirst order, [R] >> [P]) to form long-lived complexes (RPo and I2) and the kinetics of dissociation of long-lived complexes both exhibit single exponential behavior. In this situation, the analytical method provides explicit expressions relating observed rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of mechanism steps without use of rapid equilibrium or steady-state approximations, and thereby provides a basis for interpreting the composite rate constants of association (ka), isomerization (ki), and dissociation (kd) obtained from experiment for this or any other sequential mechanism of any number of steps. In subsequent papers, we apply this formalism to analyze kinetic data obtained in the reversible and irreversible binding regimes of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaP(R) promoter (P) open complex formation.  (+info)

Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow. (4/2257)

The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased.  (+info)

Cloning of mnuA, a membrane nuclease gene of Mycoplasma pulmonis, and analysis of its expression in Escherichia coli. (5/2257)

Membrane nucleases of mycoplasmas are believed to play important roles in growth and pathogenesis, although no clear evidence for their importance has yet been obtained. As a first step in defining the function of this unusual membrane activity, studies were undertaken to clone and analyze one of the membrane nuclease genes from Mycoplasma pulmonis. A novel screening strategy was used to identify a recombinant lambda phage expressing nuclease activity, and its cloned fragment was analyzed. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify an open reading frame of 1,410 bp, which coded for nuclease activity in Escherichia coli. This gene coded for a 470-amino-acid polypeptide of 53,739 Da and was designated mnuA (for "membrane nuclease"). The MnuA protein contained a prolipoprotein signal peptidase II recognition sequence along with an extensive hydrophobic region near the amino terminus, suggesting that the protein may be lipid modified or that it is anchored in the membrane by this membrane-spanning region. Antisera raised against two MnuA peptide sequences identified an M. pulmonis membrane protein of approximately 42 kDa by immunoblotting, which corresponded to a trypsin-sensitive nucleolytic band of the same size. Maxicell experiments with E. coli confirmed that mnuA coded for a nuclease of unknown specificity. Hybridization studies showed that mnuA sequences are found in few Mycoplasma species, suggesting that mycoplasma membrane nucleases display significant sequence variation within the genus Mycoplasma.  (+info)

Construction and analysis of hybrid Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis dnaK genes. (6/2257)

The highly conserved DnaK chaperones consist of an N-terminal ATPase domain, a central substrate-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain whose function is not known. Since Bacillus subtilis dnaK was not able to complement an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, we performed domain element swap experiments to identify the regions responsible for this finding. It turned out that the B. subtilis DnaK protein needed approximately normal amounts of the cochaperone DnaJ to be functional in E. coli. The ATPase domain and the substrate-binding domain form a species-specific functional unit, while the C-terminal domains, although less conserved, are exchangeable. Deletion of the C-terminal domain in E. coli DnaK affected neither complementation of growth at high temperatures nor propagation of phage lambda but abolished degradation of sigma32.  (+info)

X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease VII: a DNA junction resolvase with a novel fold and unusual domain-swapped dimer architecture. (7/2257)

Phage T4 endonuclease VII (Endo VII), the first enzyme shown to resolve Holliday junctions, recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA substrates ranging from branched DNAs to single base mismatches. We have determined the crystal structures of the Ca2+-bound wild-type and the inactive N62D mutant enzymes at 2.4 and 2.1 A, respectively. The Endo VII monomers form an elongated, highly intertwined molecular dimer exhibiting extreme domain swapping. The major dimerization elements are two pairs of antiparallel helices forming a novel 'four-helix cross' motif. The unique monomer fold, almost completely lacking beta-sheet structure and containing a zinc ion tetrahedrally coordinated to four cysteines, does not resemble any of the known junction-resolving enzymes, including the Escherichia coli RuvC and lambda integrase-type recombinases. The S-shaped dimer has two 'binding bays' separated by approximately 25 A which are lined by positively charged residues and contain near their base residues known to be essential for activity. These include Asp40 and Asn62, which function as ligands for the bound calcium ions. A pronounced bipolar charge distribution suggests that branched DNA substrates bind to the positively charged face with the scissile phosphates located near the divalent cations. A model for the complex with a four-way DNA junction is presented.  (+info)

A RAPID algorithm for sequence database comparisons: application to the identification of vector contamination in the EMBL databases. (8/2257)

MOTIVATION: Word-matching algorithms such as BLAST are routinely used for sequence comparison. These algorithms typically use areas of matching words to seed alignments which are then used to assess the degree of sequence similarity. In this paper, we show that by formally separating the word-matching and sequence-alignment process, and using information about word frequencies to generate alignments and similarity scores, we can create a new sequence-comparison algorithm which is both fast and sensitive. The formal split between word searching and alignment allows users to select an appropriate alignment method without affecting the underlying similarity search. The algorithm has been used to develop software for identifying entries in DNA sequence databases which are contaminated with vector sequence. RESULTS: We present three algorithms, RAPID, PHAT and SPLAT, which together allow vector contaminations to be found and assessed extremely rapidly. RAPID is a word search algorithm which uses probabilities to modify the significance attached to different words; PHAT and SPLAT are alignment algorithms. An initial implementation has been shown to be approximately an order of magnitude faster than BLAST. The formal split between word searching and alignment not only offers considerable gains in performance, but also allows alignment generation to be viewed as a user interface problem, allowing the most useful output method to be selected without affecting the underlying similarity search. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis of an artificial test set allows the optimal score threshold for identifying vector contamination to be determined. ROC curves were also used to determine the optimum word size (nine) for finding vector contamination. An analysis of the entire expressed sequence tag (EST) subset of EMBL found a contamination rate of 0.27%. A more detailed analysis of the 50 000 ESTs in est10.dat (an EST subset of EMBL) finds an error rate of 0.86%, principally due to two large-scale projects. AVAILABILITY: A Web page for the software exists at http://bioinf.man.ac.uk/rapid, or it can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.bioinf.man.ac.uk/RAPID CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. AU - Gunther, Edward. AU - Murray, Noreen E.. AU - Glazer, Peter M.. PY - 1993/8/11. Y1 - 1993/8/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027236017&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. DO - 10.1093/nar/21.16.3903. M3 - Article. C2 - 8396240. AN - SCOPUS:0027236017. VL - 21. SP - 3903. EP - 3904. JO - Nucleic Acids Research. JF - Nucleic Acids Research. SN - 0305-1048. IS - 16. ER - ...
We have examined the impact of DNA heterologies on the packaging of lambda DNA in vitro. Heterology-containing DNA molecules were constructed by denaturing and reannealing a mixture of DNA from cI+ phage and DNA front phage carrying small insertion or deletion mutations in the cI gene. We found that molecules with heterologies of up to 19 base pairs (bp) can be packaged as viable heterozygous phage with approximately the same efficiency as molecules with a base pair mismatch. In contrast, with a heterology of 26-bp heterozygous plaque formers are rare. In principle, the absence of cI heterozygotes among packaged phage may be due either to a failure to encapsulate the DNA or a failure to inject the packaged DNA on infection. Southern blot analysis of DNA isolated from packaged phage indicates that DNA harboring a 26-bp heterology is almost completely absent in packaged phage. Thus, an upper limit has been established for the size of heterology that can be accommodated by the packaging apparatus ...
The DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs...Bacteriophage lambda DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs and codes for about 60 proteins. According to abstract phage Lambda has 46 clearly defined ORFs and another ~20 putative ORFs, totaling ~66ORFs (~60 proteins according to p.730 2nd paragraph). The number of bases is for the double stranded circular chromosome. 48,514 bp according to Lewin, Genes VIII, 2004, p.335 fig.12.11 ...
Shop Transcription termination/antitermination protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Transcription termination/antitermination protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Shop Prophage antitermination protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Prophage antitermination protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Experiments using phage lambda provided early insights into important molecular mechanisms, including genetic recombination and the control of gene expression. Before recombinant DNA technology, the use of lambda, most particularly lambda transducing phages, illustrated the importance of cloning bacterial genes, already providing some insight into how to use cloned genes to advantage. Subsequently, lambda made significant contributions to recombinant DNA technology, including the early generation of genomic and cDNA libraries. More recently, lambda genes associated with recombination have enabled techniques referred to as recombineering to be developed. These techniques permit the refined manipulation, including mutation, of foreign genes in Escherichia coli and their subsequent return to the donor organism. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacteriophage lambda-based expression vectors. AU - Christensen, A. C.. PY - 2001/6/28. Y1 - 2001/6/28. N2 - Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector for over 25 years, and has been used extensively as an expression vector. The efficiency of packaging and infection, and the simplicity of plaque screening are advantages of lambda as a cloning vector. A number of ingenious modifications help overcome the disadvantages associated with its mode of growth and its size. Some lambda vectors have been designed to be readily converted into plasmids or phagemids, and there are a variety of promoters and fusions that can be used to drive expression of foreign genes. Screening lambda libraries with antibodies or ligands is a powerful way of identifying novel genes.. AB - Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector for over 25 years, and has been used extensively as an expression vector. The efficiency of packaging and infection, and the simplicity of plaque ...
Until recently, a relatively simple model was proposed for the biological function of the amino-terminal domain of the lambda Int. The high-affinity amino-terminal domain binds to the arm-type sequence to deliver the low-affinity core-binding domain of Int to the core-type site, where actual cleavage and rejoining occur (9, 12, 13). Simultaneous binding to the two different DNA sites by a single Int molecule is further facilitated by accessory proteins that bind and bend the sites between the arm-type and the core-type sequences (9, 13).. Several recent studies, however, revealed more elaborate roles of the amino-terminal domain of the Int protein in addition to the architectural role. The amino-terminal domain is implicated as a region involved in protein-protein interactions between Int molecules during intasome formation (8). Some amino acid substitutions in one domain may alter the structure of the other domain through domain-domain communication. A few amino acid substitutions in the HK022 ...
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Rx Biosciences prepares genomic libraries in the lambda phage vector such as lambda Dash II, EMBL3, and others. We specialize in the construction of libraries from micro- quantities of the specimen such as trace amount of genomic DNA, chromosomes, uncultured environmental microbes, or base-modified phages. Highly methylated DNA, contamination with polysaccharides or phenolic compounds or restriction enzyme resistant DNA samples are successfully used to generate high quality libraries. The libraries are provided to the customer after rigorous Q.C. testing.. ...
Lambda phage --, lambda bacteriophage (Science: virology) bacterial dna virus, first isolated from E. Coli. Its structure is similar to that of the t even phages. lambda genetic material consists of a double-stranded dna molecule with 5 twelve-base-pair sticky ends, known as cos sites, which permit circularisation of the dna molecule. It shows a lytic cycle and a lysogenic cycle and studies on the control of these alternative cycles have been very important for our understanding of the regulation of gene transcription. It is used as a cloning vector, accommodating fragments of dna up to 15 kilobase pairs long. For larger pieces, the cosmid vector was constructed from its ends. ...
Date: Sat, 1 Oct 2016 16:10:40 -0400 Reply-To: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] From: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] Subject: Lambda lunch update To: [[email protected]] List-Help: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L], [mailto:[email protected]?body=INFO%20LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] List-Unsubscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Subscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Owner: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Archive: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] 10/6/16*: Martin Schmeing (McGill) "Structural and functional studies of nonribosomal peptide synthetase megaenzymes" (G. Storz) 10/7/16: Noon, Bldg. 6A/Rm. 4A05: Paul Schimmel (Scripps)"New Deep Biology of Human tRNA Synthetases and Connection to Disease" (DDB Postdoctoral Fellows Speaker Series; S. Mattijssen) 10/11/16: 1-2 PM, Bldg. 40, Rm. 1201/1203, Bryan Krantz (U. MD, Baltimore) "Peptide- and ...
Date: Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:25:03 -0400 Reply-To: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] From: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] Subject: Lambda lunch update, Oct. 26 To: [[email protected]] List-Help: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L], [mailto:[email protected]?body=INFO%20LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] List-Unsubscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Subscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Owner: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Archive: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] 10/27/16*: Robert Trachman (A. Ferre-DAmare lab) "Structural Basis for fluorescence enhancement by an RNA aptamer" 11/3/16*: Anca Segall (San Diego State; on sabbatical at NCBI) (Note: Arkady Mustaev moved to 12/8/16) 11/10/16*: Jeremy Bird (Ebright/Nickels labs, Rutgers University)"The mechanism of RNA 5 capping with NAD+, NADH and desphospo-Coenzyme A" (S. Gottesman, S. Wickner) 11/17/16*: ...
Developmental systems are controlled by modulating gene expression in response to internally programmed signals as well as to external signals. Our laboratory is interested in studying the molecular interactions and the signaling that occur to regulate gene expression. We exploit the genetic systems available in Escherichia coli, its plasmids, and its viruses (e.g., bacteriophage lambda) to help us understand (1) gene regulation at the levels of transcription initiation and elongation, and translation initiation, and (2) cell growth and cell cycle control signals.. RECOMBINEERING: Recently, we have developed an in vivo cloning and gene modification system using lambda Red-mediated homologous recombination with short (,50 bp) homologies. This new technology called recombineering is being used. It is a great tool in E. coli for genetic modification. We have provided recombineering strains to more than 3000 labs. Well over half of these labs work on eukaryotic model systems like mouse and ...
Misc.Comments : Deposited by: Ichiro N. Maruyama Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): HindIII--24.1, 17.6; EcoRI--22.0, 20.0; BamHI--24.8, 16.9; XbaI--32.7,9.0; NotI--41.7. (ATCC staff) Vector useful for constructing cDNA libraries. Permits positive selection for inserts using the Spi- phenotype, and excision of phagemid by lox/cre site-specific recombination. [1] To prepare phagemid from lambdaMGU2, grow recombinants on a RecA- host expressing the Cre protein (E. coli 1046[pCRE1], ATCC 77368) and select for ampicillin resistance. The pMGU product is 4.185 kb. [1] The order of the major features in the cloning region of the lambda vector is: lambda J - SmaI - SalI - loxP - EcoRI - M13 ori - ampR - pMB1 ori - HindIII - 3gam/BamHI/5gam - XhoI - loxP - SalI - lambda N. [1] Inserts can be amplified using the following primers flanking the BamHI cloning site: upstream 5-AAGAGGCAGAACTGGCAG-3 and downstream 5-ATCGATGCATAGCGATTC-3. [1] Efficiency of phagemid recovery is ...
An entire gene containing its coding region with its intron as well as its regulatory region such as a promoter or terminator can be cloned from a chromosome by screening of genomic library which is constructed in phage vector or plasmid vector in an appropriate host, by using a partial DNA fragment obtained by degenerate PCR as described above as a probe after it was labeled. Generally, E. coli as a host strain and E. colt vector, a phage vector such as lambda phage vector, or a plasmid vector such as pUC vector is often used in the construction of library and a following genetic manipulation such as a sequencing, a restriction digestion, a ligation and the like. In this invention, an EcoRl genomic library of P. rhodozyma was constructed in the derivatives of lambda vector, lambda gtll. An insert size, what length of insert must be cloned, was determined by the Southern blot hybridization before a construction of a library. In this invention, a DNA which was used for a probe was labeled with ...
Common plasmids are simple DNA molecules which contain a few genes and regulatory elements. Most viral genomes are more complex. For example, the genome of phage lambda contains approximately 50 genes. About 4,000 genes are present in the E. coli genome while there is approximately 1,000 times more DNA in the genome of a mammal. This progression in genome complexity is the topic of this exercise. Here, students compare the electrophoretic patterns of restriction digests of a plasmid, phage lambda DNA, and cow DNA from thymus and kidney as shown in the figure below. The exercise serves as a good introduction for determining the size of DNA molecules and provides an appreciation for the complexity of genomes from different organisms.. ...
of a series of informal workshops initiated by Makoto Kanazawa. This series is mostly concerned with formalisms independently defined by Reinhard Muskens and Philippe de Groote: lambda grammars or abstract categorial grammars. This workshop more particularly focuses on: ...
begin{aligned}& \bigl\vert T_{1}(u_{2},v_{2}) (t)-T_{1}(u_{1},v_{1}) (t)\bigr\vert \\& \quad \leq \biggl\vert A_{1}(t) \biggl\{ a\bigl(\lambda_{2} \xi-1+e^{-\lambda_{2}\xi}\bigr) \biggl[ \int_{0}^{1}e^{-\lambda _{2}(1-s)}\bigl[Q(u_{2},v_{2}) (s)-Q(u_{1},v_{1}) (s)\bigr]\,ds \\& \qquad {}-b \int_{0}^{\eta}e^{-\lambda_{1}(\eta -s)}\bigl[P(u_{2},v_{2}) (s)-P(u_{1},v_{1}) (s)\bigr]\,ds \biggr] \\& \qquad {}-\bigl(\lambda_{2}-1+e^{-\lambda_{2}}\bigr) \biggl[a \int_{0}^{\xi}e^{-\lambda_{2}(\xi -s)}\bigl[Q(u_{2},v_{2}) (s)-Q(u_{1},v_{1}) (s)\bigr]\,ds \\& \qquad {}- \int_{0}^{1}e^{-\lambda_{1}(1-s)}\bigl[P(u_{2},v_{2}) (s)-P(u_{1},v_{1}) (s)\bigr]\,ds \biggr]\biggr\} \\& \qquad {}+ \int_{0}^{t}e^{-\lambda_{1}(t-s)}\bigl[P(u_{2},v_{2}) (s)-P(u_{1},v_{1}) (s)\bigr]\,ds\biggr\vert \\& \quad \leq A_{1} \biggl\{ ,a,\bigl(\lambda_{2} \xi-1+e^{-\lambda_{2}\xi}\bigr) \biggl[\bigl(m_{2}\Vert u_{2}-u_{1}\Vert +n_{2}\Vert v_{2}-v_{1}\Vert \bigr) \int_{0}^{1}e^{-\lambda_{2}(1-s)}(Q{\mathbf{1}}) (s)\,ds \\& \qquad ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with NUTR 203 : Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition at Clemson. Find NUTR203 study guides, notes, and
Here is the best resource for homework help with NUTR 306 at University Of Texas. Find NUTR306 study guides, notes, and practice tests from UT.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SibEm \ Lambda DNA_HindIII \ M01 for more molecular products just contact us
Stříkačková pumpa je k dispozici ve dvou provedeních LAMBDA VIT-FIT (možnost přepínaní mezi 80 N a 300 N) a vysokotlaká LAMBDA VIT-FIT HP (možnost přepínaní mezi 160 N a 600 N).. Každá z těchto verzí navíc umožňuje volbu rychlosti posuvu a to buď v režimu SLO (od 0,02 do 20 mm/min.) nebo v režimu FAS (od 0,08 do 80 mm/min.). LAMBDA VIT-FIT stříkačkové pumpy umožňují jednoduše použít libovolné stříkačky od 5 μl do 150 ml bez přídavných adaptérů, čímž odpadá pracná manipulace nebo dokonce nutnost mít více pump podle potřebného objemu stříkačky.. ...
Abstract: The top-Higgs system, consisting of top quark LH doublet, RH singlet) and Higgs boson kinetic terms, with gauge fields set to zero, has an exact (modulo total divergences) symmetry where both fermion and Higgs fields are shifted and mixed in a supersymmetric fashion. The full Higgs-Yukawa interaction and Higgs-potential, including additional \sim 1/\Lambda^2 NJL-like interactions, also has this symmetry to {O}1/\Lambda^4), up to null-operators. Thus the interaction lagrangian can be viewed as a power series in 1/\Lambda^2. The symmetry involves interplay of the Higgs quartic interaction with the Higgs-Yukawa interaction and implies the relationship, \lambda = \half g^2 between the top--Yukawa coupling, g, and Higgs quartic coupling, \lambda, at a high energy scale \Lambda \gta few TeV. We interpret this to be a new physics scale. The top quark is massless in the symmetric phase, satisfying the Nambu-Goldstone theorem. The fermionic shift part of the current is \propto (1-H^\dagger ...
Abstract: The top-Higgs system, consisting of top quark (LH doublet, RH singlet) and Higgs boson kinetic terms, with gauge fields set to zero, has an exact (modulo total divergences) symmetry where both fermion and Higgs fields are shifted and mixed in a supersymmetric fashion. The full Higgs-Yukawa interaction and Higgs-potential, including additional \sim 1/\Lambda^2 NJL-like interactions, also has this symmetry to O(1/\Lambda^4), up to null-operators. Thus the interaction lagrangian can be viewed as a power series in 1/\Lambda^2. The symmetry involves interplay of the Higgs quartic interaction with the Higgs-Yukawa interaction and implies the relationship, \lambda = \half g^2 between the top--Yukawa coupling, g, and Higgs quartic coupling, \lambda, at a high energy scale \Lambda ,= few TeV. We interpret this to be a new physics scale. The top quark is massless in the symmetric phase, satisfying the Nambu-Goldstone theorem. The fermionic shift part of the current is \propto (1-H^\dagger ...
The heart of LAMBDA Pumps (or LAMBDA DOSER) is a stepping motor controlled by a generator of electrical impulses. After each impulse the motor turns by one step. This movement is transmitted to the rotor, which displaces a small amount of liquid in the direction of flow by compression of the tubing. The integrator registers impulses received and transforms them into a direct current. The voltage can be measured or recorded by common recorders or voltmeters ...
A pair of ultra-micro cells enables easy and reproducible analysis of very small sample volumes, down to 30 µL, and the reference material set provides validation of the ordinate and wavelength accuracy of your Lambda 25. The liquid sipper enables fast, in-situ liquid sampling directly from the container. For use with the LAMBDA UV/Vis Systems. ...
Ah lambdas. If youve used any functional languages, python, ruby, or C# (or many other languages), you are probably familiar with the concept of lambdas. Ho...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Gene Link \ Lambda gt10 reverse primer 24mer \ 26-3000-11 for more molecular products just contact us
polysyms mu0 lambda; % Use mu0 because mu is a Matlab toolbox command v = polysym(v,[1 2]); fname = polysym(f,[1 2]); A = [1 2; 2 4]; B = [4 -2; -2 1]; fval = mu0*A*v. - lambda*B*v.; poly_system = BertiniLab(function_def,fname(:),function_def,fval(:), ... hom_variable_group,{[mu0 lambda],v}); poly_system = solve(poly_system); sols = poly_system.match_solutions(raw_solutions,mu0,lambda,v ...
Partstrain.com has the best and most reliable Fuel Injection Corp Lambda Control Unit in town. We accept all major credit cards. Buy now!
For over 50 years we have remained at the forefront of research and innovation. Now, we have drawn on our experience to bring you the LAMBDA XLS+ spectrophotometer, the instrument you can depend on to meet the demands of your busy laboratory. ...
Sets the lambda scaling factor. When an improved solution is found, lambda is multiplied by this factor. When a poorer solution is found, lambda is divided by this factor. The smaller the factor, the more rapidly the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm shifts to the standard Hessian method. The factor must satisfy 0 < _factor < 1.0. Default is 0.1 ...
Thanks for telling me that you could not get my message, I hope this work better... so my question was: I built a population matrix to which I applied the fonction eigen in order to find the main parameters about my population. I know that the first eigen value correspond to lambda or exponential growth rate of my population. My problem is that I want to have the 95% confidence interval of the specific lambda (1.056 in the case). Is there a way to do that? Are the other eigen value shown in the output could help me doing it. I would very appreciate any help. Thanks for your time $values [1] 1.0561867+0.0000000i 0.0749653+0.5249157i 0.0749653-0.5249157i [4] 0.4498348+0.0795373i 0.4498348-0.0795373i -0.3357868+0.0000000i $vectors [1,] -0.72849129+0i -0.11058308+0.3293511i -0.11058308-0.3293511i 0.00244042+0.03012017i 0.00244042-0.03012017i [2,] -0.41384232+0i 0.35124594+0.1765638i 0.35124594-0.1765638i 0.01004458+0.03839895i 0.01004458-0.03839895i [3,] -0.27427879+0i 0.29630718-0.4260863i ...
The OMNICOLL fraction collector provides a signal (~ 9 V) which is used by the communication module (art. no. 6911) to switch the pump off while moving from one fraction position to the other and at the end of the run. Therefore, there is no spilling between fractions ...
The most general calling discipline which can exist is to pass promises as arguments and let the called function decide what to do with them, and pass promises as return values and let the call site decide what to do with them. A promise, as you will recall, is comprised of the expression and the environment in which the expression appeared.. If that were it, and the promises were treated conventionally, it would just be a lazy language. The generality of macrology, etc, comes from allowing the called routine (or the call site in the case of return promises) to *abuse* the promises to varying degrees. Things you can do with a promise, in order from least to most semantically general/abusive, are: "Force" -- the conventional treatment of a promise. The expression is evaluated in the provided environment and the promise is replaced with the value returned from it. You can only "Force" a promise once. With forcing, the language is still referentially transparent.. "Evaluate" -- That is, you ...
In one sense, this is light enough that I feel bad posting it to LtU. In another, though, its entirely relevant: this guy started out inventing a DSL for pen-strokes, combinations of them, and relations between these combinations, and ended up with a simple OCR-based 4-function calculator. This was one of the cleverest bits of just-because programming language work and contrived abstraction that Ive seen in a long time. Sample:. ...
Excellgen Lambda Phage Integrase, Int [EG-40] - Description E coli lambda phage integrase Int is a site-specific tyrosine recombinase which mediates inserts and excises the phage genome into and out of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Lambda phage integrase has been used for LR and BP reactions in Gateway Cloning. Applications in vitro recombination assay Size 100 µg Source E coli overexpressing lambda phage Int
Noreen Murray was one of the architects of the recombinant DNA revolution that transformed the study of biology from the early 1970s. Her particular prowess for genetic manipulation of bacteria and their phage was critical in developing the bacteriophage lambda vectors that were a vital part of the early genetic engineering toolbox. Her skill as a microbial geneticist had earlier become apparent through her work on genetic recombination and complementation in the fungus Neurospora, especially as a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford where her work brought her to the attention of some of the giants of early molecular biology. Back in the UK, first at Cambridge and then, for the bulk of her career, at Edinburgh, she produced a remarkable body of work focused on uncovering the mechanisms and biology of restriction enzymes, and their adaptation as tools underpinning modern biological research and the rise of the biotechnology industry. Much of this work was done in collaboration with her husband Ken ...
ID PHA10 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 11309 BP. XX AC ATCC37065; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE E. coli plasmid vector pHA10 - complete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pJS1, pJS17 from pOP203-3 & lambda, kil gene RC pTR12, pTR20 from pJS1 RC pJS3, pJS10, pJS13, pHA1, pHI74, pHN1 from pBR322 & lambda, kil gene RC pHA10 from pHA1 & lambda RC p2824 from Charon 3 & pBR322 RC pKL1 from p2824 & lambda RA Honigman A., Oppenheim A.B., Hohn B., Hohn T.; RT "Plasmid vectors for positive selection of DNA inserts controlled RT by the lambda pL promoter, repressor and antitermination RT function"; RL Gene 13:289-298(1981). XX RN [2] RC pKB155 from pCR11 & lambda, cI gene RC pKB158 from pKB155 & pMB9 RC pKB252 from pKB158 & lac promoter RC [pKB255 from pKB158 & lac promoter] RA Backman K., Ptashne M., Gilbert W.; RT "Construction of plasmids carrying the cI gene of bacteriophage ...
define (ask object message . args) (apply (get-method object message) object args)) (define (get-method object message) (object message)) (define make-object (lambda (name) (lambda (message) (case message ((class) (lambda (self) object)) ((object?) (lambda (self) #t)) ((name) (lambda (self) name)) (else (error "No method")))))) (define make-boat (lambda (name) (let ((super (make-object name)) (floating #t)) (lambda (message) (case message ((class) (lambda (self) boat)) ((boat?) (lambda (self) #t)) ((is-floating?) (lambda (self) floating)) ((sink) (lambda (self) (set! floating #f))) (else (get-method super message))))))) (define make-sail-boat (lambda (name) (let ((super (make-boat name)) (sailing #f)) (lambda (message) (case message ((class) (lambda (self) sail-boat)) ((raise-sail) (lambda (self) (set! sailing #t))) ((lower-sail) (lambda (self) (set! sailing #f))) (else (get-method super message ...
2M7B: The Solution Structures of Two Prophage Homologues of the Bacteriophage lambda Ea8.5 Protein Reveal a Newly Discovered Hybrid Homeodomain/Zinc-Finger Fold.
Reef Octopus Classic 150INT Protein Skimmer - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Reef Octopus Classic 150INT Protein Skimmer. - Buy Reef Octopus Classic 150INT Protein Skimmer - Now Only $239.95 - Reef Octopus Classic 150INT Protein Skimmer FEATURES- High Performance Venturi Air Injection System- Refined Hybrid (half cone) Skimmer Body for Greater Foamate Stabilization & Collection- Easy to Remove Cup with Drain- Precision Water Level Control Output Valve- Air Silencer - Solid ConstructionRated for Aquariums up to 210 GallonsFootprint: 12.4″ x 8.7″ | Body Diameter: 6″ | Height: 22″ Powered by: Aquatrance 2000s Pinwheel PumpFiltration Handling- 210 Gallon – Light Filtration Demand        |        150 Gallon – Medium Filtration Demand        |        120 Gallon – Heavy Filtration Demand
Hello, I am interested in a cloning vector which allows direct selection for ,DNA inserts as pCS19 developed from Christian Sengstag (Gene 124,p141-2). ,However, in pCS19 a BamHI site is used for subcloning. Because we want to ,insert Klenow treated PCR fragments we are interested in a corresponding ,vector but containing a blunt cut restriction site for subcloning (has not to ,be a yeast shuttle vector for our purpose). Is such a vector available and ,who may provide us with this. Could you send your answer also directly to my ,e-mail box (hilt at po.uni-stuttgart.de) Thank you. wohi There is a yeast shuttle vector (pWH5) that may cater for your needs that was published by Wright APH, Maundrell K, Heyer W-D, Beach D, Nurse P (1986) Vectors for the construction of gene banks and the integration of cloned genes in S.pombe and S.cerevisiae. Plasmid, 15:156-158. pWH5 contains a tet resistence gene driven by the lambda Pr promoter and it also contains a version of the cI repressor gene containing ...
Genomes of living organisms are comprised of very long DNA molecules. A fundamental question is by what mechanisms are specific loci along these genomes found, with high efficiency and at relevant physiological times. We address this question in the case of horizontal gene transfer processes such as viral transduction and conjugation, which result in the rapid acquisition of new traits in bacteria. We use the infection of E. coli cells by bacteriophage lambda, whose DNA integrates at a unique site into the bacterial genome, when following the lysogenic pathway. To shed light on the mechanisms by which lambda DNA finds its unique integration site, we follow in real time individual lambda DNAs and their integration site within live cells using fluorescent markers, until lysogeny is established, revealing the dynamics of the search process.. ...
In article ,396aas$ki1 at news.service.uci.edu,, rmauk at crick.bio.uci.edu (Rob Mauk) wrote: , , I have isolated lambda gt10 DNA by PEG precipitation followed by organic , extraction and ethanol precipitation, and find that it is almost , completely resistant to digestion by EcoRI and all other enzymes that I , have tested. Proteinase K treatment did not help, nor did additional , extractions and precipitations. Plasmid DNA digests normally with these , enzymes, but if the plasmid is mixed with the lambda DNA, it is rendered , undigestable. Any comments or suggestions regarding the nature of this , contaminant, or solutions to the problem would be greatly appreciated. , Thank you. I have found in many cases that the addition of spermidine to a final concentration of 4 mM in the restriction buffer will allow the enzymes to work. It is an easy test!! Tom Newman Assistant Prof. MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory ...
Finck A. (1968) Grenzwerte der Nährelementgehalte in Pflanzen und ihre Auswertung zur Ermittlung des Düngerbedarfs. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 119: 197-208.. Günther J & Schroeder D (1968) Über den Einfluß von Bodeneigenschaften auf die Aufnahme von radioaktivem Stontium durch Pflanzen. II.: Untersuchungen an Modellböden mit systematisch variierten Merkmalen. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 120: 78-89.. Günther J & Schroeder D (1968) I.: Über den Einfluß von Bodeneigenschaften auf die Aufnahme von radioaktivem Stontium durch Pflanzen. I.:Untersuchungen an Böden Schleswig-Holsteins mit Weibklee und Weidelgras. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 119: 216-226.. Hoffmann WE (1966) Über die Regelung der Aufnahme einzelner Mineralstoffe bei der höheren Pflanze. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 113: 106-112.. Hoffmann WE (1966) Veränderungen der Wurzelaktivität der Pflanze bei der Mineralstoffabgabe an den Sproß durch unterschiedliche Kaliumernährung. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 113: 120-130.. Schlichting E (1965) ...
On Thu, 9 Mar 2006, Wayne Kelly wrote: , Im having trouble understanding the logic behind the semantics of the , break construct, specifically when used in lamdbas and methods. Im also having that trouble. Its something that is much easier to understand in Perl5, as there is no Proc/Block/Method difference and lambdas always work the same and so do breaks. sub myiterator { my($list,$proc)[email protected]_; for my $i (@$list) { $proc-,($i) } } sub func { my($x)[email protected]_; print $x\n; last; print after\n } my $lambda = sub { my($x)[email protected]_; print $x\n; last; print after\n }; myiterator([1..10],sub {my($x)[email protected]_; print $x\n; last; print after\n}); myiterator([1..10],$lambda); myiterator([1..10],\&func); ------------------8,--------cut-here--------8,------------------ prints this: 1 1 1 perl is so easy. sometimes. _ _ __ ___ _____ ________ _____________ _____________________ ... , Mathieu Bouchard - t :+1.514.383.3801 - http://artengine.ca/matju , Freelance Digital Arts Engineer, Montr l QC Canada ...
NGK OZA689-EE1. 1x NGK Lambda NTK Oxygen 02 Lambda Sensor OZA689-EE1 (97479) from The Green Spark Plug Company. See our other NGK products
Provides MATLAB scripts for simulating competitive inhibition of the ISC and TUS pathways, and the effect of this competition on lambda phage infection.
It is true that if $X_1, \dots, X_n$ are independent Poisson variables with mean $\lambda$, then $Y := X_1 + \dots + X_n$ is Poisson with mean $n\lambda$.. To see this, observe that the moment generating function of $Y$ is $$ \left( e^{\lambda (e^t - 1)} \right)^n = e^{n\lambda (e^t - 1)},$$ which is precisely the moment generating function of a Poisson variable with mean $n\lambda$.. This should feel intuitive. Imagine you have a Poisson process, where the expected number of events per unit time is $\lambda$. If for each $i \in \{1, \dots, n\}$, $X_i$ represents the number of events observed in time interval $[i - 1 , i)$, then $Y = X_1 + \dots + X_n$ represents the number of events observed in time interval $[0, n)$, and this is Poisson-distributed with mean $n\lambda$.. ...
Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown. Shutdown doesnt apply to Lambda because Lambda is intrinsically event-driven. Invocations are tied directly to incoming events or triggers.. However, speed at startup does matter. Initial function execution latency, or what is called "cold starts", can occur when there isnt a "warmed" compute resource ready to execute against your application invocations. In the AWS Lambda Execution Model topic, it explains that:. "It takes time to set up an execution context and do the necessary "bootstrapping", which adds some latency each time the Lambda function is invoked. You typically see this latency when a Lambda function is invoked for the first time or after it has been updated because AWS Lambda tries to reuse the execution context for subsequent invocations of the Lambda function.". The Best Practices topic covers a number of issues around how to think about performance of your functions. This includes where to place certain logic, how ...
Nutrition for Children with Special Health Care Needs Nutr 530. Betty Lucas, MPH, RD, CD 685-1289 [email protected] Who are CSHCN?. Slideshow 3990161 by danae
Abstract: I will discuss a joint work with Alex Fribergh in which we study the biased random walk on the infinite cluster of supercritical percolation. Fixing any $d \geq 2$ and supercritical parameter $p ,p_c$, the model has a parameter $\lambda , 0$ for the degree of bias of the walker in a certain preferred direction (which is another parameter, in $S^{d-1}$). We prove that the model has a sharp phase transition, that is, that there exists a critical value $\lambda_c , 0$ of the bias such that the walk moves at positive speed if $lambda , \lambda_c$ and at zero speed if $\lambda , \lambda_c$. This means that a stronger preference for the walker to move in a given direction actually causes the walk to slow down. The reason for this effect is a trapping phenomenon, and, as I will explain, our result is intimately tied to understanding the random geometry of the local environment that is trapping the particle at late time in the case when motion is sub-ballistic ...
One Lambda was founded in 1984 by Dr. Paul Terasaki, a pre-eminent researcher in the field of transplantation. From its inception, the company has been at the forefront of transplant diagnostics and has been first to market with a number of cutting edge solutions that have helped laboratories and clinicians meet the ever increasing demands for high quality data and improved patient outcomes.. In July of 2012, One Lambda was acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific, the world leader in serving science. Thermo Fisher Scientifics global presence and extensive customer channel network have enhanced our ability to deliver our products and services to HLA laboratories worldwide. We remain committed to improving the quality of life of transplant patients and their families by developing and producing innovative, high quality HLA products for the clinical and research segments of the transplant community.. The future is an opportunity to apply the traditions of quality and innovation to rapidly advancing ...
Hello everyone ,, Need some help here, currently our lab is trying to create a IHC protocol for kappa and lambda on the Venntana benchmark,, we are having some real problems with the background staining in our control and patients,, we are using a blocker and or hydrogen peroxide, to try and minimize the peroxidase but we are still getting alot of background, if any one out there that has a benchmark and has a protocol for these stains some help would be appreciated,, forgot to mention that we are using Tonsil and Bone Marrow for control, ...
Season 3, Episode 2: The bureaucratic mentality is the only constant in the universe with the future of the Lambda Paz and her crew hanging in the...
INTERPRETATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TYPE 2 DIABETES AND COMPLIANCE TO DIETOTHERAPY AMONG ELDERLY LIVING IN RURAL AREAS SUFFERING FROM THIS DISEASE ...
The amount of shrinkage \[ \begin{align*} \hat{\beta}_1^{ridge} &= \frac{\sum^n_{i=1} x_{i1}(y_i - x_{i2}\hat{\beta_2} - \cdots - x_{im}\hat{\beta_m}) }{\sum^n_{i=1} x^2_{i1} + \lambda} \\ &= \frac{\sum^n_{i=1} x^2_{i1} }{\sum^n_{i=1} x^2_{i1} + \lambda} \times \hat{\beta}^{ols}_{1} \end{align*} \] where \[ \begin{align*} \hat{\beta}_1^{ols} &= \frac{\sum^n_{i=1} x_{i1}(y_i - x_{i2}\hat{\beta_2} - \cdots - x_{im}\hat{\beta_m}) }{\sum^n_{i=1} x^2_{i1} } \end{align*} \]. ...
An industry vanguard in HLA tissue typing, One Lambda developed the first assays that accurately determine HLA antigens. One Lambdas broad spectrum of serological typing products include Terasaki T1, T2, and T3 NIH method typing trays as well as locus specific, ethnic, supplemental and dry trays.. ...
바이오엔시스템스는 그 동안 다양한 단백질분석서비스를 제공하였으며, 각 단백질 특성에 맞는 분석법과 데이터를 보유하여, 고객이 필요로 하는 정확하고 정밀한 최첨단 분석서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. 그 동안 해외 CRO를 통해서만 받을 수 있던 고품질의 분석서비스를 바이오엔시스템스가 제공 하고 있습니다 ...
The effect of the cellular level of RecA protein on the ability of E. coli K12 bacteria to (i) survive UV-irradiation (ii) promote UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda (iii) induce prophage lambda was determined in bacterial mutants with discrete increasing levels of RecA protein. The various levels of RecA protein were obtained by combining lexA and recA alleles. Except for the double mutant lexA3 recAo98, whose repair ability was 25% less than that observed in wild type bacteria, bacterial survival was proportional to the level of RecA protein measured after 90 min of incubation. In lexA3 recAo98 bacteria, RecA protein, at a constitutive high basal level, failed to compensate totally for the lack of LexA repressor cleavage; UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda was not restored; yet, prophage lambda was induced with 35% efficiency. Efficient UV-induction of prophage lambda is linked to the induction of lexA-controlled host processes that repair the UV-damaged prophage.
... Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence attachment site integrating vector
Zhu, M.; Yu, J.; Zhou, C.; Fang, H., 2016: Markerless DNA deletion based on Red recombination and in vivo I-Sec I endonuclease cleavage in Escherichia coli chromosome
XerC is a site-specific recombinase of the bacteriophage lambda integrase family that is encoded by xerC at 3700 kbp on the genetic map of Escherichia coli. The protein was originally identified through its role in converting multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers; only monomers are stably inherited …
This laboratory uses bacteria to study basic questions relating to gene expression and applies this knowledge to the study of the expression of a bacterial virulence factor. Current interest focuses on two areas: (1) factors influencing modulation of transcription elongation and (2) regulation of expression of Shiga toxin from resident prophages. Phage lambda and other members of the lambdoid family of phages and their Escherichia coli host serve as the model system for these studies.. Transcription elongation: Expression of the early genes of phage l is regulated by the viral encoded N protein. Together with a group of host proteins, called Nus, N modifies RNA polymerase through an RNA signal, NUT, rendering the transcription complex resistant to downstream termination signals. This results in highly processive transcription reading through transcription terminator kilobases from the NUT site. This laboratory studies the role of all three elements of the antitermination complex and their ...
Genomes of living organisms are comprised of very long DNA molecules. A fundamental question is by what mechanisms are specific loci along these genomes found, with high efficiency and at relevant physiological times. We address this question in the case of horizontal gene transfer processes such as viral transduction and conjugation, which result in the rapid acquisition of new traits in bacteria. We use the infection of E. coli cells by bacteriophage lambda, whose DNA integrates at a unique site into the bacterial genome, when following the lysogenic pathway. To shed light on the mechanisms by which lambda DNA finds its unique integration site, we follow in real time individual lambda DNAs and their integration site within live cells using fluorescent markers, until lysogeny is established, revealing the dynamics of the search process.. ...
We consider the following non-local elliptic boundary value problem: |p align=center| − $w(x) = \lambda (f(w(x)))/((\eq^1_(-1) f(w(z)) dz)^2) \all x \in$ (−1, 1),|br| $w(1) + \alpha w(1) = 0$, $w$(−1) − $\alpha w$(−1)$ = $0, |p align=left| where $\alpha$ and $\lambda$ are positive constants and $f$ is a function satisfying $f(s)$ | 0, $f(s) | 0, f(s) | 0$ for $s | 0, \eq^\infty_0 f(s)ds | \infty.$ The solution of the equation represents the steady state of a thermistor device. The problem has a unique solution for a critical value $\lambda$* of the parameter $\lambda$, at least two solutions for $\lambda | \lambda$* and has no solution for $\lambda | \lambda$*. We apply a finite element and a finite volume method in order to find a numerical approximation of the solution of the problem from the space of continuous piecewise quadratic functions, for the case that $\lambda | \lambda$* and for the stable branch of the bifurcation diagram. A comparison of these two
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called "temperate" phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Discrete mathematical formalisms are well adapted to model large biological networks, for which detailed kinetic data are scarce. This chapter introduces the reader to a well-established qualitative (logical) framework for the modelling of regulatory networks. Relying on GINsim, a software implementing this logical formalism, we guide the reader step by step towards the definition and the analysis of a simple model of the lysis-lysogeny decision in the bacteriophage λ.. ...
Buy our Recombinant |em|E. coli |/em| nusA protein. Ab78932 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
Emory University biophysicists have experimentally demonstrated, for the fist time, how the nonspecific binding of a protein known as the lambda repressor, or C1 protein, bends DNA and helps it close a loop that switches off virulence. The researchers also captured the first measurements of that compaction.. Their results, published in Physical Review E, support the idea that nonspecific binding is not so random after all, and plays a critical role in whether a pathogen remains dormant or turns virulent.. "Our findings are the first direct and quantitative determination of non-specific binding and compaction of DNA," says Laura Finzi, an Emory professor of biophysics whose lab led the study. "The data are relevant for the understanding of DNA physiology, and the dynamic characteristics of an on-off switch for the expression of genes.". C1 is the repressor protein of the lambda bacteriophage, a virus that infects the bacterial species E. coli, and a common laboratory model for the study of gene ...
The LAMBDA™ 365 delivers state-of-the-art UV/Vis performance that meets the needs of pharmaceuticals, analytic chemists, geneticists, and manufacturing QA/QC analysts everywhere. With 21 CFR part 11 compliant software available, the LAMBDA system is ready to support everything from standard methods and applications to those requiring regulatory compliance.
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
displaystyle {\begin{aligned}f_{X}(x,1,\lambda )&={\frac {1}{2{\sqrt {x}}}}\left(\phi ({\sqrt {x}}-{\sqrt {\lambda }})+\phi ({\sqrt {x}}+{\sqrt {\lambda }})\right)\\&={\frac {1}{\sqrt {2\pi x}}}e^{-(x+\lambda )/2}\cosh({\sqrt {\lambda x}}),\end{aligned ...
REFERENCES 1. World Health Organization. Globocan 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012. [ Links ] 2. García-Luna P, Parejo-Campos J, Pereira-Cunill J. Causes and impact of hyponutrition and cachexia in the oncologic patient. Nutr Hosp 2006;21(6):10-6. [ Links ] 3. Dewys WG, Begg C, Lavin PT, Band PR, Bennett JM, Bertino JR, et al. Prognostic effect of weight loss prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Med 1980;69(4):491-7. [ Links ] 4. Muñoz-García M, Pérez Menéndez-Conde C, Bermejo-Vicedo T. Avances en el conocimiento del uso de micronutrientes en nutrición artificial. Nutr Hosp 2011;26(1):37-47. [ Links ] 5. Planas M, Puigrgros C, Redecillas S. Contribución del soporte nutricional a combatir caquexia cancerosa. Nutr Hosp 2006;21(3):27-36. [ Links ] 6. Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V, Barthelemy N, Bertz H, Bozzetti F, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition ...
Regulation by a cascade in phages, Regulation of Gene Expression Cricuit of Lytic Cycle and Lysogeny in Bacteriophages, Genetics
if you can discriminate your protein in 3 distincts states that will also be a nice blot; you may check bands with anti-phospho-Y or phospho-S/T antibody; if it is really phosphorylation, you may incubate your sample with excessive alkaline or acid phosphatase or Lambda Protein Phosphatase (λ-PPase) to dephosphorylate.... ...
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
The usefulness of a recombinant phage library depends on the ability to screen a large number of phage and identify the clone that carries the DNA sequence of interest
SibEnzyme Endonucleases, Source: Bacillus stearothermophillus AU. One unit is required to hydrolyze 1 μg of Lambda DNA in 1 hour at 37°C in a vol. of 50 μl.
Lucigen strives to provide life scientists with the highest quality products and services for RNA/DNA amplification, cloning, next gen sequencing, and protein expression. Experience outstanding performance with time-saving convenience at an exceptional price.
The temperature dependence of the critical heat current Qc in He II has been measured in the temperature region 3·10-5(°K) , Tλ-T, 1.2·10-2(°K). The result Qc int (Tλ-T)1.07±0.01 is consistent with a divergent mutual friction near Tλ proposed recently by AHLERS ...
fo = 450e6; % Operating Frequency in Hz Pt = 200e3; % Peak Transmit Power 200 kW Gt = 22; % Transmit Gain in dB Gr = 10; % Column Receive Gain in dB B = 4e6; % Receiver Instantaneous Bandwidth in Hz Ls = 4; % System Losses in dB fr = 300; % PRF in Hz M = 18; % Number of Pulses per CPI: Tp = 200e-6; % Pulse Width in sec. N = 18; % Number of Array Antenna Elements Gel = 4; % Element Gain in dB be = -30; % Element Backlobe Level in db Nc = 361; % Number of clutter patches uniformly distributed in azimuth. c = 299792458; % Speed of Light in m/sec. lambda = c/fo; % Operating wavelength in meters. d = lambda/2; % Interelement Spacing % Azimuth angle in degrees: phi = -180:180; Lphi = length(phi); f = zeros(1,Lphi); AF = zeros(1,Lphi); % Array Factor vector pre-allocation. ...
The products/features (mentioned herein) are not commercially available in all countries. Due to regulatory reasons their future availability cannot be guaranteed. Please contact your local Siemens organization for further details. ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
For a complete newbie, using these functions is not usual, unless they discover about them one day. Well this post is intended to make readers get their hands down and dirty with all of these. To…
The algebraic structure of the K-theory of a topological space is described by the more general notion of a lambda ring. We show how computations in a lambda ring are facilitated by the use of Adams operations, which are ...
Chapter Nine Yelgrun was furious. Two of his soldiers had disobeyed his and the Firsts orders to monitor only. Their defiance could have completely...
Nutr Cancer 63: 435- 443. Jaganathan SK( 2011) Can escapes from developmental aspects of the suggest oil film? Med Hypotheses 76: 535- 537.
C# source implementation that enhances LINQ to Objects with the method ToDataTable. Appends elements in the sequence as rows of a given object with a set of lambda expressions specifying which members (property or field) of each element in the sequence will supply the column values ...
Genetic information processingTranscriptionTranscription factorstranscription termination/antitermination factor NusG (TIGR00922; HMM-score: 203.6) ...
1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
காற்றில் நிலைப்புத்தன்மையுடன் இருந்தாலும் இச்சேர்மத்தின் நீரிய கரைசல்கள் நீராற்பகுப்புக்கு உட்படுகின்றன. அடர் ஐதரோகுளோரிக் அமிலத்துடன் சேரும்போது இது குரோமைல் குளோரைடாக மாறுகிறது. 18-கிரௌன்-6 என்றழைக்கப்படும் 1,4,7,10,13,16- எக்சாக்சாசைக்ளோக்டாடெக்கேன் என்ற கரிமச் சேர்மத்துடன் சேர்த்து சூடுபடுத்தும்போது கொழுப்பு விரும்பி உப்பான [K(18-கிரௌன்-6]CrO3Cl.உருவாகிறது[7]. பென்சைல் ஆல்ககாலை ...
ここはラグナロクオンラインのフェンリル鯖にて活動しているINT商人しろっくまの日常と中の人の平穏を日々綴っているブログです。 INT商人考察あります。
INT11兔多克隆抗体(ab75276)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Nature Biotechnology 2, p. 109 (01 Feb 1984). Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R (1970). "Bacteriophage Lambda; Abortive ... Sironi G, Bialy H, Lorenzon HA, Calendar R (1971). "Bacteriophage P2:interaction with phage lambda and with recombination- ...
Hershey, Alfred Day (1971). The Bacteriophage Lambda. Cold Spring Harbor. "Teacher weds wealthy widow". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette ... He is known for his major contributions on field of bacteriophage λ research, focused on the interactions between those viruses ... "So Weigle was the pioneer of the whole lambda genetics business, which is now a real industrial operation". "The interest of ...
... making it sensitive to infection by the same bacteriophage that the parent produced. The bacteriophage was named λ. Lambda ... Lambda phage is considered a 'temperate bacteriophage': one whose genome incorporates with and replicates with that of the host ... Hayes W (1980). "Portraits of viruses: bacteriophage lambda". Intervirology. 13 (3): 133-53. PMID 6246031. Morse, M., Lederberg ... The source of the bacteriophage was the parental K12 strain. The UV treatment had "cured" the bacteriophage from the mutant, ...
Murialdo, H (1991). "Bacteriophage Lambda DNA Maturation and Packaging". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60: 125-153. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Murialdo, H; Siminovitch, L (1972). "The Morphogenesis of Bacteriophage Lambda. IV. Identification of Gene Products and Control ... Kochan, J; Carrascosa, J L; Murialdo, H (1984). "Bacteriophage Lambda Preconnectors: Purification and Structure". J. Mol. Biol ... Dokland, T; Murialdo, H (1993). "Structural Transitions During Maturation of Bacteriophage Lambda Capsids". J. Mol. Biol. 233: ...
He is best known for his work on bacterial transcription and the biology of bacteriophage lambda. He has made important ... Oppenheim, A; Kobiler, O; Stavans, J; Court, D; Adhya, S (2005). "Switches in bacteriophage lambda development". Annual Review ... Merril, C; Biswas, B; Carlton, R; Jensen, N; Creed, G; Zullo, S; Adhya, S (1996). "Long-circulating bacteriophage as ... Merril, C; Scholl, D; Adhya, S (2003). "The prospect for bacteriophage therapy in Western medicine". Nature Reviews Drug ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. Examples include Bacteriophage lambda and Leviviridae. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1[41]. The lambda and VZV interactomes are not only relevant for the biology of these ... "The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda". BMC Microbiol. 11: 213. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-213. PMC 3224144. PMID ... Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda[38]. *Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7[39]. *Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Dp-1 ...
doi:10.1016/0022-2836(69)90288-5. Roulland-Dussoix, D (1967). "Degradation by the host cell of DNA of bacteriophage lambda ... Host specificity of infectious DNA from bacteriophage lambda". J. Mol. Biol. 11 (2): 238-246. doi:10.1016/s0022-2836(65)80054-7 ... I. Host controlled modification of bacteriophage lambda". J. Mol. Biol. 5: 18-36. doi:10.1016/s0022-2836(62)80058-8. PMID ... I. Host controlled modification of bacteriophage lambda". J. Mol. Biol. 5: 18-36. doi:10.1016/s0022-2836(62)80058-8. PMID ...
In the third step, he fastened DNA from the SV40 to DNA from the bacteriophage lambda. The final step involved placing the ... He then cleaved the double helix of another virus; an antibacterial agent known as bacteriophage lambda. ... bacteriophages and other plasmids, animal viruses and eukaryotes. For prokaryotes, bacteriophages and other plasmids, ... Other barriers were nontransmissible and equally fastidious vectors (plasmids, bacteriophages, or other viruses) that were able ...
Maniatis T, Ptashne M, Barrell BG, Donelson J (1974). "Sequence of a repressor-binding site in the DNA of bacteriophage lambda ... Nash H. A (1975). "Integrative recombination of bacteriophage lambda DNA in vitro". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... existence of something akin to DNA binding sites was suspected from the experiments on the biology of the bacteriophage lambda ... Birge, E.A (2006). "15: Site Specific Recombination". Bacterial and Bacteriophage Genetics (5th ed.). Springer. pp. 463-478. ...
"Ecological speciation of bacteriophage lambda in allopatry and sympatry". Science: aai8446. doi:10.1126/science.aai8446. ISSN ...
A model concerning the early functions in lambda bacteriophage, 1968. Physics and Human Thought, 1995, in Zwilling (ed.): ...
Cholera toxin Enterotoxin Pertussis toxin 2011 German E. coli outbreak Friedman D; Court D (2001). "Bacteriophage lambda: alive ...
"Assembly of Biologically Active Proheads of Bacteriophage Lambda in vitro". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 74 ... A prohead or procapsid is an immature viral capsid structure formed in the early stages of self-assembly of some bacteriophages ... 2004). "Bacteriophage capsids: Tough nanoshells with complex elastic properties". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Production and assembly of stable proheads is an essential precursor to bacteriophage genome packaging; this packaging activity ...
An example of a bacteriophage known to follow the lysogenic cycle and the lytic cycle is the phage lambda of E. coli.[34] ... For instance, bacteriophage lambda was found to interact with its host E. coli by 31 interactions. However, a large-scale study ... Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ...
"Control of Bacteriophage Lambda cII Activity by Bacteriophage and Host Functions". J. Bacteriol. 159 (1): 238-242. PMC 215619 ... Cheng, S.C.; Court, D.L.; Friedman, D.I (1995). "Transcription Termination Signals in the nin Region of Bacteriophage Lambda: ... It is encoded in the lambda phage genome by the 291 base pair cII gene. cII plays a key role in determining whether the ... cII binds DNA ~2 orders of magnitude less strongly than the lambda repressor cI (3), and has a dissociation constant of ~80nM. ...
Thomas, M (1975). "Studies on the cleavage of bacteriophage lambda DNA with EcoRI Restriction endonuclease". Journal of ...
... 's original name was LamB because it is a bacteriophage lambda receptor. This channel is specific because it has a ...
Altuvia, S; Oppenheim, AB (Jul 1986). "Translational regulatory signals within the coding region of the bacteriophage lambda ... "Functional and structural elements of the mRNA of the cIII gene of bacteriophage lambda". Journal of Molecular Biology. 218 (4 ... "Alternative mRNA structures of the cIII gene of bacteriophage lambda determine the rate of its translation initiation". Journal ... This RNA thermometer is now thought to encourage entry to a lytic cycle under heat stress in order for the bacteriophage to ...
Anderson WF, Ohlendorf DH, Takeda Y, Matthews BW (1981). "Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage lambda and its ... Helix-turn-helix motif, lambda-like repressor, from EMBL Full PDB entry for PDB ID 1LMB Cro/C1-type HTH domain, more HTHs in ... Pabo CO, Lewis M (1982). "The operator-binding domain of lambda repressor: structure and DNA recognition". Nature. 298 (5873): ... motif was based on similarities between several genes encoding transcription regulatory proteins from bacteriophage lambda and ...
Specifically, use of the genes from the bacteriophage lambda are used in recombination. This mechanism, known as recombineering ...
Kellenberger, G.; Zichichi, M. L.; Weigle, J. (1961-08-01). "A mutation affecting the DNA content of bacteriophage lambda and ... "N protein causes the lambda dv plasmid to inhibit heteroimmune phage lambda imm434 growth and stimulates lambda dv replication ... with whom she shared an interest in genetic analysis of bacteriophages and plasmid lambda dv. She published three articles with ... Kellenberger-Gujer, G.; Boy de la Tour, E.; Berg, D. E. (1974-04-01). "Transfer of the lambda dv plasmid to new bacterial hosts ...
Court, D. L.; Oppenheim, A. B.; Adhya, S. L. (2007). A new look at bacteriophage lambda genetic networks. Journal of ... Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D.F.; Petersen, G.B. (1982). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. ... 1977). Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA. Nature 265 (5596): 687-695. Bibcode:1977Natur.265..687S. PMID 870828 ... Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene. Nature 260 (5551): ...
"Regulation of directionality in bacteriophage lambda site-specific recombination: structure of the Xis protein". J. Mol. Biol. ... In molecular biology, excisionase is a bacteriophage protein encoded by the Xis gene. It is involved in excisive recombination ...
2000). "Bacteriophage lambda display of complex cDNA libraries: a new approach to functional genomics". J. Mol. Biol. 296 (2): ...
... fago lambda) utilizando unha nova técnica, a secuenciación shotgun (secuenciación de escopeta), desenvolvida por el mesmo;[37] ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage λ DNA". Journal of Molecular Biology 162 (4). Arquivado dende o orixinal o 02 de decembro ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ... "The nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174". Journal of Molecular Biology 125 (2). Arquivado dende o orixinal o 02 de ...
This proteome is part of the Escherichia phage lambda Bacteriophage lambda pan proteome (fasta) ... "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA.". Sanger F., Coulson A.R., Hong G.F., Hill D.F., Petersen G.B.. J. Mol. Biol. ... "Regulation of the integration-excision reaction by bacteriophage lambda.". Miller H.I., Abraham J., Benedik M., Campbell A., ... "Functional analysis of the replicator structure of lambdoid bacteriophage DNAs.". Hobom G., Grosschedl R., Lusky M., Scherer G. ...
Bacteriophage lambda has a dsDNA genome of 48,502 bp. Late replication of bacteriophage lambda is designed to produce many ... Recombination of bacteriophage lambda in recD mutants of Escherichia coli. Recombination of bacteriophage lambda in recD ... Bacteriophage Lambda - Infection & Immunity. In the case of bacteriophage lambda, however, the appearance of the plaques is ... Immunity in bacteriophage lambda (and related bacteriophages) is conferred by a short and specific region of the bacteriophage ...
... Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence ... Vector containing the attP sequence for integrating DNA into the lambda attachment site attB. Requires the lambda integrase ( ... Expression of int in pLDR8 is regulated by lambda PR, by the temperature sensitive cI857 repressor. Replication of pLDR8 is ... New cloning vectors for integration in the lambda attachment site attB of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Plasmid 28: 14-24, ...
Effects of DNA heterologies on bacteriophage lambda packaging. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Effects of DNA heterologies on bacteriophage lambda packaging.. R K Pearson and M S Fox ... Effects of DNA heterologies on bacteriophage lambda packaging.. R K Pearson and M S Fox ... Effects of DNA heterologies on bacteriophage lambda packaging.. R K Pearson and M S Fox ...
Mutations in bacteriophage lambda repressor that prevent RecA-mediated cleavage.. F S Gimble, R T Sauer ... Mutations in bacteriophage lambda repressor that prevent RecA-mediated cleavage. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... we report on the isolation and sequence analysis of mutations that confer an induction-deficient phenotype to lambda repressor ...
Isolation and characterization of mutations in the bacteriophage lambda terminase genes.. A Davidson, P Yau, H Murialdo, M Gold ... Isolation and characterization of mutations in the bacteriophage lambda terminase genes.. A Davidson, P Yau, H Murialdo, M Gold ... Isolation and characterization of mutations in the bacteriophage lambda terminase genes.. A Davidson, P Yau, H Murialdo, M Gold ... Isolation and characterization of mutations in the bacteriophage lambda terminase genes. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Abstract: A10.00007 : Complex kinetics of the $\lambda $ Bacteriophage genetic switch*. 9:36 AM-9:48 AM. ... The kinetics of the $\lambda $ bacteriophage repressor-mediated DNA loop formation and breakdown were characterized by Tethered ... A mechanism is proposed to explain this kinetic behavior, where $\lambda $ repressor non-specific binding to DNA may play an ...
Mapping of Deletions and Substitutions in Heteroduplex DNA Molecules of Bacteriophage Lambda by Electron Microscopy ... Mapping of Deletions and Substitutions in Heteroduplex DNA Molecules of Bacteriophage Lambda by Electron Microscopy ... Mapping of Deletions and Substitutions in Heteroduplex DNA Molecules of Bacteriophage Lambda by Electron Microscopy ... Mapping of Deletions and Substitutions in Heteroduplex DNA Molecules of Bacteriophage Lambda by Electron Microscopy ...
Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. J Mol Biol. 1982 Dec 25 162(4):729-73. abstract & p.730 2nd paragraph ... The DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs...Bacteriophage lambda DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base- ... The nucleotide sequence of the DNA of bacteriophage ? has been determined using the dideoxy chain termination method in ... pairs and codes for about 60 proteins. According to abstract phage Lambda has 46 clearly defined ORFs and another ~20 putative ...
We propagated bacteriophage λ, a virus with rapid generations and frequent recombination, on two Escherichia coli host ... Ecological Speciation of Bacteriophage Lambda in Allopatry and Sympatry Justin R Meyer 1 , Devin T Dobias 2 3 , Sarah J Medina ... Ecological Speciation of Bacteriophage Lambda in Allopatry and Sympatry Justin R Meyer et al. Science. 2016. . ... Interaction of bacteriophage l with its E. coli receptor, LamB. Chatterjee S, Rothenberg E. Chatterjee S, et al. Viruses. 2012 ...
The Solution Structures of Two Prophage Homologues of the Bacteriophage lambda Ea8.5 Protein Reveal a Newly Discovered Hybrid ... ORF PP_3909 from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 encoding a protein similar to bacteriophage lambda ea8.5. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2m7b/pdb ...
Bacteriophage Lambda. Reference. Liu T et al., Solid-to-fluid-like DNA transition in viruses facilitates infection. Proc Natl ... Grayson P, Han L, Winther T, Phillips R (2007) Real-time observations of single bacteriophage lambda DNA ejections in vitro. ...
Bacteriophage Lambda. Reference. Garcia HG, Grayson P, Han L, Inamdar M, Kondev J, Nelson PC, Phillips R, Widom J, Wiggins PA. ... For example, the length of the bacteriophage ? genome is 16µm and it is stored in a 58 nm diameter spherical capsid (primary ...
Lambda bacteriophage]] (Science: virology) [[bacterial]] [[dna virus]], first [[isolated]] from E. Coli. Its [[structure]] is ... similar]] to that of the [[t even phages]]. [[lambda]] [[genetic material]] consists of a double-stranded [[dna]] [[molecule]] ... View source for Lambda bacteriophageLambda bacteriophage. Jump to: navigation, search You do not have permission to edit ...
A component of the side tail fiber of Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda can functionally replace the receptor-recognizing ... A component of the side tail fiber of Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda can functionally replace the receptor-recognizing ... A component of the side tail fiber of Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda can functionally replace the receptor-recognizing ... A component of the side tail fiber of Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda can functionally replace the receptor-recognizing ...
Specificity of the bacteriophage lambda N gene product (pN): nut sequences are necessary and sufficient for antitermination by ... Exclusion of bacteriophage T1 by bacteriophage lambda. I. Early exclusion requires lambda N gene product and host factors ... The product of the N gene of bacteriophage lambda prevents the termination of lambda early transcription. Here we describe the ... The N-gene protein of bacteriophage lambda recognizes sequences called nut in the lambda early operons and acts to prevent ...
Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda ... LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda group in two ... lambda h+) but support the growth of one-step host range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support the ... lambda h+), we selected a series of one-step (lambda h) and two-step (lambda hh*) host range mutants and analyzed their ...
High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. / ... High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. ... T1 - High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen ... High efficiency, restriction-deficient in vitro packaging extracts for bacteriophage lambda DNA using a new E.coli lysogen. ...
Results In order to map lambdas interactions, we have cloned 68 out of 73 lambda open reading frames (the ORFeome) into ... We have manually curated the lambda literature and compiled a total of 33 interactions that have been found among lambda ... Conclusions Phage lambda serves as a benchmark for future studies of protein interactions among phage, viruses in general, or ... The lambda protein network connects 12 proteins of unknown function with well characterized proteins, which should shed light ...
title = "Bacteriophage lambda-based expression vectors",. abstract = "Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector ... Bacteriophage lambda-based expression vectors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Bacteriophages Chemical Compounds ... N2 - Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector for over 25 years, and has been used extensively as an expression ... AB - Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector for over 25 years, and has been used extensively as an expression ...
Home/Microbiology/Bacteriophage Lambda as Model Organism for Research. MicrobiologyResearch. Bacteriophage Lambda as Model ... Bacteriophage lambda (Greek letter λ) injects its genetic material into its host, which subsequently turns into a virus-making ... These studies have revealed that phage lambdas proteins fall into three general groups:. Capsid proteins. Phage lambdas ... Phage lambda is unusual because it can complete its replication cycle even if a large amount of foreign DNA is inserted into ...
The three-dimensional structures of the procapsid and of the mature capsid of bacteriophage lambda were determined to a ... The mature lambda capsid contains two major proteins, gpE and gpD, arranged on a T = 7 lattice, with gpE arranged as hexamers ... A reconstruction of a lambda D- mutant capsid to lower resolution shows no trace of these trimers, thus revealing the ...
... phage lambda ) . Bacteriophage lambda infects merely the bacteria Escherichia coli strain k-12. Bacteriophage lambda is alone ... An illustration of a bacteriophage that is able to undergo both rhythms is bacteriophage lambda ( ... Bacteriophage Lambda Lysogenic Cycle Biology Essay. March 31, 2019March 31, 2019 adminadmin 0 Comments ... varicella-zoster viruses and bacteriophages T2, T4 and lambda. Bacteriophage I†X174 and adeno-associated viruses ( AAV ) are ...
7. Bacteriophage T7 77. William C. Summers. 8. Bacteriophage Lambda 85. Michael Feiss ...
The role of recombination in growth of bacteriophage lambda. I. The gamma gene. The bacteriophage lambda, ed. A.D. Hershey, pp ... In: The bacteriophage lambda (ed. A.D. Hershey), pp. 621-638. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories 1971Google Scholar ... In: The bacteriophage lambda (ed. A.D. Hershey), pp. 477-488. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories 1971Google Scholar ... Parkinson, J.S.: Genetics of the left arm of the chromosome of bacteriophage lambda. Genetics59, 311-325 (1968)PubMedGoogle ...
  • lambda procapsid reconstruction (2.6 nm resolution), showing the arrangement of 12 pentameric capsomers and 60 skewed hexamers (In the actual capsid, one pentamer would be replaced by the portal vertex). (factbites.com)
  • lambda virion (3.5 nm resolution), showing the larger size (63 nm vs 54 nm) of the capsid after expansion, the symmetric hexamers, and the protruding trimers of gpD. (factbites.com)
  • The three-dimensional structures of the procapsid and of the mature capsid of bacteriophage lambda were determined to a resolution of approximately 3.4 nm by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. (uab.edu)
  • A reconstruction of a lambda D- mutant capsid to lower resolution shows no trace of these trimers, thus revealing the interactions of the underlying arms. (uab.edu)
  • A prohead or procapsid is an immature viral capsid structure formed in the early stages of self-assembly of some bacteriophages, including the Caudovirales or tailed bacteriophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has also been given the Fred Griffith Review Lectureship of the Society for General Microbiology and in 1989, for her work with lambda phage, the Gabor Medal of the Royal Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Christensen, AC 2001, ' Bacteriophage lambda-based expression vectors ', Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 219-224. (nebraska.edu)
  • In: The Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4. (springer.com)
  • Allan M. Campbell (born April 27, 1929) is an American microbiologist and geneticist whose pioneering work on Lambda phage has helped advance molecular biology in the late 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage HK97 is a lambdoid phage with a head assembled from 415 copies of a 42 kDa subunit arranged in an icosahedrally symmetrical lattice with a triangulation number of 7. (factbites.com)
  • Whereas species have long been established among sexual eukaryotes, achieving a meaningful species concept for prokaryotes has been an onerous task and has proven exceedingly difficult for describing viruses and bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda group in two classes. (pasteur.fr)
  • After Jean Weigle left for the California Institute of Technology in 1948, Grete Kellenberger took on an increasingly important role in the study of lambda phage and its mutations at the University of Geneva. (wikipedia.org)