Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Listeria: A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods: A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Cloacin: A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pyocins: Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Brevibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae. Most strains have been isolated from the natural environment, particularly soils.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Megacins: Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Bacillus megaterium. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.

Isolation and characterization of ColE1-derived plasmid copy-number mutant. (1/196)

The plasmid pBGP120 is a ColE1 derivative that contains elements of the Escherichia coli lac operon and the Tn3 transposon. We have selected and isolated a copy-number mutant of pBGP120. In exponentially growing cultures, the copy-number mutant, pOP1, represents approximately 30% of total intracellular DNA compared to about 5% for pBGP120. Plasmid-encoded beta-galactosidase monomer can represent 50% of newly synthesized protein in cells carrying pOP1. pOP1 is structurally unstable in certain genetic backgrounds and under certain growth conditions, breaking down to a smaller sized plasmid that retains the DNA overproducer phenotype and the Tn3 transposon. The smaller overproducer plasmid, pOP1delta6, is generated by a continuous deletion of sequences located between one end of the Tn3 transposon and a site about 630 nucleotides from the EcoRI site in the beta-galactosidase structural gene of pOP1. pOP1delta6 retains the ColE1 origin of replication but has lost the lac promotor and operator and most of the beta-galactosidase structural gene. pOP1delta6 exists at approximately 210 copies per chromosome in exponentially growing cells.  (+info)

Analysis of the CoIE1 stability determinant Rcd. (2/196)

Multimer formation is an important cause of instability for many multicopy plasmids. Plasmid CoIE1 is maintained stably because multimers are converted to monomers by Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at the cer site. However, multimer resolution is not the whole story; inactivation of a promoter (Pcer) within cer causes plasmid instability even though recombination is unaffected. The promoter directs the synthesis of a short transcript (Rcd) which is proposed to delay the division of multimer-containing cells. Mapping of the 5' terminus of Rcd confirms that transcription initiates from Pcer. The 3' terminus shows considerable heterogeneity, consistent with a primary transcript of 95 nt being degraded via intermediates of 79 and 70 nt. Secondary structure predictions for Rcd are presented. Of four mutations which abolish Rcd-mediated growth inhibition, one reduces the activity of Pcer while the other three map to the rcd coding sequence and reduce the steady-state level of the transcript. RNA folding analysis suggests that these three mutant transcripts adopt a common secondary structure in which the major stem-loop differs from that of wild-type Rcd. A survey of 24 cer-like multimer resolution sites revealed six which contain Pcer-like sequences. The putative transcripts from these sites have similar predicted secondary structures to Rcd and contain a highly conserved 15 base sequence. To test the hypothesis that Rcd acts as an anti-sense RNA, interacting with its target gene(s) through the 15 nt sequence, we used DNA hybridization and sequence analysis to find matches to this sequence in the Escherichia coli chromosome. Our failure to find plausible anti-sense targets has led to the suggestion that Rcd may interact directly with a protein target.  (+info)

Expression of leading region genes on IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9: genetic evidence for single-stranded DNA transcription. (3/196)

The leading region of a plasmid is the first sector to enter the recipient cell in bacterial conjugation. This sector of IncI1 plasmid ColIb-P9 includes genes that are transcribed in a transient pulse early in the conjugatively infected cell to promote establishment of the immigrant plasmid. Evidence is presented that the burst of gene expression is regulated by a process which is independent of a repressor but dependent on the orientation of the genes on the unique plasmid strand transferred in conjugation. The nucleotide sequence of 11.7 kb of the leading region was determined and found to contain 10 ORFs; all are orientated such that the template strand for transcription corresponds to the transferred strand. The leading region contains three dispersed repeats of a sequence homologous to a novel promoter in ssDNA described by H. Masai & K. Arai (1997, Cell 89, 897-907). It is proposed that the repeats are promoters that form in the transferring strand of ColIb to support transient transcription of genes transferred early in conjugation.  (+info)

Features of distamycin preferential binding sites on natural DNA predicted using differential scanning calorimetry. (4/196)

The interaction of distamycin with ColE1 DNA was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) taking the helix-coil transition theory of DNA into consideration. Our results here strongly indicate that the affinity of distamycin to DNA, at a low distamycin concentration, depends highly on the DNA sequence, and preferential binding occurs to the sites of four to six successive A-T pairs having two or more successive G-C pairs on both their ends.  (+info)

Monomer-dimer control of the ColE1 P(cer) promoter. (5/196)

XerCD-mediated recombination at cer converts multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers, maximizing the number of independently segregating molecules and minimizing the frequency of plasmid loss. In addition to XerCD, recombination requires the accessory factors ArgR and PepA. The promoter P(cer), located centrally within cer, is also required for stable plasmid maintenance. P(cer) is active in plasmid multimers and directs transcription of a short RNA, Rcd, which appears to inhibit cell division. It has been proposed that Rcd is part of a checkpoint which ensures that multimer resolution is complete before the cell divides. This study has shown that ArgR does not act as a transcriptional repressor of P(cer) in plasmid monomers. P(cer) is unusual in that the -35 and -10 hexamers are separated by only 15 bp and this study has demonstrated that increasing this to a more conventional spacing results in elevated activity. An increase to 17 bp resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in activity, while smaller effects were seen when the spacer was increased to 16 bp or 18 bp. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that P(cer) activation involves realignment of the -35 and -10 sequences within a recombinational synaptic complex. This predicts that a 17 bp spacer promoter derivative should be down-regulated by plasmid multimerization, and this is confirmed experimentally.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca). (6/196)

The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA.  (+info)

Structure of the ColE1 DNA molecule before segregation to daughter molecules. (7/196)

The segregation of daughter DNA molecules at the end stage of replication of plasmid ColE1 was examined. When circular ColE1 DNA replicates in a cell extract at a high KCl concentration (140 mM), a unique class of molecules accumulates. When the molecule is cleaved by a restriction enzyme that cuts the ColE1 DNA at a single site, an X-shaped molecule in which two linear components are held together around the origin of DNA replication is made. For a large fraction of these molecules, the 5' end of the leading strand remains at the origin and the 3' end of the strand is about 30 nucleotides upstream of the origin. The 3' end of the lagging strand is located at the terH site (17 nucleotides upstream of the origin) and the 5' end of the strand is a few hundred nucleotides upstream of the terH site. Thus the parental strands of the molecule intertwine with each other only once. When the KCl concentration is lowered to 70 mM, practically all of these molecules are converted to daughter circular monomers or to catenanes consisting of two singly interlocked circular units.  (+info)

A new colicin that adsorbs to outer-membrane protein Tsx but is dependent on the tonB instead of the tolQ membrane transport system. (8/196)

A new colicin, Col5, was synthesized by an Escherichia coli isolate of human origin from the ECOR Collection. It was unique because it adsorbed to the outer-membrane protein Tsx, but used the tonB rather than the tolQ membrane transport system, which is employed by the only other Tsx-specific colicin, ColK. Col5 was encoded by a 5.2 kb plasmid, p5. It was inducible by mitomycin C, and strains harbouring p5 exhibited quasi-lysis. The bactericidal protein had an M(r) of 56,000.  (+info)

Colicins, a class of antimicrobial compounds produced by bacteria, are thought to be important mediators of intra- and interspecific interactions, and are a significant factor in maintaining microbial diversity. Colicins B and M are among the most common colicins produced by Escherichia coli, and are usually encoded adjacently on the same plasmid. In this study, the characterization of a collection of E. coli isolated from Australian vertebrates revealed that a significant fraction of colicin BM strains lack an intact colicin B activity gene. The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. A phylogenetic analysis of the colicin M and B operons and characterization of the plasmids suggested that ColBM plasmids with a truncated B activity gene have evolved on at
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Mindszent - A mindszenti horg sz, G l Istv n a k zelm ltban ritkas gnak sz m t 3,86 kil s m rn t fogott a Tisz n a Kurca-torkolatn l, m lt szombaton pedig egy 9 kil s amurt. Sikereinek titka speci lis etet anyaga.
Horizontal Gene Transfer of a ColV Plasmid Has Resulted in a Dominant Avian Clonal Type of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A Tn5-based transposon bearing the kil gene (killing protein), mediating controlled export of periplasmic proteins into the culture medium, was constructed (Tn5-KIL3). This transposon contained the kil gene of the ColE1 plasmid under the growth-phase-dependent promoter of the fic gene (filamentation induced by cAMP) of Escherichia coli, an interposon located upstream of kil, a kanamycin/neomycin-resistance gene, a multiple cloning site and the mob site. The transposition of Tn5-KIL3 to Acetobacter methanolicus showed a moderate transposition frequency (10(-5)-10(-6)). By insertion of a Bacillus hybrid beta-glucanase (bgl) as a model protein into the transposon (Tn5-LF3) it was shown that the secretion function as well as the gene of the target protein had been transferred to and stably integrated into the chromosome of A, methanolicus, and that the transposition of Tn5-LF3 was non-specific. beta-Glucanase was highly overexpressed and secreted into the medium during stationary phase. Total and ...
How is intermediate-conductance K+ channel abbreviated? i-K+ stands for intermediate-conductance K+ channel. i-K+ is defined as intermediate-conductance K+ channel rarely.
Samsung CAD300MBEC nab je ka do auta pro C170, D520 a dal ern (EU blister) od v robce SAMSUNG m me skladem jen za 99 K . Osobn odb r nebo dod n do 24 hodin kdekoli v R. Nakupte od specialist na mobiln telefony.
He will feel discontent and extended with himself, complain more than usual, and he essay have a laziness, emotional, physical, and spiritual collapse in a way Colicin v synthesis protein shakes. A lazy person tends to delay things or have someone else do the work, thinking that he cannot do it on his own and that his essay is inferior among the others knowledge, and be extended unfit.
Our service is a large database of words. You can use our database for the selection of a name for their company website, and the like. Also, you learn the value of the most unusual words
1 AGGGGTTTTT TGCTGAAAGG AGGAACTATA TCCGGATAAC TACGTCAGGT 51 GGCACTTTTC GGGGAAATGT GCGCGGAACC CCTATTTGTT TATTTTTCTA 101 AATACATTCA AATATGTATC CGCTCATGAG ACAATAACCC TGATAAATGC 151 TTCAATAATA TTGAAAAAGG AAGAGTATGA GTATTCAACA TTTCCGTGTC 201 GCCCTTATTC CCTTTTTTGC GGCATTTTGC CTTCCTGTTT TTGCTCACCC 251 AGAAACGCTG GTGAAAGTAA AAGATGCTGA AGATCAGTTG GGTGCACGAG 301 TGGGTTACAT CGAACTGGAT CTCAACAGCG GTAAGATCCT TGAGAGTTTT 351 CGCCCCGAAG AACGTTCTCC AATGATGAGC ACTTTTAAAG TTCTGCTATG 401 TGGCGCGGTA TTATCCCGTG TTGACGCCGG GCAAGAGCAA CTCGGTCGCC 451 GCATACACTA TTCTCAGAAT GACTTGGTTG AGTACTCACC AGTCACAGAA 501 AAGCATCTTA CGGATGGCAT GACAGTAAGA GAATTATGCA GTGCTGCCAT 551 AACCATGAGT GATAACACTG CGGCCAACTT ACTTCTGACA ACGATCGGAG 601 GACCGAAGGA GCTAACCGCT TTTTTGCACA ACATGGGGGA TCATGTAACT 651 CGCCTTGATC GTTGGGAACC GGAGCTGAAT GAAGCCATAC CAAACGACGA 701 GCGTGACACC ACGATGCCTG TAGCAATGGC AACAACGTTG CGCAAACTAT 751 TAACTGGCGA ACTACTTACT CTAGCTTCCC GGCAACAATT AATAGACTGG 801 ATGGAGGCGG ATAAAGTTGC AGGACCACTT CTGCGCTCGG CCCTTCCGGC 851 ...
The time has finally come, ive been planning this cycle for a while now and its about go down. Cycle: (weeks 1-8) Test E: 500/250/0/0/... Msten: 14/14/
Looking for pantothenyl alcohol? Find out information about pantothenyl alcohol. any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions... Explanation of pantothenyl alcohol
Plasmid ColIb-P9 (Incll) encodes mechanisms which allow it to avoid destruction by type I and type II restriction enzymes during transfer by conjugation between strains of Escherichia coli. A genetic system was developed to analyse these mechanisms. The system relied on measuring Collb-mediated rescue of the restriction-sensitive plasmid R751 (IncPp) from destruction by EcoKI (type I) and EcoRI (type II). One Collb mechanism was known to involve a plasmid-encoded antirestriction gene known as ardA, the product of which is active against type I enzymes. Tests for alleviation of EcoKI restriction of R751, showed strong protection by a co-transferring Collb (Ard+) plasmid, slight protection when Collb was resident in the recipient and no effect when Collb was immobilised in the donor by removal of its nic site. Hence, expression of ardA is activated in the recipient cell following transfer no detectable transfer of the ArdA protein occurs from the donor to the recipient. The ardA gene is found in ...
This work has studied colicin translocation by using a periplasmic protection assay combined with an in vivo lux-reporter assay and a potassium release assay. Expressing the translocation domain of colicin A in the periplasm and challenging the cells with external colicins showed that the translocation of group A colicins is inhibited as it requires an interaction with the Tol system. Surprisingly, the TolA protein was found to play the major role during the translocation of both ColA and the endonuclease colicin E9 even though the latter colicin has no direct interaction with the TolA protein. This study also suggests that the interaction with TolB is important for both colicins A and E9. Moreover, a series of ColA constructs with a truncated T domain were made by site directed mutagenesis to define the important residues of the TolA and TolB boxes for their interaction with Tol proteins. The results showed that tyrosine 58 residue of the TolA box of colicin A is essential for TolA binding, ...
pRV500 is, to our knowledge, the first plasmid of L. sakei to be entirely sequenced. Careful sequence analysis showed that pRV500 belongs to the pUCL287 family, itself related to class A theta-type plasmids of the pUCL22 and pSC101 families. Experimental evidence of the theta replication mode was obtained for pUCL287 itself (2). Although the minimum length of the pRV500 oriA region remains to be determined, it is likely to involve the same two kinds of DNA repeats as other pUCL287-type plasmids. The involvement of repetitive sequences of 22 bp (iterons) as a target for binding of the Rep protein was demonstrated for pSBO1 (40), and the upstream 11-bp repeated sequences were observed to be essential for pUCL287 replication (3).. Like other plasmids (14, 49), pRV500 appears to be a composite structure containing DNA segments from different sources. Some ORFs are shared by plasmids from both subfamilies pUCL22 and pUCL287; this applies to orf6 in pRV500 and ORFs of unknown function around the gene ...
Colicin E1 induces the efflux of carboxyfluorescein and calcein from liposomes whose phospholipid composition is similar to that of Escherichia coli. This colicin action takes place at protein-to-liposome ratios and within pH ranges that are physiologically meaningful. Colicin-induced permeability of carboxyfluorescein is not limited to the initial phase of colicin membrane interaction but is sustained thereafter. Colicin E1 requires negatively charged phospholipids in the liposomal membrane in order to bind and induce efflux.
COLV is on heavy alert this morning! 6/1/2015. COLV has a last price of .10c a share. COLV is a company with plans to completely REVOLUTIONIZE the way we drink coffee, tea or other hot beverages. This past Fall, the company acquired Simply Lids Inc. - an award winning company specializing in disposable beverage lids that prevent spills and offer a better drinking experience!. Simply Lids patented technologies provide a safer, more enjoyable drinking experience, without splashing or spills, and have the added benefit of unique marketing opportunities, never before realized in this industry sector. Simply Lids plans on being the leader in this multi-billion dollar sector through the application of its unique technology and innovation.. Current disposable lids on the market require you to sip your drink out of a tiny hole. They leak, splash, and can cause hot liquid to burn your mouth. Nothing about that is natural, and it takes away from the full enjoyment.. The patented Simply Slider™ provides ...
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Linear diagram showing the approximate lengths of whole colicin Ia and the four carboxy-terminal fragments, CT-S, CT-M, CT-L, and CT-XL. The boundaries of the T
Theunissen TW, van Oosten AL, Castelo-Branco G, Hall J, Smith A, Silva JC. Nanog overcomes reprogramming barriers and induces pluripotency in minimal conditions, Current biology : CB. 2010-12-30 Glass E, Meyer F, Gilbert JA, Field D, Hunter S, Kottmann R, Kyrpides N, Sansone S, Schriml L, Sterk P, White O, Wooley J. Meeting Report from the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Workshop 10, Standards in genomic sciences. 2010-12-25 Johnson TJ, Thorsness JL, Anderson CP, Lynne AM, Foley SL, Han J, Fricke WF, McDermott PF, White DG, Khatri M, Stell AL, Flores C, Singer RS. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, PloS one. 2010-12-22 Marques SM, Petushkov VN, Rodionova NS, da Silva JC. LC-MS and microscale NMR analysis of luciferin-related compounds from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota, Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology. 2010-12-21 Santos MJ, Fernandes D, Capela S, da Silva JC, ...
The Role of Bacteriocins in Mediating Bacterial Competitive Interactions. Explaining the coexistence of competing species is a major challenge in community ecology. In bacterial systems, competition is often driven by the production of bacteriocins, which are narrow-spectrum proteinaceous toxins that serve to kill closely related species, providing the producer better access to limited resources. Bacteriocin producers have been shown to competitively exclude sensitive, nonproducing strains. However, the dynamics between bacteriocin producers, each lethal to its competitor, are largely unknown. In this study, we used in vitro, in vivo and in silico models to study competitive interactions between bacteriocin producers. Two Escherichia coli strains were generated, each carrying a DNA-degrading bacteriocin (colicins E2 and E7). Using reporter-gene assays, we showed that each DNase bacteriocin is not only lethal to its opponent but, at lower doses, can also induce the expression of its opponents ...
Individual bacterial cells may contain several different types of plasmids and in some cases more than 10 at a time. Plasmids are generally isolated from the bacterial cells in the supercoiled configuration. So far, thousands of different types of plasmids have been isolated. More than 300 different types of naturally occurring plasmids have been isolated from E.coli alone. Though, plasmids are not considered as part of the cells genome, when a bacterial cell divides each daughter cells receives a copy of each plasmid. Plasmids can also be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by the process called conjugation. Plasmids that govern their own transfer by conjugation are called conjugative plasmids but not all plasmids are conjugative.. ...
... : Found or purchased all 11 basic Plasmid types - worth 20 GamerScore. Find guides to this achievement here.
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Plasmids can be submitted in either form. For DNA, aliquot 15 µL of DNA into a 1.5 mL microfuge tube (at a concentration of 0.1 -1µg/µL)...
Günther, A., 1880. Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. A Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Zoology. Rept. Challenger Shore Fishes v. 1 (pt 6): 1-82, Pls. 1-32. ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene, located at chromosome 17p13.1, which encodes for a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor and induces cellular apoptosis. This inherited genetic mutation and/or genetic anomalies have been identified in patients with many types of cancers.. Entry Terms : "6-Mercaptopurine Inactivation Gene Mutation Reagents" , "Thiopurine Methyltransferase High Activity Gene Mutation Reagents" , "TPMT Gene Mutation Detection Reagents" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Gene Anomaly, Mutation, TPMT". UMDC code : 24995 ...
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Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
SimPlot analysis.Similarity plots with plasmids R751, pBP136 and pB3 as reference plasmids. Each coloured plot corresponds to a specific plasmid depicted in the
The SCOP classification for the Colicin E3 immunity protein superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
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Please send us 10-50ul of samples with the concentration of 50-100ng/μl.Please do not send us your plasmids in low volume since they tend to evaporate.. ...
Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosoms or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins ... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ...
Kerry-Williams, S.M.; Noble, W.C. (1984). "Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production in a JK-type coryneform bacterium". FEMS ... Kerry-Williams, S. M.; Noble, W. C. (2009). "Plasmids in group JK coryneform bacteria isolated in a single hospital". Journal ... Some species produce metabolites similar to antibiotics: bacteriocins of the corynecin-linocin type, antitumor agents, etc. One ... Kono, M.; Sasatsu, M.; Aoki, T. (1983). "R Plasmids in Corynebacterium xerosis Strains". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ...
"Molecular structure and function of the bacteriocin gene and bacteriocin protein of plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Res. 11 (8 ... The two general classes of colicinogenic plasmids are large, low-copy-number plasmids, and small, high-copy-number plasmids. ... Retaining the colicin plasmid is very important for cells that live with their relatives, because if a cell loses the immunity ... The larger plasmids carry other genes, as well as the colicin operon. The colicin operons are generally organized with several ...
Normally the bacteriocinogen is repressed and doesn't produce its bacteriocin, but under certain conditions the plasmid is ... Bacteriocinogens (bāk-tēr'ē-ə-sĭn'ə-jənz), also known as bacteriocinogenic plasmids, are bacterial plasmids that direct the ... "In vitro construction of deletion mutants of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13". Nucleic Acids Research. 5 (6): 1801-20. ... synthesis of bacteriocins, bacteriocidal proteins produced by certain types of bacteria that kill other strains of the same ...
Biotyping, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, plasmid analysis, and ribotyping can also be used Serratia marcescens appears red ...
This sample did not contain any plasmids. The most extensively studied strain, L. rhamnosus GG, a gut isolate, consists of a ... bacteriocin production, pili production, the cassystem, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) ... loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements such as phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. The ...
... large plasmids, small plasmids, chromosomal), molecular weight and chemistry (large protein, peptide, with/without sugar moiety ... They are the longest studied bacteriocins. They are a diverse group of bacteriocins and do not include all the bacteriocins ... The class I bacteriocins are small peptide inhibitors and include nisin and other lantibiotics. The class II bacteriocins are ... Colicins are bacteriocins (CLBs) found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins occur in other Gram-negative bacteria ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... though it lacks sequence homology with bacteriocins AS-48. Bacteriocin uses components of the mannose phosphotransferase system ... Bacteriocin AS-48 is a cyclic peptide antibiotic produced by the eubacteria Enterococcus faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis) that ... González C, Langdon GM, Bruix M, Gálvez A, Valdivia E, Maqueda M, Rico M (October 2000). "Bacteriocin AS-48, a microbial cyclic ...
Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores ... Bacteriocins for which disulfide bonds are the only modification to the peptide are Class II bacteriocins. One important and ... The class IIb bacteriocins (two-peptide bacteriocins) require two different peptides for activity. It includes the alpha ... Class II bacteriocins are a class of small peptides that inhibit the growth of various bacteria. Many Gram-positive bacteria ...
... and Plasmid Profiles". Phytopathology. 88 (11): 1179-86. doi:10.1094/phyto.1998.88.11.1179. PMID 18944851. Bouarab, edited by ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ... Purification and Characterization of a Highly Specific Bacteriocin and Cloning of Its Structural Gene". Applied and ...
Plasmid pBCE4810 shares homology with the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1, which encodes the anthrax toxin. ... Naclerio, G; Ricca, E; Sacco, M; De Felice, M (December 1993). "Antimicrobial activity of a newly identified bacteriocin of ... Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1". BMC Microbiol. 6: 20. doi ... Hoton FM, Andrup L, Swiecicka I, Mahillon J (2005). "The cereulide genetic determinants of emetic Bacillus cereus are plasmid- ...
The two plasmids are pTiC58, responsible for the processes involved in virulence, and pAtC58, dubbed the "cryptic" plasmid. The ... K84 produces a bacteriocin (agrocin 84) which is an antibiotic specific against related bacteria, including A. tumefaciens.This ... A. tumefaciens infects the plant through its Ti plasmid. The Ti plasmid integrates a segment of its DNA, known as T-DNA, into ... To be virulent, the bacterium must contain a tumour-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid or pTi), of 200 kb, which contains the T-DNA ...
These conjugative plasmids carry a number of genes that can be assembled and rearranged, which could then enable bacteria to ... Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. ... Bennett P. M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ... plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China". Springer. 22 (6932-6940): ...
The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1 (59 kb) of Enterococcus faecalis encodes the bacteriocin 21 (bac21) ... resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression ... Insertions into the bacF to bac1 ORFs, which are located in the distal half of bac21, resulted in reduced bacteriocin ... analyses of the bacteriocin 21 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1. ...
Bacteriocin production and resistance to the bacteriocin produced are associated with two plasmids of 40 and 49 megadaltons. ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat.. C Ahn, M E Stiles ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat. ... Plasmid-associated bacteriocin production by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola from meat. ...
These bacteriocin genes occur at different locations; entL50AB (encoding EntL50A and EntL50B) are on the 50-kb plasmid pCIZ1, ... Complete sequence of the enterocin Q-encoding plasmid pCIZ2 from the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and ... Complete sequence of the enterocin Q-encoding plasmid pCIZ2 from the multiple bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium L50 and ... Amino Acid Sequence, Bacteriocins, Base Sequence, DNA, Bacterial, Enterococcus faecium, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading ...
Lcn972 is a non-lantibiotic bacteriocin encoded by the 11-kbp plasmid pBL1 with a potent antimicrobial activity against ... Segregational stability studies revealed that the recombinant plasmids that yielded high bacteriocin titers were maintained for ... the structural gene lcn972 and the immunity genes orf2-orf3 in the unstable plasmid pIL252 failed and only plasmids with a ... Plasmids constitute the main toolbox for L. lactis genetic engineering and most rely on antibiotic resistant markers for ...
... with another plasmid-encoded streptococcal bacteriocin, streptococcin A-M57 from S. pyogenes, indicating that dysgalacticin ... The dysgalacticin structural gene, dysA, is located on the indigenous plasmid pW2580 of strain W2580 and encodes a 220 aa ... Unlike many previously described bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria, dysgalacticin is a heat-labile 21.5 kDa anionic ... Dysgalacticin is a novel bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain W2580 that has a narrow ...
... encoding plasmid, the bacteriocin gene-encoding plasmid, pBCNF5603, was completely sequenced. This plasmid has some homology ... the plasmid replication and partitioning region of pBCNF5603 alone was insufficient for stable maintenance of this plasmid. ... For this purpose, bacteriocin production might be important. In this study, as the first step in the genetic analysis of a co- ... Using recombinant plasmids, the rep gene homologous to the PCP63 gene on pCP13 appeared to be functional. Comparative genomics ...
Field Isolate Rhizobium Strain Bacteriocin Production Rhizobium Leguminosarum Plasmid Transfer These keywords were added by ... Hirsch, P. R., 1979, Plasmid-determined bacteriocin production by Rhizobium leguminosarum, J. Gen. Microbiol., 113:219.Google ... Brewin, N. J., Beringer, J. E., and Johnston, A. W. B., 1980b, Plasmid-mediated transfer of host range specificity between two ... Dunican, L. K., OGara, F., and Tierney, A. B., 1976, Plasmid control of effectiveness in Rhizobium: transfer of nitrogen- ...
Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying ... These plasmids also contained more mobile elements than other replicons. Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, ... Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. ... many of which were located on the plasmids. The completion of the genome of C. botulinum group III has revealed it to be a ...
The resulting plasmid, pGEM-ASB, was transformed into S. pneumoniae, and mutants were selected with 80 μg/ml spectinomycin. ... and pncO are bacteriocin negative, and the pncP mutant is bacteriocin positive. The 2306ΔpncR-K mutant is bacteriocin positive ... A bacteriocin-like peptide induces bacteriocin synthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum C11. Mol. Microbiol. 18 : 631-639. ... Bacteriocins are small heat-stable peptides common in gram-positive bacteria (16, 22). The production of bacteriocins has been ...
Identification of a new plasmid-encoded sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Listeria innocua 743. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ... Bacteriocin purification.Wild-type and mutant bacteriocins were purified by applying the bacterial culture directly on a cation ... Bacteriocin activity assays.Antimicrobial activity in cultures was determined and quantification of bacteriocins was performed ... The MIC was defined as the concentration of bacteriocin showing a 1-mm zone of inhibition around the well. The bacteriocin ...
What is bacteriocinogenic plasmids? Meaning of bacteriocinogenic plasmids medical term. What does bacteriocinogenic plasmids ... Looking for online definition of bacteriocinogenic plasmids in the Medical Dictionary? bacteriocinogenic plasmids explanation ... bac·te·ri·o·cin·o·gen·ic plas·mids. bacterial plasmids responsible for the elaboration of bacteriocins. ... Synonym(s): bacteriocin factors, bacteriocinogens. bac·te·ri·o·cin·o·gen·ic plas·mids. (bak-tērē-ō-sinō-jenik plazmidz) ...
NRPS-bacteriocin, NRPS-ectoine). *Located on a plasmid; **Cluster identified as a siderophore - ectoine cluster; ***At least ... Bacteriocins. The number of clusters identified by antiSMASH as bacteriocins varied between one and five in each strain, with ... The distribution of bacteriocin clusters did not follow a particular pattern with respect to genera or species. ... In this study, we used three other tools: BAGEL3 for the identification of bacteriocins [37]; NapDos for the identification of ...
Colicin plasmids: Carry bacteriocins used to inhibit or kill other bacteria. Bacteriocins have a narrower range than ... Aside from conjugative plasmids, the other main types of plasmids are. * Resistance plasmids: Carry genes for resistance to ... theyre called conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids can facilitate the transfer of themselves, other plasmids, and even ... Some plasmids exist in many copies inside one cell and are called high-copy-number plasmids, whereas others are less numerous ...
Bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are small antimicrobial peptides produced widely by LAB. Their spectrum of activity is typically ... Absence of Phd causes cell death, usually induced upon phage or plasmid curing (22). A second ORF, La30, separated from La31 by ... Lactacin B is a class II bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus NCFM (24). The genome sequence of L. acidophilus NCFM ... The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. The average GC content is 34.71% with 1,864 predicted ORFs, of ...
Bacteriocin genes are located either on chromosoms or on plasmids. Strain 5 produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is ... A Theta-type plasmid has been characterized in Lactobacillus sakei in 2003. It is a potential basis for Low-Copy-Number vectors ... Sakacins are bacteriocins of class II produced by L. sakei. In strain CCUG 42687, their production is dependent on nutrients, ... The key elements of these vectors are a regulatable promoter involved in the production of the bacteriocins sakacin A and ...
The Lcn972 Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmid pBL1 Impairs Cellobiose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis. Applied and Environmental ... de Jong, A., van Heel, A. J., Kok, J., & Kuipers, O. P. (2010). BAGEL2: mining for bacteriocins in genomic data. Nucleic Acids ... de Jong, A., van Hijum, S. A. F. T., Bijlsma, J. J. E., Kok, J., & Kuipers, O. P. (2006). BAGEL: a web-based bacteriocin genome ... Gajic, O., Buist, G., Kojic, M., Topisirovic, L., Kuipers, O. P., & Kok, J. (2003). Novel mechanism of bacteriocin secretion ...
5.1.2 Colicins and bacteriocins. 5.1.3 Virulence determinants. 5.1.4 Plasmids in plant-associated bacteria. 5.1.5 Metabolic ... 5.3 Plasmid stability. 5.3.1 Plasmid integrity. 5.3.2 Partitioning. 5.3.3 Differential growth rate. 5.4 Associating a plasmid ... 5.2.1 Plasmid replication and control. 5.2.2 Partitioning. 5.2.3 Host range. 5.2.4 Plasmid incompatibility. ... 5 Plasmids. 5.1 Some bacterial characteristics are determined by plasmids. 5.1.1 Antibiotic resistance. ...
... yolF plasmid. After EcoRI excision of yolF from pCR-yolF plasmid, the gene was ligated to the EcoRI-cleaved plasmid pGDL48. ... Thus, two plasmids were obtained that contained yolF in opposite orientations. In plasmid pDGL-yolF, the yolF gene is under the ... Plasmid pGDL-yolFC contains yolF in the opposite orientation; consequently, the promoterless yolF gene of this plasmid cannot ... Bacterial strains, plasmids, and growth media.The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. The ...
In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic resistance determinants, ... In addition, we detected cryptic ColE1 plasmids in both families with no known genes in their variable region, which we have ... In conclusion, in this work we present a useful genetic tool for the detection and analysis of ColE1 plasmids, and confirm ... In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic res... ...
Association of a 13.6-megadalton plasmid in Pediococcus pentosaceus with bacteriocin activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... Anti-Listeria effect of enoterocin A, produced by cheese-isolated Enterococcus faecium EFM01, relative to other bacteriocins ... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ...
The bacteriocin producing genes are present not in chromosomes, but in special plasmids known as bacteriocin factor. ... Closely related to Ti-plasmid is the Ri-plasmid (root inducing plasmid). It is found in A. rhizogenes and causes hairy root ... The plasmids without any functional genes are termed as cryptic plasmid.. Vector. Plasmids used in genetic engineering are ... Characteristic features of Plasmid. *A plasmid typically is a circular and double-stranded DNA molecule; but linear plasmids ...
Molecular structure and function of the bacteriocin gene and bacteriocin protein of plasmid cloDF13.Nucl. Acids. Res.11, 2465- ... Guasch J.F., Enfedaque E., Ferrer S., Gargallo D., Regué M.: Bacteriocin 28b, a chromosomally encoded bacteriocin produced by ... Pugsley A.P.: The immunity and lysis genes of ColN plasmid pCHAP4.Mol. Gen. Genet.211, 335-341 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Sagik J.F., Suit J.L., Luria S.E.:cea-kil operon of the ColE1 plasmid.J. Bacteriol.153, 1479-1485 (1983).Google Scholar ...
Hemolysin/bacteriocin is a plasmid-encoded protein that generally is accepted as a virulence factor. Hemolysin causes lysis of ... Aggregation substance is a plasmid-encoded surface protein that causes clumping or aggregation of enterococci. This substance ... human erythrocytes, functions as a bacteriocin, and is active against other gram-positive cocci. This protein has been ...
Lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity were encoded by the 68.0 kb plasmid and bacteriocin production was encoded by the ... 12.4 kb plasmid in L. lactis subsp. lactis MPL114. Lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity and bacteriocin production in L. ... diacetylactis MPD166 strain were found to be responsible for the 61.0 kb, 14.2 and 9.0 kb plasmids respectively. ... Abstract: Genetic determinants of lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity and bacteriocin production in the strains L. ...
AIMS: Enterocin A is an example of a class IIa bacteriocin with potent anti-listerial activity. This study was initiated with a ... Plasmid pEnt02 ... ...
  • However, some of these bacteriocins are exported by the general secretory pathway ( sec ) with cleavage of their N-terminal signal peptide ( 10 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, structure predictions for pediocin PA-1/AcH, another class IIa bacteriocin, showed a β-sheet conformation in the N-terminal portion and an α-helix conformation in the C terminus of the peptide ( 8 , 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Oligonucleotides were constructed deduced from the peptide sequence and used for the identification of the curvacin A structural gene curA on a 60 kb plasmid of L. curvatus LTH1174. (nih.gov)
  • The gene responsible for this peptide and or its post-translational modification is coded in plasmids. (microbeonline.com)
  • but linear plasmids have also been reported. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although most fungal linear plasmids are mitochondrial [Samac and Leong, ibid] in the yeasts K. lactis, S. cratagensis, and P. inositovora, these elements have been found to be located in the cytoplasm. (google.com)
  • While functional analysis using recombinant plasmids indicated that pBCNF5603 and pCP13 are likely to be incompatible, the plasmid replication and partitioning region of pBCNF5603 alone was insufficient for stable maintenance of this plasmid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thereafter, to understand the relationships with the co-existing prototype of toxin-encoding plasmid or other type(s) of toxin plasmid such as pCP13, the replication region of bcn -encoding plasmid was identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three classes of plasmids are known to be capable of replication in the enterococci: the rolling circle replicating (RCR) plasmids, the Incl8 plasmids, and the pheromone-responsive plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • Model for replication of RCR plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • The origin of replication from plasmid p250 has been used to generate an Escherichia coli-H. paragallinarum shuttle vector which may be useful in genetically manipulating H. paragallinarum. (edu.au)
  • For plasmids, this location is largely composed of A-T base pairs that are easier to separate during replication. (microscopemaster.com)
  • Compared to the organisms' DNA that consists of many origins of replication, plasmids have one of a few origins of replication because they are smaller in size. (microscopemaster.com)
  • At the origin of replication, plasmids also contain a number of regulatory elements that contribute to the process (e.g. (microscopemaster.com)
  • With this data set, we were able to detect identities between CRISPR spacers and sequences from mobile elements, including pheromone-responsive plasmids and phage, suggesting that CRISPR regulates the flux of these elements through the E. faecalis species. (asm.org)
  • Certain enterococcal lineages have recently emerged that are characterized by abundant mobile DNA, including numerous viruses (phage), and plasmids and transposons encoding multiple antibiotic resistances. (asm.org)
  • The E. faecalis cytolysin ( 10 , 23 , 26 ) lyses a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, is usually plasmid encoded ( 22 ), and enhances the virulence of E. faecalis in animal models ( 5 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Independently, and at about the same time, Tomura et al (67), in Japan, reported on the transferability of a hemolysin/bacteriocin determinant in E. faecalis . (springer.com)
  • There is even a report of plasmid-encoded transfer, in the laboratory, of vanA from E. faecalis to S. aureus ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, an E. faecalis vanA -carrying plasmid, pAM368, was recently found to encode a response to cAM373 ( 27 ), thus raising concern about the potential uptake of vanA from enterococci by a pheromone-related process. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) only showed activity against E. faecalis . (tcdb.org)
  • Numerous filamentous fungi and yeasts have been discovered to contain linear double-stranded DNA plasmids [Meinhardt et al. (google.com)
  • It has been shown that many plasmids consist of ring molecules of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid with a molecular weight that ranges from 10 6 to 10 8 daltons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cloning, transposon insertion mutagenesis and sequence analysis of the bac21 determinant showed that an 8.5-kb fragment lying between kb 27.1 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map is required for complete expression of the bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • From this exhaustive computational analysis we developed a new PCR-based technique, targeting a specific sequence in the conserved region, for the screening, capture and sequencing of these small plasmids, either specific for Enterobacteriaceae or specific for Pasteurellaceae. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of pETB, a 38.2-kb Staphylococcus aureus plasmid encoding the exfoliative toxin B (ETB), was determined. (asm.org)
  • Complete sequence and detailed analysis of the first indigenous plasmid from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gaps were closed by primer walking and sequencing, and multi-PCRs were conducted through the whole plasmid sequence for verification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we have assessed the ability of the bacteriocin Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) gene cluster to behave as a food-grade post-segregational killing system to stabilize recombinant plasmids in L. lactis in the absence of antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functions have been ascribed to linear DNA plasmids of yeasts in the K. lactis system, consisting of two plasmids, pGKL1 and pGKL2, which are 8.1 and 13.4 kilobase pairs (kbp) in size, respectively. (google.com)
  • lactis DPC5598 with the recombinant plasmids has permitted the detection and quantitation of PedA-1 and the coproduction of nisin A and PedA-1 in supernatants of producer cells with specific anti-PedA-1 antibodies and a noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Deletion mutant analysis of the cloned 8.5-kb fragment revealed that the deletion of segments between kb 31.6 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map, which contained the distal region of the determinant encoding bacF to bac1, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. (asm.org)
  • The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression contained the bacA to bacE sequences located in the proximal half of the determinant. (asm.org)
  • The term plasmid was first introduced by the American molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg in 1952 to describe any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The cloned fragment encoding the 4.5-kb proximal region and a Tn916 insertion mutant into pPD1 bacB trans-complemented intracellularly to give complete expression of the bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • Currently, however, the term plasmid is restricted only to those accessory DNA molecules that are found in addition to the main chromosomes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transposon insertions into the bacA to bacE ORFs, which are located in the proximal half of bac21, resulted in defective bacteriocin expression. (asm.org)
  • The plasmids did not show any homology in Southern hybridization with the pheromone-responsive plasmids and broad-host-range plasmids pAMβ1 and pIP501. (asm.org)
  • This suggests enormous selective pressure has optimized the content of certain plasmids despite their large size and complex organization. (g3journal.org)
  • In general, this class of bacteriocins is characterized by the presence of the unusual dehydrated amino acids 2,3-didehydroalanine (Dha) and/or 2,3-didehydrobutyrine (Dhb). (asm.org)
  • which are categorized in the 2nd class of bacteriocins from LAB, the known as "antilisterial" bacteriocins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moving to the second field of application, the expanding clinical applications of bacteriocins may help us to fill some gaps in the biomedical sector. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diez-Gonzalez, F. (2007) Applications of bacteriocins in livestock. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The potential applications of bacteriocins from LAB in the food and health care sectors have attracted the strong interest of academia and the industry resulting in an impressive amount of published research on their production, purification, genetics and applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two transcripts were observed from this region: one comprises the whole operon and is synthesized during the exponential phase of growth while the other, which corresponds just to the bacteriocin structural gene, presents a maximum in exponential cultures but is still present in late-stationary-phase cells. (tudelft.nl)
  • However, there are several limitations that challenge the use of bacteriocins as biopreservatives/antibacterial agents. (frontiersin.org)