The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.

The pneumococcus at the millennium: not down, not out. (1/97)

In the 12 decades that will have elapsed between the first isolation of the pneumococcus and the coming millennium, much of fundamental biologic importance has been learned from the study of this bacterium and the diseases it causes. Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with the development of Gram's stain, the Quellung reaction, and many of the fundamentals of immunology. It has also played a significant role in the history of antimicrobial therapy. After a transitory period of euphoria engendered by the improved prognosis of pneumococcal pneumonia resulting from therapeutic advances, recognition that the newer treatments could not bring about the recovery of those sustaining early irreversible physiologic injury led to renewed interest in immunoprophylaxis. Added impetus to this approach has been fostered by the recent rapid increase in the number of pneumococcal isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents and in the magnitude of their resistance. Pneumococcal vaccines are increasingly relevant.  (+info)

Accessory DNA in the genomes of representatives of the Escherichia coli reference collection. (2/97)

Different strains of the Escherichia coli reference collection (ECOR) differ widely in chromosomal size. To analyze the nature of the differential gene pool carried by different strains, we have followed an approach in which random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to generate several PCR fragments. Those present in some but not all the strains were screened by hybridization to assess their distribution throughout the ECOR collection. Thirteen fragments with various degrees of occurrence were sequenced. Three of them corresponded to RAPD markers of widespread distribution. Of these, two were housekeeping genes shown by hybridization to be present in all the E. coli strains and in Salmonella enterica LT2; the third fragment contained a paralogous copy of dnaK with widespread, but not global, distribution. The other 10 RAPD markers were found in only a few strains. However, hybridization results demonstrated that four of them were actually present in a large selection of the ECOR collection (between 42 and 97% of the strains); three of these fragments contained open reading frames associated with phages or plasmids known in E. coli K-12. The remaining six fragments were present in only between one and four strains; of these, four fragments showed no similarity to any sequence in the databases, and the other two had low but significant similarity to a protein involved in the Klebsiella capsule synthesis and to RNA helicases of archaeal genomes, respectively. Their percent GC, dinucleotide content, and codon adaptation index suggested an exogenous origin by horizontal transfer. These results can be interpreted as reflecting the presence of a large pool of strain-specific genes, whose origin could be outside the species boundaries.  (+info)

A national audit of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases within the United Kingdom. (3/97)

In order to audit United Kingdom laboratory diagnostic and reference services including novel molecular methods for tuberculosis, a questionnaire was sent to laboratories submitting specimens to the PHLS Mycobacterium Reference Unit (MRU) and regional centres and to the Scottish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (SMRL) in 1996-7. Nationally, 67.2% of laboratories responded. Most UK laboratories were fully or conditionally CPA accredited and take part in the NEQAS proficiency scheme. On average only 3.3% of primary samples submitted for mycobacterial diagnosis in 1995 produced a mycobacterial culture from approximately half as many patients (that is, a mean of 1488 specimens producing 49 isolates from 23 patients). Potentially over 380,000 specimens are processed for mycobacteria in the UK each year. The majority of laboratories use 4% NaOH +/- NALC for specimen decontamination. Culture on solid media was used by most laboratories and 62.9% also use liquid media. Most laboratories incubated cultures for eight weeks. Few laboratories use molecular diagnostic methods. Laboratories were most likely to use molecular methods for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis and for specimens from immunocompromised patients, although usage was strongly influenced by cost. Within England and Wales 43.9% (47/107) and 56% (61/109) of laboratories wanted a rapid service for rifampicin resistance detection in M tuberculosis from immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, respectively. In regard to a tuberculous meningitis service, 80.5% (43/112) and 84.3% (102/121) of laboratories wanted this service for immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, respectively. The quality of reference services was rated as "very good"/"good" by 85.6% of respondents nationally. Rapid molecular amplification diagnostic services were established at the PHLS MRU for rifampicin drug resistance detection nationally and for tuberculous meningitis at the MRU.  (+info)

Student and faculty performance in clinical simulations with access to a searchable information resource. (4/97)

In this study we explore how students' use of an easily accessible and searchable database affects their performance in clinical simulations. We do this by comparing performance of students with and without database access and compare these to a sample of faculty members. The literature supports the fact that interactive information resources can augment a clinician's problem solving ability in small clinical vignettes. We have taken the INQUIRER bacteriological database, containing detailed information on 63 medically important bacteria in 33 structured fields, and incorporated it into a computer-based clinical simulation. Subjects worked through the case-based clinical simulations with some having access to the INQUIRER information resource. Performance metrics were based on correct determination of the etiologic agent in the simulation and crosstabulated with student access of the information resource; more specifically it was determined whether the student displayed the database record describing the etiologic agent. Chi-square tests show statistical significance for this relationship (chi 2 = 3.922; p = 0.048). Results support the idea that students with database access in a clinical simulation environment can perform at a higher level than their counterparts who lack access to such information, reflecting favorably on the use of information resources in training environments.  (+info)

"The branches into which bacteriology is now ramifying" revisited. (5/97)

The American Society for Microbiology was originally founded in 1899 as the Society of American Bacteriologists. The transition from "bacteriology" to "microbiology" and from an emphasis on the identity of the membership (bacteriologists) to an emphasis on the discipline (microbiology) was a contentious one that occurred in several steps. This article reviews the history and events that accompanied this development.  (+info)

Robert Earle Buchanan: an unappreciated scientist. (6/97)

Robert Earle Buchanan (1883-1973), 19th President of the Society of American Bacteriologists (later American Society for Microbiology), was one of the more important 20th century microbiologists. He was a dominant force in creating the field of bacterial systematics and made significant contributions to microbial physiology. He also numbered a number of influential textbooks. A reasonable conclusion is that Buchanan was a major cultivator of modern microbiology. To justify that assertion, I have four major objectives in this essay: i) a brief biographical review of Buchanan's early life; ii) a brief review of his scientific contributions, many of which go beyond his recognized contributions to bacterial systematics; iii) Buchanan was an important academic administrator who created the microbiology program and fostered a strong graduate education program at Iowa State, iv)finally, I close the essay with a focus on Buchanan's "moral character."  (+info)

Improved, low-cost selective culture medium for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (7/97)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is considered to be one of the major oral putative pathogens, especially in cases of juvenile periodontitis. This microorganism requires nutritionally complex media for growth, and therefore the media for its primary isolation usually include blood agar or serum in their base. In this study we present a new medium, Dentaid-1, which improves the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal samples. In its composition, blood and serum have been omitted, hence reducing its cost and making it a more restrictive medium against the growth of other microorganisms with high nutritional requirements. The growth yields of pure cultures of the bacteria on Dentaid-1 were comparable to those on nonselective blood agar. Moreover, clinical efficacy was evaluated in subgingival samples from 77 subjects with adult periodontitis. Dentaid-1 detected A. actinomycetemcomitans in 24 subjects, while a previously described tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin agar detected the microorganism in only 19 subjects (79.1%). Dentaid-1 is a low-cost, noninhibitory formula for the improved diagnosis and monitoring of patients subgingivally infected by this important oral putative pathogen.  (+info)

Direct identification of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium gordonae from MB/BacT bottles using AccuProbe. (8/97)

We evaluated the ability of the AccuProbe (Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.) to detect Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium avium complex directly in liquid medium flagged positive by the MB/BacT (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.). Seventy-one bottles from clinical specimens containing M. gordonae and 34 containing M. avium, confirmed by culture, were tested by direct AccuProbe assay for both organisms after additional incubation for > or = 48 h and centrifugation at 4,500 x g for 15 min. Relative light unit (RLU) values were analyzed using the manufacturer's recommended cutoff of 30,000 RLU and a lower cutoff of 10,000 RLU. Using the 30,000 RLU cutoff, 55 of 71 (77.5%) specimens containing M. gordonae yielded positive results, whereas 28 of 34 (82.3%) M. avium complex specimens were correctly identified by direct probe. No specimens shown by culture to contain either M. gordonae or M. avium complex tested positive with the probe for the opposite organism (100% specificity). When the cutoff was lowered to 10,000 RLU, 67 of 71 M. gordonae (94.4%) and 32 of 34 M. avium complex (94.1%) specimens were correctly identified. This difference was significant for M. gordonae (P = 0.004) but not for M. avium complex (P = 0.26) compared to detection using the recommended RLU cutoff. Specificity was 100% for specimens containing M. gordonae that were tested with the M. avium complex probe using the 10,000 RLU cutoff, whereas specificity for specimens containing M. avium complex tested with the M. gordonae probe was 97%. Using a lower RLU cutoff for determining a positive result using the M. gordonae or M. avium complex probes when testing instrument-positive MB/BacT bottles directly will improve sensitivity without substantially compromising specificity.  (+info)

Bacteriology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of bacteria, including their classification, physiology, genetics, and ecology. It is a subset of microbiology, which is the broader field that includes the study of all microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Bacteriologists use various techniques to isolate, culture, and identify different species of bacteria. They also study the interactions between bacteria and their hosts, as well as the role that bacteria play in disease processes. In addition, bacteriology involves research into the development of new antibiotics and other treatments for bacterial infections.

Overall, bacteriology is an important field of study that has contributed significantly to our understanding of infectious diseases and their prevention and treatment.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Achromobacter is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical settings. The cells of Achromobacter are typically rod-shaped and motile, with polar flagella. Some species of Achromobacter have been known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. It is important to note that Achromobacter is generally resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment of infections caused by these bacteria challenging.

Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of microorganisms, which are tiny living organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, algae, and some types of yeasts and molds. These organisms are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye and require the use of a microscope for observation.

Microbiology encompasses various subdisciplines, including bacteriology (the study of bacteria), virology (the study of viruses), mycology (the study of fungi), parasitology (the study of parasites), and protozoology (the study of protozoa).

Microbiologists study the structure, function, ecology, evolution, and classification of microorganisms. They also investigate their role in human health and disease, as well as their impact on the environment, agriculture, and industry. Microbiology has numerous applications in medicine, including the development of vaccines, antibiotics, and other therapeutic agents, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

A periapical abscess is a localized infection that occurs at the tip of the tooth's root, specifically in the periapical tissue. This tissue surrounds the end of the tooth's root and helps anchor the tooth to the jawbone. The infection is usually caused by bacteria that enter the pulp chamber of the tooth as a result of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease, or trauma that damages the tooth's protective enamel layer.

The infection leads to pus accumulation in the periapical tissue, forming an abscess. The symptoms of a periapical abscess may include:

1. Pain and tenderness in the affected tooth, which can be throbbing or continuous
2. Swelling in the gums surrounding the tooth
3. Sensitivity to hot, cold, or pressure on the tooth
4. Fever, general malaise, or difficulty swallowing (in severe cases)
5. A foul taste in the mouth or bad breath
6. Tooth mobility or loosening
7. Formation of a draining sinus tract (a small opening in the gums that allows pus to drain out)

Periapical abscesses require dental treatment, which typically involves removing the infected pulp tissue through root canal therapy and cleaning, shaping, and sealing the root canals. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to help control the infection, but they do not replace the necessary dental treatment. If left untreated, a periapical abscess can lead to severe complications, such as the spread of infection to other parts of the body or tooth loss.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. These organisms can become pathogenic and cause a variety of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or following surgical procedures. Infections caused by Peptostreptococcus species can include abscesses, endocarditis, bacteremia, and joint infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for the effective treatment of these infections.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

A periodontal abscess is a localized collection of pus in the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, caused by an infection. It's typically characterized by symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and sometimes drainage of pus from the affected area. The infection usually arises from dental plaque that accumulates on the teeth and gums, leading to periodontal disease. If left untreated, a periodontal abscess can result in tissue destruction, bone loss, and even tooth loss. Treatment typically involves draining the abscess, removing any infected tissue, and providing oral hygiene instruction to prevent future infections. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help clear up the infection.

Fusobacterium is a genus of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative, non-spore forming bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacterium have been associated with various clinical infections and diseases, such as periodontal disease, abscesses, bacteremia, endocarditis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is the most well-known species in this genus and has been extensively studied for its role in various diseases. It is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it invades damaged tissues. Fusobacterium necrophorum, another important species, is a leading cause of Lemierre's syndrome, a rare but serious condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic infections.

Fusobacteria are known to have a complex relationship with other microorganisms and host cells, and they can form biofilms that contribute to their virulence and persistence in the host. Further research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Fusobacterium species and to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment of Fusobacterium-associated diseases.

Asepsis is a state or practice of being free from infection or contamination, especially by pathogenic microorganisms. It is a set of procedures and practices used in medicine and healthcare to prevent infection and the spread of disease-causing microorganisms. Aseptic techniques include the use of sterile equipment, barriers, and environmental controls to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into a susceptible host.

There are two types of asepsis: medical and surgical. Medical asepsis involves practices that reduce the number of microorganisms in the environment, such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment. Surgical asepsis is a more stringent form of asepsis that aims to create a sterile field during surgical procedures, using sterilized instruments, drapes, gowns, gloves, and other materials to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the surgical site.

Maintaining aseptic techniques is critical in healthcare settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents and protect patients from harm. Failure to follow aseptic practices can result in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which can cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare costs.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

"Sarcina" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in current use. However, in older medical literature or in the context of microbiology, "Sarcina" refers to a genus of Gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that are arranged in tetrads or packets of 4, 8, or 16 cells. These bacteria were once thought to be responsible for a variety of infections, but they are now considered to be rare causes of disease and are not typically tested for in clinical settings.

In modern medical terminology, the term "sarcina" is more commonly used outside of medicine, particularly in the context of physical fitness or exercise, where it refers to a unit of weightlifting or strength training that involves lifting a weight equal to one's own bodyweight.

"Micrococcus" is a genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in pairs or tetrads. They are typically spherical in shape and range from 0.5 to 3 micrometers in diameter. Micrococci are ubiquitous in nature and can be found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals, as well as in soil, water, and air.

Micrococci are generally considered to be harmless commensals, but they have been associated with a variety of infections in immunocompromised individuals, including bacteremia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. They can also cause contamination of medical equipment and supplies, leading to nosocomial infections.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of this genus has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and many species previously classified as Micrococcus have been reassigned to other genera. As a result, the medical significance of this genus is somewhat limited.

Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It's important to note that it is reversible with good oral hygiene and professional dental treatment. If left untreated, however, gingivitis can progress to a more severe form of gum disease known as periodontitis, which can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss.

Gingivitis is most commonly caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. When not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to gum inflammation. Other factors like hormonal changes, poor nutrition, certain medications, smoking or a weakened immune system may also increase the risk of developing gingivitis.

Veillonella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid or rod-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. They are known to be obligate parasites, meaning they rely on other organisms for nutrients and energy. Veillonella species are often associated with dental caries and have been implicated in various infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and wound infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. Proper identification of Veillonella species is important for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

Preventella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are part of the normal microbiota but can also be associated with various infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Prevotella species have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including periodontal disease, dental caries, respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, and joint infections. They can also be found in association with abscesses, wound infections, and other types of infections, particularly in the head and neck region.

Prevotella species are generally resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections, such as clindamycin and metronidazole, making them difficult to eradicate. Therefore, accurate identification and susceptibility testing of Prevotella isolates is important for the appropriate management of infections caused by these organisms.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

A hospital laboratory is a specialized facility within a healthcare institution that provides diagnostic and research services. It is responsible for performing various tests and examinations on patient samples, such as blood, tissues, and bodily fluids, to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Hospital laboratories may offer a wide range of services, including clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and blood banking/transfusion medicine. These labs are typically staffed by trained medical professionals, such as laboratory technologists, technicians, and pathologists, who work together to ensure accurate and timely test results, which ultimately contribute to improved patient care.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Arthrobacter is a genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. These bacteria are known for their ability to degrade various organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, and are often used in bioremediation applications. The cells of Arthrobacter species are typically rod-shaped and may appear slightly curved or irregular. They can form dormant structures called exospores that allow them to survive in harsh environments. Arthrobacter species are not considered human pathogens and do not cause disease in humans.

Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some species of Corynebacterium can cause disease in humans, including C. diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, and C. jeikeium, which can cause various types of infections in immunocompromised individuals. Other species are part of the normal flora and are not typically pathogenic. The bacteria are characterized by their irregular, club-shaped appearance and their ability to form characteristic arrangements called palisades. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "publishing" is not a term that has a medical definition. Publishing typically refers to the process of preparing and disseminating information, such as books, journals, or articles, to the public or a specific audience. It could involve both print and digital media. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. Bacteriology is the study of bacteria and their relation to ... Wassenaar, T. M. "Bacteriology: the study of bacteria". www.mmgc.eu. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 18 ... Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to address the concerns relating to disease spreading in ... Since then, bacteriology has played a role in successful advances in science such as bacterial vaccines like diphtheria toxoid ...
... : in Its Applications to the Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Immunology of Infectious Diseases is a ... Experimental Bacteriology in Its Applications to the Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Immunology of Infectious Diseases, London, ... textbook on bacteriology and infectious diseases. It was one of the most authoritative works in medical microbiology in the ...
The Journal of Bacteriology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1916. It is published by the American ... "Journal of Bacteriology". 2022 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2023. Official website ( ... "Journal of Bacteriology". Ulrichsweb. Retrieved 2014-12-20. "CAS Source Index". Chemical Abstracts Service. American Chemical ... "Journal of Bacteriology". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2014-12-20. " ...
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1896 - Bacteriology. Translations Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, 1864; Expression of the Emotions in Man and ... He is credited with establishment of the bacteriology laboratory at Padua. Canestrini made contributions in several biological ...
in bacteriology. His doctoral dissertation is titled Dissociation of Bacillus anthracis. In 1928 he matriculated as a medical ... In the bacteriology department of the University of Michigan Medical School, he was an associate professor from 1935 to 1937 ... in the department of bacteriology, he was an instructor from 1928 to 1933 and an assistant professor from 1933 to 1935, when he ...
Thomas D. Brock (1988). Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology. ASM Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-55581-143-3. "He loved ... As such he is popularly nicknamed the father of microbiology (with Louis Pasteur), and as the father of medical bacteriology. ... Brock, Thomas D. (1999). Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1-55581-143-3 ... The methods Koch used in bacteriology led to establishment of a medical concept known as Koch's postulates, four generalized ...
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"UW Bacteriology , People , Faculty profile for William H. McClain". bact.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2022-01-25. "William H. H. McClain ... He is currently Halvorson Professor of Bacteriology and Molecular Biology, Emeritus, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... 1990 - Halvorson Professor of Bacteriology and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1994 - Elected Fellow, ... of the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1971 and is currently serving there as the Halvorson Professor of Bacteriology and ...
"UW Bacteriology , People". bact.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-26. "Federico E. Rey". scholar.google.com. Retrieved 2021-01-26. "" ... Federico E. Rey is a professor of bacteriology at University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research focuses on human gut microbiota ... "Federico REY , University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin , UW , Department of Bacteriology". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-01- ...
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... is an American biologist who is the EB Fred Professor of Bacteriology and Chair in the Department of Bacteriology at the ... "UW Bacteriology , People". bact.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-20. "Scientists map one of biology's critical light-sensing ...
n". Journal of Bacteriology. 81 (6): 911-7. doi:10.1128/JB.81.6.911-917.1961. PMC 314759. PMID 13786398. Jelen B, Giovannelli D ... Nov.". In Boone DR, Castenholz RW, Garrity GM (eds.). Bergey's Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology. New York, NY: Springer. pp. ... Nov.". In Boone DR, Castenholz RW, Garrity GM (eds.). Bergey's Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology. pp. 389-393. doi:10.1007/978 ... Nov.". Bergey's Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology. pp. 427-446. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-21609-6_23. ISBN 978-1-4419-3159-7. {{ ...
Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (4): 1124-34. doi:10.1128/jb.174.4.1124-1134.1992. PMC 206405. PMID 1735707. Teo, J. W.; Suwanto, ... Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (1): 81-90. doi:10.1128/jb.182.1.81-90.2000. PMC 94243. PMID 10613866. Rukayadi, Y; Suwanto, A; ... Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (4): 1135-45. doi:10.1128/jb.174.4.1135-1145.1992. PMC 206406. PMID 1735708. Suwanto, A; Kaplan, S ... Journal of Bacteriology. 171 (11): 5850-9. doi:10.1128/jb.171.11.5850-5859.1989. PMC 210445. PMID 2808300. Suwanto, A; Kaplan, ...
Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (8): 2076-7. doi:10.1128/JB.01513-10. PMC 3133054. PMID 21217001. Parte, A.C. "Dickeya". LPSN. ...
Journal of Bacteriology. 190 (13): 4549-58. doi:10.1128/jb.00234-08. PMC 2446808. PMID 18456814. UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl) ...
Indica". Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (17): 4532. doi:10.1128/JB.00656-10. PMC 2937395. PMID 20601475. Type strain of ...
Journal of Bacteriology. 195 (12): 2768-75. doi:10.1128/JB.00141-13. PMC 3697248. PMID 23564174. Portal: Biology (Articles with ...
Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (14): 3840-1. doi:10.1128/JB.00506-10. PMC 2897342. PMID 20472789. Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Knief, ... of Systematic Bacteriology Volume Two The Proteobacteria Part C The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Boston, ... Journal of Bacteriology. 187 (13): 4665-70. doi:10.1128/JB.187.13.4665-4670.2005. PMC 1151763. PMID 15968078. Rahman MT, ... Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (14): 3840-1. doi:10.1128/JB.00506-10. PMC 2897342. PMID 20472789. "Methylocella silvestris" at ...
However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. Bacteriology is the study of bacteria and their relation to ... Wassenaar, T. M. "Bacteriology: the study of bacteria". www.mmgc.eu. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 18 ... Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to address the concerns relating to disease spreading in ... Since then, bacteriology has played a role in successful advances in science such as bacterial vaccines like diphtheria toxoid ...
... sysop at microbiol.org sysop at microbiol.org Wed Apr 19 06:34:58 EST 1995 *Previous message ...
Special Bacteriology Pathogen Study. CDC-10147. Specimen Rejection Criteria. Please review the rejection criteria below prior ... Attn: Special Bacteriology Reference Laboratory). RDSB/STATT [Unit #17]. 1600 Clifton Road, NE. Atlanta, GA 30329. [Insert CDC ... The Special Bacteriology Reference Laboratory (SBRL) provides reference identification services for the following unusual, rare ...
General bacteriology a concise course. Bacteriology essential review in half hour. Rating: 4.2 out of 54.2. (97 ratings). ... Bacteriology basics principles in half hour in in easy way it is suitable for professional need to refresh their knowledge and ... The beginnings of bacteriology paralleled the development of the microscope. The first person to see microorganisms was ...
Bacteriology. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for most instances of hand infection, followed by Streptococcus viridans and ...
Bacteriology eBooks to read online or download in EPUB or PDF format on your mobile device and PC. ...
This set is selected to fit several levels of instruction. Set 1 (6 slides) is suitable for junior high/middle school and high school courses for a basic introduction to bacteria. Set demonstrates basic morphology and includes examples of pathogenic bacteria.
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A study of the cultural, biochemical, genetic, serological and pathogenic characteristics of disease producing microorganisms. Emphasis will be placed on the pathophysiology of the infectious diseases and their relationship to isolation and identification of the pathogenic microorganisms.. ...
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Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach. Volume 11, Number 5-May 2005. Article Views: 201. Data is collected weekly and does ... Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):783. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050224.. ... Medical Bacteriology takes a specimen-based approach: bacterial diseases and their causative agents are addressed through the ... Medical Bacteriology is a multicontributor work with chapters provided by various expert medical microbiologists from the ...
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A guide to UKHSAs bacteriology reference department (BRD), its units and the tests and services they provide. ... The bacteriology reference department (BRD) is made up of 3 units:. *respiratory and vaccine preventable bacteria reference ... Bacteriology reference department user manual Ref: UKHSA publication gateway number GOV-13422 ... A guide to UKHSAs bacteriology reference department (BRD), its units and the tests and services they provide. ...
Thousands of science enthusiasts braved a driving rain on Saturday to participate in the March for Science in Washington, D.C., joining crowds at hundreds of other satellite events across the globe to celebrate what the head of the American Association for the Advancement of Science called "civilizations best friend ...
The Bacteriology Culture profile can identify the presence of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora including ... The Bacteriology Culture profile can identify the presence of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora including ... Bacteriology Culture; stool. The Bacteriology Culture profile can identify the presence of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora ... The Bacteriology Culture profile can identify the presence of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora including Clostridium species ...
1993) Clinical bacteriology of dacryocystitis in adults. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 9:125-131. ... CONCLUSION The bacteriology of SSLD resembles that of normal conjunctival flora. Chronic dacryocystitis in adults is associated ... 1954) Bacteriology of the eye. I. Normal flora. Arch Ophthalmol 51:196-199. ... During the past 20 years there have been only a few studies on the bacteriology of adult LDO. According to them, Staphylococcus ...
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Manual of Veterinary Bacteriology published on Nov 1933 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. ... Manual of Veterinary Bacteriology By Raymond A. Kelser. Second Edition. Pages vi + 552. The Williams & Wilkins Company, ...
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis among cattle from various areas in Wassit governorate; the investigation was performed on 184 blood samples collected from suspected cattle suffering from fever (41°C), severe anemia, pale mucus membrane, progressive emaciation and drop in milk yield, including 85 male and 99 female cattle, aged from < 1 year to > 2 years, the samples were collected during the period of October 2012 - April 2013 from AL-Kut, AL-hayy, AL-Bashair, AL-Moufaqia and AL-Noamania areas to investigate antibodies against Anaplasma parasite by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and to determine the species of genus Anaplasma by using RFLP-PCR technique and by also measuring some biochemical parameters to indicate the effect of the disease on liver function. The results of ELISA test showed that the rate of infection was 13.04%, the rate of infection was different between age groups and were 8, 11.25 and 16.45% in
Fundamentals of Bacteriology will provide you with a detailed understanding of bacterial cell structure including a particular ...
Gradle, Henry (1855-1911), ophthalmologist and early proponent of bacteriology published on by Oxford University Press. ...
ABSTRACT The Escherichia coli dnaN159 allele encodes a mutant form of the β-sliding clamp (β159) that is impaired for interaction with the replicative DNA polymerase (Pol), Pol III. In addition, st...
Epidemiology, bacteriology, and clinical characteristics of HACEK bacteremia and endocarditis : a population-based ... article{d86addfa-2142-40cf-a774-65a1960160d5, abstract = {{,p,The objective was to describe the epidemiology, bacteriology, ... The objective was to describe the epidemiology, bacteriology, clinical presentation, risk factors for endocarditis (IE), ... The objective was to describe the epidemiology, bacteriology, clinical presentation, risk factors for endocarditis (IE), ...
Wazeesupperclub.com General Who is known as father of bacteriology? Who is known as father of bacteriology?. Categories: * ... What is the importance of bacteriology?. THE importance of bacteriology is undeniable; in fact, the study of the action of ... Who is known as father of bacteriology?. Louis Pasteur. Louis Pasteur: Father of bacteriology. ... Pathogenic bacteriology is the study on the bacterial pathogen and it is not very simple. The habitat of most bacterial ...
  • Because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa, fungi, and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Louisville offers 2 Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology degree programs. (universities.com)
  • In 2020, 14 Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology students graduated with students earning 8 Master's degrees, and 6 Doctoral degrees. (universities.com)
  • The National Health Laboratory (NHL) of Eritrea hosts the unique microbiology (bacteriology) site for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for the whole country, which receives an average of 1300-1500 samples (mostly urine (44%) and blood culture (28.5%)) every year. (who.int)
  • WHO began working with the Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) of Oman and Reference Health Laboratory of the Islamic Republic of Iran to provide a regional EQAS for these laboratories, with modules in bacteriology, serology, mycology, and parasitology. (who.int)
  • Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology, 5th Edition By Grace R. Carter and John R. Cole Jr. Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology, 5th. (vet-ebooks.com)
  • AVC Diagnostic Services Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory is a Containment Level 2 (CL2) Laboratory. (upei.ca)
  • Medical Bacteriology takes a specimen-based approach: bacterial diseases and their causative agents are addressed through the proper collection, processing, and analysis of clinical specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteriology and clinical outcomes of patients with culture-positive p" by Fraser Brims, Natalia Popowicz et al. (edu.au)
  • We describe the bacteriology and clinical outcomes of Australian adults with culture-positive pleural infection (CPPI) over a 6-year period. (edu.au)
  • Sampling cases of clinical mastitis and periodically submitting these for bacteriology testing will give valuable information about the type of bacteria causing infections. (qmms.co.uk)
  • DVR operates a clinical veterinary bacteriology laboratory in support of the NIH intramural program. (nih.gov)
  • There are some books helping in diagnosis the of diseases like Clinical Pathology and Diagnostic Imaging.Veterinary Bacteriology Books PDF Download Now. (vet-ebooks.com)
  • You should have a PhD (or equivalent) in bacteriology/biochemistry or a related discipline with expertise in molecular bacteriology to advance forward our understanding of human bacterial pathogens, bacterial membrane protein biology, or developing microbial biotechnology for clean growth. (jobs.ac.uk)
  • Identification and characterizing of bacteria being associated to diseases led to advances in pathogenic bacteriology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriology is the study of bacteria and their relation to medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The German Ferdinand Cohn began studying bacteria in 1870 and is also said to be a founder of bacteriology, as he was the first to classify bacteria based on their morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary goal was to identify the bacteria recovered from patients with severe burns and determine how the bacteriology changes during extended hospitalization as influenced by population and burn severity. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 460 patients were admitted to the burn ICU with 3507 bacteria recovered from 13,727 bacteriology cultures performed. (nih.gov)
  • Shifting epidemiology of bacteria recovered during extended hospitalization, bacteriology differences between combat-injured and local burn patients, and impact of % TBSA may affect patient management decisions during the course of therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The Laboratory of Bacteriology (LB) studies bacteria that cause important human infections, including intracellular and arthropod-borne bacterial pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Our individual cow bacteriology uses a full range of laboratory tests and a standard 72 hour incubation period to identify causal bacteria and does not make 'presumptive' diagnoses. (qmms.co.uk)
  • Veterinary Bacteriology By Patricia Marques Veterinary Bacteriology Book PDF is the study of bacteria that cause diseases on animals. (vet-ebooks.com)
  • The visitor's traffic is the benchmark for the success of any scientific journal and the Journal of Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases is constantly attracting viewers across the world. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It was organized by the Institute for Medical Research (Bacteriology Unit) in collaboration with the Malaysian Society of Infectious Diseases and Chemotherapy (MSIDC). (moh.gov.my)
  • Our individual cow bacteriology exceeds the recommendations of the National Mastitis Council (NMC) and is designed to maximize the opportunity of isolating and identifying the problem pathogens on your farm. (qmms.co.uk)
  • Whilst samples are incubated for Mycoplasma culture, standard bacteriology testing is also carried out to rule out involvement with other pathogens. (qmms.co.uk)
  • However, for most bacterial species (particularly environmental organisms) bulk tank bacteriology is NOT useful as the organism is unlikely to have originated from another infected cow. (qmms.co.uk)
  • Since 2007, national public health laboratories in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have participated in a regional external quality assessment scheme in bacteriology to improve testing proficiency. (who.int)
  • To assess laboratory performance in bacteriology in the EMR between 2011 and 2019 using the regional external quality assessment scheme. (who.int)
  • This tab captures Bacteriology test results for the patient, which differ from laboratory tests. (atlassian.net)
  • For example, the chapter on urine bacteriology contains not only guidelines for interpreting various types of urine cultures, but also the relevance of other routine urinalysis findings to infections of the urinary tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteriology can be studied and applied in many sub-fields relating to agriculture, marine biology, water pollution, bacterial genetics, veterinary medicine, biotechnology and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterinary Bacteriology Books PDF Download From The Largest Veterinary Books PDF Library Online. (vet-ebooks.com)
  • For Example, in the below screenshot, Specimen Collection Date , Specimen Sample Source and Specimen ID are the fields (concepts) added as members of concept set ("BACTERIOLOGY CONCEPT SET). (atlassian.net)
  • Assured high quality, long shelf life, and batch-to-batch consistency give you definitive and reproducible results to facilitate your bacteriology testing, even in difficult diagnostic cases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CPHL of Oman produced the bacteriology module and the Reference Health Laboratory of the Islamic Republic of Iran produced the other modules. (who.int)
  • The Bacteriology Unit, IMR actively coordinates the National Quality Assurance Programme (NQAP) for the bacteriology module. (moh.gov.my)
  • We aim to enhance our existing strengths in bacteriology and biotechnology at Leeds by recruiting a Lecturer looking to establish a research programme in one or more of the following areas: bacterial pathogenesis, bacterial membrane protein biology, or microbial biotechnology. (jobs.ac.uk)
  • This chapter from a larger history of the Hoagland Laboratory in Brooklyn, New York, chronicles the Department of Bacteriology, where Avery worked between 1907 and 1913 under Benjamin White. (nih.gov)
  • Eggerth, Arnold H. 'The Department of Bacteriology. (nih.gov)
  • This entry was posted in Bacteriology , Quiz by CMPT PD . (cmpt.ca)
  • JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 182(21), 6130–6136. (ncsu.edu)
  • Bacteriology test results include smear test results, culture test results and drug-sensitivity test results. (atlassian.net)
  • However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, bacteriology has played a role in successful advances in science such as bacterial vaccines like diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to address the concerns relating to disease spreading in hospitals the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Handbook of Laboratory Animal Bacteriology, 2nd Edition By Axel Kornerup Hansen and Dennis Sandris Nielsen The Handbook of Laboratory Animal Bacteriology 2nd Edition PDF provides comprehensive information. (vet-ebooks.com)
  • Society for Applied Bacteriology. (who.int)
  • 13. Molecular techniques in human bacteriology. (elte.hu)
  • The speakers and facilitators included Dr David Ellis (Australia), Dr. Mohd Fuat (Bacteriology Unit, IMR) and several officers and technicians from Bacteriology Unit IMR. (moh.gov.my)
  • Medical Bacteriology is a multicontributor work with chapters provided by various expert medical microbiologists from the United Kingdom. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple options exist for presenting the fundamentals of medical bacteriology. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical bacteriology. (medlineplus.gov)