Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Communicable DiseasesShiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.SwitzerlandEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HistoryDNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Albinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.

Complete genomic sequence of the lytic bacteriophage DT1 of Streptococcus thermophilus. (1/1064)

Streptococcus thermophilus lytic bacteriophage DT1, isolated from a mozzarella whey, was characterized at the microbiological and molecular levels. Phage DT1 had an isometric head of 60 nm and a noncontractile tail of 260 x 8 nm, two major structural proteins of 26 and 32 kDa, and a linear double-stranded DNA genome with cohesive ends at its extremities. The host range of phage DT1 was limited to 5 of the 21 S. thermophilus strains tested. Using S. thermophilus SMQ-301 as a host, phage DT1 had a burst size of 276 +/- 36 and a latent period of 25 min. The genome of phage DT1 contained 34,820 bp with a GC content of 39.1%. Forty-six open reading frames (ORFs) of more than 40 codons were found and putative functions were assigned to 20 ORFs, mostly in the late region of phage DT1. Comparative genomic analysis of DT1 with the completely sequenced S. thermophilus temperate phage O1205 revealed two large homologous regions interspersed by two heterologous segments. The homologous regions consisted of the early replication genes, the late morphogenesis genes, and the lysis cassette. The divergent segments contained the DNA packaging machinery, the major structural proteins, and remnants of a lysogeny module.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (2/1064)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Structural and functional analysis of pCI65st, a 6.5 kb plasmid from Streptococcus thermophilus NDI-6. (3/1064)

The 6.5 kb cryptic plasmid pCI65st from Streptococcus thermophilus NDI-6, a strain isolated from the Indian fermented milk dahi, was subcloned and sequenced. Five putative ORFs were identified. ORF1 could encode a 315 aa polypeptide almost identical to the RepA protein of previously sequenced S. thermophilus plasmids, indicating that pCI65st is one of the pC194 group of small gram-positive rolling-circle plasmids. ORFs 2 and 4 were virtually identical and could specify proteins of approximately 150 aa with significant similarity to the small heat-shock proteins described from a variety of gram-positive bacteria. ORF3 could encode a 415 aa protein similar to enolase, an enzyme involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ORF5 could encode a 412 aa protein which had high similarity to the HsdS (specificity) proteins of type I restriction-modification systems. Variants of strain NDI-6 which lacked pCI65st were readily isolated after subculture of the parent strain at 32 degrees C. The plasmid-bearing parent culture was significantly more resistant to a temperature shift from 42 degrees C to 62 degrees C than its plasmid-free variant and expressed proteins which corresponded with the predicted translation products from ORF2 and ORF4. In addition, plasmid-free mutants were lysed in broth by bacteriophages to which the parent culture was resistant.  (+info)

Partial characterization of a major autolysin from Mycobacterium phlei. (4/1064)

Autolytic enzyme profiles of fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were examined using SDS-PAGE zymography with incorporated mycobacterial peptidoglycan sacculi as substrate. Each species tested (Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium kansasii) appeared to produce a different set of enzymes on the basis of differing number and molecular masses. A major autolysin from M. phlei was purified to apparent homogeneity by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and Mono Q FPLC. This enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 38 kDa, an isoelectric point of 5.5 and a pH optimum of pH 7.5. Digestion of purified peptidoglycan by the enzyme resulted in the appearance of reducing sugars, suggesting that the 38 kDa autolysin is a beta-glycosidase. Partial internal amino acid sequence of the autolysin was determined and should facilitate identification, cloning and overexpression of the encoding gene.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis 168 gene lytF encodes a gamma-D-glutamate-meso-diaminopimelate muropeptidase expressed by the alternative vegetative sigma factor, sigmaD. (5/1064)

A gamma-D-glutamate-meso-diaminopimelate muropeptidase was detected in the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus subtilis 168. It is encoded by the monocistronic lytF operon expressed by the alternative vegetative sigma factor, sigmaD. Sequence analysis of LytF revealed two domains, an organization common to exoproteins of B. subtilis as well as to those from other organisms. The N-terminal domain contains a fivefold-repeated motif attributed to cell wall binding, whilst the C-terminal domain is probably endowed with the catalytic activity. Overexpression of LytF allowed its purification and biochemical characterization. Inactivation of lytF led to the loss of the cell-wall-bound protein 49' (CWBP49') and of the corresponding lytic activity as revealed by renaturation gel assay. Native cell walls prepared from the multiple lytC lytD lytE lytF-deficient mutant did not exhibit any autolysis, whereas walls prepared from a strain endowed with LytF but not with the other three enzymes underwent a slight lysis. Analysis of degradation products of cell wall devoid of teichoic-acid-bound O-esterified D-alanine unambiguously confirmed that LytF cuts the gamma-D-glutamate-mesodiaminopimelate bond.  (+info)

A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. (6/1064)

A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria.  (+info)

The C-terminal sequence of the lambda holin constitutes a cytoplasmic regulatory domain. (7/1064)

The C-terminal domains of holins are highly hydrophilic and contain clusters of consecutive basic and acidic residues, with the overall net charge predicted to be positive. The C-terminal domain of lambda S was found to be cytoplasmic, as defined by protease accessibility in spheroplasts and inverted membrane vesicles. C-terminal nonsense mutations were constructed in S and found to be lysis proficient, as long as at least one basic residue is retained at the C terminus. In general, the normal intrinsic scheduling of S function is deranged, resulting in early lysis. However, the capacity of each truncated lytic allele for inhibition by the S107 inhibitor product of S is retained. The K97am allele, when incorporated into the phage context, confers a plaque-forming defect because its early lysis significantly reduces the burst size. Finally, a C-terminal frameshift mutation was isolated as a suppressor of the even more severe early lysis defect of the mutant SA52G, which causes lysis at or before the time when the first phage particle is assembled in the cell. This mutation scrambles the C-terminal sequence of S, resulting in a predicted net charge increase of +4, and retards lysis by about 30 min, thus permitting a viable quantity of progeny to accumulate. Thus, the C-terminal domain is not involved in the formation of the lethal membrane lesion nor in the "dual-start" regulation conserved in lambdoid holins. Instead, the C-terminal sequence defines a cytoplasmic regulatory domain which affects the timing of lysis. Comparison of the C-terminal sequences of within holin families suggests that these domains have little or no structure but act as reservoirs of charged residues that interact with the membrane to effect proper lysis timing.  (+info)

Characterization of a chromosomally encoded glycylglycine endopeptidase of Staphylococcus aureus. (8/1064)

The authors previously reported the cloning of a lytic-enzyme-encoding gene, lytM, from an autolysis-defective mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. In the present work, the lytM gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the product was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and HPLC. Biochemical analysis of LytM-cleaved peptidoglycan fragments indicated that LytM is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. Immunoelectron microscopic studies with anti-LytM rabbit IgG showed that LytM is expressed during the early exponential phase and is overexpressed in an autolysis-defective mutant compared with the parent strain. Also, a uniform distribution of gold particles on the surface of actively growing bacterial cells indicates that LytM plays a role in cell growth. Northern blot analyses of lytM expression in two global regulatory mutants, agr and sar, showed that expression of lytM is increased about twofold in these mutants as compared with the parents. Protein homology searches revealed that LytM could be a member of the zinc protease family, as it contained a homologous 38-amino-acid motif, Tyr-X-His-X11-Val-X12/20-Gly-X5-6-His. Atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of LytM revealed the presence of 0.9 mol zinc (mol LytM)(-1).  (+info)

That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
Synonyms for Cell lysis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cell lysis. 19 words related to lysis: convalescence, recuperation, recovery, biochemistry, autolysis, self-digestion, bacteriolysis, cytolysis, dissolution, disintegration. What are synonyms for Cell lysis?
en] amino acids analysis ; isolation & purification ; glycoproteins analysis ; glycine analysis ; escherichia coli ; cell wall analysis ; bacteriolysis ; bacteria analysis ; amino sugars ...
The complement system (Chap. 308) consists of a group of serum proteins functioning as a cooperative, self-regulating cascade of enzymes that adhere to- and in some cases disrupt-the surface of invading organisms. Some of these surface-adherent proteins (e.g., C3b) can then act as opsonins for destruction of microbes by phagocytes. The later, "terminal" components (C7, C8, and C9) can directly kill some bacterial invaders (notably, many of the neisseriae) by forming a membrane attack complex and disrupting the integrity of the bacterial membrane, thus causing bacteriolysis. ...
Since most RNA-binding proteins fulfil their function in the context of RNA-protein complexes, knowledge of RNAs associated with specific RBPs is essential to elucidate their functions. In order to identify these transcripts, new methods must be developed or existing successful protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions must be adapted. Although several recent publications have identified RNA partners from RNP-complexes [9, 16], there are so far no reports on the quality of the RNAs purified from these complexes. Here we demonstrate that the method used for cell lysis of yeast cells is of great importance for isolation of intact complexes. Whereas standard lysis methods like disruption by French Press or glass bead mill lead to massive RNA degradation (Figures 1, 2, 3), grinding yeast cells at ultra-low temperatures leaves cellular RNA intact (Figures 4, 5).. The major difference between the lysis methods compared in this study is the timing between addition of the RNase ...
Perform an efficient extraction of soluble proteins from bacterial cells with SoluLyse from Genlantis, a high-yielding and optimized bacterial lysis reagent.
Principal Investigator:EZURA Yoshio, Project Period (FY):1992 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:Fisheries chemistry
We propose four stochastic models. 1. First model is that the effect of endolysin for cell lysis is limited though the concentration of endolysin increases. We consider that when much endolysin is expressed, the size of holes made by holin restricts the transition rate of endolysin from cytosol to periplasm, where endolysin degrades peptidoglycan and makes cell lysis. 2. Second model is that the expression of holin and endolysin is not enough to kill every cell entirely. In this model, we assume that some cells are weak to the cell lysis and other cells are tough to that. If this is true, some proportional cells survive and the other proportional cells are died constantly (Fig.2). 3. Third model is that quantity of expressed holin and endolysin is different from cells respectively. We assume that every cell has the threshold of lysis. In any concentration of IPTG, some proportional cells survive and the other cells are killed because of the difference of expression. (Fig.3) ...
Holin je u vodi rastvoran esencijalni nutrijent.[4][5][6][7] On se obično svrstava u B-kompleks vitamina. Holin se normalno javlja u obliku raznih kvaternarnih amonijum soli koje sadrže N,N,N-trimetiletanolamonijum katjon.. Katjon holina se javlja kao čeona grupa fosfatidilholina i sfingomijelina, dve klase fosfolipida koje su široko rasprostranjene u ćelijskim membranama. Holin je prekursorni molekul za neurotransmiter acetilholin koji ima veliki broj funkcija, kao što su memorija i kontrola mišića.. Holin se mora uneti putem hrane da bi telo ostalo zdravo.[8] On se koristi u sintezi gradivnih komponenti ćelijskih membrana.[9]. ...
A method for lysing cells is disclosed. The method includes stirring cells with a magnetic stir element in the presence of a plurality of cell lysis beads at a speed sufficient to lyse the cells. Also disclosed is a device for lysing cells. The device includes a container having a magnetic stir element and a plurality of cell lysis beads disposed therein. The container is dimensioned to allow rotation of the magnetic stir element inside the container.
Holin se v organizmu presnovi zlasti do trimetilamina, ki ima vonj po ribah. Velika količina zaužitega holina lahko zato povzroči neprijeten telesni vonj. Pri določeni genetski motnji, trimetilaminuriji, bolniki niso zmožni nadalje razgraditi trimetilamina in posledica je močan telesni vonj po ribah. Pri ublažitvi telesnega vonja pomaga dieta, ki vsebuje čim manj holina.. ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with BIOTECH 203 at University Of Mumbai. Find BIOTECH203 study guides, notes, and practice tests from University
Buffer B2 is used in combination with Buffer B1, lysozyme or lysostaphin and Proteinase K for efficient lysis of bacteria prior to DNA purification using QIAGEN Genomic-tips. Genomic-tips are gravity-flow, anion-exchange columns. Please note this buffer is not recommended for any purification procedures using QIAGENs silica-membrane-based spin columns. Buffer B2 (Bacterial Lysis Buffer 2) consists of 3 M guanidine hydrochloride, 20% Tween 20.. How to prepare Buffer B2: Dissolve 286.59 g guanidine hydrochloride in 700 ml distilled water. Add 200 ml 100% Tween 20. Adjust the volume to 1 liter with distilled water. pH does not need to be adjusted. ...
Endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose glycopeptides and glycoproteins containing the -[(Man)5(GlcNAc)2]-Asn structure. One N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residue remains attached to the protein; the rest of the oligosaccharide is released intact. Cleaves the peptidoglycan connecting the daughter cells at the end of the cell division cycle, resulting in the separation of the two newly divided cells. Acts as an autolysin in penicillin-induced lysis (By similarity).
Preparation of nucleic acid samples prior to amplification and detection of specific targets is arguably the most challenging step of molecular diagnostics. ERBA Molecular has innovative fully integrated sample collection and extraction technologies and a number of products that enable the simultaneous collection, rapid lysis preservation and isolation of amplifiable quality nucleic acids from bacterial, viral and human sample types.. The nucleic acid isolated is of high quality and ideal for molecular diagnostic assays and proven as a rapid NGS front-end solution. ...
A coordinated action of murein synthetases and murein hydrolases is assumed to be essential for proper growth of the bacterial cell. A disturbance of this balance, for example by blocking parts of...
Does anyone know the reagent in BioRads instagene matrix which causes lyses of bacterial cells? Troy Barton University of New Brunswick L14Y at UNB.CA ...
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If you follow the sonication protocol below for cell lysis you should achieve efficient lysis of your cells for your required application. Tips Included.
Shop Germination-specific N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Germination-specific N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Lysostaphin is an antimicrobial agent belonging to a major class of antimicrobial peptides and proteins known as the bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are bacterial antimicrobial peptides which generally exhibit bactericidal activity against other bacteria. Bacteriocin production is a self-protection mechanism that helps the microorganisms to survive in their natural habitats. Bacteriocins are currently distributed into three main classes. Staphylococcins are bacteriocins produced by staphylococci, which are Gram-positive bacteria of medical and veterinary importance. Lysostaphin is the only class III staphylococcin described so far. It exhibits a high degree of antistaphylococcal bacteriolytic activity, being inactive against bacteria of all other genera. Infections caused by staphylococci continue to be a problem worldwide not only in healthcare environments but also in the community, requiring effective measures for controlling their spread. Since lysostaphin kills human and animal staphylococcal pathogens,
Caspase-11 directly detects LPS within the host cell cytosol (6). To explain how LPS gains access to the host cell cytosol, four distinct LPS delivery pathways were proposed: (i) some intracellular Gram-negative bacteria escape vacuoles to enter the host cell cytosol, where they release LPS (30); (ii) host GBPs execute membranolytic activities to extrude intracellular Gram-negative bacteria from PVs and extract LPS through bacteriolysis (10, 19-21); (iii) endocytosed bacterial OMVs release LPS into the host cell cytosol potentially through fusion with or transport across endosomal membranes (15, 31); and (iv) circulating free LPS (in the form of aggregates or bound to LPS-binding proteins) is consumed in vivo by an undefined cell population able to present LPS for caspase-11-mediated recognition (4, 5). Here, we present evidence that GBPs play previously unknown roles in the latter two pathways.. GBPs assist caspase-11 activation in response to infections with Gram-negative bacteria (10-12). It ...
Shop Peptidoglycan hydrolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Peptidoglycan hydrolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The culturability of several actinobacteria is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs). These are proteins containing a c. 70-residue domain that adopts a lysozyme-like fold. The invariant catalytic glutamate residue found in lysozyme and various bacterial lytic transglycosylases is also conserved in the Rpf proteins. Rpf from Micrococcus luteus, the founder member of this protein family, is indeed a muralytic enzyme, as revealed by its activity in zymograms containing M. luteus cell walls and its ability to (i) cause lysis of Escherichia coli when expressed and secreted into the periplasm; (ii) release fluorescent material from fluorescamine-labelled cell walls of M. luteus; and (iii) hydrolyse the artificial lysozyme substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-N,N,N-triacetylchitotrioside. Rpf activity was reduced but not completely abolished when the invariant glutamate residue was altered. Moreover, none of the other acidic residues in the Rpf domain was absolutely required for ...
The extraction and purification of genetic material from cells is often the first and most crucial step in life sciences research. Gram-positive bacteria, which contain thick cell walls, pose a challenge for efficient and effective nucleic acid extraction in this regard.. Dr. Vincent A. Fischetti and his research group have developed an effective enzyme-based nucleic acid extraction system. A group of enzymes isolated from viruses that infect specific bacteria (bacteriophages) was discovered as a potential antibacterial agent, and their mode of action is to compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall or membrane resulting in rapid lysis of the bacterial cell. Once the cell wall is removed, it is fairly straightforward to obtain the DNA or RNA for subsequent experiments, such as PCR, cloning, sequencing, and proteomics. The use of these enzymes as reagents for nucleic acid extraction shortens the time and increases the nucleic acid yield, which is greatly advantageous.. Several lysins ...
All known pneumococcal phages contain a cell wall lytic system consisting of a holin that permeabilizes the cell membrane, and either an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (amidase) or a lysozyme, capable of digesting the pneumococcal cell wall (8 ). ...
Various methods of nucleic acid (NA) extraction were investigated with the aim of developing a quantitative method of NA extraction from five representative strains of biomining microorganisms. The process of removing cells from mineral surfaces, lysing microorganisms, precipitating NA and purifying RNA were analysed. The success of each method was examined spectrophotometrically, by agarose gel electrophoresis and PCR or quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The most important step was shown to be cellular lysis, which principally impacted on thequantity of NA extracted from each strain. The quantity and quality of extracted NA was highlydependent on the method of NA precipitation. This study resulted in the development of a NA extraction method that reliably and reproducibly extracted NA from five strains of biomining microorganisms.. ...
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Is there an optimal incubation time for cell lysis? - posted in General Lab Techniques: I have been looking through many cell lysis protocols over the last months and I noticed a huge variety of incubations times although most protocols had the same enzymes or detergents. Granted, some were for pure grown cultures and others for environmental samples, but I was wondering why the incubation times are so different (with such a wide range). For example, there were protocols for enzymatic lysi...
A summary of the key influences, organisations and principles that guide the ACMAs approach to spectrum planning. Click here to learn more.
Edna talks about the problems of tension and also relaxation, and how to play with the support of the hand and forearm. http://youtu.be/yu6sPvPg1CI
Defects in the formation of the septum and gradually autolysis of cells occur when the dapdependent mutant ofEscherichia coli is grown in a medium with 4-hydroxy-diaminopimelic... ...
I f you havent heard of Dame Edna Everage well, darling, it just means youre frightfully unaware of anything but your drab, uninteresting life.Because Dame Edna, though shes a man deliciously
Krogh, S, Jorgensen, ST, Devine, KM, Lysis genes of the Bacillus subtilis defective prophage PBSX, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 180, 8, 1998, 2110-2117 ...
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus bacteriophage 52 ATCC ® 27692-B1™ Designation: CDC 52 TypeStrain=False Application:
Bacteriophages escaping from a dying bacterial cell (Streptococcus sp.), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This bacteriophage was discovered in freshwater near a sewage outlet. A bacteriophage, also known as a phage, is a virus (virion) that infects a bacterium. It consists of a head (capsid), containing the genetic material (either RNA or DNA) and usually a tail and tail fibres (not seen), which the phage uses to attach to a specific receptor sites on the bacterium. This specific binding means that a bacteriophage can only infect certain bacteria bearing specific receptors. Once attached to the cell surface genetic material is injected into the bacterium, taking over the bacteriums own cellular machinery and forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When sufficient numbers have been produced the phages escape from the bacterium by cellular lysis, killing the bacterium in the process. Magnification: x21,335 when shortest - Stock Image C032/0258
A disinfectant can be a chemical professional that is used to reduce the quantity of practical microbes on drug types of surface with an suitable degree. Disinfectants have a variety of properties which include range of exercise, function of action, and efficiency. Some are bacteriostatic, the place that the capacity with the microbe population to breed is halted. In such a case, the disinfectant may cause picky and reversible improvements to microbial tissues by getting together with nucleic acids and inhibiting digestive support enzymes, or permeating in to the mobile wall surface. Once the disinfectant is removed from experience of microbial cellular material, the surviving microbe human population can potentially develop. Other disinfectants are bactericidal for the reason that they eradicate bacterial cells and lead to irreversible damage by way of distinct systems offering architectural damage to the cellular, cellular lysis, and autolysis, leading to loss or coagulation of cytoplasm. The ...
A composition for treatment of bacterial infections of the eye is disclosed which comprises a lytic enzyme composition specific for the infecting bacteria, and a carrier for delivering said lytic enzyme. The carrier for delivering at least one lytic enzyme to the eye may be but is not limited to the use of an isotonic solution.
I know its growth temperature is around 26 degrees celsius but it is a really resistant bacteria. I was wondering if anyone knew if it could survive in higher (30-40 degrease) or lower (0-5) temperatures ...
The objective of this proposal is to understand how the pigment causes host cell lysis and induces an immune response and to also define how pigment mediated activation of host cells affects Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection colonization and infection-associated preterm births.. ...
Detection of soluble and insoluble proteins: Drummond:Solubility Buffers for lysis: Drummond:Lysis Protein slot-blot: Drummond:Protein Slot Blot Protocol Ubiquitin western: Drummond:Ubiquitin Western Test page for CSS columns: Drummond:Columns ...
Our Microfluidizer cell disruption equipment allow for effective, efficient cell lysis in laboratory and production applications. Learn more -- request details.
Let your inbox help you discover our best projects, classes, and contests. Instructables will help you learn how to make anything! ...
Lysis buffer preparation - posted in General Lab Techniques: Hi! Ive to prepare 50ml of (Tris0.1M pH8/EDTA 0.1M/ NaCl 0.15M/1%SDS/2%Triton 100x) and I would like to know which is the correct order to add the reactives and prepare it. Could you help me?
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. Reaction: Hydrolyses the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides. Other name(s): acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase; N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase; N-acylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase; acetylmuramoyl-alanine amidase; N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase; acetylmuramyl-alanine amidase; N-acetylmuramylalanine amidase; murein hydrolase; N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase type I; N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase type II. Systematic name: peptidoglycan amidohydrolase. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9013-25-6. References: 1. Ghuysen, J.-M., Dierickx, L., Coyette, J., Leyh-Bouille, M., Guinand, M. and Campbell, J.N. An improved technique for the preparation of Streptomyces peptidases and N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase active on bacterial wall peptidoglycans. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 213-222. [PMID: 5777325]. 2. Herbold, D.R. and Glaser, L. ...
2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. In the tailed bacteriophages, DNA is packaged into spherical procapsids, leading to expansion into angular, thin-walled mature capsids. In many cases, this maturation is accompanied by cleavage of the major capsid protein (CP) and other capsid-associated proteins, including the scaffolding protein (SP) that serves as a chaperone for the assembly process. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage 80α is capable of high frequency mobilization of mobile genetic elements called S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), such as SaPI1. SaPI1 redirects the assembly pathway of 80α to form capsids that are smaller than those normally made by the phage alone. Both CP and SP of 80α are N-terminally processed by a host-encoded protease, Prp. We have analyzed phage mutants that express pre-cleaved or uncleavable versions of CP or SP, and show that the N-terminal sequence in SP is absolutely required for assembly, but does not need to be cleaved in order to ...
The microbial loop describes a trophic pathway in the marine microbial food web where dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is returned to higher trophic levels via its incorporation into bacterial biomass, and then coupled with the classic food chain formed by phytoplankton-zooplankton-nekton. The term microbial loop was coined by Farooq Azam and Tom Fenchel et al. to include the role played by bacteria in the carbon and nutrient cycles of the marine environment. In general, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is introduced into the ocean environment from bacterial lysis, the leakage or exudation of fixed carbon from phytoplankton (e.g., mucilaginous exopolymer from diatoms), sudden cell senescence, sloppy feeding by zooplankton, the excretion of waste products by aquatic animals, or the breakdown or dissolution of organic particles from terrestrial plants and soils (Van den Meersche et al. 2004). Bacteria in the microbial loop decompose this particulate detritus to utilize this energy-rich matter for ...
1JWQ: The Structure of the catalytic domain of N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, a cell wall hydrolase from Bacillus polymyxa var.colistinus and its resemblance to the structure of carboxypeptidases
Only two autolytic enzymes (autolysins) have been unequivocally identified so far in S. pneumoniae: the well known LytA amidase and the LytC lysozyme (11). LytC is an autolysin designed to remodel the cell wall, with maximum activity at 30 °C. This feature suggests that LytC could be more active in habitats like the upper, well ventilated respiratory tract (11). In fact, LytC plays a role in the colonization of the rat nasopharynx (12), where it could also contribute to DNA release in competent cells (13). LytC is directed to the outer surface by a leader peptide (33 residues), and it remains tightly bound to the cell wall in a mature, active form that comprises a CBM made of 11 (p1-p11) repeating units (264 residues) and a CM belonging to the GH-25 family of glycosyl hydrolases (204 residues). The unprocessed form is also detected in the cytoplasm (11). The slow hydrolysis of pneumococcal cultures carried out by LytC contrasts with the fast, uncontrolled lysis of the host cell performed by ...
Our previous results showed that intrasynovial Rifamycin SV caused the lysis of synoviocites and freed the autoantigens which in turn stimulated the immunoregulatory rather than autoreactive T cell response in rheumatoid patients. Here, we hypothesize that disruption in vitro of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, by freeze/thawing or by lytic action of Rifamycin SV, would induce the release of endosomal pathogenic autoantigens from APCs present in the circulation, which could then be isolated from degrading enzymes by ultrafiltration. The preparation of the ultrafiltrates are based on the rupture of PBMCs (5 × 106 cells/mL) by the addition of Rifamycin SV in culture (250 μg/mL), which causes the lysis of 90 % of the cells in 3 h, or by three cycles of freeze/thawing of the PBMC, from −80 °C to room temperature. The lysate and the fragmented cells were then centrifuged and ultrafiltered by passage through a filtration device with a cut-off of 10 kDa. Also the synovial fluid was subjected to
Biochemical analyses and the crystal structure of TtsA reveal fundamental insight into the mechanisms by which this muramidase recognizes its peptidoglycan substrate to facilitate typhoid toxin secretion.
Ian, Ive had much luck sith a 11.5 Kb low copy (pSC101) plasmid. I grow in TB terrific broth as described in the new Maniatis (24g YE, 12g Tryp, glycerol, PO4 buffer) with plenty of aeration (tube roller). A standard alkaline lysis followed by neutralizing with a half volume of 7.5 M ammonium acetate will do the job. When a 1.5 ml miniprep is resuspended in 50 ul, 5 ul will give a nice digest on an agorose gel. One trick you should try is to freeze your resuspended cell pellet after you have added lysozyme in the first step of your miniprep. This seems to have a marginal beneficail effect with DH5 as a host, but may be more important with other strains. I saw it in the inital report of pGB1, and it is a well know method of unleashing autolytic activity in one of my favorite organisms, Staph. aureus. J. Graham Biology and Chemistry Departments Indiana University -Bloomington Jim J. GrahaUniversity -Bloomington ...............It is necessary to be slightly underemployed if .............one is ...
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseHydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides ...
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
en] AmiD is the fifth identified N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine zinc amidase of Escherichia coli. This periplasmic lipoprotein is anchored in the outer membrane and has a broad specificity. AmiD is capable of cleaving the intact peptidoglycan (PG) as well as soluble fragments containing N-acetylmuramic acid regardless of the presence of an anhydro form or not, unlike the four other amidases, AmiA, AmiB, AmiC, and AmpD, which have some specificity. AmiD function is, however, not clearly established but it could be part of the enzymatic machinery involved in the PG turnover in E. coli. We solved three structures of the E. coli zinc amidase AmiD devoid of its lipidic anchorage: the holoenzyme, the apoenzyme in complex with the substrate anhydro-N-acetylmuramic-acid-l-Ala-gamma-d-Glu-l-Lys, and the holoenzyme in complex with the l-Ala-gamma-d-Glu-l-Lys peptide, the product of the hydrolysis of this substrate by AmiD. The AmiD structure shows a relatively flexible N-terminal extension that allows an easy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide in sepsis and endotoxaemia. AU - Parratt, J.. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) is one of many vasoactive substances released, from a variety of cells, under conditions of endotoxaemia and sepsis. Under physiological conditions it is produced by two constitutive calcium-dependent enzymes (nitric oxide synthase; NOS) in neurones (nNOS) and endothelial cells (eNOS) and has functions ranging from neurotransmission and vasodilatation to inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Following bacterial infection, especially with Gram-negative organisms, its formation from L-arginine is enhanced due to the cytokine-mediated induction of a NOS enzyme (iNOS) in cells (e.g. cardiac myocytes, vascular smooth muscle) that do not normally have the ability to synthesize NO. The result of this excessive NO production is enhanced bacterial lysis by activated macrophages, vasoplegia and myocardial depression. These cardiovascular effects can be alleviated by ...
Growth of E. coli at pH 5 protected the bacteria against the lytic effect of beta lactam antibiotics typically observed when the cells are grown at pH 7 or 7.5, i.e., the pH values routinely used in laboratory experiments. In contrast, the typical effects of beta lactam antibiotics on cellular shape and elongation and cell division appeared to be similar in cultures grown under neutral and acid pH conditions. The pH-dependent antibiotic tolerance can also be demonstrated with pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci, and Bacillus subtilis. We suggest that the mechanism of the pH-dependent antibiotic tolerance may involve either the production of a more stable plasma membrane or the suppression of the activity of a murein hydrolase(s) that catalyzes the antibiotic-induced lysis; at least a fraction of these enzyme molecules may be localized at the cell surface and be accessible to experimental manipulation.. ...
The effect of the polycation polyethyleneimine (PEI) on the permeability properties of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane was investigated using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium as target organisms. At concentrations of less than 20 μg ml-1, PEI increased the bacterial uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine, which is a hydrophobic probe whose quantum yield is greatly increased in a lipid environment, indicating increased hydrophobic permeation of the outer membrane by PEI. The effect of PEI was comparable to that brought about by the well-known permeabilizer EDTA. Permeabilization by PEI was retarded but not completely inhibited by millimolar concentrations of MgCl2. PEI also increased the susceptibility of the test species to the hydrophobic antibiotics clindamycin, erythromycin, fucidin, novobiocin and rifampicin, without being directly bactericidal. PEI sensitized the bacteria to the lytic action of the detergent SDS in assays where the bacteria were pretreated
We propose that the lysis gene of RNA phage GA is translated exclusively by ribosomes coming from the upstream coat gene on the basis of the following observations. (i) The initiation codon AUG of the lysis gene is well hidden by the possible hairpin structure. (ii) There is no functional SD or SD‐like sequence near the initiation codon AUG. (iii) Elimination of the upstream sequence completely abolished the expression of the downstream lysis gene. Furthermore, introduction of the SD sequence into this construct restored lysis gene expression even without the upstream coat gene. (iv) RRF may not release ribosomes from the unusual gene border sequence UAAUG. (v) The ribosomes translating the upstream coat gene must come into close proximity with the initiation codon of the downstream lysis gene either by a nucleotide distance of not more than two nucleotides or by RNA secondary structure.. Having established that the lysis gene is translated exclusively by the upstream ribosomes, this system is ...
All (3-Iactarn drugs like penicillins, cephalosporins are selective inhibitors of bacterial cell wall synthesis and therefore active against growing bacteria. Mechanism of action: Initial step is the binding of the drug to specific drug receptor PBPs (Penicillin- binding proteins) on bacteria. There are 3 to 6 PBPs having different effects. At least some of which are enzymes involved in transpeptidation (cross-linking) reactions. After attachment, peptidoglycan synthesis is inhibited as final transpeptidation is blocked. Then there occurs inactivation of an inhibitor of autolytic enzyme in the cell wall. This activates the autolytic enzymes in the cell wall that results in lysis resulting in bacterial death. Organisms with defective autolysin function are inhibited but not killed by l3dactam drugs, and they are said to be "tolerant ...
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Recall that most classes of bacteria possess a bacterial cell wall which is critical for their proper functioning and growth (See page). Because mammalian cells do not possess a cell wall, pharmacological inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis is one of the most important mechanisms for selective targeting of bacterial growth and proliferation ...
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A chewing gum composition produced by mixing an effective amount of lysin enzyme produced by group C streptococcal bacteria infected with a C1 bacteriophage and a carrier for delivering said lysin enzyme to a mouth, throat, or nasal passage.
Microbial Ghosts (MGs) is a new term that describes evacuated and dead microbes. Apparently, MGs will be able (soon) to substitute another term the
Although public safety agencies have said they need 20MHz of spectrum in the 800MHz band, they have only been given 10MHz, as it is thought that the extra spectrum would be "under-used."
29 Feb 2019 ... (a) WT TIGR4 or the isogenic deletion mutant in the lytA gene (LytA−) were treated with 4 μg ml−1 LL-37 in a capsule-shedding assay for 30 or .... ...
A former R&D director of a private diagnostics company that focuses on bacterial tests, Drew Smith, has responded in online Q&As on why phage therapy has not taken off in most parts of the world. He listed lack of interest from pharma companies and financial backup as the top reasons for phage therapys absence in the modern western market. There is also the issue of regulation; regulating antibiotic use is easy because every pill of a given drug is chemically identical to the next. Phages, however, are dynamic entities whose populations will change (naturally or artificially) to target specific bacterial species. Current FDA-like regulations therefore make it difficult to manage so-called "dynamic" therapies, and the introduction of phage therapy to a western market would require novel policy considerations. But on a brighter note, almost two years ago the EU funded a clinical trial on phages to assess its international standards. The PhagoBurn project is the largest phage project today and ...
Alpha hemolysin (αHL), a nanopore from bacteria that causes lysis of red blood cells, has been studied for over 15 years.[10] To this point, studies have shown that all four bases can be identified using ionic current measured across the αHL pore.[11][12] The structure of αHL is advantageous to identify specific bases moving through the pore. The αHL pore is ~10 nm long, with two distinct 5 nm sections. The upper section consists of a larger, vestibule-like structure and the lower section consists of three possible recognition sites (R1, R2, R3), and is able to discriminate between each base.[11][12]. Sequencing using αHL has been developed through basic study and structural mutations, moving towards the sequencing of very long reads. Protein mutation of αHL has improved the detection abilities of the pore.[13] The next proposed step is to bind an exonuclease onto the αHL pore. The enzyme would periodically cleave single bases, enabling the pore to identify successive bases. Coupling an ...
A surfactant in Stromatolyser-4DL causes lysis of red blood cells. At the same time, the cell membranes of white blood cells are slightly perforated.. The polymethine fluorescence marker Stromatolyser-4DS migrates into the WBC and binds in particular to nucleic acids and cell organelles. Additionally an organic acid in the Stromatolyser-4DL binds specifically to the granules in eosinophils as a result of which they can be differentiated from neutrophils by means of a higher side scatter signal.. Our XE- and XT-Series analysers provide five populations of white blood cells in the DIFF scattergram, including the Immature Granulocyte population.. The XS analysers scattergrams displays the following five populations: lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. ...
i.e. production rate, and observe the changes in Moreover, his work leaves open the questions of what causes the variation and whether it is evolutionarily significant. My work follows up on Delbrucks, except that I chose to look at a different, but closely related life history trait, lysis time. Earlier work has shown that there is a direct correlation between lysis time and burst size: the longer the phage waits to lyse the cell, the more babies it can produce. So it makes a good proxy for burst size, as well as an interesting life history trait in its own right. Plus, we now have the genetic techniques to manipulate the phages genome and dissect the causes of variation: to wit, the ability to manipulate the holin protein structure and to alter the strength of the promoter that controls holin production. All we need is a way of observing lysis time for individual cells. Enter the microscope-mounted perfusion chamber! Here is the setup ...
Yamagata H.; Ueno S.; Iwasaki T., 1989: Isolation and characterization of a possible native cucumisin from developing melon fruits and its limited autolysis to cucumisin
A cadaver, also called corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body. Observation of the various stages of decomposition can help determine how long a body has been dead. The first stage is autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, during which the bodys cells are destroyed through the action of their own digestive enzymes. However, these enzymes are released into the cells because of active processes ceasing in the cells, not as an active process. In other words, though autolysis resembles the active process of digestion of nutrients by live cells, the dead cells are not actively digesting themselves as is often claimed in popular literature and as the synonym of autolysis self-digestion seems to imply. As a result of autolysis, liquid is created that gets between the layers of skin and makes the skin peel off. During this stage, flies (when present) start to lay eggs in the openings of the body: eyes, nostrils, mouth, ...
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This page should point you to the many different general and lab-specific protocols describing tissue and cell lysis and serve as forum for comparison. The ups and downs of various methods from sonication, homogenization, freeze-thaw cycles, and detergent-based lysis are examined below ...
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We generated a Burkholderia mutant, which is deficient of an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase, AmiC, involved in peptidoglycan degradation. When non-motile ΔamiC mutant Burkholderia cells harboring chain form were orally administered to Riptortus insects, ΔamiC mutant cells were unable to establish symbiotic association. But, ΔamiC mutant complemented with amiC gene restored in vivo symbiotic association. ΔamiC mutant cultured in minimal medium restored their motility with single-celled morphology. When ΔamiC mutant cells harboring single-celled morphology were administered to the host insect, this mutant established normal symbiotic association, suggesting that bacterial motility is essential for the successful symbiosis between host insect and Burkholderia symbiont ...
Autolysins are involved in some important biological processes such as cell separation, cell-wall turnover, competence for genetic transformation, formation of the flagella and sporulation. Autolysin strictly depends on the presence of choline-containing cell walls for activity.
The Fantastic Lysisbox: Genetically engineered cell death is essential for the application of biotechnology, such as in bioremediation area. In order to control the cell-death, we designed "Lysisbox", which consists of a pair of modules: "Killer gene" and "Anti-killer gene." As the Killer gene for Escherichia coli, we noted the lysis cassette [SRRz/Rz1 gene] of lambda phage coding for holin and endolysin. The holin form pores in the inner membrane and the endolysin access and degrade the peptidoglycan passing through the pores, leading the E.coli to death. As the Anti-killer gene, we chose SΔTMD1 coding for a dominant-negative holin that inhibits the formation of the fatal pores. The balance of these two genes expression level has the key to the E.colis life or death. In addition, such controllable membrane pores must show critical functions for all living organisms with lipid membranes and a cell wall. "Lysisbox" must contribute a lot to future projects, thus you must say "FANTASTIC!!!" ...
Physicians are turning to phage therapy as a treatment, which is seen as one of the more promising frontiers in the war on superbugs.
O termo "cútis flácida" descreve grupo de desordens do tecido conectivo caracterizadas por pele frouxa, inelástica, que é pendular e pendente em pregas, dando aparência de envelhecimento prematuro. Diminuição da formação de tecido elástico, assim como, anormalidade na formação da elastina tem sido descritas nas pessoas afetadas. Em muitos casos, a cútis flácida é hereditária. Uma forma autossômica dominante e duas autossômicas recessivas foram descritas, porém formas adquiridas também ocorrem.. ...
Plant, bacterial or fungal protoplasts & spheroplasts: what are the key differences, how are they prepared and what are they ultimately used for?
Edna Golandsky is the leading exponent of the Taubman Approach. She has earned wide acclaim throughout the United States and abroad for her extraordinary ability to solve technical problems and for her penetrating musical insight. She received both her ba
virotype Tissue Lysis Reagent は分子生物学実験用です。疾病の診断、治療または予防の目的には使用することはできません。単独あるいは他の製品と組み合わせての使用も検証されていません ...
1. An enzyme produced by Aeromonas hydrophila and capable of lysing Staphylococcus aureus cells was purified 180-fold by gel filtration and chromatography on columns of AG-50 W resin. 2. Physical measurements on the purified enzyme suggest that it is a small basic protein with an isoelectric point between pH9·0 and pH9·5. 3. Maximum lytic activity was obtained in 20mm-tris-glycine buffer, pH8·5, at 45°, with no detectable activity in the absence of a nitrogenous base. 4. The enzyme is active in the above buffer containing 1·5m-sucrose, and is useful for the preparation of protoplasts of Staphylococcus aureus. 5. Purified cell wall peptidoglycans of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, differing in amino acid composition, were hydrolysed by the enzyme with the liberation of glycine oligopeptides, principally diglycine and triglycine. 6. Synthetic glycine oligopeptides larger than triglycine, but not polyglycine, were hydrolysed, as were a number of leucine-containing dipeptides and ...
The virus nucleic acid uses the host cells machinery to make large amounts of viral components. In the case of DNA viruses, the DNA transcribes itself into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then used to direct the cells ribosomes. One of the first polypeptides to be translated destroys the hosts DNA. In retroviruses (which inject an RNA strand), a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA into DNA, which is then transcribed again into RNA. Once the viral DNA has taken control it induces the host cells machinery to synthesize viral DNA, protein and starts multiplying. About 25 minutes after initial infection, approximately 200 new bacteriophages are formed and the bacterial cell bursts i.e. it has undergone lysis. Newly formed phages are released to infect other bacteria and another lytic cycle begins. The phage which causes lysis of the host is called a lytic or virulent phage.[1] The biosynthesis is (e.g. T4) regulated in three phases of mRNA production ...
Initially, advanced spectroscopic techniques including X-ray and NMR methods were investigated for molecular interaction studies between Lss and its putative ligands. Significant problems were encountered with these methods and mass spectrometry studies proved more amenable. Lysostaphin targeting domain-ligand complexes have been identified, along with their stoichiometry. The strength of the protein-ligand interactions has also been quantified. Lysostaphin was shown to bind in vitro Gly5 (mimicking the pentaglycine cross-bridge) and Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (mimicking the stem peptide) with low affinity, but not NAM-L-Ala-D-iGln-Lys. It was also shown that lysostaphin targeting domain affinity for Gly5 was significantly reduced by addition of Gly-Gly-Ser-Gly-Ser (found in the host bacteria resistant to lysostaphin action - S. simulans) in solution. From these studies it could be concluded that resistance due to the incorporation of serine residues in the crossbridge were a result of the endopeptidase ...
[90 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor -Pipeline Insights, 2017 report by Delve Insight. DelveInsight s, Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor-Mechanism of action Insights,...
How to apply for phage therapy? Sending a sample. What diseases can be treated with phage? Booking an appointment Information regarding cost of treatment.
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Calculi: Ultrasonography for evaluation of suspected urinary calculi. Health and Medicine Reference Covering Thousands of Diseases and Prescription Drugs.
INTRODUCTION. Ceftazidime (6R, 7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(2-carboxyprop-2-yloxyimino)acetamido]-3-(pyridinium-1-ylmethyl)ceph-3-em-4-carboxylate is a 3rdgeneration cephalosporin developed in 198012. Like the other β-lactam antibiotics, this cephalosporin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis and produces bacterial lysis12.. Ceftazidime is a cephalosporin active against Escherichia coli, Citrobacter diversus, C. freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. agglomerans, Klebsiella spp. including K. pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa6. In general, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for the mentioned microorganisms is , 4 µg/m 12,22. The MIC90 values of ceftazidime determined for E. coli, Salmonella spp., Pasteurella multocida and P. haemolytica isolates ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 µg/ml 21.. Studies carried out using β-lactams in animals support the concept that the time during which the free drug ...
INTRODUCTION. Ceftazidime (6R, 7R)-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(2-carboxyprop-2-yloxyimino)acetamido]-3-(pyridinium-1-ylmethyl)ceph-3-em-4-carboxylate is a 3rdgeneration cephalosporin developed in 198012. Like the other β-lactam antibiotics, this cephalosporin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis and produces bacterial lysis12.. Ceftazidime is a cephalosporin active against Escherichia coli, Citrobacter diversus, C. freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. agglomerans, Klebsiella spp. including K. pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa6. In general, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for the mentioned microorganisms is , 4 µg/m 12,22. The MIC90 values of ceftazidime determined for E. coli, Salmonella spp., Pasteurella multocida and P. haemolytica isolates ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 µg/ml 21.. Studies carried out using β-lactams in animals support the concept that the time during which the free drug ...
PREFACE. CONTRIBUTORS.. 1 ENZYBIOTICS AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE (Jan Borysowski and Andrzej Górski).. 2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS OR PHAGES AS THERAPEUTIC AGENTS (Patricia Veiga-Crespo and Tomas G. Villa).. 3 ENZYBIOTICS AS SELECTIVE KILLERS OF TARGET BACTERIA (Juan C. Alonso and Marcelo E. Tolmasky).. 4 PHYLOGENY OF ENZYBIOTICS (Patricia Veiga-Crespo and Tomas G. Villa).. 5 BACTERIOPHAGE LYSINS: THE ULTIMATE ENZYBIOTIC (Vincent A. Fischetti).. 6 BACTERIOPHAGE HOLINS AND THEIR MEMBRANEDISRUPTING ACTIVITY (María Gasset).. 7 ANTI-STAPHYLOCOCCAL LYTIC ENZYMES (Jan Borysowski and Andrzej Górski).. 8 MEMBRANE-TARGETED ENZYBIOTICS (María Gasset).. 9 DESIGN OF PHAGE COCKTAILS FOR THERAPY FROM A HOST RANGE POINT OF VIEW (Lawrence D. Goodridge).. 10 IDENTIFYING PHAGE LYTIC ENZYMES: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE (Jonathan E. Schmitz, Raymond Schuch, and Vincent A. Fischetti).. 11 USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PHAGES TO DELIVER SUICIDAL GENES TO TARGET BACTERIA ...
Mol Microbiol. 2012 Sep;85(5):975-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08153.x. Epub 2012 Jul 13. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt

*Grete Kellenberger-Gujer

Kellenberger, G.; Kellenberger, E. (1952-01-01). "[Bacteriolysis of a strain of bacillus cereus; evidence in electronic ...

*Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

CHS is a disease causing impaired bacteriolysis due to failure of phagolysosome formation. As a result of disordered ...

*Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer

He called this bacteriolysis and it became known as the Pfeiffer Phenomenon, or Isayev-Pfeiffer phenomenon. Working with Robert ... particularly for the phenomenon of bacteriolysis. In 1894 he found that live cholera bacteria could be injected without ill ...

*Antibody

... bacteriolysis). To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells, antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing ...

*Infection

a direct effect upon a pathogen, such as antibody-initiated complement-dependent bacteriolysis, opsonoization, phagocytosis and ...

*Membrane vesicle trafficking

... aeruginosa microbes were shown to fuse with outer membrane of other gram negative microbes causing their bacteriolysis; these ...

*Clostridium novyi-NT

Bacteriolysis in hypoxic tumor parts can be combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation that are more effective in ...

*Timeline of immunology

Bacteriolysis (Richard Pfeiffer) 1896 - An antibacterial, heat-labile serum component (complement) is described (Jules Bordet) ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... bacteriolysis MeSH G04.185.515.120.600 --- nitrogen fixation MeSH G04.185.515.286 --- drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185. ...
... but do not seem to cause bacteriolysis. This study shows that B. pumilus also lyses living cells of A. citreus in co-culture ...
While the bacteriolysis range of L. innocua strains was 48% to 76% after 48 h of incubation, L. welshimeri isolates exhibited ... Bacteriolysis was measured at 650 nm by spectrophotometer. For this purpose, late exponential phase cells were transferred into ... Several authors have reported extracts of this plant to effect rapid bacteriolysis and inhibit growth of a wide range of Gram- ... On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced ...
Definition of Bacteriolysis and synonyms of Bacteriolysis are presented by online Websters Dictionary. Includes dictionary ... browser, morphological search by meaning of Bacteriolysis, thesaurus, related words, and dictionary browser. Provides ... Bacteriolysis Definition of Bacteriolysis. Bac`te`ri`ol´y`sis. n.. 1.. Chemical decomposition brought about by bacteria without ... Bacteriolysis-. bacteriophage. bacteriophagic. Bacterioscopic. Bacterioscopist. Bacterioscopy. bacteriostasis. bacteriostat. ...
bacteriolysis. The dissolution of bacteria on the animals body, whether inside or outside the body. ...
Protamine and Polyarginine Bacteriolysis. Similarities in Its Mechanism with Chromatin DNA Picnosis. Antohi, Stefan / Popescu, ...
complement-dependent bacteriolysis, opsonoization, phagocytosis and killing, as occurs for some bacteria,*neutralization of ...
Zootechnica 14(1) 2015, ISSN ISSN (online) EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY ... 5 Effective bacteriolysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli OD Control Kontrola MOI = 0.1 MOI = 1 MOI = 5 MOI = Time, ... 3 Effective bacteriolysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli H7 strains were isolated from pig slurry and characterized ... 7 Effective bacteriolysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli terial strains. Both the positive (e.g., biocontrol, phage ...
See also bacteriolysis. bac·te·ri·ol·y·sin (bak-tērē-oli-sin) Specific antibody that combines with bacterial cells (i.e., ...
Pfeiffer phenomenon - bacteriolysis.. Pfeiffer syndrome - Synonym(s): type V acrocephalosyndactyly. Want to thank TFD for its ...
Strominger, J. L., and Ghuysen, J.-M., 1967, Mechanisms of enzymatic bacteriolysis, Science 156:213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Glynn, A. A., 1969, The complement lysozyme sequence in immune bacteriolysis, Immunology 16:463.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Becker, M. E., and Hartsell, S. E., 1955, The synergistic action of lysozyme and trypsin in bacteriolysis, Arch. Biochem. 55: ... Amano, T., Inai, S., Seki, Y., Kashiba, S., Fujikawa, K., and Nishimura, S., 1954, Studies on the immune bacteriolysis. I. ...
Despite the lack of development of detectable resistance, MRSA exposed to vancomycin for prolonged periods may begin to develop vancomycin tolerance and decreased autolysis. In addition, suppression of agr function appears to end after vancomycin is stopped. Whether these changes are prerequisites f …
Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae O139 to antibody-dependent, complement-mediated bacteriolysis.. Attridge SR, Qadri F, Albert ...
Bacteriolysis.The mean OD620 of untreated S. aureus suspensions after 120 min was 96.9% (n = 9; standard error [SE] = 1.3%) of ... Bacteriolysis.Suspensions of S. aureus were prepared as described above. After retrieval of the pretreatment sample, the agents ... In assays for bacterial killing, bacteriolysis, and loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, samples taken 5 min before treatment ...
V. Modification of bacteriolysis by antiinflammatory agents and by cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes.Inflammation 1:57-69. ... The role played by artificial enzyme "cocktails" and tissue enzymes in bacteriolysis.Inflammation 1:45-56.Google Scholar ... Bacteriolysis induced by extracts of different leukocyte populations and the inhibition of lysis by macromolecular substances.J ... aureus mutant which is deficient in teichoic acid and the inhibition of bacteriolysis by lipoteichoic acid.Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol ...
Kellenberger, G.; Kellenberger, E. (1952-01-01). "[Bacteriolysis of a strain of bacillus cereus; evidence in electronic ...
6. MECHANISM OF ACTION TRICLOSAN ACT ON CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE INDUCE LEAKAGE OF CELLULAR CONSTITUENTS BACTERIOLYSIS ...
Bacteriolysis. *Endopeptidases/chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification. *Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects. *Molecular ...
Cytosolic bacteriolysis is thus key to orchestrate inflammasome-mediated innate immune responses. We propose here to ... Cytosolic bacteriolysis is thus key to orchestrate inflammasome-mediated innate immune responses. We propose here to ... We will develop three synergistic approaches: i) the generation of novel tools to monitor cytosolic bacteriolysis ii) ... We will develop three synergistic approaches: i) the generation of novel tools to monitor cytosolic bacteriolysis ii) ...
Streptococcus pyogenesEndopeptidase O Contributes to Evasion from Complement-mediated Bacteriolysis via Binding to Human ...
Bacteriolysis/drug effects*. *Polyhydroxyalkanoates/isolation & purification*/metabolism*. *Pseudomonas putida/chemistry*/drug ...
Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. Cell Host ...
  • While the bacteriolysis range of L. innocua strains was 48% to 76% after 48 h of incubation, L. welshimeri isolates exhibited broader bacteriolytic vari. (worldwidescience.org)
  • From 1895 to 1896 he investigated the mechanisms of bacterial agglutination and destruction (bacteriolysis) by immune serum and thus underlined the role of humoral immunity in antimicrobial defense processes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Lysozyme takes also part in an extensive battery of defense mechanisms in fish, such as bacteriolysis and opsonization of the bacterial wall, and it is present in lymphoid tissues, mucus, plasma, and other body fluids [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These data provide evidence for the first time that TcdE and bacteriolysis are coexisting mechanisms for toxin release, with their relative contributions depending on growth conditions. (pasteur.fr)
  • The cell of E.coli, etc., is transformed with the obtained manifestation vector containing the chemical synthesis gene of miraculin, the transformed cell is cultured in a medium, the cultivation product is centrifuged and the collected cells are subjected to bacteriolysis by ultrasonic treatment, etc. (sumobrain.com)
  • Ultrasonic(US)method and cation resin(CR)method were combined to extract ex- tracellular polymeric substances(EPS)from activated sludge,and to study the efficiency of the dif- ferent combined extract methods.The research results showed that US-CR was the best than three different ways,US postposition processes such as CR-US or US-CR-US might lead more bacteriolysis. (cnki.com.cn)