A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.
A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.

Transplacement mutagenesis: a novel in situ mutagenesis system using phage-plasmid recombination. (1/2257)

Site-specific mutagenesis provides the ability to alter DNA with precision so that the function of any given gene can be more fully understood. Several methods of in vitro mutagenesis are time-consuming and imprecise, requiring the subcloning and sequencing of products. Here we describe a rapid, high fidelity method of in situ mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda using transplacement. Using this method, mutations are transferred from oligonucleotides to target phages using a plasmid interface. A small (50 bp) homology region bearing a centred point mutation is generated from oligonucleotides and subcloned into a transplacement plasmid bearing positive and negative phage selectable markers. Following a positive/negative selection cycle of integrative recombination and excision, the point mutation is transferred precisely from plasmid to phage in a subset ( approximately 25-50%) of recombinants. As the fidelity of both oligonucleotide synthesis and phage-plasmid recombination is great, this approach is extremely reliable. Using transplacement, point mutations can be accurately deposited within large phage clones and we demonstrate the utility of this technique in the construction of gene targeting vectors in bacteriophages.  (+info)

Comparison of synonymous codon distribution patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes. (2/2257)

Synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteriophage and host genomes were compared. Two indexes, G + C base composition of a gene (fgc) and fraction of translationally optimal codons of the gene (fop), were used in the comparison. Synonymous codon usage data of all the coding sequences on a genome are represented as a cloud of points in the plane of fop vs. fgc. The Escherichia coli coding sequences appear to exhibit two phases, "rising" and "flat" phases. Genes that are essential for survival and are thought to be native are located in the flat phase, while foreign-type genes from prophages and transposons are found in the rising phase with a slope of nearly unity in the fgc vs. fop plot. Synonymous codon distribution patterns of genes from temperate phages P4, P2, N15 and lambda are similar to the pattern of E. coli rising phase genes. In contrast, genes from the virulent phage T7 or T4, for which a phage-encoded DNA polymerase is identified, fall in a linear curve with a slope of nearly zero in the fop vs. fgc plane. These results may suggest that the G + C contents for T7, T4 and E. coli flat phase genes are subject to the directional mutation pressure and are determined by the DNA polymerase used in the replication. There is significant variation in the fop values of the phage genes, suggesting an adjustment to gene expression level. Similar analyses of codon distribution patterns were carried out for Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their phages with complete genomic sequences available.  (+info)

General method of analysis of kinetic equations for multistep reversible mechanisms in the single-exponential regime: application to kinetics of open complex formation between Esigma70 RNA polymerase and lambdaP(R) promoter DNA. (3/2257)

A novel analytical method based on the exact solution of equations of kinetics of unbranched first- and pseudofirst-order mechanisms is developed for application to the process of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaPR promoter (P) open complex formation, which is described by the minimal three-step mechanism with two kinetically significant intermediates (I1, I2), [equation: see text], where the final product is an open complex RPo. The kinetics of reversible and irreversible association (pseudofirst order, [R] >> [P]) to form long-lived complexes (RPo and I2) and the kinetics of dissociation of long-lived complexes both exhibit single exponential behavior. In this situation, the analytical method provides explicit expressions relating observed rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of mechanism steps without use of rapid equilibrium or steady-state approximations, and thereby provides a basis for interpreting the composite rate constants of association (ka), isomerization (ki), and dissociation (kd) obtained from experiment for this or any other sequential mechanism of any number of steps. In subsequent papers, we apply this formalism to analyze kinetic data obtained in the reversible and irreversible binding regimes of Esigma70 RNA polymerase (R)-lambdaP(R) promoter (P) open complex formation.  (+info)

Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow. (4/2257)

The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased.  (+info)

Cloning of mnuA, a membrane nuclease gene of Mycoplasma pulmonis, and analysis of its expression in Escherichia coli. (5/2257)

Membrane nucleases of mycoplasmas are believed to play important roles in growth and pathogenesis, although no clear evidence for their importance has yet been obtained. As a first step in defining the function of this unusual membrane activity, studies were undertaken to clone and analyze one of the membrane nuclease genes from Mycoplasma pulmonis. A novel screening strategy was used to identify a recombinant lambda phage expressing nuclease activity, and its cloned fragment was analyzed. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify an open reading frame of 1,410 bp, which coded for nuclease activity in Escherichia coli. This gene coded for a 470-amino-acid polypeptide of 53,739 Da and was designated mnuA (for "membrane nuclease"). The MnuA protein contained a prolipoprotein signal peptidase II recognition sequence along with an extensive hydrophobic region near the amino terminus, suggesting that the protein may be lipid modified or that it is anchored in the membrane by this membrane-spanning region. Antisera raised against two MnuA peptide sequences identified an M. pulmonis membrane protein of approximately 42 kDa by immunoblotting, which corresponded to a trypsin-sensitive nucleolytic band of the same size. Maxicell experiments with E. coli confirmed that mnuA coded for a nuclease of unknown specificity. Hybridization studies showed that mnuA sequences are found in few Mycoplasma species, suggesting that mycoplasma membrane nucleases display significant sequence variation within the genus Mycoplasma.  (+info)

Construction and analysis of hybrid Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis dnaK genes. (6/2257)

The highly conserved DnaK chaperones consist of an N-terminal ATPase domain, a central substrate-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain whose function is not known. Since Bacillus subtilis dnaK was not able to complement an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, we performed domain element swap experiments to identify the regions responsible for this finding. It turned out that the B. subtilis DnaK protein needed approximately normal amounts of the cochaperone DnaJ to be functional in E. coli. The ATPase domain and the substrate-binding domain form a species-specific functional unit, while the C-terminal domains, although less conserved, are exchangeable. Deletion of the C-terminal domain in E. coli DnaK affected neither complementation of growth at high temperatures nor propagation of phage lambda but abolished degradation of sigma32.  (+info)

X-ray structure of T4 endonuclease VII: a DNA junction resolvase with a novel fold and unusual domain-swapped dimer architecture. (7/2257)

Phage T4 endonuclease VII (Endo VII), the first enzyme shown to resolve Holliday junctions, recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA substrates ranging from branched DNAs to single base mismatches. We have determined the crystal structures of the Ca2+-bound wild-type and the inactive N62D mutant enzymes at 2.4 and 2.1 A, respectively. The Endo VII monomers form an elongated, highly intertwined molecular dimer exhibiting extreme domain swapping. The major dimerization elements are two pairs of antiparallel helices forming a novel 'four-helix cross' motif. The unique monomer fold, almost completely lacking beta-sheet structure and containing a zinc ion tetrahedrally coordinated to four cysteines, does not resemble any of the known junction-resolving enzymes, including the Escherichia coli RuvC and lambda integrase-type recombinases. The S-shaped dimer has two 'binding bays' separated by approximately 25 A which are lined by positively charged residues and contain near their base residues known to be essential for activity. These include Asp40 and Asn62, which function as ligands for the bound calcium ions. A pronounced bipolar charge distribution suggests that branched DNA substrates bind to the positively charged face with the scissile phosphates located near the divalent cations. A model for the complex with a four-way DNA junction is presented.  (+info)

A RAPID algorithm for sequence database comparisons: application to the identification of vector contamination in the EMBL databases. (8/2257)

MOTIVATION: Word-matching algorithms such as BLAST are routinely used for sequence comparison. These algorithms typically use areas of matching words to seed alignments which are then used to assess the degree of sequence similarity. In this paper, we show that by formally separating the word-matching and sequence-alignment process, and using information about word frequencies to generate alignments and similarity scores, we can create a new sequence-comparison algorithm which is both fast and sensitive. The formal split between word searching and alignment allows users to select an appropriate alignment method without affecting the underlying similarity search. The algorithm has been used to develop software for identifying entries in DNA sequence databases which are contaminated with vector sequence. RESULTS: We present three algorithms, RAPID, PHAT and SPLAT, which together allow vector contaminations to be found and assessed extremely rapidly. RAPID is a word search algorithm which uses probabilities to modify the significance attached to different words; PHAT and SPLAT are alignment algorithms. An initial implementation has been shown to be approximately an order of magnitude faster than BLAST. The formal split between word searching and alignment not only offers considerable gains in performance, but also allows alignment generation to be viewed as a user interface problem, allowing the most useful output method to be selected without affecting the underlying similarity search. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis of an artificial test set allows the optimal score threshold for identifying vector contamination to be determined. ROC curves were also used to determine the optimum word size (nine) for finding vector contamination. An analysis of the entire expressed sequence tag (EST) subset of EMBL found a contamination rate of 0.27%. A more detailed analysis of the 50 000 ESTs in est10.dat (an EST subset of EMBL) finds an error rate of 0.86%, principally due to two large-scale projects. AVAILABILITY: A Web page for the software exists at http://bioinf.man.ac.uk/rapid, or it can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.bioinf.man.ac.uk/RAPID CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

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Enhanced expression of cro-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins under the control of the PR promoter of bacteriophage lambda, ...
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"Novel bacteriophage lambda cloning vector", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77(9): 5172-5176. In 1978 at Clare ... "Genetic and chemical studies on the head protein of bacteriophages T2 and T4', in Structure and Function of Genetic Elements. ...
It was found that, for a bacteriophage λ that can grow well in one strain of Escherichia coli, for example E. coli C, when ... Control over acceptance of DNA from infecting phage lambda". Journal of Molecular Biology. 5 (1): 37-49. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836 ... Lederberg S, Meselson M (May 1964). "Degradation of non-replicating bacteriophage dna in non-accepting cells". Journal of ... Krüger DH, Bickle TA (September 1983). "Bacteriophage survival: multiple mechanisms for avoiding the deoxyribonucleic acid ...
The prototypical holin is the lambda phage S protein, which assists the lambda phage R protein (lysin). All holins embed ... Similarly, not all bacteriophages synthesize lysins: some small single-stranded DNA and RNA phages produce membrane proteins ... Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the ... Baker JR, Liu C, Dong S, Pritchard DG (October 2006). "Endopeptidase and glycosidase activities of the bacteriophage B30 lysin ...
The POU domain itself has significant structural similarity with repressors expressed in bacteriophages, particularly lambda ... such as lambda phage proteins that alter the expression of genes in prokaryotes. The HTH motif shows some sequence similarity ...
... a type of plasmid gene-cloning vector that is packageable in vitro in bacteriophage lambda heads". Proceedings of the National ... cos sites derived from bacteriophage lambda. Depending on the particular aim of the experiment, broad host range cosmids, ... also known as cos sites also used in cloning with a lambda phage as a vector, however nearly all the lambda genes have been ... A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence. They are often used as a cloning vector in ...
Plant viruses and bacteriophages are not infectious toward mammals. In contrast to mammalian viruses, there is no risk of a ... Goff, S (1976). "Construction of hybrid viruses containing SV40 and $lambda; phage DNA segments and their propagation in ... Bacteriophage genomes and components of the protein expression machinery have been widely utilized as tools for understanding ... ISBN 978-0-470-01590-2. Harper, David R; Burrowes, Benjamin H; Kutter, Elizabeth M (2014). "Bacteriophage: Therapeutic Uses". ...
Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... After a genomic library is constructed with a viral vector, such as lambda phage, the titer of the library can be determined. ... Sanger and his team of scientists created a library of the bacteriophage, phi X 174, for use in DNA sequencing. The importance ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ...
Earnshaw, W. C.; Hendrix, R. W.; King, J (1979). "Structural studies of bacteriophage lambda heads and proheads by small angle ... Earnshaw, W. C.; King, J; Eiserling, F. A. (1978). "The size of the bacteriophage T4 head in solution with comments about the ... The Structure of Bacteriophage p22 and its Assembly Intermediates (PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Earnshaw ... isometric and giant bacteriophages". Cell. 14 (3): 559-68. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(78)90242-8. PMID 688382. S2CID 9738540. ...
... expression in a mouse L-cell transfectant and characterization of a partial cDNA in bacteriophage lambda gt11". Proceedings of ...
... temperate lambda bacteriophage, and her pioneering work in transduction. National Academy of Sciences Sigma Xi American ...
Lambda ^{-1}U^{T}]_{ij}={\frac {3k_{B}T}{\gamma }}\sum _{k=1}^{N-1}\lambda _{k}^{-1}[u_{k}u_{k}^{T}]_{ij}} It follows that, [ ... Rader, AJ; Vlad, Daniel; Bahar, Ivet (2005). "Maturation Dynamics of Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid". Structure. 13 (3): 413-21. doi ... lambda _{k}^{-1}[u_{k}]_{i}[u_{k}]_{j}} where [uk]i is the ith element of uk. By definition, a diagonal element of the ...
"The solution structure of the Oct-1 POU-specific domain reveals a striking similarity to the bacteriophage lambda repressor DNA ...
Cloning vector pi-VX used for screening bacteriophage lambda gene libraries for ... Cloning vector pi-VX used for screening ... Cloning vector pi-VX used for screening bacteriophage lambda gene libraries for specific DNA sequences in Escherichia coli. ... bacteriophage lambda gene libraries for specific DNA sequences in Escherichia coli. Probe sequences are inserted in the vector ...
The boxA and boxB components of the lambda nut site are important for transcriptional antitermination by the phage N protein. ... The nut site of bacteriophage lambda is made of RNA and is bound by transcription antitermination factors on the surface of RNA ... The nut site of bacteriophage lambda is made of RNA and is bound by transcription antitermination factors on the surface of RNA ... Transcription antitermination: the lambda paradigm updated. Friedman DI, Court DL. Friedman DI, et al. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Oct; ...
DNA Looping fine-tunes the extreme stability of the prophage state of Bacteriophage Lambda in a lysogen. Friday, September 14, ... Background: One of the best understood systems in genetic regulatory biology is the life-cycles of Bacteriophage Lambda in E. ...
Isolation and characterization of specialized lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying the metBJF methionine gene cluster. / ... Johnson, JR, Greene, RC & Krueger, JH 1977, Isolation and characterization of specialized lambda transducing bacteriophage ... Isolation and characterization of specialized lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying the metBJF methionine gene cluster. ... Dive into the research topics of Isolation and characterization of specialized lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying the ...
Bacterial mutants in which the gene N function of bacteriophage lambda is blocked have an altered RNA polymerase ... An improved bacteriophage lambda vector: Construction of model recombinants coding for kanamycin resistance ... Hybrids of bacteriophages lambda and phi 80: a study of nonvegetative functions ... Construction and characterization of the hybrid bacteriophage lambda Charon vectors for DNA cloning. scientific article ...
Catalano, C. E. Bacteriophage lambda: the path from biology to theranostic agent. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. ... Purification of lambda PLPs. Lambda PLPs were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)[pNu3_E] cells and purified53. Self-assembled PLPs ... Bacteriophage lambda stabilization by auxiliary protein gpD: timing, location, and mechanism of attachment determined by cryo- ... Singh, P., Nakatani, E., Goodlett, D. R. & Catalano, C. E. A pseudo-atomic model for the capsid shell of bacteriophage lambda ...
Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ... Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ... Geier, M. R., Trigg, M. E., and Merril, C. R. (1973). Fate of bacteriophage lambda in non-immune germ-free mice. Nature 246, ... Schmelcher, M., and Loessner, M. J. (2014). Application of bacteriophages for detection of foodborne pathogens. Bacteriophage 4 ...
MeSH Terms: Adenoviridae/genetics*; Animals; Bacteriophage lambda; Base Sequence; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; ...
Lane 1, Bacteriophage Lambda ladder PFGE Marker (New England Biolabs Inc., Beverly, MA, USA); lanes 2-11, PFGE... ... Lane 1, Bacteriophage Lambda ladder PFGE Marker (New England Biolabs Inc., Beverly, MA, USA); lanes 2-11,... ...
He was doing genetics studying the bacteriophage lambda. Bob Perlman and I were trying to isolate mutants in E. coli in the ... Max was interested in bacteriophage genetics, and I was interested in how the lac operon and the gal operon was controlled by ... We had several people working in genetics, several doing biochemistry, several in the bacteriophage virus area, and several ...
Evidence of translation efficiency adaptation of the coding regions of the bacteriophage lambda. DNA Res. 2017, 24, 333-342. [ ... Bacteriophage Transcytosis Provides a Mechanism To Cross Epithelial Cell Layers. mBio 2017, 8, e01874-17. [Google Scholar] [ ... Engineered bacteriophages for treatment of a patient with a disseminated drug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus. Nat. Med. 2019 ... Barr, J.J. A bacteriophages journey through the human body. Immunol. Rev. 2017, 279, 106-122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [ ...
Inactivation of bacteriophage lambda and lambda DNA by nitrogen mustard.. Fraser MJ; Ainley K; Parish JH. Mutat Res; 1982 Oct; ...
use BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA to search PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; use COLIPHAGES to search BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA & LAMBDA PHAGE 1975-79. ... 93; was PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA was see PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92, was see COLIPHAGES 1975-79; LAMBDA PHAGE was ... 93; was PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA was see PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92, was see COLIPHAGES 1975-79; LAMBDA PHAGE was ... Bacteriophages [B04.123] * Coliphages [B04.123.205] * Bacteriophage HK022 [B04.123.205.200] * Bacteriophage lambda [B04.123. ...
Barnes, W.M. (1994) PCR amplification of up to 35-kb DNA with high fidelity and high yield from lambda bacteriophage templates ... This optimized enzyme mixture allows efficient amplification of up to 40kb from lambda DNA or 30kb from human genomic DNA. ...
Knowledge-Based Simulation of Genetic Regulation in Bacteriophage Lambda (with Peter Friedland), Nucleic Acids Research, ... A Simulator for Regulatory Genetics and Its Application to Bacteriophage Lambda, Stanford University Heuristic Programming ...
Young, Elton Theodore (1967) Structure and synthesis of bacteriophage lambda DNA. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of ... Benbow, Robert Michael (1972) On the genetic recombination of bacteriophage [phi]X174 DNA molecules. Dissertation (Ph.D.), ...
Bacteriophage (phage) Lambda (λ) has played a key historic role in driving our current understanding of molecular genetics. The ... Construction and characterization of a hybrid bacteriophage gene delivery platform  Wong, Shirley (University of Waterloo, ... Bacteriophages, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, may be considered as structurally simplistic protein-based vehicles ...
Kuzminov A. Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63( ...
... including the modeling of the genetic circuitry of bacteriophage lambda regulation, the modeling of the yeast cell division ...
The effect of triplet acetone on lambda bacteriophage is evaluated. The oncogenic potential of some pharmaceuticals is ... The effect of triplet acetone on lambda bacteriophage is evaluated. The oncogenic potential of some pharmaceuticals is ... pesquisa-se o efeito da acetona triplete sobre o bacteriofago lambda e avalia-se a potencialidade oncogenica de alguns farmacos ...
... where he discovered a bacteriophage lambda gene involved in lysis. In 2003, he was elected as a Fellow of the American Society ... Young has made broad advances in the understanding of bacteria-infecting viruses called bacteriophages, or phages. This work ...
The DNA complement of bacteriophage lambda is infective if certain conditions of bacteria and "helper" phage are satisfied ( ... Young, Elton T. and Sinsheimer, Robert L. (1964) Novel Intra-cellular Forms of Lambda DNA. Journal of Molecular Biology, 10 (3 ... Elton T. Young, Robert L. Sinsheimer, Novel intra-cellular forms of lambda DNA, Journal of Molecular Biology, Volume 10, Issue ... Kaiser & Hogness, 1960). However, after infection of sensitive bacteria by lambda phage, most of the injected DNA appears to ...
... a bacteriophage lambda integrase, a yeast Flp recombinase, or a bacterial XerCD recombinase. ... a bacteriophage lambda integrase, a yeast Flp recombinase, or a bacterial XerCD recombinase. ... Claim 2 of the first auxiliary request further defines the Cre recombinase as being from bacteriophage P1 (the subject-matter ...
... bacteriophage lambda biology and the use of lambda in molecular genetics, cloning genes using recombinant DNA technology ... Subcellular localization of lethal lysis proteins of bacteriophages l and fX174. Journal of Virology. 53:1008-1011. ... strains and bacteriophage P1, determining gene order by three factor crosses, the lac operon and the use of lacZ as a ...
... circuitry of bacteriophage lambda regulation, the yeast cell division cycle, and the quantitation of cellular processes such as ...
Bipartite function of a small RNA hairpin in transcription antitermination in bacteriophage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Improved base excision repair inhibition and bacteriophage Mu Gam protein yields C:G-to-T:A base editors with higher efficiency ...
use BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA to search PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; use COLIPHAGES to search BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA & LAMBDA PHAGE 1975-79. ... 93; was PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA was see PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92, was see COLIPHAGES 1975-79; LAMBDA PHAGE was ... 93; was PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92; BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA was see PHAGE LAMBDA 1980-92, was see COLIPHAGES 1975-79; LAMBDA PHAGE was ... Coliphage lambda. Enterobacteria phage lambda. Phage lambda. lambda Phage. Tree number(s):. B04.123.150.800.230. B04.123. ...
  • Manipulation of restriction targets in phage lambda to form receptor chromosomes for DNA fragments. (wikidata.org)
  • Phage lambda receptor chromosomes for DNA fragments made with restriction endonuclease III of Haemophilus influenzae and restriction endonuclease I of Escherichia coli. (wikidata.org)
  • The construction in vitro of transducing derivatives of phage lambda. (wikidata.org)
  • Bacteriophage (phage) Lambda (λ) has played a key historic role in driving our current understanding of molecular genetics. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In addition, we have found that an independent insertion in a transducing phage, lambda 13 dargB2, is IS5. (archive.org)
  • Kaiser had done much work on Phage lambda, a lysogenic virus that infects E. coli bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Mammalian cell transduction and internalization properties of lambda phages displaying the full-length adenoviral penton base or its central domain. (nih.gov)
  • Over his 44-year career at the Texas A&M College of Medicine and College of Agriculture and Life Sciences(external link), Young has made broad advances in the understanding of bacteria-infecting viruses called bacteriophages, or phages. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. (frontiersin.org)
  • in general, bacteriophages have deserved less interest in comparison to their bacterial hosts or to animal viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE . (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophages, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, may be considered as structurally simplistic protein-based vehicles for ferrying nucleic acid cargo. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In a 1965 presentation, Kaiser suggested that the mechanisms at work in the bacteriophage lambda might find analogues in mammalian tumor viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyoma which cause tumors in monkeys and mice, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Display libraries on bacteriophage lambda capsid. (nih.gov)
  • Background: One of the best understood systems in genetic regulatory biology is the life-cycles of Bacteriophage Lambda in E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • en] The molecular bases of ascorbic acid effects in SOS functions of E.Coli are studied. (iaea.org)
  • Bacteriophage lambda interacts with E. coli proteins. (string-db.org)
  • Johnson, JR , Greene, RC & Krueger, JH 1977, ' Isolation and characterization of specialized lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying the metBJF methionine gene cluster ', Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 795-800. (umn.edu)
  • Viable molecular hybrids of bacteriophage lambda and eukaryotic DNA. (wikidata.org)
  • 13. Chemical coupling as a potent strategy for preparation of targeted bacteriophage-derived gene nanocarriers into eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • The DNA complement of bacteriophage lambda is infective if certain conditions of bacteria and "helper" phage are satisfied (Kaiser & Hogness, 1960). (caltech.edu)
  • However, after infection of sensitive bacteria by lambda phage, most of the injected DNA appears to lose its infectivity, at least as measured under these conditions. (caltech.edu)
  • He was a National Institutes of Health, NIH, Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard Medical School, where he discovered a bacteriophage lambda gene involved in lysis. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophage Rz lysis protein [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Examples of first attempts to understand these phenomena can be found at all levels of biological organization, including the modeling of the genetic circuitry of bacteriophage lambda regulation, the modeling of the yeast cell division cycle, and the quantitation of cellular processes such as metabolic flux and response to stress. (nih.gov)
  • 4. In vivo gene delivery and expression by bacteriophage lambda vectors. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Lambda phage shuttle vectors for analysis of mutations in mammalian cells in culture and in transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Polycos vectors: a system for packaging filamentous phage and phagemid vectors using lambda phage packaging extracts. (nih.gov)
  • We developed a "designer nanoparticle" platform using phage-like particles (PLPs) derived from bacteriophage lambda for a multivalent display of antigens in rigorously defined ratios. (nature.com)
  • Researchers at National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed an engineered bacteriophage lambda () vector for displaying antigens as a vaccine in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The boxA and boxB components of the lambda nut site are important for transcriptional antitermination by the phage N protein. (nih.gov)
  • A protein-RNA interaction network facilitates the template-independent cooperative assembly on RNA polymerase of a stable antitermination complex containing the lambda N protein. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Biotin-tagged cDNA expression libraries displayed on lambda phage: a new tool for the selection of natural protein ligands. (nih.gov)
  • incubating the concatamer with a recombination protein to generate circular nucleic acids, wherein the recombination protein is chosen from a Cre recombinase, a bacteriophage lambda integrase, a yeast Flp recombinase, or a bacterial XerCD recombinase. (epo.org)
  • Bacteriophage CII protein [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this technology, a nucleic acid sequence encoding a fusion protein linked to a heterologous antigen is inserted into a native gene D locus adjacent to gene E in the bacteriophage lambda genome. (nih.gov)
  • 5. A tractable method for simultaneous modifications to the head and tail of bacteriophage lambda and its application to enhancing phage-mediated gene delivery. (nih.gov)
  • We also find that foci form on both sperm chromatin and bacteriophage lambda DNA incubated in extracts depleted of cdk2 kinase. (rupress.org)
  • 18. Bacteriophage lambda vector for transducing a cDNA clone library into mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase EC was identified in a bacteriophage lambda library of genomic Drosophila DNA by using ADH cDNA cloned DNA as a probe. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Proteasome inhibitors enhance bacteriophage lambda (lambda) mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacteriophage lambda-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Mammalian cell binding and transfection mediated by surface-modified bacteriophage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Gene transfer to mammalian cells using genetically targeted filamentous bacteriophage. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Detection and analysis of UV-induced mutations in mammalian cell DNA using a lambda phage shuttle vector. (nih.gov)
  • Fago temperado inducible y especie tipo de los virus de género similar a lambda, de la familia SIPHOVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • 8. A simple method for displaying recalcitrant proteins on the surface of bacteriophage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • 10. High-density functional display of proteins on bacteriophage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Cloning in a bacteriophage lambda vector for the display of binding proteins on filamentous phage. (nih.gov)
  • 17. The production of generalized transducing phage by bacteriophage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • The P R promoter system used in the empirical measurements consists of a strong lambda phage P R promoter (RNAP-binding site) and two CI operator sites (transcription factor binding sites O R1 and O R2 ), which control the expression of a venus-yfp reporter gene. (elifesciences.org)
  • Kaiser had done much work on Phage lambda, a lysogenic virus that infects E. coli bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to phage lambda, mEp021 virus particle production was partially restored (>1/3 relative to wild type) when nus mutants (nusA1, nusB5, nusC60, and nusE71) were infected with mEp021 and Gp17 was overexpressed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sequence specificity of mutagenesis in the cI gene of bacteriophage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a system for the analysis of chemically induced base sequence alterations in the cI repressor gene of bacteriophage lambda using DNA sequencing techniques. (nih.gov)
  • 21. Binding properties, cell delivery, and gene transfer of adenoviral penton base displaying bacteriophage. (nih.gov)
  • 22. Gene transfer to mammalian cells using genetically targeted filamentous bacteriophage. (nih.gov)
  • 23. In vivo gene delivery and expression by bacteriophage lambda vectors. (nih.gov)
  • He was a National Institutes of Health, NIH, Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard Medical School, where he discovered a bacteriophage lambda gene involved in lysis. (nih.gov)
  • In this technology, a nucleic acid sequence encoding a fusion protein linked to a heterologous antigen is inserted into a native gene D locus adjacent to gene E in the bacteriophage lambda genome. (nih.gov)