Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Bacteriochlorophyll A: A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to chlorophyll a.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Bacterial Chromatophores: Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Chlorobium: A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Rhodospirillum: A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Rhodospirillales: An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Pheophytins: Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Rhodospirillaceae: A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.Chromatiaceae: A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.Rhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Levulinic Acids: Keto acids that are derivatives of 4-oxopentanoic acids (levulinic acid).Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Azaguanine: One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Aminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Roseobacter: A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Bacteria, AerobicPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.North SeaSphingomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.PhytolGenes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Ectothiorhodospira: A genus of vibrioid or rod-shaped cells which are motile by polar flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellar stacks and contain bacteriochlorophyll a or b and carotenoids. Growth occurs photoautotrophically under anaerobic conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Rhodovulum: A genus of facultatively or obligately anaerobic marine phototrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Acidobacteria: A physiologically diverse phylum of acidophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in a wide variety of habitats, but particularly abundant in soils and sediments.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Chloroflexus: A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Protochlorophyllide: A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.PhotochemistryOxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Darkness: The absence of light.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Hyphomicrobiaceae: A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Molecular characterization of novel red green nonsulfur bacteria from five distinct hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. (1/78)

We characterized and compared five geographically isolated hot springs with distinct red-layer communities in Yellowstone National Park. Individual red-layer communities were observed to thrive in temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 degrees C and at pH 7 to 9. All communities were dominated by red filamentous bacteria and contained bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), suggesting that they represented novel green nonsulfur (GNS) bacteria. The in vivo absorption spectra of individual sites were different, with two sites showing unusual Bchl a protein absorption bands beyond 900 nm. We prepared and analyzed 16S rRNA libraries from all of these sites by using a combination of general bacterial primers and new GNS-specific primers described here. These studies confirmed the presence of novel GNS-like bacteria in all five communities. All GNS-like clones were most similar to Roseiflexus castenholzii, a red filamentous bacterium from Japan that also contains only Bchl a. Phylogenies constructed by using GNS-like clones from Yellowstone red-layer communities suggest the presence of a moderately diverse new "red" cluster within the GNS lineage. Within this cluster, at least two well-supported subclusters emerged: YRL-A was most similar to Roseiflexus and YRL-B appeared to be novel, containing no known isolates. While these patterns showed some site specificity, they did not correlate with observed Bchl a spectrum differences or obvious features of the habitat.  (+info)

The 7.5-A electron density and spectroscopic properties of a novel low-light B800 LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (2/78)

A novel low-light (LL) adapted light-harvesting complex II has been isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Previous work has identified a LL B800-850 complex with a heterogeneous peptide composition and reduced absorption at 850 nm. The work presented here shows the 850 nm absorption to be contamination from a high-light B800-850 complex and that the true LL light-harvesting complex II is a novel B800 complex composed of eight alpha beta(d) peptide pairs that exhibits unique absorption and circular dichroism near infrared spectra. Biochemical analysis shows there to be four bacteriochlorophyll molecules per alpha beta peptide rather than the usual three. The electron density of the complex at 7.5 A resolution shows it to be an octamer with exact 8-fold rotational symmetry. A number of bacteriochlorophyll geometries have been investigated by simulation of the circular dichroism and absorption spectra and compared, for consistency, with the electron density. Modeling of the spectra suggests that the B850 bacteriochlorophylls may be arranged in a radial direction rather than the usual tangential arrangement found in B800-850 complexes.  (+info)

Photosynthetic apparatus in Roseateles depolymerans 61A is transcriptionally induced by carbon limitation. (3/78)

Production of a photosynthetic apparatus in Roseateles depolymerans 61A, a recently discovered freshwater beta-Proteobacterium showing characteristics of aerobic phototrophic bacteria, was observed when the cells were subjected to a sudden decrease in carbon sources (e.g., when cells grown with 0.1 to 0.4% Casamino Acids were diluted or transferred into medium containing or=0.2% O(2)), and was reduced in the presence of light. Transcription of the R. depolymerans puf operon is considered to be controlled by changes in carbon nutrients in addition to oxygen tension and light intensity.  (+info)

Thiobaca trueperi gen. nov., sp. nov., a phototrophic purple sulfur bacterium isolated from freshwater lake sediment. (4/78)

Two strains of a novel species of phototrophic micro-organism were isolated from the sediments of a shallow, freshwater, eutrophic lake. Both strains grew photolithoheterotrophically with sulfide as an electron donor, transiently accumulating intracellular sulfur globules. Photolithoautotrophic growth was not observed. One strain was designated BCH(T) (the type strain) and was studied in most detail. Cells contained bacteriochlorophyll a, and the dominant carotenoid was lycopene. Cell suspensions were brown. The photosynthetic membranes had a vesicular arrangement. Acetate, propionate, pyruvate, succinate and fumarate were each used as electron donors and carbon sources in the presence of sulfide and bicarbonate. In the presence of light, growth did not occur with hydrogen, thiosulfate or iron(II). The optimum temperature for growth was between 25 and 30 degrees C, the maximum being 36 degrees C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain BCH(T) was 63 mol%. Analysis of the 16S RNA genes showed that both strains belonged to the gamma-subclass of the Proteobacteria but were phylogenetically distinct from any described phototrophic organisms within the Chromatiaceae. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological differences from other phototrophic microorganisms, strain BCH(T) is described as a novel species of a new genus, Thiobaca trueperi gen. nov., sp. nov.  (+info)

Excitation energy transfer dynamics and excited-state structure in chlorosomes of Chlorobium phaeobacteroides. (5/78)

The excited-state relaxation within bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) e and a in chlorosomes of Chlorobium phaeobacteroides has been studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. Singlet-singlet annihilation was observed to strongly influence both the isotropic and anisotropic decays. Pump intensities in the order of 10(11) photons x pulse(-1) x cm(-2) were required to obtain annihilation-free conditions. The most important consequence of applied very low excitation doses is an observation of a subpicosecond process within the BChl e manifold (approximately 200-500 fs), manifesting itself as a rise in the red part of the Q(y) absorption band of the BChl e aggregates. The subsequent decay of the kinetics measured in the BChl e region and the corresponding rise in the baseplate BChl a is not single-exponential, and at least two components are necessary to fit the data, corresponding to several BChl e-->BChl a transfer steps. Under annihilation-free conditions, the anisotropic kinetics show a generally slow decay within the BChl e band (10-20 ps) whereas it decays more rapidly in the BChl a region ( approximately 1 ps). Analysis of the experimental data gives a detailed picture of the overall time evolution of the energy relaxation and energy transfer processes within the chlorosome. The results are interpreted within an exciton model based on the proposed structure.  (+info)

Porphyrobacter cryptus sp. nov., a novel slightly thermophilic, aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing species. (6/78)

Two strains of a novel aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing species of the alpha-4 subclass of the Proteobacteria were isolated from the hot spring at Alcafache in central Portugal. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analyses showed the two novel isolates to be phylogenetically related to members of the genera Erythrobacter, Erythromicrobium and Porphyrobacter. The strains produce reddish-orange-pigmented colonies, have an optimum growth temperature of about 50 degrees C and could be distinguished from the species Porphyrobacter tepidarius, which also has a high growth temperature, primarily on the basis of the fatty acid composition. The novel species does not grow anaerobically in the presence or absence of a light source. The strains of the novel species utilize several single carbon sources for growth, most of which are also used by P. tepidarius. The species status of strains ALC-2T and ALC-3 was confirmed by low reassociation values of the DNA with species of the genera Erythrobacter, Erythromicrobium and Porphyrobacter. Phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses also show that strains ALC-2T (=DSM 12079T =ATCC BAA-386T) and ALC-3 (=DSM 12080) represent a novel species, for which the name Porphyrobacter cryptus sp. nov. is proposed.  (+info)

Aerobic and anaerobic Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester cyclases in purple bacteria: a strategy adopted to bypass the repressive oxygen control system. (7/78)

Two different mechanisms for Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester (MgPMe) cyclization are shown to coexist in Rubrivivax gelatinosus and are proposed to be conserved in all facultative aerobic phototrophs: an anaerobic mechanism active under photosynthesis or low oxygenation, and an aerobic mechanism active only under high oxygenation conditions. This was confirmed by analyzing the bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in the wild type and in three mutant strains grown under low or high aeration. A mutant lacking the acsF gene is photosynthetic, exhibits normal bacteriochlorophyll accumulation under low oxygenation and anaerobiosis, and accumulates MgPMe under high oxygenation. The photosynthesis-deficient bchE mutant produces bacteriochlorophyll only under high oxygenation and accumulates MgPMe under low oxygenation and anaerobiosis. The double knockout mutant is devoid of photosystem and accumulates MgPMe under both conditions indicating the involvement of the two enzymes at the same step of the biosynthesis pathway. Oxygen-mediated expression of bchE was studied in the wild type and in a regulatory mutant. The reverse transcriptase-PCR and the bchE promoter activity results demonstrate that the expression of the bchE gene is oxygen-independent and suggest that it is rather the enzyme activity that should be oxygen-sensitive. No obvious sequence similarities were found between oxygen-dependent AcsF and the oxygen-independent anaerobic Mg-protoporphyrin monomethylester cyclase (BchE) enzymes. However, common to all BchE proteins is the conserved CXXX-CXXC sequence. This motif is essential for 4Fe-4S cluster formation in many anaerobic enzymes. Expression and purification of BchE were achieved, and the UV-visible spectral analyses confirmed the presence of an active 4Fe-4S cluster in this protein. The use of different classes of enzymes catalyzing the same reaction under different oxygen growth conditions appears to be a common feature of different biosynthetic pathways, and the benefit of possessing both aerobic and anaerobic systems is discussed.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the RC-LH1 core complex from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (8/78)

The crystal structure at 4.8 angstrom resolution of the reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex from Rhodopseudomonas palustris shows the reaction center surrounded by an oval LH1 complex that consists of 15 pairs of transmembrane helical alpha- and beta-apoproteins and their coordinated bacteriochlorophylls. Complete closure of the RC by the LH1 is prevented by a single transmembrane helix, out of register with the array of inner LH1 alpha-apoproteins. This break, located next to the binding site in the reaction center for the secondary electron acceptor ubiquinone (UQB), may provide a portal through which UQB can transfer electrons to cytochrome b/c1.  (+info)

General Information: This strain was collected from the Sargasso Sea at a depth of 10 meters. Phototrophic bacterium. Organisms in this aerobic phototrophic genus are found in marine environments. Members of this group produce bacteriochlorophyll a, which is normally found in anaerobic organisms. One theory to explain this is that the anoxygenic photosynthetic gene cluster was acquired by these organisms via lateral gene transfer. Although they require an organic carbon substrate for growth, they are able to supplement a significant fraction of their metabolic requirements with photosynthetically derviced energy. This species was isolated from a marine cyanobacterial mat. Although they require an organic carbon substrate for growth, they are able to supplement a significant fraction of their metabolic requirements with photosynthetically derviced energy. The presence of the carotenoids bacteriorubixanthinal and erythroxanthin sulfate give this organism a reddish color. ...
basis of record Lee, K.-B., Liu, C.-T., Anzai, Y., Kim, H., Aono, T., and Oyaizu, H. 2005. The hierarchical system of the Alphaproteobacteria: description of Hyphomonadaceae fam. nov., Xanthobacteraceae fam. nov. and Erythrobacteraceae fam. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:1907-1919. [details] ...
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the abundance, size, and single-cell activity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria in summer and fall over 2 yr in coastal waters of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Single-cell incorporation of 3H-leucine was measured using a new microautoradiography approach coupled to infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The relative abundance of these photoheterotrophic bacteria was higher in January (1 to 8%) than in May (0.3 to 1%) but differed greatly between the 2 yr we sampled, as did several biogeochemical properties. The biovolume of AAP bacteria was nearly 3-fold larger than that of cells in the total bacterial community and ca. 2-fold larger than AAP bacterial biovolumes in low latitude coastal waters. A large fraction of AAP bacteria and of the total community incorporated 3H-leucine in January (ca. 48% for both communities), which then decreased by 4-fold in May. The area of silver grains formed around active cells in ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Bacteriochlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments that occur in various phototrophic bacteria. They were discovered by C. B. van Niel in 1932. They are related to chlorophylls, which are the primary pigments in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Groups that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis, but do not produce oxygen. They use wavelengths of light not absorbed by plants or Cyanobacteria. Different groups contain different types of bacteriochlorophyll: ...
Gottstein, J. und Scheer, Hugo (1983): Long-wavelength-absorbing forms of bacteriochlorophyll a in solutions of Triton X-100. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 80: S. 1887-1892 ...
ID A0A1C7D8C8_9SPHN Unreviewed; 391 AA. AC A0A1C7D8C8; DT 30-NOV-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 30-NOV-2016, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 10. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tufA {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ANU07612.1}; GN Synonyms=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN ORFNames=A6F65_01306 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ANU07612.1}; OS Altererythrobacter namhicola. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Sphingomonadales; OC Erythrobacteraceae; Altererythrobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=645517 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ANU07612.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000092698}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ANU07612.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000092698} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=JCM 16345 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ANU07612.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000092698}; RA Cheng H., Wu Y.-H., Jian S.-L., Huo Y.-Y., Wang C.-S., Xu X.-W.; RT "Complete genome ...
This new resource supports the use of practicals across various new 2015 A-level biology specifications (OCR, AQA, Edexcel and Eduqas). Students conduct Thin Layer Chromatography individually or in pairs to separate and identify the photosynthetic pigments from plant material within half an hour. This simple method has been designed to produce good separation of photosynthetic pigments using solvents that are suitable for use in a school biology laboratory.
GRAIN is a small international non-profit organisation that works to support small farmers and social movements in their struggles for community-controlled and biodiversity-based food systems
From genomic libraries of purple sulphur bacteria, fragments were cloned that encoded for proteins involved in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoic acids), PHA. A 12.5- and a 15.0- plus a 15.6-kbp
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:e_ezovicum.png,frame,right,Erythromicrobium ezovicum Image from [http://141.150.157.117:8080/prokPUB/chaphtm/309/COMPLETE.htm V. V. Yurkov, "Aerobic Phototrophic Proteobacteria", March, 2001. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Sphingomonadales; Erythrobacteraceae ===Species:=== Erythromicrobium ezovicum, E. hydrolyticum, E. ramosum, Erythromicrobium sp. {, , height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=35810 Taxonomy] ,} ==Description and Significance== Despite the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), Erythromicrobium is not capable of growing photosynthetically, which distinguishes the bacterium from other Bchl a-containing groups. Other main features include low levels of photosynthetic units in cells and strong inhibition by light of Bchl a synthesis (Yurkov et al). Due to the ...
ID G2E4Q3_9GAMM Unreviewed; 601 AA. AC G2E4Q3; DT 16-NOV-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-NOV-2011, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 24. DE RecName: Full=V-type ATP synthase subunit I {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}; GN ORFNames=ThidrDRAFT_3266 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGV29529.1}; OS Thiorhodococcus drewsii AZ1. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Chromatiales; OC Chromatiaceae; Thiorhodococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=765913 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGV29529.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000004200}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGV29529.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000004200} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=AZ1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGV29529.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000004200}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Land M.L., Hauser L., Vogl K., Liu Z., Imhoff J., Thiel V., RA Frigaard N.-U., Bryant D.A., Woyke T.J.; RT "The draft genome of Thiorhodococcus drewsii ...
Get an answer for what photosynthetic pigments are present in euglenophyta? and find homework help for other Photosynthesis questions at eNotes
Bacteriochlorophyll a Containing Microbes (BCM) are a unique group of microorganisms in the marine environment. Accurate determination of their abundance is critical for understanding their role in energy flow and carbon cycle in the ecosystem. The I
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis.
A reddish-brown bacterium was isolated from photoheterotrophic enrichments of mangrove soil from the western coast of India, in a medium that contained 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA100T clusters with species of the genus Marichromatium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Cells of strain JA100T are Gram-negative, motile rods with monopolar single flagella; they require NaCl, the optimum concentration being 1-4 %, and tolerate concentrations up to 13 %. The strain has vesicular internal membrane structures, bacteriochlorophyll a and, most probably, carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series. No growth factors are required. A reduced sulfur source is required for growth, and, during growth on reduced sulfur sources as electron donors, sulfur is intermediately deposited as a single large granule within the cell. Strain JA100T could not grow at the expense of other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, except malate. On the basis of 16S
Two non-motile, orange- or yellow-pigmented bacteria, designated strains KYW48T and KYW147T, were isolated from seawater collected from the South Sea, Republic of Korea. Cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids of strain KYW48T were C18 : 1ω7c (35.3 %), summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) (22.7 %), C17 : 1ω6c (19.8 %), C14 : 0 2-OH (7.4 %) and C16 : 0 (5.9 %), and those of strain KYW147T were C18 : 1ω7c (36.0 %), summed feature 3 (18.3 %), C16 : 0 (14.7 %), 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c (10.7 %), C16 : 0 2-OH (9.1 %) and C18 : 1ω9c (8.0 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone of both strains was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The DNA G+C contents of strains KYW48T and KYW147T were 63.8 and 67.2 mol%, respectively. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains KYW48T and KYW147T were grouped with the members of the family Erythrobacteraceae and formed a distinct clade with the members of the genus
The protein is actually located in chlorosome. Transfer energy was calculated with hetero-atoms. This is solid state NMR model ...
Photosynthetic Pigments tutorial all along with the key concepts of Pigments, Pigments in Plants, Accessory Pigments, Chloroplasts, Complexes of Pigments in Chloroplasts, Photophosphorylation-Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts
Learning Objectives Describe the function and locations of photosynthetic pigments in eukaryotes and prokaryotes Describe the major products of the l
Umbilical Cord, A cord that remains, always, in many ways.." the title of this book itself is an open window about the direction in which all 40 short stories are written. In this book the immense talent of Meena Chandawarkar & Santosh Avvannavar has been showcased in their writing, all these short stories will ultimately make you think about the cords we shouldnt forget to have with people & god, the qualities which every human should possess in order to make this world a better place to live for our present & future generations ...
Looking for online definition of Purple non-sulfur bacteria in the Medical Dictionary? Purple non-sulfur bacteria explanation free. What is Purple non-sulfur bacteria? Meaning of Purple non-sulfur bacteria medical term. What does Purple non-sulfur bacteria mean?
Recommended standards for the description of new species of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are proposed in accordance with Recommendation 30b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. These standards include information on the natural habitat, ecology and phenotypic properties including morphology, physiology and pigments and on genetic information and nucleic acid data. The recommended standards were supported by the Subcommittee on the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. They are considered as guidelines for authors to prepare descriptions of new species.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bound manganese oxides capable of reducing the bacteriochlorophyll dimer of modified reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. AU - Espiritu, Eduardo. AU - Chamberlain, Kori D.. AU - Williams, Jo Ann C.. AU - Allen, James P.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - A biohybrid model system is described that interfaces synthetic Mn-oxides with bacterial reaction centers to gain knowledge concerning redox reactions by metal clusters in proteins, in particular the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II. The ability of Mn-oxides to bind to modified bacterial reaction centers and transfer an electron to the light-induced oxidized bacteriochlorophyll dimer, P+, was characterized using optical spectroscopy. The environment of P was altered to obtain a high P/P+ midpoint potential. In addition, different metal-binding sites were introduced by substitution of amino acid residues as well as extension of the C-terminus of the M subunit with the C-terminal region of the D1 subunit of photosystem ...
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
Title: Reversible Changes in the Structural Features of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex 2 by Removal and Reconstitution of B800 Bacteriochlorophyll a ...
Käß, H.; Rautter, J.; Zweygart, W.; Struck, A.; Scheer, Hugo und Lubitz, Wolfgang (1994): EPR, ENDOR, and TRIPLE resonance studies of modified bacteriochlorophyll cation radicals. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 98, Nr. 1: S. 354-363 [PDF, 149kB] ...
The utilization of carbon compounds by L. alexandrii DSM 17067T was also determined for this study using PM01 microplates in an OmniLog phenotyping device (BIOLOG Inc., Hayward, CA, USA). The microplates were inoculated at 28°C with a cell suspension at a cell density of approximately 85% Turbidity and dye D. Further additives were artificial sea salts, vitamins, trace elements and NaHC03. The exported measurement data were further analyzed with the opm package for R [24], using its functionality for statistically estimating parameters from the respiration curves such as the maximum height, and automatically translating these values into negative, ambiguous, and positive reactions. The strain was studied in six independent biological replicates, and reactions with a distinct behavior between the repetitions were regarded as ambiguous and are not listed below.. L. alexandrii DSM 17067T was positive for glycerol, D-xylose, D-mannitol, L-glutamic acid, D,L-malic acid, D-ribose, D-fructose, ...
Juukse- ja näohooldustooted. Pakume sulle rikkalikku valikut sinu ilutooteid alati parima soodustusega, garanteerides kaupade originaalsuse ja kõrge kvaliteedi.
Juukse- ja näohooldustooted. Pakume sulle rikkalikku valikut sinu ilutooteid alati parima soodustusega, garanteerides kaupade originaalsuse ja kõrge kvaliteedi.
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Palju on sinu rasvaprotsent? Mugav kodune rasvaprotsendi ja -kihi mõõtmise komplekt. Kaliiper ja mõõdulint koduseks rasva muutuste jälgimiseks.
Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli missioon on olla teaduse, tehnoloogia ja innovatsiooni edendaja ning juhtiv inseneri- ja majandushariduse andja Eestis.
The aerial surface of plants, the phyllosphere, is colonized by numerous bacteria displaying diverse metabolic properties that enable their survival in this specific habitat. Recently, we reported on the presence of microbial rhodopsin harbouring bacteria on the top of leaf surfaces. Here, we report on the presence of additional bacterial populations capable of harvesting light as a means of supplementing their metabolic requirements. An analysis of six phyllosphere metagenomes revealed the presence of a diverse community of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including the previously reported methylobacteria, as well as other known and unknown phototrophs. The presence of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was also confirmed in situ by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The microscopic enumeration correlated with estimates based on metagenomic analyses, confirming both the presence and high abundance of these microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Our data suggest that the phyllosphere contains a ...
Among the phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, these were initially distinguished because they deposit elemental sulfur globules outside the cells, unlike the nEndothiorhodaceae that deposit elemental sulfur inside their cells. Subsequently the extrmely halophilic species were segregated from Ectothiorhodospira and assigned to Halorhodospira. Most species are rods, most often slightly bent rods, vibrios or spirilla that during oxidation of sulfide produce elemental sulfur which is deposited outside the cells; one species, Ectothiorhodospira vacuolata, produces gas vesicles. All of the phototrophic Ectothiorhodospiraceae produce characteristic internal membrane stacks that may constitute a large fraction of the internal volume of these cells ...
The Optogenetic method of controlling the position of proteins in cells using light is becoming widely employed as an important method to understand intracellular signal transduction. In conventional methods short wavelength light, such as ultraviolet light or blue light, are commonplace. In 2009, Dr. Wendell A. Lim and others announced the PhyB-PIF system utilizing red light / near infrared light, but in order to use this system in animal cells the cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment phycocyanobilin (PCB) must be added, this step greatly hindered the use of the PhyB-PIF system.. According to Professor Kazuhiro Aoki of the National Institute for Basic Biology We focused on the heme present in mitochondria in animals, and based on this heme we aimed at synthesizing cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment PCB inside animal cells. The research group has now succeeded in synthesizing PCB in animal cells directly by introducing four genes encoding cyanobacterial enzymes related to PCB ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ilmastouutisia, energiauutisia, energians st vinkkej ja kasvihuonekaasujen p st tietoja. Laaja tietopaketti ilmastonmuutoksesta.
BioCare toidulisand 30 kapslit Netokogus: 19,35 g Sisaldab magneesiumi, tsinki, mangaani, vaske, kroomi, molübdeeni ja seleeni. Toidulisand on ...
Looking for Amoebobacter? Find out information about Amoebobacter. A genus of bacteria in the family Chromatiaceae; cells are spherical and nonmotile, have gas vacuoles, and contain bacteriochlorophyll a on vesicular... Explanation of Amoebobacter
Mullapinnale pritsides tuleb pritsimislahus võimalikult kiirelt viia 10-12 cm sügavusele mulda. Soovitav mullaniiskus peaks olema vähemalt 60% ja mullatemperatuur +5 °C ...
Pihan skandinaavinen tyyli syntyy selkeistä linjoista ja harmonisista materiaaleista. Viherpihasta saat ideoita tyylin toteuttamiseen myös omalla pihallasi.
Adrovance on ravim, mis sisaldab kaht toimeainet: alendroonhapet ja kolekaltsiferooli (D3-vitamiin). Ravimit turustatakse valgete tablettidena (piklikud 70 mg alendroonhapet ja 2800 rahvusvahelist ühikut (IU) kolekaltsiferooli; neljakandilised 70 mg alendroonhapet ja 5600 IU kolekaltsiferooli).
Kaikki hengitysteissä esiintyvät virukset voivat aiheuttaa lasten alahengitystieinfektioita (yskä, laryngiitti, bronkioliitti, obstruktiivinen bronkiitti, keuhkokuume ja hinkuyskä). Lapsen virusinfektioon liittyvä yskä on itsestään paraneva tauti, jota ei hoideta antibiooteilla.
Purple bacteria were the first bacteria discovered to photosynthesize without having an oxygen byproduct. Instead, their byproduct is sulfur. This was demonstrated by first establishing the bacterias reactions to different concentrations of oxygen. It was found that the bacteria moved quickly away from even the slightest trace of oxygen. Then a dish of the bacteria was taken, and a light was focused on one part of the dish, leaving the rest dark. As the bacteria cannot survive without light, all the bacteria moved into the circle of light, becoming very crowded. If the bacterias byproduct was oxygen, the distances between individuals would become larger and larger as more oxygen was produced. But because of the bacterias behavior in the focused light, it was concluded that the bacterias photosynthetic byproduct could not be oxygen. In a 2018 Frontiers in Energy Research [de] article, it has been suggested that purple bacteria can be used as a biorefinery.[11][12] ...
The synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) was inhibited in wild type strain of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata by levulinic acid (LA), δ-aminolevulinic acid of α,α′-dipyridyl. The transcription of genes for pigment-binding proteins, the synthesis and incorporation of these proteins into the membrane and the assembly of photosynthetic complexes were studied. Inhibition of Bchl synthesis did not impair formation of mRNA for pigment-binding polypeptides, but inhibited the synthesis of these proteins as well as stable incorporation into the membrane. The results let suggest, that Bchl is necessary for the stabilization of pigment-binding proteins in the membrane, and that intermediates of Bchl-synthesis affect the synthesis of these proteins. The same experiments were carried out with mutant strains blocked in Bchl synthesis. All Bchl-less mutant strains investigated here, showed transcription of photosynthetic genes at a rate which was independent of oxygen tension. The synthesis of polypeptides of
1)Washington University in St. Louis. "Taco Shell Protein: Orientation Of Antenna Protein In Photosynthetic Bacteria Described." ScienceDaily 9 April 2009. 12 April 2009 ,http://www.sciencedaily.com¬ /releases/2009/04/090402171438.htm,. ( 2)D.A. Bryant & N.-U. Frigaard (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated". Trends Microbiol. 14 (11): 488. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2006.09.001 (3)Beatty, J.T.; Overmann, J.; Lince, M.T.; Mansket, A.K.; Lang, A.S.; Blankenship, R.E.; Van Dover, C.L.; Martinson, T.A.; Plumley, F.G. " An obligately photosynthetic bacterial anaerobe from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent". PNAS June 28, 2005 vol. 102 no. 26 9306-9310 (4)Li YF, Zhou W, Blankenship RE, Allen JP (1997) Crystal structure of the bacteriochlorophyll a protein from Chlorobium tepidum. J Mol Biol 271:456-471. (5)Olson, J. M. (1978). Bacteriochlorophyll a-proteins from green bacteria. In The Photosynthetic Bacteria (Clayton, R. K. & Sistrom, W. R., eds), pp. 161± 178, Plenum Press, ...
ABSTRACT: Flavin monooxygenase (FMO) is one of the most important enzymes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the full length of FMO gene (RsFMOgs-ox1) encoding a putative FMO protein composed of 450 amino acids was successfully cloned using the RACE-PCR method. The amino acid sequence of RsFMOgs-ox1 has high similarities of 92% and 83% with BrFMOgs-ox1 and AtFMOgs-ox1,2,3, respectively, and the gene structure of FMOgs-ox1 is similar to its plant homologues. Quantitative (qPCR) analysis revealed that RsFMOgs-ox1 was highly expressed during early seedling development. In mature radish, the highest expression was observed in the leaves, while the lowest transcript was evident in the root. The expression of RsFMOgs-ox1 was also regulated by wounding, notably 1 day after treatment. Subcellular localization in Arabidopsis showed that RsFMOgs-ox1 was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei. This study allows us to understand something about RsFMOgs-ox1 function in glucosinolate ...
Heterologously expressed MopA and the AHP domain catalyze Mn(II) oxidation.In order to increase expression of and aid in purification of the Mn-oxidizing protein as well as to determine the domain necessary for activity, mopA and the AHP domain of mopA (Fig. 1) were cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli Rosetta 2. The operon containing the mopA gene in Erythrobacter sp. SD21 has not been characterized, and mopA may be the only gene in its operon. Upstream of mopA, there is a two-component system response regulator that has currently not been linked to Mn oxidation. Therefore, no additional genes were expressed with mopA. The full-length mopA gene was cloned into the modified pSpeedET expression vector carrying a C-terminal His tag and a gIII N-terminal signal sequence. Several constructs with the His tag on the N or C terminus, different lengths of the His tag, and different expression vectors were tested for activity, with the most stable Mn-oxidizing activity occurring when expressed ...
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Absorption spectra of BChl a-associated proteins from various C. tepidum strains recovered by Ni2+-affinity purification.Absorption spectra (traces 1-6) of BChl
Ühe ja mitme koostisosaga ainete ning UVCB-ainete erinõudeid kirjeldatakse ainete REACH- ja CLP-määruse kohase identifitseerimise ja nimetamise juhendis.. ECHA otsustab, kas olete aine identifitseerinud õigesti. Selleks tuleb toimikusse lisada nõuetekohase kvaliteediga spektrid ja kromatogrammid ning muu analüütiline teave. Tähtis on spektreid, kromatogramme ja muud analüütilist teavet põhjalikult hinnata ning esitada toimikus nende tõlgendused.. REACH-registreerimistoimikus aine identifitseerimisandmete osa koostamise lisateave on andmete esitamise käsiraamatu 18. osas „Kuidas esitada REACH-registreerimisel aine identifitseerimisandmeid IUCLID 5-s".,/. ...
Soovitused sõltuvad sellest, mis liiki reis on ja kui kaua kestab. Lähtuvalt sellest ja nakatumisriskist jagatakse reisid nelja rühma ...
Biolatte Oy:n perustajalla on 30 vuoden kokemus maitohappobakteereista ja terveyteen liittyvistä asioista. Vuonna 1973 jatkoimme suomalaisen nobelistin A.I. Virtasen jalanjäljissä ja ryhdyimme kehittämään biologisia säilöntäaineita orgaanisten happojen, muurahais- ja rikkihappojen tilalle.
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It contains bacteriochlorophyll a. It is motile by means of subpolar flagella. Its type strain is OCh101 (= IFO 14126). Shiba, ... nov., an Aerobic Bacterium Which Contains Bacteriochlorophyll a". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 32 (2): 211 ... Shimada, Keizo; Hayashi, Hidenori; Tasumi, Mitsuo (1985). "Bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of aerobic bacteria, ...
It contains Bacteriochlorophyll a. It contains spheroidenone, does not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll anaerobically, but shows ... nov., Aerobic Pink-Pigmented Bacteria which Contain Bacteriochlorophyll a". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 14 (2): 140- ...
... found in bacteriochlorophyll; and corrin, which has a cobalt center in cobalamin or vitamin B12. Budavari, Susan (1989). "7574 ...
Its biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase. The simplified biosynthetic sequence is acyclic precursors → mono-pyrrole (porphobilinogen) → tetrapyrrole, also known as a porphyrinogen (uroporphyrinogen III) → porphyrin (protoporphyrin IX).[1] Protoporphyrin IX is an important precursor to biologically essential prosthetic groups such as heme, cytochrome c, and chlorophylls. As a result, a number of organisms are able to synthesize these tetrapyrrole from basic precursors such as glycine and succinyl CoA, or glutamate. Despite the wide range of organisms that synthesize protoporphyrin IX the process is largely conserved from bacteria to mammals with a few distinct exceptions in higher plants.[3][4][5] ...
... (or sirohaem) is a heme-like prosthetic group at the active sites of some enzymes to accomplish the six-electron reduction of sulfur and nitrogen.[1] It is a cofactor at the active site of sulfite dehydrogenase, which plays a major role in sulfur assimilation pathway, converting sulfite into sulfide, which can be incorporated into the organic compound homocysteine.[2] ...
Hemoproteins have diverse biological functions including the transportation of diatomic gases, chemical catalysis, diatomic gas detection, and electron transfer. The heme iron serves as a source or sink of electrons during electron transfer or redox chemistry. In peroxidase reactions, the porphyrin molecule also serves as an electron source. In the transportation or detection of diatomic gases, the gas binds to the heme iron. During the detection of diatomic gases, the binding of the gas ligand to the heme iron induces conformational changes in the surrounding protein.[5] In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). It has been speculated that the original evolutionary function of hemoproteins was electron transfer in primitive sulfur-based photosynthesis pathways in ancestral cyanobacteria-like organisms ...
Chlorophyll itself is bound to proteins and can transfer the absorbed energy in the required direction. Protochlorophyllide, however, occurs mostly in the free form and, under light conditions, acts as a photosensitizer, forming highly toxic free radicals. Hence, plants need an efficient mechanism of regulating the amount of chlorophyll precursor. In angiosperms, this is done at the step of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), one of the intermediate compounds in the biosynthetic pathway. Plants that are fed by ALA accumulate high and toxic levels of protochlorophyllide, as do mutants with a disrupted regulatory system. Arabidopsis FLU mutant with damaged regulation can survive only either in a continuous darkness (protochlorophyllide is not dangerous in the darkness) or under continuous light, when the plant is capable to convert all produced protochlorophyllide into chlorophyll and do not overaccumulate it despite of the lack of regulation. In barley Tigrina mutant (mutated on the same gene,[8]) ...
Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ...
They contain bacteriochlorophyll c and chlorosomes. Chlorobium tepidum contains a genome that contains 2.15 Mbp. There are a ... Frigaard NU, Voigt GD, Bryant DA (June 2002). "Chlorobium tepidum mutant lacking bacteriochlorophyll c made by inactivation of ... the bchK gene, encoding bacteriochlorophyll c synthase". Journal of Bacteriology. 184 (12): 3368-76. doi:10.1128/jb.184.12.3368 ...
Nov., a phototrophic filamentous gliding bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a". Archives of Microbiology. 142 (2): 164- ...
Tronrud, D.E.; Schmid, M.F.; Matthews, B.W. (April 1986). "Structure and X-ray amino acid sequence of a bacteriochlorophyll a ... Pearlstein, Robert M. (1992). "Theory of the optical spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll a antenna protein trimer from ... Fenna, R. E.; Matthews, B. W. (1975). "Chlorophyll arrangement in a bacteriochlorophyll protein from Chlorobium limicola". ... Each of the three monomers contains seven bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules. They are bound to the protein scaffold via ...
nov., a bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from lake water". International Journal of Systematic and ...
It is an obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria. Yurkov, V.; Stackebrandt, E.; Holmes, A.; Fuerst, J. A ... Bacteriochlorophyll a-Containing Bacteria and Description of Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., ... the aerobic bacteria Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus RB3 and Erythromicrobium ramosum E5 is not bound to the bacteriochlorophyll ...
nov., novel aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria from soil". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 48 ...
nov., aerobic pink-pigmented bacteria which contain bacteriochlorophyll a". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 140-145. doi:10.1016/ ... both pink-pigmented bacteriochlorophyll a-producing strains isolated from marine algae. The role members of the Roseobacter ...
Fenna RE, Matthews BW (1975). "Chlorophyll arrangement in a bacteriochlorophyll protein from Chlorobium limicola". Nature. 258 ... and the light-antenna bacteriochlorophyll protein. Beyond his contributions to biochemistry, Matthews is also known in the ...
It is an obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Erythromicrobium". www.bacterio.net. ... Yurkov, V. "Gad'on N, Angerhofer A, Drews G (1994) Light harvesting complexes of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing ... Bacteriochlorophyll a-Containing Bacteria and Description of Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., ... E5 and the transfer of excitation energy from carotenoids to bacteriochlorophyll." Z Naturforsch 49: 579-586. Erythromicrobium ...
... is a phototrophic filamentous, gliding bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a that is aerotolerant ... nov., a phototrophic filamentous gliding bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a". Archives of Microbiology. 142 (2): 164- ...
nov., a bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from lake water". International Journal of Systematic and ... Blastomonas aquatica is a Gram-negative, bacteriochlorophyll-containing and aerobic bacteria from the genus of Blastomonas ...
It is an obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria. Yurkov, V.; Stackebrandt, E.; Holmes, A.; Fuerst, J. A ... Bacteriochlorophyll a-Containing Bacteria and Description of Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., ...
Bacteria may use variants called bacteriochlorophylls. Schneider, Peter W.; Collman, James P. (October 1968). "Complexes of ...
nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium capable of degrading biphenyl and dibenzofuran". Archives of ... nov., a novel slightly thermophilic, aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing species". International Journal of Systematic ...
nov., aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria isolated from a saline lake". International Journal of Systematic ... It is aerobic and bacteriochlorophyll-containing, first isolated from the epiphytes on the stromatoltes of a saline lake ...
nov., an Aerobic Bacteriochlorophyll-Synthesizing Budding Bacterium from Fresh Water". International Journal of Systematic ...
nov., aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria isolated from a saline lake". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (2): 629-634. ...
It is a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production. It is Gram-negative, aerobic, contains storage ... nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake". International Journal of ...
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; bacteriochlorophyll; anoxygenic photosynthesis; photoheterotroph; thermophile; Acidobacteria. * ...
N2 - Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose- ... AB - Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose- ... Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose- ... abstract = "Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in ...
... the photosynthetic energy-conversion and dark respiration systems and the mechanism by which O2 inhibits bacteriochlorophyll ...
Different groups contain different types of bacteriochlorophyll: Bacteriochlorophylls a, b, and g are bacteriochlorins, meaning ... Groups that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis, but do not produce oxygen. They use wavelengths of light not ... Bacteriochlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments that occur in various phototrophic bacteria. They were discovered by C. B. van ... 2012-08-10). "Bacteriochlorophyll f: properties of chlorosomes containing the "forbidden chlorophyll"". Front. Microbiol. 3: ...
6. The composition of claim 5 wherein the compound of formula 1 is bacteriochlorophyll-a or bacteriochlorophyll-b. ... In bacteriochlorophyll-b, which can also readily be obtained from bacterial sources, R2 in the B ring is vinyl rather than ... Bacteriochlorophyll-a, obtained at ,90% purity from Porphyrin Products (Logan, UT) was dissolved at a concentration of 5 mg/ml ... The other embodiments of R2 can easily be prepared starting with bacteriochlorophyll-b by standard hydration of the vinyl group ...
Terminal steps of bacteriochlorophyll a phytol formation in purple photosynthetic bacteria.. Shioi Y, Sasa T. ... Four chemically different bacteriochlorophylls (Bchls) a esterified with geranylgeraniol, dihydrogeranylgeraniol, ...
Bacteriochlorophyll a forms two complexes: One is blue-shifted and has excitonically coupled Qy transitions. The second one is ... Gottstein, J.; Scherz, A. und Scheer, Hugo (1993): Bacteriochlorophyll aggregates in positively charged micelles. In: ... Micellar complexes were prepared from bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a with the cationic detergents, ...
Photophysical consequences of coupling bacteriochlorophyll a with serine and its resulting solubility in water.. Eichwurzel I1 ... We investigated the dependence on solvents of optical absorption and emission of the bacteriochlorophyll a-serine (BChl-ser), a ... water soluble bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) derivative. Comparison between the experimental data and those collected for BChl in ...
What is bacteriochlorophyll? Meaning of bacteriochlorophyll medical term. What does bacteriochlorophyll mean? ... Looking for online definition of bacteriochlorophyll in the Medical Dictionary? bacteriochlorophyll explanation free. ... bacteriochlorophyll. (băk-tîr′ē-ō-klôr′ə-fĭl). n.. Any of a group of pigments, especially one having the formula C55H74MgN4O6, ... bacteriochlorophyll. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. bac·te·ri·o·chlo·ro·phyll. (bak-tērē-ō- ...
Bacteriochlorophyll ; EPR spectrometry ; Electron nuclear double resonance ; ENDOR spectrometry ; Triple resonance ; Organic ... A series of substituted bacteriochlorophyll molecules, all used in reconstitution experiments of reaction centers of ... and TRIPLE resonance studies of modified bacteriochlorophyll cation radicals. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 1 ...
Crystal structure of a geranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyll reductase-like (Ta0516) from Thermoplasma acidophilum at 1.60 A ... Crystal structure of a geranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyll reductase-like (Ta0516) from Thermoplasma acidophilum at 1.60 A ...
The S0, T1 and S1 Raman spectra of bacteriochlorophyll a, bacteriopheophytin a and chlorophyll a were recorded for the species ... Transient Raman Spectroscopy of Isotope-Substituted Species of Bacteriochlorophyll a, Bacteriopheophytin a And Chlorophyll a: ...
... and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a ... of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a ... Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins ... and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a ...
Heme and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) biosyntheses share the same pathway to protoporphyrin IX, which then branches as follows ... Heme and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) biosyntheses share the same pathway to protoporphyrin IX, which then branches as follows ... A BchD (Magnesium Chelatase) Mutant of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Synthesizes Zinc Bacteriochlorophyll Through Novel Zinc- ...
Bacteriochlorophyll a Containing Microbes (BCM) are a unique group of microorganisms in the marine environment. Accurate ... Bacteriochlorophylls / metabolism*. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*. Infrared Rays*. Microscopy, Fluorescence / ... Bacteriochlorophyll a Containing Microbes (BCM) are a unique group of microorganisms in the marine environment. Accurate ... approach for accurate enumeration of bacteriochlorophyll-containing microbes in marine environments. ...
bacteriochlorophylls. . The synthesis here of Zn(II) 3-(1-hydroxyethyl)-10-aryl-131-oxophorbines (the aryl group. consists of ... Natural photosynthetic pigments bacteriochlorophyllsc, d and e in green bacteria undergo self-assembly. to create an organized ... of the new chlorosomal bacteriochlorophyll mimics reveal a bathochromic shift of ∼1800 cm−1 of the Qy band in nonpolar solvent ... De novo synthesis and properties of analogues of the self-assembling chlorosomal bacteriochlorophylls O. Mass, D. R. ...
Selective and Safe PDT in the Monkey Using WST11, a Water Soluble Bacteriochlorophyll Derivate ... Selective and Safe PDT in the Monkey Using WST11, a Water Soluble Bacteriochlorophyll Derivate ... a Water Soluble Bacteriochlorophyll Derivate. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):3431. ...
Characterization of novel bacteriochlorophyll-a-containing red filaments from alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park ... Filaments contained densely layered intracellular membranes and bacteriochlorophyll a. The in vivo absorption spectrum of the ... red layer filaments was distinct from other phototrophs, with unusual bacteriochlorophyll a signature peaks in the near- ...
5lcb » Bacteriochlorophyll c-binding protein, complex with chlorophyll. 3D view in Jmol or Webmol Download Coordinates Topology ... Comments on 5lcb » Bacteriochlorophyll c-binding protein, complex with chlorophyll. The protein is actually located in ...
... bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and the diversity of pufM and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the Chesapeake Bay. ... Bacteriochlorophyll and community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in a particle-rich estuary. @article{ ... Abundance, depth distribution, and composition of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria in four basins of the ... Cottrell2010BacteriochlorophyllAC, title={Bacteriochlorophyll and community structure of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic ...
MacGowan S.A, Senge M.O, Contribution of bacteriochlorophyll conformation to the distribution of site-energies in the FMO ... Contribution of bacteriochlorophyll conformation to the distribution of site-energies in the FMO protein. ... The structural data for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein indicate that the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) display a ...
An affiliation of the characterized bacteriochlorophyll a-containing strains to different genera was indicated by significant ... All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed ... Spring S, Riedel T: Mixotrophic growth of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine ... The concentrations of bacteriopheophytin a, bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin in the acetone/methanol extracts were ...
Bacteriochlorophyll. File:Bacteriochlorophyll a.mol.svg Bacteriochlorophyll a. R is phytyl or geranylgeranyl. ... Bacteriochlorophyll b Purple bacteria 835-850, 1020-1040 Bacteriochlorophyll c Green sulfur bacteria, Chloroflexi, C. ... Bacteriochlorophyll e Green sulfur bacteria 719-726 Bacteriochlorophyll f Green sulfur bacteria (currently found only through ... Bacteriochlorophyll g Heliobacteria 670, 788 Bacteriochlorophylls a, b, and g are bacteriochlorins, meaning their molecules ...
Involved in the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathways leading to chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll (BChl). Catalyzes the ... bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis (light-independent). This protein is involved in the pathway bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis ... Bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, Chlorophyll biosynthesis, Photosynthesis. Ligand. 4Fe-4S, Cobalamin, Cobalt, Iron, Iron- ... bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic process Source: CACAO ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p>Describes annotations that are ...
The synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) was inhibited in wild type strain of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata by levulinic acid ( ... The synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) was inhibited in wild type strain of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata by levulinic acid ( ... Untersuchungen zur Regulation der Bacteriochlorophyll-Synthese bei Rhodospirillum rubrum. *Gerhart Drews. *Archiv für ... The influence of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis on formation of pigment-binding proteins and assembly of pigment protein ...
  • The enzyme catalyses the successive reduction of the geranylgeraniol esterifying group to phytol, reducing three out of four double bonds, and transforming geranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyllide a via dihydrogeranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyllide a and tetrahydrogeranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyllide a to bacteriochlorophyll a. (kegg.jp)
  • Four chemically different bacteriochlorophylls (Bchls) a esterified with geranylgeraniol, dihydrogeranylgeraniol, tetrahydrogeranylgeraniol, and phytol have been detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cell extracts from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides and Chromatium vinosum. (nih.gov)
  • The structural data for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein indicate that the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) display a significant degree of conformational heterogeneity of their peripheral substituents and the protein-induced nonplanar skeletal deformations of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle. (tcd.ie)
  • 2 , however, performed two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of the bacteriochlorophyll Fenna-Matthews-Olsen antenna complex, and discovered regular variations in the intensity of their signal. (nature.com)