Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae. Most strains have been isolated from the natural environment, particularly soils.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Bacillus megaterium. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.

Isolation and characterization of ColE1-derived plasmid copy-number mutant. (1/196)

The plasmid pBGP120 is a ColE1 derivative that contains elements of the Escherichia coli lac operon and the Tn3 transposon. We have selected and isolated a copy-number mutant of pBGP120. In exponentially growing cultures, the copy-number mutant, pOP1, represents approximately 30% of total intracellular DNA compared to about 5% for pBGP120. Plasmid-encoded beta-galactosidase monomer can represent 50% of newly synthesized protein in cells carrying pOP1. pOP1 is structurally unstable in certain genetic backgrounds and under certain growth conditions, breaking down to a smaller sized plasmid that retains the DNA overproducer phenotype and the Tn3 transposon. The smaller overproducer plasmid, pOP1delta6, is generated by a continuous deletion of sequences located between one end of the Tn3 transposon and a site about 630 nucleotides from the EcoRI site in the beta-galactosidase structural gene of pOP1. pOP1delta6 retains the ColE1 origin of replication but has lost the lac promotor and operator and most of the beta-galactosidase structural gene. pOP1delta6 exists at approximately 210 copies per chromosome in exponentially growing cells.  (+info)

Analysis of the CoIE1 stability determinant Rcd. (2/196)

Multimer formation is an important cause of instability for many multicopy plasmids. Plasmid CoIE1 is maintained stably because multimers are converted to monomers by Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at the cer site. However, multimer resolution is not the whole story; inactivation of a promoter (Pcer) within cer causes plasmid instability even though recombination is unaffected. The promoter directs the synthesis of a short transcript (Rcd) which is proposed to delay the division of multimer-containing cells. Mapping of the 5' terminus of Rcd confirms that transcription initiates from Pcer. The 3' terminus shows considerable heterogeneity, consistent with a primary transcript of 95 nt being degraded via intermediates of 79 and 70 nt. Secondary structure predictions for Rcd are presented. Of four mutations which abolish Rcd-mediated growth inhibition, one reduces the activity of Pcer while the other three map to the rcd coding sequence and reduce the steady-state level of the transcript. RNA folding analysis suggests that these three mutant transcripts adopt a common secondary structure in which the major stem-loop differs from that of wild-type Rcd. A survey of 24 cer-like multimer resolution sites revealed six which contain Pcer-like sequences. The putative transcripts from these sites have similar predicted secondary structures to Rcd and contain a highly conserved 15 base sequence. To test the hypothesis that Rcd acts as an anti-sense RNA, interacting with its target gene(s) through the 15 nt sequence, we used DNA hybridization and sequence analysis to find matches to this sequence in the Escherichia coli chromosome. Our failure to find plausible anti-sense targets has led to the suggestion that Rcd may interact directly with a protein target.  (+info)

Expression of leading region genes on IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9: genetic evidence for single-stranded DNA transcription. (3/196)

The leading region of a plasmid is the first sector to enter the recipient cell in bacterial conjugation. This sector of IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9 includes genes that are transcribed in a transient pulse early in the conjugatively infected cell to promote establishment of the immigrant plasmid. Evidence is presented that the burst of gene expression is regulated by a process which is independent of a repressor but dependent on the orientation of the genes on the unique plasmid strand transferred in conjugation. The nucleotide sequence of 11.7 kb of the leading region was determined and found to contain 10 ORFs; all are orientated such that the template strand for transcription corresponds to the transferred strand. The leading region contains three dispersed repeats of a sequence homologous to a novel promoter in ssDNA described by H. Masai & K. Arai (1997, Cell 89, 897-907). It is proposed that the repeats are promoters that form in the transferring strand of ColIb to support transient transcription of genes transferred early in conjugation.  (+info)

Features of distamycin preferential binding sites on natural DNA predicted using differential scanning calorimetry. (4/196)

The interaction of distamycin with ColE1 DNA was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) taking the helix-coil transition theory of DNA into consideration. Our results here strongly indicate that the affinity of distamycin to DNA, at a low distamycin concentration, depends highly on the DNA sequence, and preferential binding occurs to the sites of four to six successive A-T pairs having two or more successive G-C pairs on both their ends.  (+info)

Monomer-dimer control of the ColE1 P(cer) promoter. (5/196)

XerCD-mediated recombination at cer converts multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers, maximizing the number of independently segregating molecules and minimizing the frequency of plasmid loss. In addition to XerCD, recombination requires the accessory factors ArgR and PepA. The promoter P(cer), located centrally within cer, is also required for stable plasmid maintenance. P(cer) is active in plasmid multimers and directs transcription of a short RNA, Rcd, which appears to inhibit cell division. It has been proposed that Rcd is part of a checkpoint which ensures that multimer resolution is complete before the cell divides. This study has shown that ArgR does not act as a transcriptional repressor of P(cer) in plasmid monomers. P(cer) is unusual in that the -35 and -10 hexamers are separated by only 15 bp and this study has demonstrated that increasing this to a more conventional spacing results in elevated activity. An increase to 17 bp resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in activity, while smaller effects were seen when the spacer was increased to 16 bp or 18 bp. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that P(cer) activation involves realignment of the -35 and -10 sequences within a recombinational synaptic complex. This predicts that a 17 bp spacer promoter derivative should be down-regulated by plasmid multimerization, and this is confirmed experimentally.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca). (6/196)

The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA.  (+info)

Structure of the ColE1 DNA molecule before segregation to daughter molecules. (7/196)

The segregation of daughter DNA molecules at the end stage of replication of plasmid ColE1 was examined. When circular ColE1 DNA replicates in a cell extract at a high KCl concentration (140 mM), a unique class of molecules accumulates. When the molecule is cleaved by a restriction enzyme that cuts the ColE1 DNA at a single site, an X-shaped molecule in which two linear components are held together around the origin of DNA replication is made. For a large fraction of these molecules, the 5' end of the leading strand remains at the origin and the 3' end of the strand is about 30 nucleotides upstream of the origin. The 3' end of the lagging strand is located at the terH site (17 nucleotides upstream of the origin) and the 5' end of the strand is a few hundred nucleotides upstream of the terH site. Thus the parental strands of the molecule intertwine with each other only once. When the KCl concentration is lowered to 70 mM, practically all of these molecules are converted to daughter circular monomers or to catenanes consisting of two singly interlocked circular units.  (+info)

A new colicin that adsorbs to outer-membrane protein Tsx but is dependent on the tonB instead of the tolQ membrane transport system. (8/196)

A new colicin, Col5, was synthesized by an Escherichia coli isolate of human origin from the ECOR Collection. It was unique because it adsorbed to the outer-membrane protein Tsx, but used the tonB rather than the tolQ membrane transport system, which is employed by the only other Tsx-specific colicin, ColK. Col5 was encoded by a 5.2 kb plasmid, p5. It was inducible by mitomycin C, and strains harbouring p5 exhibited quasi-lysis. The bactericidal protein had an M(r) of 56,000.  (+info)

Colicins, a class of antimicrobial compounds produced by bacteria, are thought to be important mediators of intra- and interspecific interactions, and are a significant factor in maintaining microbial diversity. Colicins B and M are among the most common colicins produced by Escherichia coli, and are usually encoded adjacently on the same plasmid. In this study, the characterization of a collection of E. coli isolated from Australian vertebrates revealed that a significant fraction of colicin BM strains lack an intact colicin B activity gene. The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. A phylogenetic analysis of the colicin M and B operons and characterization of the plasmids suggested that ColBM plasmids with a truncated B activity gene have evolved on at
Evidence is presented that ColV plasmid-mediated iron uptake, an important component of the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli, is independent of colicin V synthesis and activity. A mutant of E. coli K-12 deficient in the biosynthesis of enterochelin (strain AN1937) was unable to grow on minimal agar containing the chelating agent α,α′-dipyridyl unless it was harboring the plasmid ColV-K30 (strain LG1315). Acquisition of the active plasmid-specified iron sequestering system was accompanied by marked enhancement of pathogenicity in experimental infections of mice. Mutants of strain LG1315 were isolated that were defective in iron uptake due to plasmid mutations. They were unchanged with respect to colicin production, but were significantly less virulent than the parent strain. Conversely, mutants isolated as defective in colicin V synthesis were normal for the plasmid-coded iron uptake mechanism and showed the same lethality for infected mice as did strain LG1315. Furthermore, ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Colicins are plasmid-encoded antibiotics that are produced by and kill Escherichia coli and other related species. The frequency of colicinogeny is high, on average 30% of E. coli isolates produce colicins. Initial observations from one collection of 72 strains of E. coli (the ECOR collection) suggest that resistance to colicin killing is also ubiquitous, with over 70% of strains resistant to one or more colicins. To determine whether resistance is a common trait in E. coli, three additional strain collections were surveyed. In each of these collections levels of colicin production were high (from 15 to 50% of the strains produce colicins). Levels of colicin resistance were even higher, with most strains resistant to over 10 colicins. A survey of 137 non-E. coli isolates revealed even higher levels of resistance. We discuss a mechanism (pleiotropy) that could result in the co-occurrence of such high levels of colicin production and colicin resistance ...
Mindszent - A mindszenti horg sz, G l Istv n a k zelm ltban ritkas gnak sz m t 3,86 kil s m rn t fogott a Tisz n a Kurca-torkolatn l, m lt szombaton pedig egy 9 kil s amurt. Sikereinek titka speci lis etet anyaga.
Horizontal Gene Transfer of a ColV Plasmid Has Resulted in a Dominant Avian Clonal Type of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A Tn5-based transposon bearing the kil gene (killing protein), mediating controlled export of periplasmic proteins into the culture medium, was constructed (Tn5-KIL3). This transposon contained the kil gene of the ColE1 plasmid under the growth-phase-dependent promoter of the fic gene (filamentation induced by cAMP) of Escherichia coli, an interposon located upstream of kil, a kanamycin/neomycin-resistance gene, a multiple cloning site and the mob site. The transposition of Tn5-KIL3 to Acetobacter methanolicus showed a moderate transposition frequency (10(-5)-10(-6)). By insertion of a Bacillus hybrid beta-glucanase (bgl) as a model protein into the transposon (Tn5-LF3) it was shown that the secretion function as well as the gene of the target protein had been transferred to and stably integrated into the chromosome of A, methanolicus, and that the transposition of Tn5-LF3 was non-specific. beta-Glucanase was highly overexpressed and secreted into the medium during stationary phase. Total and ...
How is intermediate-conductance K+ channel abbreviated? i-K+ stands for intermediate-conductance K+ channel. i-K+ is defined as intermediate-conductance K+ channel rarely.
The actions of the opioid agonist U50488H on I-A and I-K were examined in acutely isolated mouse hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. U50488H caused a concentration dependent, rapidly developing and reversible inhibition of voltage-activated I-A and I-K. The inhibitory actions were still observed in the presence of 30 muM naloxone or 5 muM nor-binaltorphimine dihydrochloride. The IC50 values for the blockade of I-A and I-K were calculated as 20.1.9 and 3.7 muM, respectively. In the presence of 3.3 muM U50488H, repetitive stimulation induced use-dependent inhibition of I-A and I-K. A 10 muM concentration of U50488H positively shifted the half-activation membrane potential of I-A by +11 mV, but negatively shifted I-K by -14 mV. These results demonstrate that U50488H can directly inhibit neuronal I-A and I-K without involvement of the activation of kappa -opioid receptors. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights ...
Samsung CAD300MBEC nab je ka do auta pro C170, D520 a dal ern (EU blister) od v robce SAMSUNG m me skladem jen za 99 K . Osobn odb r nebo dod n do 24 hodin kdekoli v R. Nakupte od specialist na mobiln telefony.
He will feel discontent and extended with himself, complain more than usual, and he essay have a laziness, emotional, physical, and spiritual collapse in a way Colicin v synthesis protein shakes. A lazy person tends to delay things or have someone else do the work, thinking that he cannot do it on his own and that his essay is inferior among the others knowledge, and be extended unfit.
Our service is a large database of words. You can use our database for the selection of a name for their company website, and the like. Also, you learn the value of the most unusual words
1 AGGGGTTTTT TGCTGAAAGG AGGAACTATA TCCGGATAAC TACGTCAGGT 51 GGCACTTTTC GGGGAAATGT GCGCGGAACC CCTATTTGTT TATTTTTCTA 101 AATACATTCA AATATGTATC CGCTCATGAG ACAATAACCC TGATAAATGC 151 TTCAATAATA TTGAAAAAGG AAGAGTATGA GTATTCAACA TTTCCGTGTC 201 GCCCTTATTC CCTTTTTTGC GGCATTTTGC CTTCCTGTTT TTGCTCACCC 251 AGAAACGCTG GTGAAAGTAA AAGATGCTGA AGATCAGTTG GGTGCACGAG 301 TGGGTTACAT CGAACTGGAT CTCAACAGCG GTAAGATCCT TGAGAGTTTT 351 CGCCCCGAAG AACGTTCTCC AATGATGAGC ACTTTTAAAG TTCTGCTATG 401 TGGCGCGGTA TTATCCCGTG TTGACGCCGG GCAAGAGCAA CTCGGTCGCC 451 GCATACACTA TTCTCAGAAT GACTTGGTTG AGTACTCACC AGTCACAGAA 501 AAGCATCTTA CGGATGGCAT GACAGTAAGA GAATTATGCA GTGCTGCCAT 551 AACCATGAGT GATAACACTG CGGCCAACTT ACTTCTGACA ACGATCGGAG 601 GACCGAAGGA GCTAACCGCT TTTTTGCACA ACATGGGGGA TCATGTAACT 651 CGCCTTGATC GTTGGGAACC GGAGCTGAAT GAAGCCATAC CAAACGACGA 701 GCGTGACACC ACGATGCCTG TAGCAATGGC AACAACGTTG CGCAAACTAT 751 TAACTGGCGA ACTACTTACT CTAGCTTCCC GGCAACAATT AATAGACTGG 801 ATGGAGGCGG ATAAAGTTGC AGGACCACTT CTGCGCTCGG CCCTTCCGGC 851 ...
The time has finally come, ive been planning this cycle for a while now and its about go down. Cycle: (weeks 1-8) Test E: 500/250/0/0/... Msten: 14/14/
Looking for pantothenyl alcohol? Find out information about pantothenyl alcohol. any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions... Explanation of pantothenyl alcohol
Plasmid ColIb-P9 (Incll) encodes mechanisms which allow it to avoid destruction by type I and type II restriction enzymes during transfer by conjugation between strains of Escherichia coli. A genetic system was developed to analyse these mechanisms. The system relied on measuring Collb-mediated rescue of the restriction-sensitive plasmid R751 (IncPp) from destruction by EcoKI (type I) and EcoRI (type II). One Collb mechanism was known to involve a plasmid-encoded antirestriction gene known as ardA, the product of which is active against type I enzymes. Tests for alleviation of EcoKI restriction of R751, showed strong protection by a co-transferring Collb (Ard+) plasmid, slight protection when Collb was resident in the recipient and no effect when Collb was immobilised in the donor by removal of its nic site. Hence, expression of ardA is activated in the recipient cell following transfer no detectable transfer of the ArdA protein occurs from the donor to the recipient. The ardA gene is found in ...
Kilómetro 658 (Río Primero, Córdoba, Argentina) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
This work has studied colicin translocation by using a periplasmic protection assay combined with an in vivo lux-reporter assay and a potassium release assay. Expressing the translocation domain of colicin A in the periplasm and challenging the cells with external colicins showed that the translocation of group A colicins is inhibited as it requires an interaction with the Tol system. Surprisingly, the TolA protein was found to play the major role during the translocation of both ColA and the endonuclease colicin E9 even though the latter colicin has no direct interaction with the TolA protein. This study also suggests that the interaction with TolB is important for both colicins A and E9. Moreover, a series of ColA constructs with a truncated T domain were made by site directed mutagenesis to define the important residues of the TolA and TolB boxes for their interaction with Tol proteins. The results showed that tyrosine 58 residue of the TolA box of colicin A is essential for TolA binding, ...
pRV500 is, to our knowledge, the first plasmid of L. sakei to be entirely sequenced. Careful sequence analysis showed that pRV500 belongs to the pUCL287 family, itself related to class A theta-type plasmids of the pUCL22 and pSC101 families. Experimental evidence of the theta replication mode was obtained for pUCL287 itself (2). Although the minimum length of the pRV500 oriA region remains to be determined, it is likely to involve the same two kinds of DNA repeats as other pUCL287-type plasmids. The involvement of repetitive sequences of 22 bp (iterons) as a target for binding of the Rep protein was demonstrated for pSBO1 (40), and the upstream 11-bp repeated sequences were observed to be essential for pUCL287 replication (3).. Like other plasmids (14, 49), pRV500 appears to be a composite structure containing DNA segments from different sources. Some ORFs are shared by plasmids from both subfamilies pUCL22 and pUCL287; this applies to orf6 in pRV500 and ORFs of unknown function around the gene ...
Colicin E1 induces the efflux of carboxyfluorescein and calcein from liposomes whose phospholipid composition is similar to that of Escherichia coli. This colicin action takes place at protein-to-liposome ratios and within pH ranges that are physiologically meaningful. Colicin-induced permeability of carboxyfluorescein is not limited to the initial phase of colicin membrane interaction but is sustained thereafter. Colicin E1 requires negatively charged phospholipids in the liposomal membrane in order to bind and induce efflux.
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Linear diagram showing the approximate lengths of whole colicin Ia and the four carboxy-terminal fragments, CT-S, CT-M, CT-L, and CT-XL. The boundaries of the T
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Theunissen TW, van Oosten AL, Castelo-Branco G, Hall J, Smith A, Silva JC. Nanog overcomes reprogramming barriers and induces pluripotency in minimal conditions, Current biology : CB. 2010-12-30 Glass E, Meyer F, Gilbert JA, Field D, Hunter S, Kottmann R, Kyrpides N, Sansone S, Schriml L, Sterk P, White O, Wooley J. Meeting Report from the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Workshop 10, Standards in genomic sciences. 2010-12-25 Johnson TJ, Thorsness JL, Anderson CP, Lynne AM, Foley SL, Han J, Fricke WF, McDermott PF, White DG, Khatri M, Stell AL, Flores C, Singer RS. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, PloS one. 2010-12-22 Marques SM, Petushkov VN, Rodionova NS, da Silva JC. LC-MS and microscale NMR analysis of luciferin-related compounds from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota, Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology. 2010-12-21 Santos MJ, Fernandes D, Capela S, da Silva JC, ...
The segregational stability of bacterial, low-copy-number plasmids is promoted primarily by active partition. The plasmid-specified components of the prototypical P1 plasmid partition system consist of two proteins, ParA (44.3 kDa) and ParB (38.5 kDa), which, in conjunction with integration host fac …
The Role of Bacteriocins in Mediating Bacterial Competitive Interactions. Explaining the coexistence of competing species is a major challenge in community ecology. In bacterial systems, competition is often driven by the production of bacteriocins, which are narrow-spectrum proteinaceous toxins that serve to kill closely related species, providing the producer better access to limited resources. Bacteriocin producers have been shown to competitively exclude sensitive, nonproducing strains. However, the dynamics between bacteriocin producers, each lethal to its competitor, are largely unknown. In this study, we used in vitro, in vivo and in silico models to study competitive interactions between bacteriocin producers. Two Escherichia coli strains were generated, each carrying a DNA-degrading bacteriocin (colicins E2 and E7). Using reporter-gene assays, we showed that each DNase bacteriocin is not only lethal to its opponent but, at lower doses, can also induce the expression of its opponents ...
Individual bacterial cells may contain several different types of plasmids and in some cases more than 10 at a time. Plasmids are generally isolated from the bacterial cells in the supercoiled configuration. So far, thousands of different types of plasmids have been isolated. More than 300 different types of naturally occurring plasmids have been isolated from E.coli alone. Though, plasmids are not considered as part of the cells genome, when a bacterial cell divides each daughter cells receives a copy of each plasmid. Plasmids can also be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by the process called conjugation. Plasmids that govern their own transfer by conjugation are called conjugative plasmids but not all plasmids are conjugative.. ...
All Plasmids Achievement in BioShock 2 (RU) (PC): Found or purchased all 11 basic Plasmid types - worth 20 GamerScore. Find guides to this achievement here.
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Plasmids can be submitted in either form. For DNA, aliquot 15 µL of DNA into a 1.5 mL microfuge tube (at a concentration of 0.1 -1µg/µL)...
Günther, A., 1880. Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. A Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Zoology. Rept. Challenger Shore Fishes v. 1 (pt 6): 1-82, Pls. 1-32. ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene, located at chromosome 17p13.1, which encodes for a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor and induces cellular apoptosis. This inherited genetic mutation and/or genetic anomalies have been identified in patients with many types of cancers.. Entry Terms : 6-Mercaptopurine Inactivation Gene Mutation Reagents , Thiopurine Methyltransferase High Activity Gene Mutation Reagents , TPMT Gene Mutation Detection Reagents , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Gene Anomaly, Mutation, TPMT. UMDC code : 24995 ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 5CCH A; 4WY4 A; 1URQ D; 5KJ7 C; 3HD7 B; 5KJ7 D; 4W80 A; 3RK3 B; 2N1T C; 3HD7 D; 3RK3 C; 2YMY A; 2M8R A; 3RK3 D; 1SFC A; 4W7Y A; 2HFE D; 1GL2 B; 1L4A D; 1SFC B; 2KOG A; 1GL2 C; 1GL2 D; 1SFC C; 1SFC D; 2N1T B; 1N7S A; 1JTH B; 3M0D C; 2N1T D; 1NHL A; 4WY4 B; 3KYQ A; 3B5N A; 3VOP A; 5CCH C; 4WY4 C; 2XDJ A; 5CCH D; 4WY4 D; 1N7S C; 3B5N B; 2PP6 A; 3RL0 B; 3PP5 A; 3B5N C; 3RL0 C; 3B5N D; 3RL0 D; 3TSI A; 1KIL A; 5CCG A; 4OH8 B; 1URQ A; 5KJ7 A; 1N7S B; 3RK2 C; 2NPS A; 1KIL C; 2HG5 D; 3HD7 A; 5CCG C; 1N7S D; 1URQ C; 3P8C E; 2NPS B; 2WZ7 A; 2H8P D; 1L4A A; 2NPS C; 2NPS D; 3HD7 C; 3HTK B; 1GL2 A; 3RK2 B; 4N78 E; 1KIL B; 1L4A B; 3RK2 D; 4W7Z A; 1L4A C; 2N1T A; 4LGD E; 1KIL D; 1JTH A; 1T3J A; 4JF7 A; 1URQ B; 5CCG D; 1HVV A; 1XTG B; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 1KTM A; 1Q86 Q; 4I1L A; 1RF1 C; 1EZV D; 3AE9 C; 3BAT A; 2QSI A; 3V5B A; 3A0H E; 3A3Y B; 3AE1 C; 1HBW A; 5AVS B; 3TYY A; 1SQP K; 1YHQ P; 2XV5 A; 2G3A A; 1KQS O; 1NO4 A; 4JQ0 ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4WY4 D; 2HG5 D; 5KJ7 C; 4W7Z A; 3RL0 C; 3RK3 C; 5CCH A; 2PP6 A; 1SFC C; 3M0D C; 1JTH B; 3KYQ A; 3RK2 B; 1GL2 B; 3VOP A; 2M8R A; 2N1T A; 5CCG D; 3RL0 B; 5CCH D; 1N7S A; 1L4A C; 3RK2 D; 3B5N D; 2WZ7 A; 1GL2 C; 3HD7 A; 1N7S B; 1URQ A; 2YMY A; 1KIL C; 3B5N B; 1GL2 D; 5CCH C; 2NPS A; 1SFC A; 3TSI A; 1L4A D; 3RL0 D; 3B5N A; 5CCG C; 1NHL A; 4WY4 A; 1N7S D; 3PP5 A; 4WY4 C; 1L4A A; 1URQ C; 2HFE D; 1L4A B; 1JTH A; 5KJ7 A; 2N1T B; 1T3J A; 1KIL D; 2XDJ A; 2KOG A; 3P8C E; 1HVV A; 2N1T D; 2NPS D; 3HD7 B; 1GL2 A; 4W7Y A; 2N1T C; 4LGD E; 4OH8 B; 3RK3 B; 1KIL A; 3HD7 D; 2NPS B; 1SFC B; 3HD7 C; 4JF7 A; 3RK2 C; 3HTK B; 4W80 A; 1KIL B; 3B5N C; 5CCG A; 1SFC D; 1URQ B; 2NPS C; 1XTG B; 3RK3 D; 1URQ D; 4N78 E; 1N7S C; 4WY4 B; 5KJ7 D; 2H8P D; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 1RF1 C; 1SQP D; 2L91 A; 2Y9Y A; 5AW2 B; 2HG5 D; 5KJ7 C; 1M1J B; 1YQ3 C; 2XNX A; 3L70 D; 1OWA A; 2KI7 B; 2IZ0 A; 1AQT A; 4GOF A; 2KXP B; 2R5D A; 4H44 B; 4JQ0 D; 3KQG A; 3MZW ...
I grew up being taught that no self-respecting potter would ever pronounce the n in kiln but would say it as kil. I ve since run into potters -- amongst many others -- who do say the n . Today I happened to wander by a TV with Antiques Roadshow on and overheard the appraiser use the kil pronunciation -- the first time in years that I ve heard it said correctly. ...
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CORTU : Preferred screening test for Cushing syndrome   Diagnosis of pseudo-hyperaldosteronism due to excessive licorice consumption   Test may not be useful in the evaluation of adrenal insufficiency
Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
SimPlot analysis.Similarity plots with plasmids R751, pBP136 and pB3 as reference plasmids. Each coloured plot corresponds to a specific plasmid depicted in the
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Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary materials 1 mgen-6-353-s001. mix of brief and long-read entire genome sequencing strategies, we were able to assemble total sequences of 44 plasmids, with 16 Inc group F and 20 col plasmids; antibiotic resistance genes located almost specifically within the F group. gene encoding resistance to trimethoprim, PF 429242 tyrosianse inhibitor therefore linking trimethoprim resistance to the additional antibiotic resistance genes within the plasmids. This will allow even narrow spectrum antibiotics such as trimethoprim to act Mouse monoclonal to CD95(PE) like a selective agent for plasmids comprising antibiotic resistance genes mediating much broader resistance, including expressing prolonged spectrum -lactamases (ESBL) which produce resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins - in England in 2017 13?% of bloodstream isolates of were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins [10], while within Europe the pace was 14.9?% [11]. Related rates are reported from the ...
The SCOP classification for the Colicin E3 immunity protein superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
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Please send us 10-50ul of samples with the concentration of 50-100ng/μl.Please do not send us your plasmids in low volume since they tend to evaporate.. ...
Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins ... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ...
Biotyping, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, plasmid analysis, and ribotyping can also be used. Most strains of S. marcescens ...
Kerry-Williams, S.M.; Noble, W.C. (1984). "Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production in a JK-type coryneform bacterium". FEMS ... Kerry-Williams, S. M.; Noble, W. C. (2009). "Plasmids in group JK coryneform bacteria isolated in a single hospital". Journal ... Some species produce metabolites similar to antibiotics: bacteriocins of the corynecin-linocin type, antitumor agents, etc. One ... Kono, M.; Sasatsu, M.; Aoki, T. (1983). "R Plasmids in Corynebacterium xerosis Strains". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ...
"Molecular structure and function of the bacteriocin gene and bacteriocin protein of plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Res. 11 (8 ... The two general classes of colicinogenic plasmids are large, low-copy-number plasmids, and small, high-copy-number plasmids. ... Retaining the colicin plasmid is very important for cells that live with their relatives, because if a cell loses the immunity ... The larger plasmids carry other genes, as well as the colicin operon. The colicin operons are generally organized with several ...
Normally the bacteriocinogen is repressed and doesn't produce its bacteriocin, but under certain conditions the plasmid is ... Bacteriocinogens (bāk-tēr'ē-ə-sĭn'ə-jənz), also known as bacteriocinogenic plasmids, are bacterial plasmids that direct the ... "In vitro construction of deletion mutants of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Research. 5 (6): 1801-20. ... synthesis of bacteriocins, bacteriocidal proteins produced by certain types of bacteria that kill other strains of the same ...
... large plasmids, small plasmids, chromosomal), molecular weight and chemistry (large protein, peptide, with/without sugar moiety ... They are the longest studied bacteriocins. They are a diverse group of bacteriocins and do not include all the bacteriocins ... The class I bacteriocins are small peptide inhibitors and include nisin and other lantibiotics. The class II bacteriocins are ... Colicins are bacteriocins (CLBs) found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins occur in other Gram-negative bacteria ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... though it lacks sequence homology with bacteriocins AS-48. Bacteriocin uses components of the mannose phosphotransferase system ... Bacteriocin AS-48 is a cyclic peptide antibiotic produced by the eubacteria Enterococcus faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis) that ... González C, Langdon GM, Bruix M, Gálvez A, Valdivia E, Maqueda M, Rico M (October 2000). "Bacteriocin AS-48, a microbial cyclic ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... Bacteriocins for which disulfide bonds are the only modification to the peptide are Class II bacteriocins. One important and ... The class IIb bacteriocins (two-peptide bacteriocins) require two different peptides for activity. It includes the alpha ... Class II bacteriocins are a class of small peptides that inhibit the growth of various bacteria. Many Gram-positive bacteria ...
Col plasmids, which contain genes that code for bacteriocins, proteins that can kill other bacteria. Degradative plasmids, ... Plasmids can be broadly classified into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids contain a set ... Many plasmids have been created over the years and researchers have given out plasmids to plasmid databases such as the non- ... Virulence plasmids, which turn the bacterium into a pathogen. e.g. Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Plasmids can belong ...
... and Plasmid Profiles". Phytopathology. 88 (11): 1179-86. doi:10.1094/phyto.1998.88.11.1179. PMID 18944851. Bouarab, edited by ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ...
Col plasmids, which contain genes that code for bacteriocins, proteins that can kill other bacteria. ... Plasmid collectionsEdit. Many plasmids have been created over the years and researchers have given out plasmids to plasmid ... Yeast plasmidsEdit. Yeasts naturally harbour various plasmids. Notable among them are 2 μm plasmids-small circular plasmids ... Plasmids can be broadly classified into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids contain a set ...
Many lactobacilli also contain multiple plasmids. A recent study has revealed that plasmids encode the genes which are required ... The antibacterial and antifungal activity of lactobacilli relies on production of bacteriocins and low molecular weight ... Davray D, Deo D, Kulkarni R (November 2020). "Plasmids encode niche-specific traits in Lactobacillaceae". Microbial Genomics. ... Lactobacilli produce bacteriocins to suppress pathogenic growth of certain bacteria, as well as lactic acid and H2O2 (hydrogen ...
The two plasmids are pTiC58, responsible for the processes involved in virulence, and pAtC58, dubbed the "cryptic" plasmid. The ... K84 produces a bacteriocin (agrocin 84) which is an antibiotic specific against related bacteria, including A. tumefaciens. ... To be virulent, the bacterium contains tumour-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid or pTi), of 200 kbp, which contains the T-DNA and ... tumefaciens infects the plant through its Ti plasmid. The Ti plasmid integrates a segment of its DNA, known as T-DNA, into the ...
Plasmid pBCE4810 shares homology with the B. anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1, which encodes the anthrax toxin. Periodontal ... Some strains of B. cereus produce cereins, bacteriocins active against different B. cereus strains or other Gram-positive ... Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1". BMC Microbiology. 6: 20. ... It was shown independently by two research groups to be encoded on multiple plasmids: pCERE01 or pBCE4810. ...
This genome has one circular chromosome and two plasmids. The two plasmids found in the genome are pGD01 and pGD02 which ... produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen". Research in Microbiology. 153 (6): 345-351. doi ...
These conjugative plasmids carry a number of genes that can be assembled and rearranged, which could then enable bacteria to ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ... Bennett P. M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ... plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China". Springer. 22 (6932-6940): ...
These conjugative plasmids carry a number of genes that can be assembled and rearranged, which could then enable bacteria to ... Another research team was able to use bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial ... Bennett P. M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ...
Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short ... In summary, plasmids harboring bacteriocins give additional advantages for highly virulent and resistant ST131 isolates, ... Determining the Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli ST131 Containing Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmids Using Short- and Long- ... Determining the Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli ST131 Containing Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmids Using Short- and Long- ...
The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1 (59 kb) of Enterococcus faecalis encodes the bacteriocin 21 (bac21) ... resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression ... Insertions into the bacF to bac1 ORFs, which are located in the distal half of bac21, resulted in reduced bacteriocin ... analyses of the bacteriocin 21 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1. ...
Bacteriocin production and resistance to the bacteriocin produced are associated with two plasmids of 40 and 49 megadaltons. ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat.. C Ahn, M E Stiles ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat. ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat. ...
These bacteriocin genes occur at different locations; entL50AB (encoding EntL50A and EntL50B) are on the 50-kb plasmid pCIZ1, ... Complete sequence of the enterocin Q-encoding plasmid pCIZ2 from the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and ... Complete sequence of the enterocin Q-encoding plasmid pCIZ2 from the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and ... Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriocins, Base Sequence, DNA, Bacterial, Enterococcus faecium, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading ...
Lcn972 is a non-lantibiotic bacteriocin encoded by the 11-kbp plasmid pBL1 with a potent antimicrobial activity against ... Segregational stability studies revealed that the recombinant plasmids that yielded high bacteriocin titers were maintained for ... the structural gene lcn972 and the immunity genes orf2-orf3 in the unstable plasmid pIL252 failed and only plasmids with a ... Plasmids constitute the main toolbox for L. lactis genetic engineering and most rely on antibiotic resistant markers for ...
... with another plasmid-encoded streptococcal bacteriocin, streptococcin A-M57 from S. pyogenes, indicating that dysgalacticin ... The dysgalacticin structural gene, dysA, is located on the indigenous plasmid pW2580 of strain W2580 and encodes a 220 aa ... Unlike many previously described bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria, dysgalacticin is a heat-labile 21.5 kDa anionic ... Dysgalacticin is a novel bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain W2580 that has a narrow ...
Strain S22 harbors a 22 kb circular plasmid which encodes putative iron and hydroxymethylpyrimidine/thiamine transporters. ... L261 encodes homologs of a lactococcin 972-related bacteriocin and of a linear azol(in)e-containing peptide gene cluster ... These plasmids belong to the family of theta-replicating ColE-related plasmids61,62,63. Phylogenetic analyses of plasmid RepA ... Plasmid DNA was purified using the GeneJET Plasmid Minprep Kit (Thermo Scientific). Plasmid DNA was linearized with the ...
Bacterial strains and plasmids.All bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. Strains of S. ... The fragments were then cloned into pUC19 to generate resulting plasmids pMM501 and pMM502, respectively. Both plasmids were ... and the linearized plasmids were used to transform S. mutans GS5 (19). Confirmation of plasmid insertions causing gene ... mutans GS5 is modulated by some of the putative bacteriocin immunity proteins expressed by the organism. Since the bacteriocin ...
Sequence and analysis of the 60 kb conjugative, bacteriocin-producing plasmid pMRC01 from Lactococcus lactis DPC3147 ... The completely sequenced pMRC01 plasmid should also provide a useful framework for the design of novel plasmids to be ... the phage resistance and plasmid replication region of the plasmid. The complete sequence of pMRC01 provides important ... The complete sequence of pMRC01, a large conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis DPC3147, has been determined. ...
... in the plasmid copy number and in the plasmid stability was investigated. The pCIZ2 recombinant plasmids constitute narrow-host ... The structural organization of the pCIZ2 replication region is highly similar to those of well-known theta-replicating plasmids ... The sequence analysis of the 7383 bp plasmid pCIZ2 from ,i,Enterococcus faecium,/i, L50 enabled the identification of a DNA ... Molecular analysis of the replication region of the pCIZ2 plasmid from the multiple bacteriocin producer strain Enterococcus ...
... encoding plasmid, the bacteriocin gene-encoding plasmid, pBCNF5603, was completely sequenced. This plasmid has some homology ... the plasmid replication and partitioning region of pBCNF5603 alone was insufficient for stable maintenance of this plasmid. ... For this purpose, bacteriocin production might be important. In this study, as the first step in the genetic analysis of a co- ... Using recombinant plasmids, the rep gene homologous to the PCP63 gene on pCP13 appeared to be functional. Comparative genomics ...
Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short ... Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short ... Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short ... Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short ...
Identification of a new plasmid-encoded sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Listeria innocua 743. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ... Bacteriocin purification.Wild-type and mutant bacteriocins were purified by applying the bacterial culture directly on a cation ... Bacteriocin activity assays.Antimicrobial activity in cultures was determined and quantification of bacteriocins was performed ... The MIC was defined as the concentration of bacteriocin showing a 1-mm zone of inhibition around the well. The bacteriocin ...
Field Isolate Rhizobium Strain Bacteriocin Production Rhizobium Leguminosarum Plasmid Transfer These keywords were added by ... Hirsch, P. R., 1979, Plasmid-determined bacteriocin production by Rhizobium leguminosarum, J. Gen. Microbiol., 113:219.Google ... Brewin, N. J., Beringer, J. E., and Johnston, A. W. B., 1980b, Plasmid-mediated transfer of host range specificity between two ... Dunican, L. K., OGara, F., and Tierney, A. B., 1976, Plasmid control of effectiveness in Rhizobium: transfer of nitrogen- ...
Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying ... These plasmids also contained more mobile elements than other replicons. Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, ... Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. ... many of which were located on the plasmids. The completion of the genome of C. botulinum group III has revealed it to be a ...
NRPS-bacteriocin, NRPS-ectoine). *Located on a plasmid; **Cluster identified as a siderophore - ectoine cluster; ***At least ... Bacteriocins. The number of clusters identified by antiSMASH as bacteriocins varied between one and five in each strain, with ... The distribution of bacteriocin clusters did not follow a particular pattern with respect to genera or species. ... In this study, we used three other tools: BAGEL3 for the identification of bacteriocins [37]; NapDos for the identification of ...
The Lcn972 Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmid pBL1 Impairs Cellobiose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis. Applied and Environmental ... de Jong, A., van Heel, A. J., Kok, J., & Kuipers, O. P. (2010). BAGEL2: mining for bacteriocins in genomic data. Nucleic Acids ... de Jong, A., van Hijum, S. A. F. T., Bijlsma, J. J. E., Kok, J., & Kuipers, O. P. (2006). BAGEL: a web-based bacteriocin genome ... Gajic, O., Buist, G., Kojic, M., Topisirovic, L., Kuipers, O. P., & Kok, J. (2003). Novel mechanism of bacteriocin secretion ...
... yolF plasmid. After EcoRI excision of yolF from pCR-yolF plasmid, the gene was ligated to the EcoRI-cleaved plasmid pGDL48. ... Thus, two plasmids were obtained that contained yolF in opposite orientations. In plasmid pDGL-yolF, the yolF gene is under the ... Plasmid pGDL-yolFC contains yolF in the opposite orientation; consequently, the promoterless yolF gene of this plasmid cannot ... Bacterial strains, plasmids, and growth media.The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. The ...
Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
you get your gene of interest, and cut it out of its DNA, and place it into a plasmid, put that plasmid into bacteria, and have ... 3. Bacteriocin Factors (toxins against similar organisms). 4. Virulence factors (virulence factors against host) ... it only transfers a portion of the fertility plasmid, along with part of its chromosome. so the F- cell has more DNA, but not a ... When a F+ (fertility plasmid) Cell uses a conjugation pilus to connect to another cell, then it transfers it DNA through the ...
Molecular structure and function of the bacteriocin gene and bacteriocin protein of plasmid cloDF13.Nucl. Acids. Res.11, 2465- ... Guasch J.F., Enfedaque E., Ferrer S., Gargallo D., Regué M.: Bacteriocin 28b, a chromosomally encoded bacteriocin produced by ... Pugsley A.P.: The immunity and lysis genes of ColN plasmid pCHAP4.Mol. Gen. Genet.211, 335-341 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Sagik J.F., Suit J.L., Luria S.E.:cea-kil operon of the ColE1 plasmid.J. Bacteriol.153, 1479-1485 (1983).Google Scholar ...
AL109969.1) on plasmid pPCP1.. These 3 new primer sets, designed with the aid of the software component Primer3 (7), were ... AL109969.1) on the pst gene (encoding pesticin activity protein). Pesticin is a bacteriocin that is active against only a few ... To conclude, the successful recovery of several Y. pestis plasmid pPCP1 DNA sequences in skeletal finds from the mass burial ... AL109969.1) at Y. pestis strain CO92 plasmid pPCP1. The sequences obtained from 3 persons remains showed in the pPCP1 sequence ...
What is bacteriocinogenic plasmids? Meaning of bacteriocinogenic plasmids medical term. What does bacteriocinogenic plasmids ... Looking for online definition of bacteriocinogenic plasmids in the Medical Dictionary? bacteriocinogenic plasmids explanation ... bac·te·ri·o·cin·o·gen·ic plas·mids. bacterial plasmids responsible for the elaboration of bacteriocins. ... Synonym(s): bacteriocin factors, bacteriocinogens. bac·te·ri·o·cin·o·gen·ic plas·mids. (bak-tērē-ō-sinō-jenik plazmidz) ...
Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins ... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ...
Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. Hemolysin causes lysis of ... Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. This substance ... human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. This protein has been ...
Lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity were encoded by the 68.0 kb plasmid and bacteriocin production was encoded by the ... 12.4 kb plasmid in L. lactis subsp. lactis MPL114. Lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity and bacteriocin production in L. ... diacetylactis MPD166 strain were found to be responsible for the 61.0 kb, 14.2 and 9.0 kb plasmids respectively. ... Abstract: Genetic determinants of lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity and bacteriocin production in the strains L. ...
A method for promoting plant growth and/or disease resistance comprising applying a purified polypeptide that is a bacteriocin ... Mikesell, P. et al., Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis, Infection and Immunity, 39:371-376, ... a) providing a bacteriocin; and. (b) determining whether said bacteriocin has plant growth and/or disease resistance promoting ... Bacteriocin Properties of Thuricin 17. To ensure that the material being tested was the bacteriocin thuricin 17, bacterial ...
Distinct groups of plasmids correlated with bacteriocin production in Staphylococcus aureus. J Gen Microbiol 136: 1591-1599. [ ...
Bacteriocin, plasmid and pectolytic diversity in Pseudomonas cepacia of clinical and plant origin. J. Gen. Microbiol.110:161- ...
  • The possibility that two bacteriocins are produced is indicated because the inhibitory substances of the mutant strains containing either the 40- or 49-megadalton plasmids have different antimicrobial spectra. (asm.org)
  • it may be possible to develop "superior" Rhizobium strains by plasmid transfers between strains. (springer.com)
  • Genetic determinants of lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity and bacteriocin production in the strains L. lactis subsp. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Plasmid, Genomic, and Bacteriocin Diversity in U.S. Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. (apsnet.org)
  • The identified bacteriocin of Y. fredericksenii 27601 is a protein with specific antibacterial activity on bacteria belonging to the related strains of the genus Yersinia. (muni.cz)
  • My career as a "bioengineer" of microbes took flight 11 years ago when I was recruited by my former mentors, and now collaborators, Colin Hill and Paul Ross to use genetic approaches to manipulate bacteriocin producing strains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1994. Determination of bacteriocin encoding plasmids of Pediococcus acidilactici strains by Southern hybridization. (purdue.edu)
  • Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. (kenyon.edu)
  • The transfer frequencies of each type of plasmid between E. faecium strains or Enterococcus faecalis strains were around 10 −3 to 10 −5 per donor cell or around 10 −6 to 10 −7 per donor cell, respectively, in broth mating. (asm.org)
  • and subsequent studies showed that the hemolysin/bacteriocin trait exhibited by many E. faecalis strains usually involved a conjugative plasmid (4, 6). (springer.com)
  • Plasmids were seen in almost all strains of lactobacilli. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Partial Diversity Generates Effector Immunity Specificity of the Bac41-Like Bacteriocins of Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Strains. (nih.gov)
  • Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens strains from broilers with necrotic eneteritis," VETERINARY RESEARCH , vol. 45, 2014. (ugent.be)
  • The strains and plasmids used or identified in the study are listed in Table 1 . (asm.org)
  • Bacteriocins bacST202Ch and bacST216Ch, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Beloura and Chouriço, respectively, inhibited the growth of a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative meat spoilage bacteria. (sun.ac.za)
  • Graham, D. C. and McKay, L. L. (1985) Plasmid DNA in strains of Pediococcus cerevisiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Nisin, the lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis strains, is undoubtedly the most well-known, studied and characterized bacteriocin and the only one with widespread commercial use in most major food-producer countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The success of nisin has led many research groups in searches for novel bacteriocin-producer strains and bacteriocins over the last years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the Pcc strains produce low-molecular-weight bacteriocin (LMWB). (ncl.edu.tw)
  • A variety of approaches can be employed to identify novel bacteriocins with the most traditional being the isolation of strains and a culture-based assessment of their ability to produce novel antimicrobials which have a broad antimicrobial spectra. (plos.org)
  • This study demonstrated that electroporation-induced transformation is an efficient, reproducible technique for the introduction of plasmid DNA into intact cells of different C. perfringens strains. (illinois.edu)
  • it had no bacteriocin activity against S. mutans or group A Streptococcus indicator strains, and it did not appear in the E. coli periplasm. (elsevier.com)
  • Strains from various staphylococcal species make bacteriocin peptides which are believed to try out important jobs in bacterial competition and provide interesting biotechnological strategies. (bioinf.org)
  • Colicins Ia, Ib and E1, and microcin V, were identified among plasmids that also contained resistance and virulence genes. (rug.nl)
  • To investigate if the potential transmission range of the colicin E1 plasmid is influenced by the presence of a resistance gene, we constructed a strain containing a plasmid which had both the colicin E1 and blaCMY-2 genes. (rug.nl)
  • Attempts to clone the full lcn972 operon with its own promoter (P 972 ) , the structural gene lcn972 and the immunity genes orf2-orf3 in the unstable plasmid pIL252 failed and only plasmids with a mutated promoter were recovered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The implications of these observations for the evolution of bacteriocin immunity protein genes as well as for potential new chemotherapeutic strategies are discussed. (asm.org)
  • i.e., several CSP-induced genes have stress-related roles or participate in the synthesis and transport of bacteriocin-like peptides ( 21 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The pCIZ2 recombinant plasmids constitute narrow-host range shuttle cloning vectors ( E. coli-E. faecium ) that could be very useful for enterococcal genes studies, allowing an easy identification due to their histochemical recognition. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosomes or on plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X. LasX is a transcriptional regulator of the lactocin S biosynthetic genes in strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and sakacin P and the genes encoding the cognate histidine protein kinase and response regulator that are necessary to activate this promoter upon induction by a peptide pheromone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, many of which were located on the plasmids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthesis of colicins is coded by genes located on Col plasmids. (springer.com)
  • Plasmids contain only nonessential genes and replicate independent of the chromosome. (dummies.com)
  • Bacteriocin and immunity protein encoding genes were identified on the plasmid pYF27601. (muni.cz)
  • Sequence analysis of the bacteriocin gene revealed homology to genes of alveicin A and alveicin B, colicins Ia and Ib, S-type pyocin and colicin E1. (muni.cz)
  • My first responsibility in my new bacteriocin-related role was to adapt the tools which I'd employed when creating mutants of Listeria monocytogenes (in that instance with a view to identifying genes involved in stress resistance 2 , 3 ) and apply them to bacteriocin-producing lactococci instead. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of these ColE1 replicons revealed a mosaic genetic structure consisting of a host-adapted conserved region responsible for the housekeeping functions of the plasmid, and a variable region encoding a wide variety of genes, including multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Pasteurellaceae, ColE1 plasmids carried almost exclusively antibiotic resistance genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic resistance determinants, but also a wide variety of genes, showing the huge genetic plasticity of these small replicons. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we detected cryptic ColE1 plasmids in both families with no known genes in their variable region, which we have named sentinel plasmids. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, desirable genes can be inserted into plasmids in bacteria, which can then be used to produce large amounts of important proteins, such as insulin or antibiotics , or be used for waste treatment. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • But the initiation of replication and the distribution of plasmid copies to the daughter cells is controlled by plasmid genes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Many plasmids also have genes responsible for phenotypic expression of the organism. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Brewin NJ, Beringer JE, Buchanan-Wollaston AV, Johnston AWB, Hirsch PR (1980) Transfer of symbiotic genes with bacteriocinogenic plasmids in Rhizobium leguminosarum . (springer.com)
  • pETB contains three copies of IS 257 , which divide the pETB genome into three regions: (i) a cadmium resistance operon-containing region, (ii) a lantibiotic production gene-containing region, and (iii) the remaining part where genes for plasmid replication and/or maintenance are dispersed. (asm.org)
  • In silico analyses predicted 17 transposase genes and a chromosomal locus for lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. (pnas.org)
  • Depending on their characteristics, these replicons are classified as a chromosome (largest replicon containing most of the core genes), megaplasmid (laterally acquired with a plasmid origin of replication and lacking core genes), or a chromid (displays characteristics of both chromosomes and megaplasmids) [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • An operon composed of two genes that encode pre-bacteriocin and a putative immunity protein has been identified. (tudelft.nl)
  • In general, bacterial plasmids can be classified into two groups on the basis of the number of genes and functions they carry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The larger plasmids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules of around 100 kilobase (kb) pairs, which is sufficient to code for approximately 100 genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These plasmids may harbor 6-10 genes and are usually present in multiple copies (10-20 per chromosome). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Individual genes can be inserted into specific sites on plasmids in cell cultures and the recombinant plasmid thus formed introduced into a living cell by the process of bacterial transformation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 2.2-Mb draft genome contains 2,227 predicted protein-coding genes, among which is a region encoding the bacteriocin garvicin ML. No antibiotic resistance genes or capsule-related virulence genes were identified. (nih.gov)
  • The products of these genes are secreted into the culture medium and extracellularly complement bacteriocin expression. (tcdb.org)
  • These plasmids typically carried multiple antimicrobial and metal resistances and virulence genes, transposases and recombinases. (g3journal.org)
  • Cyclic-di-GMP and Cyclic-AMP receptor co-regulate the genes expression of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Genomics investigation of strain 17OM39 revealed the presence of diverse genes encoding for proteolytic enzymes, stress response systems and the ability to produce essential amino acids, vitamins and antimicrobial compound Bacteriocin-A. No virulence factors and plasmids were found in this genome of the strain 17OM39. (wur.nl)
  • Fifteen novel thuricin CD-like gene clusters were identified, based on the presence of TrnC and TrnD homologues in the context of neighbouring genes encoding potential bacteriocin structural peptides. (plos.org)
  • Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriocins can be encoded on plasmids or in chromosomal gene clusters that generally contain all of the genes necessary for their synthesis, modification, and secretion, along with an immunity gene that protects the producer cell from self-intoxication. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chimeric genes encoding the EntP signal peptide (SP(entP)) fused to mature PedA-1 (pedA), with or without its immunity gene (pedB), were cloned into the expression vector pMG36c to generate the recombinant plasmids pMPP9 (SP(entP):pedA) and pMPP14i (SP(entP):pedA + pedB). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The introduction of plasmid DNA molecules via this technique should allow for cloning and transposon mutagenesis studies of those C. perfringens genes involved in antibiotic resistance, and bacteriocin and toxin production. (illinois.edu)
  • cloned in plasmid vectors employed for arbitrary transposon mutagenesis or targeted allelic substitute of chromosomal genes. (bioinf.org)
  • To analyse the potency of the putative bacteriocin operon, the two genes penA-peiA were heterologously expressed in a Lactobacillus sakei host that contains the complete apparatus for gene activation, maturation and externalization of bacteriocins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Carnobacterium piscicola LV17 isolated from vacuum-packed meat produces bacteriocin(s) that is active against closely related lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriocins are proteinaceous compounds produced by many lactic acid bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain species of lactic acid bacteria produce and secrete bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides. (uio.no)
  • There has been an increased interest in lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins because of their potential use as food additives and pharmaceuticals. (uio.no)
  • Plantaricin EF is a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum C11. (uio.no)
  • The vector was transformed into the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus sake Lb790 containing the plasmid pSAK20. (uio.no)
  • Here we briefly review the principal biopeptides (i.e., bacteriocins) of lactic acid bacteria, their main mode of action, the classification, and its biotechnological applications. (intechopen.com)
  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the most favorable microorganisms known for their probiotic properties and for the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds (i.e., bacteriocin, organic acids, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide) with inhibitory action of harmful bacteria growth along with their critical role in food protection and health maintenance [ 1 - 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are divided into three main groups: the lantibiotics, which are modified bacteriocins (class I), the nonlantibiotics, which are heat-stable and unmodified (class II), and a group of large heat-labile bacteriocins (class III). (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the more promising bacteriocin is divercin produced by lactic acid bacteria Carnobacterium divergens [12]. (media.pl)
  • Unlike many previously described bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria, dysgalacticin is a heat-labile 21.5 kDa anionic protein that kills its target without inducing lysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Many gram-positive bacteria produce antimicrobial peptides called bacteriocins ( 4 , 8 , 20 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Mesentericin Y105 is a 37-residue bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides Y105 that displays antagonistic activity against gram-positive bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes . (asm.org)
  • Genetic information not contained in the chromosome of bacteria or archaea is kept as circular double-stranded DNA molecules called plasmids (although some linear plasmids do exist). (dummies.com)
  • One important feature of plasmids is that they can be transferred between bacteria. (dummies.com)
  • Bacteria die releasing their plasmids and other bacteria take them up. (dummies.com)
  • Conjugative plasmids can facilitate the transfer of themselves, other plasmids, and even chromosomal DNA between bacteria. (dummies.com)
  • Carry bacteriocins used to inhibit or kill other bacteria. (dummies.com)
  • Bacteriocins have a narrower range than antibiotics, so they're specifically targeted to particular bacteria. (dummies.com)
  • This is despite the fact that the activity of Nisin against several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria is poor and the availability of many other bacteriocins with significant potential in this regard. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by one bacterium that are active against other bacteria, either in the same species (narrow spectrum), or across genera (broad spectrum). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The idea of modifying bacteriocins produced by Gram positive bacteria was not a new one. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a consequence of the ribosomal nature of these antimicrobials and, thus, the fact that bacteriocin producing bacteria possess a gene which encodes the structural (albeit as yet inactive) peptide, it was recognized that bacteriocins were likely to be more tolerant of bioengineering than classical antibiotics, as the latter are typically generated from small building blocks through muti-enzyme complexes i.e., are non-ribosomal in nature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, in this work we present a useful genetic tool for the detection and analysis of ColE1 plasmids, and confirm their important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance, especially in the Pasteurellaceae family of bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmids are autonomously replicating fragments of extra-chromosomal DNA that can be transferred horizontally between bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmids that exist only as one or a few copies in each bacterium are, upon cell division, in danger of being lost in one of the segregating bacteria. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some important groups of plasmids occurring in bacteria are given below. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In another words, an episome is a plasmid of bacteria or viral DNA that can integrate itself into the chromosomal DNA of the host organism (Figure 2). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Work on plasmids and transposons in the enterococci and in other low G+C gram-positive bacteria has revealed that the general themes of plasmid and transposon function are conserved between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Plasmid-related conjugation in gram-positive, nonstreptomycete bacteria was first reported in 1974 by Jacob and Hobbs (38). (springer.com)
  • Moreover, they are not essential for cell growth since the host bacteria are viable without a plasmid when the cells are cultured under conditions that do not select for plasmid-specified gene products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, several bacteria possess plasmids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The plasmids that are called sex factors control sexual differentiation in bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteriocin-producing bacteria against Clostridium perfringens from domestic animals to determine their usefulness as probiotics. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The feces of cattle and chicken were used as sources to isolate bacteriocin-producing bacteria using the spot-on-lawn method. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The isolated bacteriocin-producing bacteria and/or bacteriocin have the potential to be used as probiotics in the livestock industry. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Hechard, Y. and Sahl, H. G. (2002) Mode of action of modified and unmodified bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are most often large proteins (many are larger that 20 kDa) and their inhibition spectrum is rather narrow, spanning to closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gram-positive bacteria most often produce peptide bacteriocins smaller than 6 kDa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. (asm.org)
  • Some bacteria can kill nearby cells by secreting bacteriocins, a diverse group of proteinaceous antimicrobials. (elifesciences.org)
  • Producing diffusible, secreted bacteriocins may not be an efficient competitive strategy for many bacteria, particularly in certain growth conditions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Up-today the most known bacteriocin is nisin which is widely used in food industry to protect the products against the pathogenic and spoiling bacteria [1,3]. (media.pl)
  • For bacteriocin production the bacteria strain Carnobacterium divergens AS7 was used. (media.pl)
  • Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat. (asm.org)
  • The locations of the genetic determinants for enterocin L50 (EntL50A and EntL50B), enterocin Q (EntQ), and enterocin P (EntP) in the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L50 were determined. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The dysgalacticin structural gene, dysA , is located on the indigenous plasmid pW2580 of strain W2580 and encodes a 220 aa preprotein which is probably exported via a Sec-dependent transport system. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Strain S22 harbors a 22 kb circular plasmid which encodes putative iron and hydroxymethylpyrimidine/thiamine transporters. (nature.com)
  • The completely sequenced pMRC01 plasmid should also provide a useful framework for the design of novel plasmids to be incorporated into starter strain improvement programmes for the dairy industry. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In strain CTC 494, the presence of salt and a curing agent (sodium chloride and sodium nitrite) reduces the production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. Growth of CTC 494 is also dependent on nutrients availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactocin S is a bacteriocin produced by strain L45 of Lactobacillus sakei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. pestis strain CO92 plasmid pPCP1 sequence AL109969.1) on the Y. pestis pla gene (encoding plasminogen activator). (cdc.gov)
  • AL109969.1) at Y. pestis strain CO92 plasmid pPCP1. (cdc.gov)
  • diacetylactis MPD166 strain were found to be responsible for the 61.0 kb, 14.2 and 9.0 kb plasmids respectively. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Plasmid-cured derivatives of this strain were unable to produce curvacin A but were still resistant to the bacteriocin. (nih.gov)
  • Two plasmid replication regions indicate that this strain likely contains plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • Three Mobile Genetic Elements (MGE) were also detected: a linear double stranded DNA bacteriophage (ϕ6423) and two plasmids (pNF1 and pNF2) highlighting the genomic complexity of this strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • This report describes the discovery, purification, characterization and recombinant expression of a novel bacteriocin, referred to as perfrin, produced by a necrotic enteritis-associated netB-positive C. perfringens strain. (ugent.be)
  • The data reported here address the nature of the VanA-related trait in the VRE strain and show that it involves a Tn 1546 -like element ( 1 ) associated with a conjugative plasmid of the Inc18 family. (asm.org)
  • The VRE strain was also hemolytic on horse blood agar and exhibited a bacteriocin activity using E. faecalis OG1X as the indicator. (asm.org)
  • Strain ST15, isolated from soy beans, and identified as Enterococcus mundtii, produces a 3944 Da bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Propionibacterium sp. (sun.ac.za)
  • In bacteriocin assay, the size of inhibition zone around strain 3F3/Δcrp was smaller than that around the wild-type strain 3F3. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • In this work, we have assessed the ability of the bacteriocin Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) gene cluster to behave as a food-grade post-segregational killing system to stabilize recombinant plasmids in L. lactis in the absence of antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of expression vectors such as pTRL1, the Lcn972 gene cluster also contributed to plasmid maintenance without compromising the production of the fluorescent mCherry protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite of it, the Lcn972 gene cluster was not enough to avoid the use of antibiotics to select plasmid-bearing cells right after transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the addition of exogenous CSP did not complement this phenotype, it was determined that the increased tetracycline, penicillin, and triclosan sensitivities resulted from repression of the putative bacteriocin immunity protein gene, bip , which is located immediately upstream from comC . (asm.org)
  • We further demonstrated that the inactivation of bip or smbG , another bacteriocin immunity protein gene present within the smb operon in S. mutans GS5, affected sensitivity to a variety of antimicrobial agents. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the gene organization of pMRC01 suggests that the plasmid can be divided into three functional domains, with each approximately 20 kb region separated by insertion sequence (IS) elements. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Sequencing and analysis of the ( pla ) gene, located on plasmid pPCP1, the answers. (cdc.gov)
  • Oligonucleotides were constructed deduced from the peptide sequence and used for the identification of the curvacin A structural gene curA on a 60 kb plasmid of L. curvatus LTH1174. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmid pYF27601 showed high degree of homology to Col-plasmids and its sequencing revealed gene encoding bacteriocin (1317 bp) and immunity protein gene (338 bp). (muni.cz)
  • However, it harbors the gene for the Abp118 bacteriocin. (uniprot.org)
  • This term is no longer commonly used for plasmids, since it is now clear that a transposon (jumping gene or mobile genetic unit) makes a plasmid into an episome. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The size variation of the plasmid is mainly attributed to defined regions which may be hot spots for gene shuffling. (asm.org)
  • The first gene encodes a 91-residue polypeptide that is exported via a sec-dependent system to give the mature 66-aa bacteriocin. (tudelft.nl)
  • Two transcripts were observed from this region: one comprises the whole operon and is synthesized during the exponential phase of growth while the other, which corresponds just to the bacteriocin structural gene, presents a maximum in exponential cultures but is still present in late-stationary-phase cells. (tudelft.nl)
  • First, dgc gene was amplified by PCR and subcloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector, and to from the plasmid pG-DGC. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Cloning and characterization of a Rhizobium leguminosarum gene encoding a bacteriocin with similarities to RTX toxins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The gene encoding plantaricin A, a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum C11, is located on the same transcription unit as an agr-like regulatory system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of the plasmid-encoded Clostridium perfringens gene for bacteriocin BCN5 was shown to depend in vivo and in vitro on the activity of UviA protein. (pasteur.fr)
  • The genome of Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25745 contains a gene cluster that resembles a regulated bacteriocin system. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genetic determinants involved in bacteriocin transport and regulation are also found in proximity to penA and peiA but the so-called accessory gene involved in transport and the inducer gene involved in regulation are missing. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • in addition, the host became immune to its own bacteriocin, identifying the gene pair penA-peiA as a potent bacteriocin system. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of the restored gene triggered high bacteriocin production in P. pentosaceus ATCC 25745, thus confirming its role as an inducer in the pen regulon. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning and sequencing of curA encoding curvacin A, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174. (nih.gov)
  • Curvacin A is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174 which is a potential starter organism for the production of fermented dry sausages. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus LMG21688 Listeria monocytogenes growth rebound in a food system. (ac.be)
  • Lactobacillus pentosus TV35b, isolated from the posterior fornix secretions of the vagina of a prenatal patient, produced a bacteriocin-like peptide (pentocin TV35b), which is inhibitory to Clostridium sporogenes, Cl. (sun.ac.za)
  • Plantaricin 423 is a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from sorghum beer. (sun.ac.za)
  • A bacteriocin-like peptide induces bacteriocin synthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum C11. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lactacin F is a membrane-active bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii VPI11088 (Laf+). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transformation of Lactobacillus plantarum with the plasmid pTV1 by electroporation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Most of the lactococcal vectors rely on antibiotic resistance markers, namely erythromycin and chloramphenicol, which are needed for cloning and to stably maintain the plasmid during bacterial growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bacterial plasmids responsible for the elaboration of bacteriocins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This antibacterial activity makes bacteriocins a promising substitute or a synergistic component to the currently used antibiotics to overcome the emergency of bacterial resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clearly, more information on plasmid biology and chromosomal genomics of diverse bacterial organisms is required before the hypothesis can be tested. (asmscience.org)
  • Plasmids have been identified in a large number of bacterial genera. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some bacterial species harbor plasmids with no known functions (cryptic plasmids) which have been identified as small circular molecules present in the bacterial DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The functions specified by different bacterial plasmids are usually quite specialized in nature. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial plasmids control resistance to medicines and regulate the synthesis of bacteriocin, enterotoxin, hemolysin, and certain antigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS). (bireme.br)
  • Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, frequencies of four phylogenetic groups, fourteen virulence- and thirty bacteriocin determinants were analyzed in a set of 443 fecal E. coli isolates from diseased pigs and compared to a previously characterized set of 1283 human fecal E. coli isolates collected in the same geographical region. (muni.cz)
  • The E. faecalis cytolysin ( 10 , 23 , 26 ) lyses a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, is usually plasmid encoded ( 22 ), and enhances the virulence of E. faecalis in animal models ( 5 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Large staphylococcal plasmids commonly carry antibiotic resistances and virulence loci, but relatively few have been completely sequenced. (g3journal.org)
  • The deduced BacA protein showed 100% homology to the broad-spectrum antibiotic peptide AS-48, which is encoded on the E. faecalis conjugative plasmid pMB2 (58 kb). (asm.org)
  • Dysgalacticin: a novel, plasmid-encoded antimicrobial protein (bacteriocin) produced by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. (medscape.com)
  • Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The presence of a plasmid-mediated bacteriocin, a protein complex inhibitory to other organisms, was investigated by growing different lactobacilli species together. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Perfrin is a 11.5 kDa C-terminal fragment of a 22.9 kDa protein and showed no sequence homology to any currently known bacteriocin. (ugent.be)
  • Here, we identify an atypical two-protein bacteriocin in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus that is retained on the surface of producer cells where it mediates cell contact-dependent killing. (elifesciences.org)
  • Four in-frame translational fusions to both the reporter proteins beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase support a topological model of LcnD, a protein implicated in the transport of several bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis, in which the N-terminal part is located intracellularly and one transmembrane helix spans the cytoplasmic membrane. (rug.nl)
  • The thermoresistant class II bacteriocins are further subdivided into three classes, namely, IIa (anti- Listeria peptides), IIb (two-component peptides), and IIc ( sec -dependent bacteriocins). (asm.org)
  • This review highlights the practical difficulties with using bacteriocins to control pathogenic microorganisms, and provides an overview on the role of nanotechnology in improving the antimicrobial activity and the physicochemical properties of these peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two peptides constituting this bacteriocin are called Plantaricin E (PlnE) and Plantaricin F (PlnF). (uio.no)
  • Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This bacteriocin has recently been characterized and consists of two distinct peptides, Trnβ and Trnα, which both possess 3 intrapeptide sulphur to α-carbon bridges and act synergistically. (plos.org)
  • Expansion of bacteriocin activity and host range upon complementation of two peptides encoded within the lactacin F operon. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel lactococcal bacteriocin whose activity depends on the complementary action of two peptides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cloning and genetic and sequence analyses of the bacteriocin 21 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1. (asm.org)
  • Complete sequence of the enterocin Q-encoding plasmid pCIZ2 from the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and genetic characterization of enterocin Q production and immunity. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Plasmids constitute the main toolbox for L. lactis genetic engineering and most rely on antibiotic resistant markers for plasmid selection and maintenance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying prophage, was conserved at a level similar to that of the chromosome while the medium-sized plasmids seemed to be undergoing faster genetic drift. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result of mutation and genetic transfer studies, it was determined that all of these characters were encoded by the 65.4 kb plasmid in L. lactis subsp. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Plasmids have played a seminal role in the spectacular advances in the area of genetic engineering. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasmids include genetic factors in cell organelles, for example, mitochondria and plastids, as well as genetic factors that are not found in any essential components of cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic organization and mode of action of a novel bacteriocin, bacteriocin 51: determinant of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (nih.gov)
  • 2008). Cloning and genetic analyses of the bacteriocin 41 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pYI14: a novel bacteriocin complemented by two extracellular components (lysin and activator). (tcdb.org)
  • Perfrin and NetB are not located on the same genetic element since NetB is plasmid-encoded and perfrin is not. (ugent.be)
  • Enterococci and staphylococci are known to exchange genetic information, as was demonstrated previously ( 4 , 26 ) with the transfer of the broad-host-range erythromycin-resistance plasmids pAMβ1 and related (Inc18) elements ( 16 , 20 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • Lcn972 is a non-lantibiotic bacteriocin encoded by the 11-kbp plasmid pBL1 with a potent antimicrobial activity against Lactococcus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complete sequence of pMRC01, a large conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis ssp. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Chimeras of pediocin PA-1 (PedA-1), a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici PLBH9, fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P (EntP), a sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium P13, permitted the production of PedA-1 in Lactococcus lactis. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, dysgalacticin displays similarity in predicted secondary structure (but not primary amino acid sequence or inhibitory spectrum) with another plasmid-encoded streptococcal bacteriocin, streptococcin A-M57 from S. pyogenes , indicating that dysgalacticin represents a prototype of a new class of antimicrobial proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These results suggest, for the first time, that the antimicrobial sensitivity of a bacterium can be modulated by some of the putative bacteriocin immunity proteins expressed by the organism. (asm.org)
  • The present results suggest for the first time that the antimicrobial sensitivity of S. mutans GS5 is modulated by some of the putative bacteriocin immunity proteins expressed by the organism. (asm.org)
  • Class III bacteriocins are thermosensitive proteins. (asm.org)
  • Class IIa bacteriocins are mostly secreted from their producing cell by dedicated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their accessory proteins, with concomitant cleavage of their N-terminal leader sequence ( 25 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This topology has not yet been reported for known bacteriocin producer immunity proteins, which implies that SunI belongs to a novel class of bacteriocin antagonists. (asm.org)
  • Producer organisms are immune to their own bacteriocin(s), a property that is mediated by specific immunity proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on shared characteristics with other linear DNA plasmids, such as 5' ends protected by proteins and terminal inverted repeats, these cytoplasmic episomes have been included in a class of DNA molecules with the proposed name 'invertrons' [Sakaguchi, Microbiol. (google.com)
  • A total of 50 open reading frames were identified on the plasmid genome and, among these, 32 showed sequence similarity to known proteins. (asm.org)
  • Enterococcal Bacteriocins and Antimicrobial Proteins that Contribute to Niche Control. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). (asm.org)
  • The bacteriocin-like proteins CdzC and CdzD harbor glycine-zipper motifs, often found in amyloids, and CdzC forms large, insoluble aggregates on the surface of producer cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The inhibitory activity of bacteriocins can be broad- or narrow-spectrum, often determined by the nature of their cellular targets or the receptor proteins on target cells that mediate uptake. (elifesciences.org)
  • A plasmid is an extrachromosomal, extranuclear DNA molecule occurring free in the cytoplasm and capable of autonomous replication (independently of the chromosomal DNA). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thus, every plasmid contains at least one DNA sequence that serves as an origin of replication, or ori (a starting point for DNA replication), which enables the plasmid DNA to be duplicated independently from the chromosomal DNA (Figure 4) and to be distributed to the daughter cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • entL50AB (encoding EntL50A and EntL50B) are on the 50-kb plasmid pCIZ1, entqA (encoding EntQ) is on the 7.4-kb plasmid pCIZ2, and entP (encoding EntP) is on the chromosome. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, unstable Lcn972 recombinant plasmids became integrated into the chromosome through the activity of insertion sequences, supporting the notion that Lcn972 does apply a strong selective pressure against susceptible cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the enzymes involved in DNA replication of plasmids are the same as those used for the chromosome, some plasmids are copied in a different way than the chromosome. (dummies.com)
  • Its genome is made up of one circular chromosome, a megaplasmid pMP118 and two smaller plasmids pSF118-20 and pSF118-44. (uniprot.org)
  • it only transfers a portion of the fertility plasmid, along with part of its chromosome. (brainscape.com)
  • A DNA segment (dif) from the replication terminus region of the E. coli chromosome binds XerC and acts as a substrate for XerC-mediated site-specific recombination when inserted into multicopy plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • Normal segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome and stable inheritance of multicopy plasmids such as ColE1 requires the Xer site-specific recombination system. (nih.gov)
  • There is usually a small number of copies of these plasmids per host chromosome, so that their replication must be precisely coordinated with the cell division cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1988. Purification, characterization, and antimicrobial spectrum of a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici . (purdue.edu)
  • Plasmid characterization made use of CsCl-ethidium bromide buoyant density centrifugation and other previously described standard methodologies ( 13 , 14 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The complete sequence of pMRC01 provides important information about these industrially relevant phenotypes and gives insight into the structure, function and evolution of large Gram-positive conjugative plasmids in general. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • especially colicins B (42.6%), M (40.1%), and Ib (34.0%), which are encoded on large conjugative plasmids. (muni.cz)
  • Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associat. (ugent.be)
  • and (iii) the phage resistance and plasmid replication region of the plasmid. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The sequence analysis of the 7383 bp plasmid pCIZ2 from Enterococcus faecium L50 enabled the identification of a DNA region involved in its replication. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The structural organization of the pCIZ2 replication region is highly similar to those of well-known theta-replicating plasmids. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Three classes of plasmids are known to be capable of replication in the enterococci: the rolling circle replicating (RCR) plasmids, the Incl8 plasmids, and the pheromone-responsive plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • Model for replication of RCR plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • Both the pheromone-responsive plasmids and the broad-hostrange plasmids have been implicated in the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting. (asmscience.org)
  • Christie, P.J., and Dunny, G.M., 1986, Identification of regions of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid pCF-10 that encode antibiotic resistance and pheromone response functions, Plasmid 15: 230-241. (springer.com)
  • Plasmids which confer antibiotic resistance (R plasmids) have been extensively characterized because of their medical importance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While the bacteriocin Nisin has been employed by the food industry for 60 y, it remains the only bacteriocin to be extensively employed as a food preservative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. (worldwidescience.org)
  • lactis DPC5598 with the recombinant plasmids has permitted the detection and quantitation of PedA-1 and the coproduction of nisin A and PedA-1 in supernatants of producer cells with specific anti-PedA-1 antibodies and a noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992. A modified method to directly detect in SDS-PAGE the bacteriocin of Pediococcus acidilactici . (purdue.edu)
  • 1992. Monoclonal antibody-colony immunoblot method specific for isolation of Pediococcus acidilactici from foods and correlation with pediocin (bacteriocin) production. (purdue.edu)
  • Simple method of purification and sequencing of a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici UL5. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasmid-Associated Bacteriocin Production and Sucrose Fermentation in Pediococcus acidilactici. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The observed high prevalence of these colicin determinants suggests the importance of large colicinogenic plasmids and/or the importance of colicin production in intestinal inflammatory conditions. (muni.cz)
  • Currently, however, the term plasmid is restricted only to those accessory DNA molecules that are found in addition to the main chromosomes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1 (59 kb) of Enterococcus faecalis encodes the bacteriocin 21 (bac21) determinant. (asm.org)
  • The conjugative plasmid pYI14 (61 kbp) from Enterococcus faecalis YI714, confers a pheromone response on its host and encodes bacteriocin 41 ( bac41 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Those synthesized in the ribosomes, are generally referred to as bacteriocins (antibiotics are not included in the group since they are not ribosomally synthesized). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thuricin CD is a two-component bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis that kills a wide range of clinically significant Clostridium difficile . (plos.org)
  • Lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity were encoded by the 68.0 kb plasmid and bacteriocin production was encoded by the 12.4 kb plasmid in L. lactis subsp. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Although most fungal linear plasmids are mitochondrial [Samac and Leong, ibid] in the yeasts K. lactis, S. cratagensis, and P. inositovora, these elements have been found to be located in the cytoplasm. (google.com)
  • Functions have been ascribed to linear DNA plasmids of yeasts in the K. lactis system, consisting of two plasmids, pGKL1 and pGKL2, which are 8.1 and 13.4 kilobase pairs (kbp) in size, respectively. (google.com)
  • Bacteriocin production and resistance to the bacteriocin produced are associated with two plasmids of 40 and 49 megadaltons. (asm.org)
  • A method for promoting plant growth and/or disease resistance comprising applying a purified polypeptide that is a bacteriocin and that possesses plant growth and/or disease resistance promoting activity to a plant or plant seed, or to the growing environment thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The conjugative gentamicin resistance plasmids were identified and were classified into five types (A through E) with respect to their Eco RI restriction profiles. (asm.org)
  • Type A and type B were the most frequently isolated, at an isolation frequency of about 40% per VRE isolate harboring the gentamicin resistance conjugative plasmid. (asm.org)
  • The Eco RI or Nde I restriction fragments of each type of plasmids hybridized to the conjugative gentamicin resistance plasmid pMG1 (65.1 kb), which was originally isolated from an E. faecium clinical isolate, and transfer efficiently in broth mating. (asm.org)
  • Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. (worldwidescience.org)
  • bacI encoded immunity, providing the host with resistance to its own bacteriocin activity. (tcdb.org)
  • However, some of these bacteriocins are exported by the general secretory pathway ( sec ) with cleavage of their N-terminal signal peptide ( 10 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, structure predictions for pediocin PA-1/AcH, another class IIa bacteriocin, showed a β-sheet conformation in the N-terminal portion and an α-helix conformation in the C terminus of the peptide ( 8 , 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Cloning, transposon insertion mutagenesis and sequence analysis of the bac21 determinant showed that an 8.5-kb fragment lying between kb 27.1 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map is required for complete expression of the bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • Transposon insertions into the bacA to bacE ORFs, which are located in the proximal half of bac21, resulted in defective bacteriocin expression. (asm.org)
  • Segregational stability studies revealed that the recombinant plasmids that yielded high bacteriocin titers were maintained for at least 200 generations without antibiotic selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence and analysis of the 60 kb conjugative, bacteriocin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Using a shotgun sequencing approach, the 60 232 bp plasmid sequence was obtained by the assembly of 1056 underlying sequences (sevenfold average redundancy). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • From this exhaustive computational analysis we developed a new PCR-based technique, targeting a specific sequence in the conserved region, for the screening, capture and sequencing of these small plasmids, either specific for Enterobacteriaceae or specific for Pasteurellaceae. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of pETB, a 38.2-kb Staphylococcus aureus plasmid encoding the exfoliative toxin B (ETB), was determined. (asm.org)
  • Based on the determined sequence of pETB, the genome structures of etb -bearing plasmids (ETB plasmids) from various clinical isolates were analyzed by the PCR scanning method. (asm.org)
  • Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They identified an R-plasmid (pJH1) and a hemolysin/ bacteriocin plasmid (pJH2) in a clinical isolate of Enterococcus (formerly Streptococcus ) faecalis and found both capable of transfer in broth matings (38, 39). (springer.com)
  • Independently, and at about the same time, Tomura et al (67), in Japan, reported on the transferability of a hemolysin/bacteriocin determinant in E. faecalis . (springer.com)
  • Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) only showed activity against E. faecalis . (tcdb.org)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis coisolated with vancomycin-resistant (VanA) Staphylococcus aureus was found to contain two plasmids, designated pAM830 (45 kb) and pAM831 (95 kb). (asm.org)
  • There is even a report of plasmid-encoded transfer, in the laboratory, of vanA from E. faecalis to S. aureus ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, an E. faecalis vanA -carrying plasmid, pAM368, was recently found to encode a response to cAM373 ( 27 ), thus raising concern about the potential uptake of vanA from enterococci by a pheromone-related process. (asm.org)
  • The potential applications of bacteriocins from LAB in the food and health care sectors have attracted the strong interest of academia and the industry resulting in an impressive amount of published research on their production, purification, genetics and applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short- and long-read sequencing. (rug.nl)
  • Bacteriocin-producing isolates from both ST131 and non-ST131 lineages were able to inhibit the growth of other E. coli isolates, including other ST131. (rug.nl)
  • In summary, plasmids harboring bacteriocins give additional advantages for highly virulent and resistant ST131 isolates, improving the ability of these isolates to compete with other microbiota for a niche and thereby increasing the risk of infection. (rug.nl)
  • Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, porcine isolates differed from human isolates relative to the spectrum of produced bacteriocins. (muni.cz)
  • Deletion mutant analysis of the cloned 8.5-kb fragment revealed that the deletion of segments between kb 31.6 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map, which contained the distal region of the determinant encoding bacF to bac1, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. (asm.org)
  • The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression contained the bacA to bacE sequences located in the proximal half of the determinant. (asm.org)
  • The term plasmid was first introduced by the American molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg in 1952 to describe any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The data indicate that, although the ETB plasmids are highly heterogeneous in genome size, the fundamental genome organization is well conserved. (asm.org)
  • The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. (pnas.org)
  • Synthesis of lactococcin 972 is plasmid-encoded. (tudelft.nl)
  • Microcin plasmids: a group of extrachromosomal elements coding for low molecular weight antibiotics in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • This constant battle for space and nutrients often involves the secretion of diffusible antimicrobials, including small-molecule antibiotics and bacteriocins. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, there are several limitations that challenge the use of bacteriocins as biopreservatives/antibacterial agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pcc also produces one or more antibacterial substances called bacteriocins, which enhance their competitiveness with other related rival species. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Numerous filamentous fungi and yeasts have been discovered to contain linear double-stranded DNA plasmids [Meinhardt et al. (google.com)
  • It has been shown that many plasmids consist of ring molecules of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid with a molecular weight that ranges from 10 6 to 10 8 daltons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The plasmids did not show any homology in Southern hybridization with the pheromone-responsive plasmids and broad-host-range plasmids pAMβ1 and pIP501. (asm.org)
  • Insertions into the bacF to bac1 ORFs, which are located in the distal half of bac21, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. (asm.org)
  • The cloned fragment encoding the 4.5-kb proximal region and a Tn916 insertion mutant into pPD1 bacB trans-complemented intracellularly to give complete expression of the bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • pLPV111 and pSAK20 are part of a heterologous expression system designed for expression of the many different bacteriocin. (uio.no)
  • Extracellular complementation of bacteriocin expression was possible for bacL 1 and -L 2 and bac A mutants. (tcdb.org)
  • The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The large macromolecules of bacteriocins can be disaggregated by the use of surface active compounds. (media.pl)
  • abstract = "We further characterized the cryptic plasmid pVA318 of Streptococcus mutans. (elsevier.com)
  • Nevertheless, a circular dichroism (CD) study has shown that this bacteriocin is unstructured in aqueous solution and becomes structured in the anisotropic solvent trifluoroethanol ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacteriocins of class IV are complex molecules with lipid and carbohydrate moieties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hemolysin causes lysis of human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. (medscape.com)
  • Organization and nucleotide sequences of two lactococcal bacteriocin operons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Different types of plasmids have been reported and it is possible for plasmids of different varieties to coexist in a single cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In general, this class of bacteriocins is characterized by the presence of the unusual dehydrated amino acids 2,3-didehydroalanine (Dha) and/or 2,3-didehydrobutyrine (Dhb). (asm.org)
  • which are categorized in the 2nd class of bacteriocins from LAB, the known as "antilisterial" bacteriocins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moving to the second field of application, the expanding clinical applications of bacteriocins may help us to fill some gaps in the biomedical sector. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diez-Gonzalez, F. (2007) Applications of bacteriocins in livestock. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Kuipers is mede-oprichter en directeur van het Centre for Sustainable Antimicrobials (CeSAM) van RUG en UMCG, een centrum voor onderzoek tegen antibioticaresistentie dat de grenzen tussen vakgebieden en organisaties wil doorbreken en zo de ontwikkeling van nieuwe antibiotica efficiënter wil maken. (rug.nl)
  • Alternatively, cloning under other constitutive promoters was approached and achieved, but bacteriocin production levels were lower than those provided by pBL1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon cloning the pVA318 plasmid into the vector pBR322 in Escherichia coli, we made the following observations. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriocin production is detected early in the growth cycle of the organism in APT broth, but it is not produced in APT broth adjusted to pH 5.5. (asm.org)
  • Pediococci exert antagonism against other microorganisms, including enteric pathogens, primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. (pnas.org)
  • To date, little is known about the regulation mechanism of bacteriocin production. (ncl.edu.tw)