Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Nosema: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Weapons of Mass Destruction: Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used to destroy large numbers of people. It includes NUCLEAR WEAPONS, and biological, chemical, and radiation weapons.Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.HornsWar: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Conducted Energy Weapon Injuries: The injuries caused by conducted energy weapons such as stun guns, shock batons, and cattle prods.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Military ScienceWeapons: Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Capital Punishment: The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.HumanitiesNational Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
"2603 (XXIV). Question of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapons" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 16 December ... Later treaties did cover these aspects - the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention ... "bacteriological methods of warfare". This is now understood to be a general prohibition on chemical weapons and biological ... The Second Polish Republic suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons. It was signed on 17 June. Several countries have ...
On February 14, 1970, a presidential order was given to outlaw all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and nonliving toxins. ... On November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon abolished any military practice involving biological weapons and Project MKNAOMI ... It is generally reported to be a successor to the MKULTRA project and to have focused on biological projects including ... During the first twenty years of its establishment, the CIA engaged in various projects designed to increase U.S. biological ...
"Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... "A History of the American Biological Safety Association". American Biological Safety Association. Archived from the original on ... The American Biological Safety Association (ABSA) was officially established in 1984 and a constitution and bylaws were drafted ... "Biological Defence Department at Techonin". Ministry of Defense & Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 9 April 2016. " ...
"Japan's Biological Weapons, 1930-1945," was published in the October 1981 edition of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. It ... Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II"]. Even in the 21st Century, 60 years after the Japanese bacteriological ... some contend that there is overwhelming indirect and unofficial evidence that the US used biological weapons during this war . ... Also published in the United States in 1989 as: Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. "The American ...
PRODUCTION AND STOCKPILING OF BACTERIOLOGICAL (BIOLOGICAL) AND TOXIN WEAPONS AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION" (PDF). Biological and ... Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and their Destruction. We are looking at various ... Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). Yorkshire, U.K.: University of Bradford. p. 38. Gaudiano, Nicole (23 September 2013). "Harris ...
The biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk was built after World War II, using documentation captured in Manchuria from the ... A leak from a bacteriological facility contaminated the city sewer system. In 1956, biologist Vladimir Sizov found a more ... Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man ... If accidental, there was discussion of whether it represented violation of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. Various ...
... this included the use of biological and chemical weapons authorized by Emperor Shōwa himself. According to the 2002 ... International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare, the number of people killed in Far East Asia by Japanese germ ... The Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. Because of fear of retaliation, however, those weapons were never ... In mid-August 1945, the United States dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These atomic ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological [Biological] and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction) (BWC) Bonn Agreement ... 1991 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Nairobi, 1992 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Convention on Civil ... 1989 Biological Weapons Convention (Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, ... and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare) International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), Rio de ...
Brucella and all other remaining biological weapons in the U.S. arsenal were destroyed in 1971-72 when the American offensive ... biological warfare program was discontinued by order of President Richard Nixon. The experimental American bacteriological ... and the USAAF designed it as an interim capability until it could eventually be replaced by a more effective biological weapon ... When the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) wanted a biological warfare capability, the Chemical Corps offered Agent US in the M114 ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction. Public copies are ... Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs serves as the depositary for multilateral treaties such as the Biological Weapons ... including the Chemical Weapons Convention, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Rome Statute of the International Criminal ... and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Generally, the United States executes its responsibilities in ...
... initiated the adoption of the first international instrument addressing Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction. For unknown ... The Creator of the First International Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon Usage" (PDF). FEMS Circular. Federation of ... General Sosnkowski initiated the adoption of the first international instrument addressing Biological weapons of Mass ... Weapons of Mass Destruction, An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology and History. Mierzejewski, Jerzy (July 2003). " ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and Their Destruction in Geneva the sanitary ... consequences of natural outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases as well as the threat of alleged use of biological weapons ... indicating and identifying pathogenic biological agents in the environmental sites, conducting laboratory analysis of ... biological materials, suppressing hotbeds of infectious diseases, providing advisory and practical assistance to local health ...
... "under all circumstances the use of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons is effectively prohibited by the Convention ... and seismic weapons genetic weapons non-lethal arms radiological weapons New types of "weapons of mass destruction and new ... and genetic weapons. This definition is similar to "new types of weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons" ... directed energy weapons, like infrasound, laser, and super-high frequency weapons electromagnetic weapons, such as some lasers ...
"Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (biological) and Toxin Weapons ... As with chemical and biological weapons, Australia does not possess nuclear weapons and is not at all known to be seeking to ... All states participating in the Australia Group are parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons ... Australia has weapons systems which could be used to deliver nuclear weapons to its neighbours, if nuclear weapons were ...
"Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... A biological agent-also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon-is ... The Biological Weapons Convention (1972) is an international treaty banning the use or stockpiling of bio-agents; as of ... Biological hazard Biological contamination Laboratory Response Network Pulsed ultraviolet light Toxin "Biological Agents". ...
November 1969). "Draft NSDM re United States Policy on Warfare Program and Bacteriological/Biological Research Program" (PDF). ... nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons. The U.S. is the only country to have used nuclear weapons in combat ... List of U.S. biological weapons topics Nuclear weapons and the United States Operation Paperclip - the codename under which the ... produces small quantities of biological agents, for use in biological weapons defense research. According to the U.S. ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (commonly called the ... "Ensuring Compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention (2008)" (PDF). a Meeting Report sponsored by the Center for Arms ... Rosenberg, Dorothy Goldin (1990). "Biological and Chemical Weapons: Poisonous Cauldrons". Peace Magazine (Dec/Jan): 14. ... "National Measures Relating to the Biological Weapons Convention". Retrieved 14 December 2012. Meselson, Matthew; Robinson, ...
Blome brought his biological cultures with him from Poland, and was still promising Hitler a Wunderwaffe or 'miracle weapon' ... "Japanese-German Collaboration in the Development of Bacteriological and Chemical Weapons and the War in China" in Christian W. ... Hojo Enryo, a Japanese Army physician and expert in biological weapons "frequently visited the Robert Koch Institute as well as ... Otto Muntsch to study Japan's use of chemical and biological weapons against China. These programs of scientific cooperation ...
"Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... On 10 April 1972, the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), also known as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was ... "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ...
Japan will earn the derision of the world." A final planned use of the biological weapons came just after the surrender of ... Umezu later explained his decision as such: "If bacteriological warfare is conducted, it will grow from the dimension of war ... Operation PX was the codename for the Japanese plan for a biological terror attack on the U.S. west coast in World War II. The ... The airplanes would spread weaponized bubonic plague, cholera, typhus, dengue fever, and other pathogens in a biological terror ...
There, twelve members of the Japanese Kwantung Army were tried as war criminals for manufacturing and using biological weapons ... the trial established beyond reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that ... G. Cameron Hurst III, "Biological Weapons: The United States and the Korean War," in "Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical ... on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons. It ...
... deployed chemical and biological weapons by Colonel Frank H. Schwable or the U.S. chemical and biological weapons caches at ... On the Korean battlefield, four anti-bacteriological warfare research centers were soon set up, while about 5.8 million doses ... a biological weapons research facility. He also pointed out that, as the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons was ... Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism, (Google Books), Columbia ...
Biological and toxin weapons: research, development and use from the Middle Ages to 1945, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.113 ... fear that Germany would use bacillus botulinus for bacteriological warfare. According to Donald Avery, Simons claimed that I. G ... who encouraged the belief that Germany was developing biological weapons before and during World War II. Simons worked at I. G ...
... and bacteriological and chemical weapons. Its combat tires are capable of enduring anti-personnel mine explosions and small ... Collective NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) protection is available which can protect the occupants from shock waves and ... All the weapons are mounted on the turret and are assisted by a fire control system. The fire control system allows the weapons ... In addition to the vehicle's weapons, its occupants have the ability to fire their weapons through available firing ports and ...
As Hitler's top biological weapons expert, Blome was seen as the most important Nazi scientist for the Chemical Warfare Service ... "It may well be that defendant Blome was preparing to experiment on human beings in connection with bacteriological warfare, but ... Kurt Blome was the deputy surgeon general of the Third Reich and was in charge of Germany's biological weapons programme. He ... The U.S. Chemical Warfare Service, the agency in charge of the U.S. biological weapons programme, saw great value in ...
Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World-Told from Inside by the Man ... Ishii gave a lecture on bacteriological warfare in the War Ministry Grand Conference Hall in Tokyo where one of those attending ... Biological warfare project[edit]. By 1927, Ishii was advocating for the creation of a Japanese bio-weapons program, and in 1928 ... Ishii led the development and application of biological weapons at Unit 731 in Manchukuo during the Second Sino-Japanese War ...
What are bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons?. Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin weapons deliver toxins and ... Biological) and Toxin Weapons Act. The House of Representatives will soon begin debate on The Bacteriological (Biological) and ... The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Act. 17 Nov 2011. The Bacteriological ( ... or acquiring and retaining biological agents, weapons, and equipment outside of peaceful purposes. It also bans weapons, ...
"2603 (XXIV). Question of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapons" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 16 December ... Later treaties did cover these aspects - the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention ... "bacteriological methods of warfare". This is now understood to be a general prohibition on chemical weapons and biological ... The Second Polish Republic suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons. It was signed on 17 June. Several countries have ...
Chemical and bacteriological (biological) Weapons. Dec. 12, 1985. (May 4, 2008) http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/40/a40r092. ... The protocol banned the use of poisonous gas and biological weapons in war, but it didnt say anything about making or ... In addition, the U.N. adopted the Chemical Weapons Convention, a global treaty that prohibits the use of chemical weapons. The ... Iranian chemical weapon victim exposed to Iraqi mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war, breathes through a respirator. Tens of ...
n another term for germ warfare Noun 1. bacteriological warfare - the use of harmful bacteria as a weapon germ warfare ... bacteriological warfare synonyms, bacteriological warfare pronunciation, bacteriological warfare translation, English ... A Chinese admission of false Korean War allegations of biological weapon use by the United States ... bacteriological warfare - the use of harmful bacteria as a weapon. germ warfare ...
On February 14, 1970, a presidential order was given to outlaw all stockpiles of bacteriological weapons and nonliving toxins. ... On November 25, 1969, President Richard Nixon abolished any military practice involving biological weapons and Project MKNAOMI ... It is generally reported to be a successor to the MKULTRA project and to have focused on biological projects including ... During the first twenty years of its establishment, the CIA engaged in various projects designed to increase U.S. biological ...
The documentary "Bacteriological Weapons at our Borders", features an exclusive interview with Jeffrey Silverman, Bureau Chief ... journal-neo.org/2018/06/19/biological-and-chemical-weapons-labs-on-russia-s-doorstep-biological-and-chemical-weapons-labs-on- ... especially as the purpose of development of biological weapons is strictly prohibited under the Biological Weapons Convention. ... Biological and Chemical Weapons Labs on Russias Doorstep ? By Henry Kamens. Jun 19, 2018 - 5:05:10 AM. Email this article. ...
Blome was an expert on bacteriological warfare and biological weapons. He had a longstanding interest in the "military use of ... Traub provided Hitler with advanced chemical and biological weapon capability and was responsible for the deaths of thousands ... He worked directly under Heinrich Himmler and held the position of lab chief at the Nazis leading bio-weapons facility on ... He was asked to discuss the Nazi animal disease program from a biological warfare perspective. The information was enough for ...
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... Biological Weapons Convention. The BWC is critical to international efforts to address the threat posed by biological weapons ... United States Applauds Central African Republics Ratification of the Biological Weapons Convention. Read more ... To destroy or divert to peaceful purposes all agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and means of delivery specified in Article I ...
Viruses as weapons of mass destruction have been in the forefront of the news following the use of chemical weapons in the ... A forgotten episode of bacteriological warfare. JAMA, 196(1), 59-62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Mass Destruction Chemical Weapon Yersinia Pestis Biological Weapon Francisella Tularensis These keywords were added by machine ... "Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention," in which countries agreed to stop the development of offensive biological and ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and Their Destruction." The 1989 Biological ... Although international law prohibits the use of chemical and bacteriological weapons, America has had an active biological ... and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and Their Destruction…." ... and the 1928 Geneval Protocol prohibited gas and bacteriological warfare. The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) " ...
As for weapons of mass destruction, bacteriological, biological, chemical, we dont know. And that is precisely what the ... "AMANPOUR: Do you believe that Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction; for instance, chemical or biological weapons? ... I have no evidence to support that… It seems that there are no nuclear weapons - no nuclear weapons program. That is something ... If I had known that Iraq hadnt had a nuclear weapons program, I hope I wouldnt have still supported the war. If I had read ...
Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, ... fully accounted for their stocks of CBW weapons. Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted that the weapons still existed (early ... And unlike World War I, chemical weapons had not been widely used. Largely unknown to the public was the huge advances thathe ... The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. BW ...
In the 1970-1980s, the center was developing biological and bacteriological weapons, as well as means of protection against ... and also assured that there was no biological hazard. State Scientific Center Vector was founded in 1974. It is one of the ...
Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons ... The main source of international law on biological weapons, the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, prohibits the development, ... and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons (38). Negotiations are under way to strengthen the Biological Weapons ... Biological Weapons. While most of the pathogenic agents considered to be the most likely candidates for use as biological ...
In the 1970-1980s, the center was developing biological and bacteriological weapons, as well as means of protection against ... and also assured that there was no biological hazard.. He could be a lying SOS too. How do we know for sure? ... Hopefully No Biological Hazard turns out better than the no radiation released turned out from the missile. ... and also assured that there was no biological hazard. State Scientific Center Vector was founded in 1974. It is one of the ...
Since 1972, all biological weapons research and development in the U.S. has proceeded under the guise of cancer research. ... Nixon also ordered the disposal of existing stockpiles of bacteriological weapons. On February 14, 1970, Nixon clarified the ... Merck has remained a major biological weapons contractor for CIAs top secret project NKNaomi, and Kissinger has remained all ... Litton Bionetics supplied the monkeys to Americas leading biological weapons developers as well as the worlds leading vaccine ...
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction-more commonly known as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC ... Engineering DNA-based biological circuits (i.e., biological parts, or bioparts). Instead of one gene, a whole system of several ... and the existence and operation of the Biological Weapons Convention22-should be systematically included in undergraduate and ...
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons ... The UN Biological Weapons Convention defines areas of concern in broad terms with the intention of providing latitude to adapt ... We recommend adopting a function-based approach that defines risk in terms of the ability to influence any key biological ... Australia Group, Guidelines for Transfers of Sensitive Chemical and Biological Materials (2012); www.australiagroup.net/en/ ...
Article I of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) specifically allows for microbiological research for prophylactic, ... Article X of the BWC provides that the BWC should not hamper technological development in the field of peaceful bacteriological ... The biological properties that confer virulence to pandemic influenza viruses were poorly understood. Research to better ... pandemic virus containing the complete coding sequence of the eight viral gene segments violate the Biological Weapons ...
... and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons (1). Caches of biological weapons still exist, however, and their illegal ... Iraqs biological weapons: the past as future? JAMA. 1997;278:418-24. DOIPubMed ... The use of biological weapons was banned in 1972 by the Convention on the Prohibition of the Deployment, Production, ... In contrast, the threat of bioterrorism, in which biological agents are used by extremists as weapons against civilian ...
Naturally occurring infectious diseases such as avian flu Biological weapons that are in the hands of states and terrorist ... The two major biological threats that are faced in biosecurity include: ... In 1915, the League of Nations negotiated the Geneva Protocol that banned the use of both chemical and bacteriological weapons ... Emergence of biological weapons. Terrorist organizations and the military have used infectious diseases as weapons throughout ...
Biological Weapons Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance Burma Chemical Weapons Chemical Weapons Convention China ... The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin ... Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). The BWC entered into force on March 26, 1975. All U.S. activities during the ... Nuclear Weapons Russia Syria Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Weapons Conventions Weapons of Mass Destruction ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, 4-8 December 2017, ... Statement by the ICRCEfforts to prohibit biological weapons through the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the Biological Weapons ... Efforts to prohibit biological weapons through the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) have been ... Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, 4-8 December 2017, ...
Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, also called the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) in ... for biological weapons. Diplomacy and biological warfare. The first diplomatic effort to limit biological warfare was the ... use of biological weapons on an opposing military force or civilian population. Biological weapons include pathogenic viruses, ... Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Bioterrorism Chemical Warfare Infectious Disease, Threats to Security Viral Biology ...
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC). ... "1 Non-proliferation applies to both weapons of mass destruction (including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) and ... The Nuclear Weapons Ban Treaty: reasons for skepticism 19 May. 2017 Current efforts to ban nuclear weapons will be ineffective ... Chemical weapons. Since its entry into force in 1997, the Chemical Weapons Convention has become one of the pillars of the ...
  • It was therefore the first attempt to prohibit comprehensively an entire category of weapons. (peacepalacelibrary.nl)
  • Many states also voiced disappointment with the weakness of Protocol III, however, especially its failure to prohibit all use of incendiary weapons and its lack of adequate protections for combatants. (hrw.org)
  • Alternatively, states could amend the protocol to prohibit all use of incendiary weapons in civilian areas and to require additional precautions in cases where they are used elsewhere. (hrw.org)
  • The only reference to BW is in a report from Oct. 1943: "On the basis of recommendations made by members of the Committee and by other members of the Society, a program of activities was drawn up to cover the following fields:… 9) [of Bacteriological warfare and the effect of warfare upon essential bacterial processes (gas warfare and soil bacteria). (asm.org)
  • Due to the rapid acquisition and fixation of compensatory mutations by bacteria, experiments to evaluate the biological cost of the expression of novel antibiotic resistance and viru- lence determinants are difficult to perform. (biology-online.org)
  • and that some service members running testing labs that bringing them into contact with individuals who could have Ebola will wear full biological protective suits. (burbankdigest.com)
  • When the International Red Cross and the World Health Organization ruled out biological warfare, the Chinese government denounced this as Western bias and arranged an investigation by the Soviet-affiliated World Peace Council . (wikipedia.org)
  • Georgia has been receiving much coverage in the regional news of late, Renn TV and other outlets, especially Russian news outlets, over America's alleged biological and entomological weapons program. (abundanthope.net)
  • After all, if entomological weapons based on bungled Japanese science had killed nearly half a million people, just think what an advanced nation might be able to do with these creatures. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • The U.S. military used a bit of discretion when it began field-testing entomological weapons. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted that the weapons still existed (early-1990s). (histclo.com)
  • Historically, smallpox may have been used in the past as a weapon, both by throwing corpses into the battlefield, or supplying American Indians with contaminated blankets. (springer.com)
  • Smallpox was used as a biological weapon several times during the colonization of the Americas. (faqs.org)
  • We extracted some "highlights" from "Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective," (see the bibliography ), written by experts from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (whyfiles.org)
  • In 2004, the focus of the process will shift to enhancing international capabilities for responding to, investigating and mitigating the effects of cases of alleged use of biological weapons or suspicious outbreaks of disease, and to strengthening national and international efforts against infectious diseases. (goodnewsagency.org)
  • We expect our success with vaccine and therapeutic product candidates for use against serious infectious disease agents with weapon potential, such as plague bacillus, to be of interest to governments and companies engaged in supplying disease countermeasures. (biodefnews.org)
  • Although 109 states have joined theProtocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons, incendiary weapons have continued to be used at great human cost in conflicts from Africa to Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. (hrw.org)
  • Disarmament, often inaccurately used as a synonym for arms control, refers to the act of eliminating or abolishing weapons (particularly offensive arms) either unilaterally (in the hope that one's example will be followed) or reciprocally. (nato.int)
  • Furthermore, incendiary weapons are prone to being indiscriminate, starting fires and causing casualties over a large area without distinguishing between soldiers and civilians. (hrw.org)
  • Estimates are that over 3,000 prisoners died as a result of infection by these biological pathogens or execution following such infections. (faqs.org)
  • A number of countries submitted reservations when becoming parties to the Geneva Protocol, declaring that they only regarded the non-use obligations as applying to other parties and that these obligations would cease to apply if the prohibited weapons were used against them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ICRC also urges States still holding reservations to the Geneva Protocol to withdraw them, since the prohibition of the use of biological weapons applies in all circumstances. (icrc.org)
  • The Geneva Protocol also introduced the prohibition on bacteriological methods of warfare. (peacepalacelibrary.nl)
  • The various reservations by states parties reduced the Protocol to a no-first-use commitment, thereby eroding the intended aim of prohibiting chemical weapons into that of restricting chemical weapons. (peacepalacelibrary.nl)
  • Human Rights Watch and the Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic call upon states parties to Protocol III to revisit the text of the protocol and to amend its 30-year-old provisions to address more comprehensively the problems of incendiary weapons. (hrw.org)
  • At the close of the diplomatic conference that produced the CCW in 1980, states expressed hope that the new protocol would be a step toward reducing the harm of incendiary weapons. (hrw.org)
  • First, states parties should amend the overly narrow, design-based definition of "incendiary weapon" in order to ensure that the protocol covers the most problematic modern incendiary munitions, such as those using white phosphorus. (hrw.org)
  • An important example of a legal failure to support the protocol occurred at the 1946-1948 International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), just when it might be expected that Imperial Japan would be charged for its chemical and biological warfare (CBW) waged against China from the late 1930s into World War II. (springer.com)