Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae. Most strains have been isolated from the natural environment, particularly soils.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Bacillus megaterium. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.

Isolation and characterization of ColE1-derived plasmid copy-number mutant. (1/196)

The plasmid pBGP120 is a ColE1 derivative that contains elements of the Escherichia coli lac operon and the Tn3 transposon. We have selected and isolated a copy-number mutant of pBGP120. In exponentially growing cultures, the copy-number mutant, pOP1, represents approximately 30% of total intracellular DNA compared to about 5% for pBGP120. Plasmid-encoded beta-galactosidase monomer can represent 50% of newly synthesized protein in cells carrying pOP1. pOP1 is structurally unstable in certain genetic backgrounds and under certain growth conditions, breaking down to a smaller sized plasmid that retains the DNA overproducer phenotype and the Tn3 transposon. The smaller overproducer plasmid, pOP1delta6, is generated by a continuous deletion of sequences located between one end of the Tn3 transposon and a site about 630 nucleotides from the EcoRI site in the beta-galactosidase structural gene of pOP1. pOP1delta6 retains the ColE1 origin of replication but has lost the lac promotor and operator and most of the beta-galactosidase structural gene. pOP1delta6 exists at approximately 210 copies per chromosome in exponentially growing cells.  (+info)

Analysis of the CoIE1 stability determinant Rcd. (2/196)

Multimer formation is an important cause of instability for many multicopy plasmids. Plasmid CoIE1 is maintained stably because multimers are converted to monomers by Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at the cer site. However, multimer resolution is not the whole story; inactivation of a promoter (Pcer) within cer causes plasmid instability even though recombination is unaffected. The promoter directs the synthesis of a short transcript (Rcd) which is proposed to delay the division of multimer-containing cells. Mapping of the 5' terminus of Rcd confirms that transcription initiates from Pcer. The 3' terminus shows considerable heterogeneity, consistent with a primary transcript of 95 nt being degraded via intermediates of 79 and 70 nt. Secondary structure predictions for Rcd are presented. Of four mutations which abolish Rcd-mediated growth inhibition, one reduces the activity of Pcer while the other three map to the rcd coding sequence and reduce the steady-state level of the transcript. RNA folding analysis suggests that these three mutant transcripts adopt a common secondary structure in which the major stem-loop differs from that of wild-type Rcd. A survey of 24 cer-like multimer resolution sites revealed six which contain Pcer-like sequences. The putative transcripts from these sites have similar predicted secondary structures to Rcd and contain a highly conserved 15 base sequence. To test the hypothesis that Rcd acts as an anti-sense RNA, interacting with its target gene(s) through the 15 nt sequence, we used DNA hybridization and sequence analysis to find matches to this sequence in the Escherichia coli chromosome. Our failure to find plausible anti-sense targets has led to the suggestion that Rcd may interact directly with a protein target.  (+info)

Expression of leading region genes on IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9: genetic evidence for single-stranded DNA transcription. (3/196)

The leading region of a plasmid is the first sector to enter the recipient cell in bacterial conjugation. This sector of IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9 includes genes that are transcribed in a transient pulse early in the conjugatively infected cell to promote establishment of the immigrant plasmid. Evidence is presented that the burst of gene expression is regulated by a process which is independent of a repressor but dependent on the orientation of the genes on the unique plasmid strand transferred in conjugation. The nucleotide sequence of 11.7 kb of the leading region was determined and found to contain 10 ORFs; all are orientated such that the template strand for transcription corresponds to the transferred strand. The leading region contains three dispersed repeats of a sequence homologous to a novel promoter in ssDNA described by H. Masai & K. Arai (1997, Cell 89, 897-907). It is proposed that the repeats are promoters that form in the transferring strand of ColIb to support transient transcription of genes transferred early in conjugation.  (+info)

Features of distamycin preferential binding sites on natural DNA predicted using differential scanning calorimetry. (4/196)

The interaction of distamycin with ColE1 DNA was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) taking the helix-coil transition theory of DNA into consideration. Our results here strongly indicate that the affinity of distamycin to DNA, at a low distamycin concentration, depends highly on the DNA sequence, and preferential binding occurs to the sites of four to six successive A-T pairs having two or more successive G-C pairs on both their ends.  (+info)

Monomer-dimer control of the ColE1 P(cer) promoter. (5/196)

XerCD-mediated recombination at cer converts multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers, maximizing the number of independently segregating molecules and minimizing the frequency of plasmid loss. In addition to XerCD, recombination requires the accessory factors ArgR and PepA. The promoter P(cer), located centrally within cer, is also required for stable plasmid maintenance. P(cer) is active in plasmid multimers and directs transcription of a short RNA, Rcd, which appears to inhibit cell division. It has been proposed that Rcd is part of a checkpoint which ensures that multimer resolution is complete before the cell divides. This study has shown that ArgR does not act as a transcriptional repressor of P(cer) in plasmid monomers. P(cer) is unusual in that the -35 and -10 hexamers are separated by only 15 bp and this study has demonstrated that increasing this to a more conventional spacing results in elevated activity. An increase to 17 bp resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in activity, while smaller effects were seen when the spacer was increased to 16 bp or 18 bp. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that P(cer) activation involves realignment of the -35 and -10 sequences within a recombinational synaptic complex. This predicts that a 17 bp spacer promoter derivative should be down-regulated by plasmid multimerization, and this is confirmed experimentally.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca). (6/196)

The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA.  (+info)

Structure of the ColE1 DNA molecule before segregation to daughter molecules. (7/196)

The segregation of daughter DNA molecules at the end stage of replication of plasmid ColE1 was examined. When circular ColE1 DNA replicates in a cell extract at a high KCl concentration (140 mM), a unique class of molecules accumulates. When the molecule is cleaved by a restriction enzyme that cuts the ColE1 DNA at a single site, an X-shaped molecule in which two linear components are held together around the origin of DNA replication is made. For a large fraction of these molecules, the 5' end of the leading strand remains at the origin and the 3' end of the strand is about 30 nucleotides upstream of the origin. The 3' end of the lagging strand is located at the terH site (17 nucleotides upstream of the origin) and the 5' end of the strand is a few hundred nucleotides upstream of the terH site. Thus the parental strands of the molecule intertwine with each other only once. When the KCl concentration is lowered to 70 mM, practically all of these molecules are converted to daughter circular monomers or to catenanes consisting of two singly interlocked circular units.  (+info)

A new colicin that adsorbs to outer-membrane protein Tsx but is dependent on the tonB instead of the tolQ membrane transport system. (8/196)

A new colicin, Col5, was synthesized by an Escherichia coli isolate of human origin from the ECOR Collection. It was unique because it adsorbed to the outer-membrane protein Tsx, but used the tonB rather than the tolQ membrane transport system, which is employed by the only other Tsx-specific colicin, ColK. Col5 was encoded by a 5.2 kb plasmid, p5. It was inducible by mitomycin C, and strains harbouring p5 exhibited quasi-lysis. The bactericidal protein had an M(r) of 56,000.  (+info)

Bacteriocin plasmids are autonomously replicating extrachromosomal genetic elements that carry the genes required for the biosynthesis, immunity, and regulation of bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of competing or closely related strains. These plasmids play a crucial role in the ecology and evolution of bacterial communities by providing a competitive advantage to the producing strain and promoting genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Bacteriocin plasmids can be conjugative, mobilizable, or non-mobilizable, depending on their ability to self-transfer or require helper plasmids for transfer. They often contain additional genes encoding various functions, such as resistance to heavy metals, antibiotics, or other bacteriocins, which contribute to the fitness and adaptability of the host strain in diverse environments.

Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against other competing bacterial strains. They primarily target and inhibit the growth of closely related bacterial species, although some have a broader spectrum of activity. Bacteriocins can be classified into different types based on their structural features, molecular masses, and mechanisms of action.

These antimicrobial peptides often interact with the cell membrane of target bacteria, causing pore formation, depolarization, or disrupting cell wall biosynthesis, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Bacteriocins have gained interest in recent years as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics due to their narrow spectrum of activity and reduced likelihood of inducing resistance. They are being explored for use in food preservation, agricultural applications, and as therapeutic agents in the medical field.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Pediococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that typically occur in pairs or tetrads. These bacteria are catalase-negative and non-motile. They are commonly found in various environments such as plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. Some species of Pediococcus can cause food spoilage, while others are used in the production of fermented foods like sauerkraut and certain cheeses due to their ability to produce lactic acid. They are not typically associated with human diseases, but rarely can cause infection in immunocompromised individuals.

Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, non-spore-forming bacteria. They are part of the normal flora found in the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of humans and other animals. Lactobacilli are also commonly found in some fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

Lactobacilli are known for their ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of sugars, which contributes to their role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and lowering the pH in various environments. Some species of Lactobacillus have been shown to provide health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing infections, particularly in the urogenital and intestinal tracts. They are often used as probiotics, either in food or supplement form, to promote a balanced microbiome and support overall health.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Listeria" is actually the name of a genus of bacteria, but when people use the term in a medical context, they're usually referring to a foodborne illness called listeriosis, which is caused by ingesting certain species of this bacterium, most commonly Listeria monocytogenes. This infection can cause serious complications, particularly for pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. It's often associated with unpasteurized dairy products, raw fruits and vegetables, and prepared foods that have been contaminated after cooking.

Nisin is not a medical term, but a bacteriocin, which is a type of antimicrobial peptide produced by certain bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is specifically produced by some strains of the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and has been shown to be effective against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including those that cause foodborne illnesses.

Nisin is commonly used as a food preservative to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in processed foods such as dairy products, meats, and canned goods. It is also being studied for its potential use in medical applications, such as wound healing and the treatment of bacterial infections. However, it is not currently approved for use as a drug or medical treatment in many countries, including the United States.

"Lactococcus lactis" is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in environments involving plants and dairy products. It is a catalase-negative, non-spore forming coccus that typically occurs in pairs or short chains.

"Lactococcus lactis" has significant industrial importance as it plays a crucial role in the production of fermented foods such as cheese and buttermilk. The bacterium converts lactose into lactic acid, which contributes to the sour taste and preservative qualities of these products.

In addition to its use in food production, "Lactococcus lactis" has been explored for its potential therapeutic applications. It can be used as a vector for delivering therapeutic proteins or vaccines to the gastrointestinal tract due to its ability to survive and colonize there.

It's worth noting that "Lactococcus lactis" is generally considered safe for human consumption, and it's one of the most commonly used probiotics in food and supplements.

Lactococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria commonly found in plants, dairy products, and the oral and intestinal microbiota of animals and humans. These bacteria are known for their ability to ferment lactose and other sugars into lactic acid, which makes them important in food production (such as cheese and buttermilk) and also contributes to their role in dental caries. Some species of Lactococcus can cause disease in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with pre-existing conditions, but they are generally considered to be low-virulence pathogens.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Lactobacillaceae is a family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillaceae are commonly found in various environments such as the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina of humans and animals, as well as in fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

These bacteria are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major end product of carbohydrate metabolism, which gives them the name "lactic acid bacteria." They play an essential role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and have been associated with various health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing harmful bacterial overgrowth.

Some well-known genera within the family Lactobacillaceae include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella. It is important to note that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of these bacteria, and some genera previously classified within Lactobacillaceae are now placed in other families within the order Lactobacillales.

Enterococcus faecalis is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. It is a type of enterococci that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.

E. faecalis is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and resist various antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. It can also form biofilms, which further increase its resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. Accurate identification and appropriate treatment of E. faecalis infections are essential to prevent complications and ensure positive patient outcomes.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that naturally occurs in the human body, particularly in the mouth, intestines, and vagina. It is a type of lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that converts sugars into lactic acid as part of its metabolic process.

In the intestines, Lactobacillus acidophilus helps maintain a healthy balance of gut flora by producing bacteriocins, which are natural antibiotics that inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also helps in the digestion and absorption of food, produces vitamins (such as vitamin K and some B vitamins), and supports the immune system.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used as a probiotic supplement to help restore or maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria, particularly after taking antibiotics or in cases of gastrointestinal disturbances. It can be found in fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and some cheeses.

It's important to note that while Lactobacillus acidophilus has many potential health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Enterococcus faecium is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. It is a member of the family Enterococcaceae and is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments, including those with high salt concentrations, low pH levels, and the presence of antibiotics.

E. faecium is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in healthcare settings such as hospitals and long-term care facilities. It can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and intra-abdominal infections. E. faecium is resistant to many antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism.

E. faecium is also a potential threat as a bioterrorism agent due to its ability to survive outside the host and cause disease. However, it is not considered a high-risk agent because it is not easily transmitted from person to person and is not highly virulent. Nonetheless, appropriate infection control measures are important to prevent the spread of E. faecium in healthcare settings.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

"Gram-positive asporegenous rods" is a term used to describe a specific shape and staining characteristic of certain types of bacteria. Here's the medical definition:

Gram-positive: These are bacteria that appear purple or violet when subjected to a Gram stain, a laboratory technique used to classify bacteria based on their cell wall structure. In this method, a primary stain (crystal violet) is applied, followed by a mordant (a substance that helps the dye bind to the bacterial cell). Then, a decolorizer (alcohol or acetone) is used to wash away the primary stain from the Gram-negative bacteria, leaving them unstained. A counterstain (safranin or fuchsin) is then applied, which stains the decolorized Gram-negative bacteria pink or red. However, Gram-positive bacteria retain the primary stain and appear purple or violet.

Asporegenous: These are bacteria that do not form spores under any conditions. Spores are a dormant, tough, and highly resistant form of bacterial cells that can survive extreme environmental conditions. Asporegenous bacteria lack this ability to form spores.

Rods: This term refers to the shape of the bacteria. Rod-shaped bacteria are also known as bacilli. They are longer than they are wide, and their size may vary from 0.5 to several micrometers in length and about 0.2 to 1.0 micrometer in width.

Examples of Gram-positive asporegenous rods include species from the genera Listeria, Corynebacterium, and Bacillus (some strains). These bacteria can cause various diseases, ranging from foodborne illnesses to severe skin and respiratory infections.

Propionibacterium is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and in the mouth, intestines, and genitourinary tract of humans and animals. They are named after their ability to produce propionic acid as a major metabolic end product. Some species of Propionibacterium, such as P. acnes, are associated with skin conditions like acne vulgaris, where they contribute to the inflammatory response that leads to the formation of pimples and lesions. Other species, such as P. freudenreichii, are used in the food industry for the production of dairy products like Swiss cheese and yogurt. Propionibacterium species are generally considered to be non-pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens, meaning that they can cause infection under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is compromised.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Extrachromosomal inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information that occurs outside of the chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell nucleus that typically contain and transmit genetic material. This type of inheritance is relatively rare and can involve various types of genetic elements, such as plasmids or transposons.

In extrachromosomal inheritance, these genetic elements can replicate independently of the chromosomes and be passed on to offspring through mechanisms other than traditional Mendelian inheritance. This can lead to non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, where traits do not follow the expected dominant or recessive patterns.

One example of extrachromosomal inheritance is the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than on the chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles that produce energy for the cell, and they contain their own small circular genome that is inherited maternally. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases.

Overall, extrachromosomal inheritance is an important area of study in genetics, as it can help researchers better understand the complex ways in which genetic information is transmitted and expressed in living organisms.

Cloacin is not a medical term, but rather a bacteriocin (a type of antibacterial protein) produced by some strains of the bacteria *Escherichia coli* (E. coli). Bacteriocins are proteins that can inhibit the growth of other closely related bacterial strains. Cloacin is specifically produced by certain strains of E. coli and targets other E. coli strains that are sensitive to its effects. It works by forming pores in the cell membrane of susceptible bacteria, leading to their death.

It's important to note that while cloacin is a bacteriocin produced by some E. coli strains, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or disease.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Pyocins are protein-based bacteriocins produced by certain strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are plasmid-encoded bacterial toxins that are released by the producing cell and can kill other susceptible bacteria, providing a competitive advantage in their environment. Pyocins are similar to bacteriophage tails and they bind to specific receptors on the target cell surface, forming pores in the membrane and causing cell death. There are three main types of pyocins: narrow-spectrum pyocins (PyoA, PyoD), middle-spectrum pyocins (PyoS), and wide-spectrum pyocins (PyoM).

Mitomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic derived from Streptomyces caespitosus. It is used in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, head and neck cancers, and sensitive skin cancers like squamous cell carcinoma. Mitomycin works by forming cross-links in DNA, which prevents DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell death. It is often administered through intravenous injection or topically during surgery for local treatment of certain cancers. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potential myelosuppression (decrease in blood cells).

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Colicins are a type of protein produced by certain strains of bacteria, specifically Escherichia coli (E. coli). They have antibacterial properties and function by punching holes in the membranes of other bacterial cells, leading to their death. Colicins are plasmid-encoded bacteriocins, which means they are encoded on plasmids, small circular DNA molecules that can exist independently of the chromosomal DNA.

Colicins are produced by E. coli as a defense mechanism against other competing bacteria in their environment. They are released when the producing cell dies or undergoes programmed cell death (PCD), also known as bacterial suicide. Once released, colicins can bind to specific receptors on the surface of sensitive target cells and enter them through the membrane.

Once inside the target cell, colicins disrupt the cell's functions by interacting with essential proteins or nucleic acids. They can act in various ways, such as cleaving DNA, inhibiting protein synthesis, or creating pores in the membrane that allow for the leakage of essential molecules and ions, ultimately leading to the death of the target cell.

It is important to note that colicins are not harmful to humans or animals and have been studied as potential therapeutic agents against bacterial infections. However, their use as antibiotics has not yet been approved for clinical use due to various challenges, such as developing effective delivery systems and addressing concerns about promoting bacterial resistance.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Leuconostoc is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. These bacteria are non-motile, non-spore forming, and occur as pairs or chains. They are catalase-negative and reduce nitrate to nitrite.

Leuconostoc species are commonly found in nature, particularly in plants, dairy products, and fermented foods. They play a significant role in the food industry, where they are used in the production of various fermented foods such as sauerkraut, pickles, and certain cheeses.

In clinical settings, Leuconostoc species can sometimes be associated with healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who have underlying medical conditions or who are immunocompromised. They can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, and device-related infections. However, these infections are relatively rare, and the majority of Leuconostoc species are considered to be non-pathogenic.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Antibiosis is a type of interaction between different organisms in which one organism, known as the antibiotic producer, produces a chemical substance (known as an antibiotic) that inhibits or kills another organism, called the susceptible organism. This phenomenon was first discovered in bacteria and fungi, where certain species produce antibiotics to inhibit the growth of competing species in their environment.

The term "antibiosis" is derived from Greek words "anti" meaning against, and "biosis" meaning living together. It is a natural form of competition that helps maintain the balance of microbial communities in various environments, such as soil, water, and the human body.

In medical contexts, antibiosis refers to the use of antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthesized artificially that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms. The discovery and development of antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives from bacterial infections that were once fatal.

However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be killed or inhibited by conventional antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that requires urgent attention and action from healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public.

"Listeria monocytogenes" is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of foodborne illness. It is widely distributed in the environment and can be found in water, soil, vegetation, and various animal species. This pathogen is particularly notable for its ability to grow at low temperatures, allowing it to survive and multiply in refrigerated foods.

In humans, Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection known as listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The bacterium can cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream, and spread to the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis. Pregnant women infected with Listeria monocytogenes may experience mild flu-like symptoms but are at risk of transmitting the infection to their unborn children, which can result in stillbirth, premature delivery, or severe illness in newborns.

Common sources of Listeria monocytogenes include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood; unpasteurized dairy products; and ready-to-eat foods like deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. Proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent listeriosis.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Lactobacillus plantarum is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly found in a variety of environments, including fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, and sourdough bread, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Lactobacillus plantarum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help to preserve food and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds that can help to protect against pathogens in the gut.

In addition to its use in food preservation and fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed, including improving digestive health, enhancing the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain diseases.

Research has suggested that Lactobacillus plantarum may have a range of potential health benefits, including:

* Improving gut barrier function and reducing inflammation in the gut
* Enhancing the immune system and reducing the risk of infections
* Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal disorders
* Reducing the risk of allergies and asthma
* Improving oral health by reducing plaque and preventing tooth decay

However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum and to determine its safety and effectiveness as a probiotic supplement.

"Brevibacillus" is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. These rod-shaped bacteria are known for their ability to produce endospores, which allow them to survive in harsh conditions. Some species of Brevibacillus have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, the clinical significance of these infections is not well understood and further research is needed to fully characterize the pathogenic potential of this genus.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Pectobacterium carotovorum is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including potatoes, carrots, and other vegetables. They produce pectinases, which are enzymes that break down pectin, a component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of the plant tissue.

The bacteria can enter the plant through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata, and spread systemically throughout the plant. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through contaminated seeds, tools, and equipment. The diseases caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum can result in significant economic losses for farmers and the produce industry.

In humans, Pectobacterium carotovorum is not considered a pathogen and does not cause disease. However, there have been rare cases of infection associated with contaminated food or water, which can lead to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These infections are typically self-limiting and do not require antibiotic treatment.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Megacins" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It's possible there may be a spelling mistake or it could be a specific term used within a certain context or research. If you have more information or context about where this term came from, I'd be happy to try and provide more details.

Enterococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the normal gut microbiota but can also cause a variety of infections, particularly in hospital settings. Enterococci are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments and can be resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat. Some species, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are more commonly associated with human infections.

In medical terms, an "Enterococcus infection" refers to an infection caused by any species of the Enterococcus genus. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, bloodstream, and abdominal cavity. They can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and pain, depending on the location of the infection. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Enterococcus species, although resistance to multiple antibiotics is a growing concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replicon" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term that is used in the field of molecular biology, where it refers to a segment of DNA that contains an origin of replication. The origin of replication is the site on the DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. This concept is important in the fields of genetics and virology, but it is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine.

If you have any questions related to the medical field, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

I'm not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "F factor." It is possible that it could be a term specific to certain medical specialties, research, or publications. In order to provide an accurate and helpful response, I would need more context or information about where you encountered this term.

If you meant to ask about the F-plasmid, which is sometimes referred to as the "F factor" in bacteriology, it is a type of plasmid that can be found in certain strains of bacteria and carries genes related to conjugation (the process by which bacteria transfer genetic material between each other). The F-plasmid can exist as an independent circular DNA molecule or integrate into the chromosome of the host bacterium.

If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context so I can give a better answer.

Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
Biotyping, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, plasmid analysis, and ribotyping can also be used. Most strains of S. marcescens ...
Kerry-Williams, S.M.; Noble, W.C. (1984). "Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production in a JK-type coryneform bacterium". FEMS ... Kerry-Williams, S. M.; Noble, W. C. (2009). "Plasmids in group JK coryneform bacteria isolated in a single hospital". Journal ... Some species produce metabolites similar to antibiotics: bacteriocins of the corynecin-linocin type, antitumor agents, etc. One ... Kono, M.; Sasatsu, M.; Aoki, T. (1983). "R Plasmids in Corynebacterium xerosis Strains". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ...
Col plasmids, which contain genes that code for bacteriocins, proteins that can kill other bacteria. Degradative plasmids, ... Plasmids can be broadly classified into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids contain a set ... Many plasmids have been created over the years and researchers have given out plasmids to plasmid databases such as the non- ... Virulence plasmids, which turn the bacterium into a pathogen. e.g. Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Plasmids can belong ...
Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins ... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ...
"Molecular structure and function of the bacteriocin gene and bacteriocin protein of plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Res. 11 (8 ... The two general classes of colicinogenic plasmids are large, low-copy-number plasmids, and small, high-copy-number plasmids. ... Retaining the colicin plasmid is very important for cells that live with their relatives, because if a cell loses the immunity ... The larger plasmids carry other genes, as well as the colicin operon. The colicin operons are generally organized with several ...
... s, also known as bacteriocinogenic plasmids, are bacterial plasmids that direct the synthesis of bacteriocins, ... Normally the bacteriocinogen is repressed and doesn't express bacteriocin, but under certain conditions the plasmid is ... Wiley,USA v t e (Orphaned articles from August 2015, All orphaned articles, Plasmids, All stub articles, Microbiology stubs). ... "In vitro construction of deletion mutants of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Research. 5 (6): 1801-20. ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... though it lacks sequence homology with bacteriocins AS-48. Bacteriocin uses components of the mannose phosphotransferase system ... Bacteriocin AS-48 is a cyclic peptide antibiotic produced by the eubacteria Enterococcus faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis) that ... González C, Langdon GM, Bruix M, Gálvez A, Valdivia E, Maqueda M, Rico M (October 2000). "Bacteriocin AS-48, a microbial cyclic ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... Bacteriocins for which disulfide bonds are the only modification to the peptide are Class II bacteriocins. One important and ... The class IIb bacteriocins (two-peptide bacteriocins) require two different peptides for activity. It includes the alpha ... Class II bacteriocins are a class of small peptides that inhibit the growth of various bacteria. Many Gram-positive bacteria ...
... large plasmids, small plasmids, chromosomal), molecular weight and chemistry (large protein, peptide, with/without sugar moiety ... Colicins are bacteriocins found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins (CLBs, colicin-like bacteriocins) occur in ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacteriocin. Bagel Bacteriocin Database BACTIBASE Database Bacteriocins at the U.S. ... They are the longest studied bacteriocins. They are a diverse group of bacteriocins and do not include all the bacteriocins ...
This sample did not contain any plasmids. The most extensively studied strain, L. rhamnosus GG, a gut isolate, consists of a ... bacteriocin production, pili production, the CRISPR-Cas system, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat ( ... CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements such as phages, plasmid genes, and ...
... and Plasmid Profiles". Phytopathology. 88 (11): 1179-86. doi:10.1094/phyto.1998.88.11.1179. PMID 18944851. Bouarab, edited by ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ...
The T-DNA must be cut out of the circular plasmid. This is typically done by the Vir genes within the helper plasmid. A VirD1/ ... K84 produces a bacteriocin (agrocin 84) which is an antibiotic specific against related bacteria, including A. tumefaciens. ... The two plasmids are pTiC58, responsible for the processes involved in virulence, and pAtC58, once dubbed the "cryptic" plasmid ... "At plasmid" when talking about related plasmids Smith EF, Townsend CO (April 1907). "A Plant-Tumor of Bacterial Origin". ...
Many lactobacilli also contain multiple plasmids. A recent study has revealed that plasmids encode the genes which are required ... The antibacterial and antifungal activity of lactobacilli relies on production of bacteriocins and low molecular weight ... Davray D, Deo D, Kulkarni R (November 2020). "Plasmids encode niche-specific traits in Lactobacillaceae". Microbial Genomics. 7 ... Lactobacilli produce bacteriocins to suppress pathogenic growth of certain bacteria, as well as lactic acid and H2O2 (hydrogen ...
This genome has one circular chromosome and two plasmids. The two plasmids found in the genome are pGD01 and pGD02 which ... produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen". Research in Microbiology. 153 (6): 345-351. doi ...
Plasmid pBCE4810 shares homology with the B. anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1, which encodes the anthrax toxin. Periodontal ... Naclerio G, Ricca E, Sacco M, De Felice M (December 1993). "Antimicrobial activity of a newly identified bacteriocin of ... structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1". BMC Microbiology. 6: 20. ... It was shown independently by two research groups to be encoded on multiple plasmids: pCERE01 or pBCE4810. ...
These conjugative plasmids carry a number of genes that can be assembled and rearranged, which could then enable bacteria to ... Another research team was able to use bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial ... Bennett, P M (March 2008). "Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ...
Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
Genes for bacteriocins may reside on plasmids.. Read more about this term in the Online Textbook:. Emerging Infectious Diseases ... Bacteriocin. Proteins produced by some bacteria, which inhibit the growth of other strains of the same organism or related ... A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ... A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ...
Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. Hemolysin causes lysis of ... Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. This substance ... human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. This protein has been ...
The bacteriocin-producing cultures were also characterized on the basis of plasmid content. All strains had 2 to 7 plasmids ... The frequency of bacteriocin production ranged from 2% in L. lactis subsp. cremoris up to 12% in L. lactis subsp. lactis. ... Among thirteen bacteriocin-producing strains and two nisin-producing strains (L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 and L. lactis ... One hundred sixty seven strains of Lactococcus lactis were screened for bacteriocin production by well diffusion assay of GM17 ...
Conjugal transfer and characterization of bacteriocin plasmids in group N (lactic acid) streptococci. Journal of bacteriology ... Strains, plasmids and bacteriophage used in sub-typing examples Strains, plasmids or phage Relevant features Reference/source ... into the nisin-inducible plasmid pPTPi, thereby generating plasmid pPTPiC2. The latter plasmid was then introduced into L. ... Plasmids pJP005 pNZ8048 containing recA (26, 27) pPTPi E. coli-L. lactis shuttle vector, PnisA, Tetr (20) pPTPiC2 pPTPi ...
Keywords: COLICIN E9, IMMUNITY PROTEIN IM9, Bacteriocin immunity, Plasmid, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Bacteriocin, Endonuclease ...
Plasmid-determined Bacteriocin Production by Rhizobium leguminosarum. A - Papers appearing in refereed journals ... Conjugative plasmids in Rhizobium. Abstracts ESF Workshop on Plasmid Mediated Gene Transfer, University of Birmingham, 12-15 ... Ecology of plasmid transfer and spread. in: Thomas, C. M. (ed.) The horizontal gene pool: bacterial plasmids and gene spread ... Abstracts 3rd ESF Workshop on Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plasmid-Mediated Gene Transfer, Cuenca, 12-16 September 1997 . ...
Plasmid-determined Bacteriocin Production by Rhizobium leguminosarum. PR Hirsch. Microbiology 113 (2), 219-228, 1979 ... A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. A Hoekema ... Physical Identification of Bacteriocinogenic, Nodulation and Other Plasmids in Strains of Rhizobium leguminosarm. PR Hirsch, M ...
Bacteriocin Plasmids. M - PERSONS. Changed terms. Replaced-by. M01 - PERSONS. Blacks. African Americans. ...
Bacteriocin Plasmids. M - PERSONS. Changed terms. Replaced-by. M01 - PERSONS. Blacks. African Americans. ...
Bacteriocin Plasmids. M - PERSONS. Changed terms. Replaced-by. M01 - PERSONS. Blacks. African Americans. ...
Plasmids- Definition, Properties, Structure, Types, Functions, Examples Microbiology notes Doctor-dr ... Bacteriocin-producing plasmids are known as bacteriocinogenic plasmids.. *These proteins have the capacity to kill bacteria ... 2. plasmid R (Resistance plasmids). *These plasmids carry and transfer antimicrobial resistance genes from one cell to the next ... F Plasmids are a kind of plasmid that may be found in (Fertility plasmids) ...
TrbB from conjugative plasmid F is a structurally distinct disulfide isomerase that requires DsbD for redox state maintenance. ... A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex ... IncP plasmids are most effective in mediating conjugation between Escherichia coli and streptomycetes. Genetika. 2006 May; 42(5 ... Dissemination of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamase genes carried on Inc FI and FII plasmids among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli ...
Emeritus Don Clewell on Introduction to plasmid biology, part of a collection of multimedia lectures. ... Bacteriocins. *Zones of inhibition. *Episome vs. plasmid. *Plasmid nomenclature. *Mating experiment. *Conformation of plasmids ... Introduction to plasmid biology. *Prof. Emeritus Don Clewell - University of Michigan, USA ... Clewell, D. (2023, April 16). Introduction to plasmid biology [Video file]. In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry ...
Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. Hemolysin causes lysis of ... Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. This substance ... human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. This protein has been ...
Abriouel H, Ben Omar H, Lucas R, Martinez-Cañamero M, Gálvez A (2006). Bacteriocin production, plasmid content and plasmid ... a new antilisterial bacteriocin in the pediocin family of bacteriocins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62(5):1676-1682 ... Cintas LM, Casaus P, Holo H, Hernández PE, Nes IF, Håvarstein LS (1998). Enterocins L50A and L50B, two novel bacteriocins from ... Hu CB, Malaphan W, Zendo T, Nakayama J, Sonomoto K (2010). Enterocin X, a novel two peptide bacteriocin from Enterococcus ...
The genetic determinants of these bacteriocins can either be located on plasmids or on bacterial chromosome. Digestion of ... Enterococcus faecium GHB21 plasmids with various restriction endonucleases suggests the presence of two plasmids named pGHB- ... localized on the bacterial chromosome based on PCR-targeted screening using total DNA and plasmids of E. faecium GHB21 as ...
... reduces pheromone-inducible conjugal transfer of the bacteriocin plasmid pPD1 in Enterococcus faecalis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. ... Plasmid 2007, 57, 131-144. *Kristich, C.J.; Manias, D.A.; Dunny, G.M. Development of a method for markerless genetic exchange ... During this time, genetic and molecular studies of both plasmids and trans-spliced genetic material provided an important ... In addition to the factors mentioned above, which are genetically determined, there is also evidence that plasmid-encoded ...
Olasupo, N.A., Olukoya, D.K. and Odunfa, S.A. (1994) Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates form ... Olasupo, N.A., Olukoya, D.K. and Odunfa, S.A. (1994) Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates form ... Olasupo, N.A., Olukoya, D.K. and Odunfa, S.A. (1994) Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates form ... Olasupo, N.A., Olukoya, D.K. and Odunfa, S.A. (1994) Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates form ...
Bacteriocins of Gram-negative bacteria - structure, mode of action and potential applications. U. Błaszczyk, J. Moczarny 2 July ... Microcins are encoded by gene clusters carried by plasmids or in certain cases by the chromosome. In this review, we have ... Bacteriocins from Gram-negative bacteria are divided into two main groups: high molecular mass proteins (30-80 kDa) known as ... Bacteriocins kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Generally, these molecules have a narrow spectrum of antibacterial ...
The bacteriocin-producing cultures were also characterized on the basis of plasmid content. All strains had 2 to 7 plasmids ... Characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis strains Facebook Twitter *Other social networks ... Isolation of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from meat and meat products and its spectrum of inhibitory activity ... Detection and characterization of bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains Facebook Twitter *Other social networks ...
The genome of L. crispatus encodes bacteriocin helveticin and helveticin J, bacteriocin transporters, bacteriocin peptide. ... which provides adaptive immunity to bacteria against invasion of MGEs like phages and plasmids (Bhaya et al., 2011). The type- ... The bacteriocins produced by the different Lactobacillus species help in reducing bacterial diversity in the vaginal milieu and ... WP_005729773.1, WP_181577227.1, WP_150399102.1). It is known that bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides and they are mostly ...
It is proposed that sensitivity to agrocin 84 is due to the presence of one or more plasmid-coded binding proteins which are ... but not the same strain lacking the Ti plasmid; this specificity was investigated. Sensitivity to agrocin 84 was correlated ... Agrocin 84 inhibits a virulent strain of Agrobacterium radiobacter containing a nopaline Ti plasmid, ... isozyme patterns and sensitivity to mitomycin C and to bacteriocin, of pathogenic and non pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium ...
Col plasmids: These plasmids carry genes that produce bacteriocins, which are proteins that kill other bacteria. For example, ... These plasmids are called conjugative plasmids. One of the most well-studied conjugative plasmids is the F-plasmid (F for ... Fertility plasmids (F-plasmids): These plasmids carry genes that allow bacterial conjugation to occur. For example, the F- ... Resistance plasmids (R-plasmids): These plasmids carry genes that confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxic substances. ...
Plasmid Analysis. Figure 2. Figure 2. Plasmid profile (A) and hybridization with CTX-M-9 probe (B) and CMY-2 probe (C). The ... probably due to the donor strains production of a bacteriocin that inhibits HB101; data not shown). ... Plasmid Profiles Analysis. Plasmid DNA was isolated by using a commercial kit (QIAGEN, Inc., Valencia, CA) and subjected to 0.8 ... Plasmid analysis indicated that although distinctive CTX-M-9-encoding plasmids were present in clones A, C, and D, the ...
de Vuyst L., Vandamme E.J. (1994) Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, Blackie academic & professional, Chapman & Hall, ... level and some of these antagonistic qualities may be situated on unused genes or plasmids. Nevertheless, the 16S rDNA sequence ... production of antibacterial peptides or bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide, but further investigation is needed to document ...
In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry ... The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping ... This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).. ... often accompanied by additional small circular DNA molecules called plasmids that confer extra traits like antibiotic ...
... pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics ... the first lantibiotic locus shown not to be exclusively plasmid-associated in S. salivarius. Sal9-containing extracts ... pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics ... pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics ...
All the S. faecalis strains aggregated in response to a cell free filtrate of a plasmid free recipient strain JH2-1, indicating ... The ability to produce bacteriocin was restricted to beta-haemolytic strain K87 and to strain SB94. Subsequent results ... Evidence for the location of resistance, haemolysin and bacteriocin genes was sought from study of the transfer characteristics ... indicated that strain K87 probably produced more than one bacteriocin, the activity of which was repressed in the parental ...
  • TrbB from conjugative plasmid F is a structurally distinct disulfide isomerase that requires DsbD for redox state maintenance. (harvard.edu)
  • Bacteria that have a conjugative plasmid are called donor cells, and they are designated as F-positive (F + ). Bacteria that do not have a conjugative plasmid are called recipient cells, and they are designated as F-negative (F ). When an F + cell encounters an F cell, it extends its pilus and attaches to the surface of the F cell. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • All the S. faecalis strains aggregated in response to a cell free filtrate of a plasmid free recipient strain JH2-1, indicating the presence of at least one conjugative plasmid although the low transfer frequencies of most resistance genes in broth matings suggested that response was not necessarily encoded by antibiotic resistance plasmids. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • In this work, we sought to identify and characterize three strains of Enterococcus isolated from camel milk and fermented wheat, based on the capacity to produce bacteriocins and the probiotic potential. (notulaebiologicae.ro)
  • Polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify bacterial isolates and structural genes of bacteriocins, and also to detect potential enterococcal virulence genes ( cyl A, esp , gel E, efa Afs, hyl , ace , asa 1, van A, and van B). The antimicrobial activity of the strains was investigated in solid media by the agar spot method against several pathogenic bacteria. (notulaebiologicae.ro)
  • Colicins are produced by Escherichia coli strains harbouring a colicinogenic plasmid. (am-online.org)
  • Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). (scielo.org)
  • It is proposed that sensitivity to agrocin 84 is due to the presence of one or more plasmid-coded binding proteins which are associated with transport of agrocin 84 into sensitive strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One of the most well-studied conjugative plasmids is the F-plasmid (F for fertility factor), which is found in some strains of E. coli. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Since Sal9 was inhibitory to all tested S. pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics intended to control S. pyogenes infections of the human oral cavity. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Evidence for the location of resistance, haemolysin and bacteriocin genes was sought from study of the transfer characteristics and stability of markers and from examination of the plasmid content of parental strains and their derivatives. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X. LasX is a transcriptional regulator of the lactocin S biosynthetic genes in strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and sakacin P and the genes encoding the cognate histidine protein kinase and response regulator that are necessary to activate this promoter upon induction by a peptide pheromone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids are useful genetic tools for introducing, manipulating, or deleting certain genes from the host cell. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Selectable marker site - This area contains antimicrobial resistance genes that may be used to identify and select bacteria that carry plasmids. (doctor-dr.com)
  • 2. Non-conjugative plasmids are those that do not include the TRA genes. (doctor-dr.com)
  • These plasmids carry and transfer antimicrobial resistance genes from one cell to the next. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Dissemination of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamase genes carried on Inc FI and FII plasmids among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli in a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. (harvard.edu)
  • Con la llegada de la técnica CRISPR, la posibilidad de corregir, cambiar y eliminar genes de una secuencia de ADN se ha convertido en una posibilidad de la ciencia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasmids carry genes that are different from those in the bacterial chromosome, which contains the essential genetic information for the cell. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • The F-plasmid contains genes that encode for the formation of a thin tube-like structure called a pilus (plural: pili). (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • The observed distribution of resistance plasmids and β-lactamase genes in several clones indicates a high degree of horizontal transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • The genomic islands are represented by a 115-kb integrative conjugative element (ICE) PFGI-1, which shares plasmid replication, recombination, and conjugative transfer genes with those from ICEs found in other Pseudomonas spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most notable are a ~35-kb segment of "cargo" genes in genomic island PFGI-1 and bacteriocin genes associated with prophages 1 and 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our current knowledge of the impact of MGEs on their hosts comes primarily from pathogenicity islands in which bacteriophages, plasmids and transposons act as carriers of genes encoding toxins, effector proteins, cell wall modification enzymes, fitness factors, and antibiotic and heavy metal resistance determinants in pathogenic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In strain CTC 494, the presence of salt and a curing agent (sodium chloride and sodium nitrite) reduces the production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. Growth of CTC 494 is also dependent on nutrients availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin A from Enterococcus faecium, a new antilisterial bacteriocin in the pediocin family of bacteriocins. (notulaebiologicae.ro)
  • The copy number refers to how many copies of the plasmid are present in the bacterial cell. (doctor-dr.com)
  • The ability of two distinct plasmids to live in the same bacterial cell is referred to as plasmid compatibility. (doctor-dr.com)
  • The other methods by which the plasmids can be transferred are transduction and bacterial transformation. (doctor-dr.com)
  • A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI. (harvard.edu)
  • The genetic material that is transferred through bacterial conjugation is a small circular piece of DNA called a plasmid. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Bacterial conjugation can occur between bacteria of the same or different species, as long as they have compatible plasmids. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Not all plasmids can be transferred by bacterial conjugation. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • The Ti plasmid, for example, is a virulence plasmid found in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria that causes crown gall disease in plants. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Olasupo, N.A., Olukoya, D.K. and Odunfa, S.A. (1994) 'Plasmid profiles of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus isolates form African fermented foods', Folia Microbiology 39: 181-6. (practicalactionpublishing.com)
  • IncP plasmids are most effective in mediating conjugation between Escherichia coli and streptomycetes. (harvard.edu)
  • Bacteriocins are a diverse group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins secreted by bacteria, which help them to compete in their local environments for the limited nutritional resources. (am-online.org)
  • These peptides are broadly classified based on their synthesis mechanism: ribosomally-synthesized bacteriocins and nonribosomally synthesized peptides (NRPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified, NRPs are produced by large enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, Escherichia coli (E. coli) can transfer plasmids to Salmonella enterica, which can cause food poisoning. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Lactocin S is a bacteriocin produced by strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids can provide bacteria with additional abilities, such as antibiotic resistance, toxin production, or metabolic pathways. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Intriguingly, in contrast to strain 9, the siv locus was chromosomally located in strain JIM8780 - the first lantibiotic locus shown not to be exclusively plasmid-associated in S. salivarius. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • The ability to produce bacteriocin was restricted to beta-haemolytic strain K87 and to strain SB94. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Subsequent results indicated that strain K87 probably produced more than one bacteriocin, the activity of which was repressed in the parental strain but which, in derivatives, could be enhanced by the presence of streptomycin. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriocin-producing plasmids are known as bacteriocinogenic plasmids. (doctor-dr.com)
  • From the donor to the recipient cell, one copy of the plasmid is transmitted. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Then, the F-plasmid in the donor cell is cut at the oriT site and one strand of DNA is transferred to the recipient cell through the pilus. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Furthermore, the incidence of transfer could be variable particularly in the transfer of DS5 erythromycin resistance and all K87 antibiotic resistances which seemed to be dependent on the production of active donor bacteriocin. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Sequencing and analysis of the ( pla ) gene, located on plasmid pPCP1, the answers. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. The TRA gene, which is the transferred gene and is required for plasmid transfer from one cell to another, is found in the majority of plasmids. (doctor-dr.com)
  • 1. Conjugative plasmids - these plasmids are typically found in bacteria and include the TRA (transfer) gene. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Bacteriocin production, plasmid content and plasmid location of enterocin P structural gene in enterococci isolated from food sources. (notulaebiologicae.ro)
  • Microcins are encoded by gene clusters carried by plasmids or in certain cases by the chromosome. (am-online.org)
  • Many probiotic bacteria produce a broad range of effective antimicrobials, including lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. (scirp.org)
  • Bacteriocins from Gram-negative bacteria are divided into two main groups: high molecular mass proteins (30-80 kDa) known as colicins, and low molecular mass peptides (between 1-10 kDa) termed microcins. (am-online.org)
  • Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. (medscape.com)
  • These proteins have the capacity to kill bacteria without Col plasmids, which are closely related. (doctor-dr.com)
  • This bacterium can acquire plasmids that encode for toxin production and virulence factors from other bacteria. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • These plasmids generate virulence factors, which allow bacteria to infect other cells. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Plasmids are double-stranded, self-replicating additional chromosomal structures found in a wide range of bacteria. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Acquisition of tumor-inducing ability of nononcogenic Agrobacteria as a result of plasmid transfer. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Only plasmids that have a special region called the origin of transfer (oriT) can initiate the process. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • Bacteriocins kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. (am-online.org)
  • Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. (medscape.com)
  • These plasmids are generally huge in size and have a low number of copies in the cell. (doctor-dr.com)
  • The presence of these plasmids in the organism allows diverse drugs and substances to be broken down. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Oscillating focus of SopA associated with filamentous structure guides partitioning of F plasmid. (harvard.edu)
  • In this review, we have summarized the most important information about structure and properties of bacteriocins from Gram-negative bacteria, their diverse mechanisms of action and potential application as food preservatives and in livestock industry. (am-online.org)
  • Hemolysin causes lysis of human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. (medscape.com)
  • Bactria with virulence plasmids may infect cells from plants, animals, and humans. (doctor-dr.com)
  • Both cells then synthesize a complementary strand of DNA to restore their plasmids. (pursuitofhealthcare.com)
  • The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. (scielo.org)