Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (1/3096)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation: restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. (2/3096)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After splenectomy, patients have an increased risk of overwhelming infection or sepsis involving encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. The value of human spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma has long been questioned. Mononuclear phagocyte system function appeared to be similar to that in splenectomized persons. The presence of specific antipneumococcal antibodies would allow other parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as those in the liver, to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy followed by autotransplantation were compared with the next 14 consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy alone. After a minimum of 6 months, the patients were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Blood samples were taken at the time of vaccination and after 3 and 6 weeks for antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharides IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against types 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 23. Splenic regrowth was evaluated by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Surprisingly, several of the nonautotransplanted patients showed scintigraphic activity, indicating the presence of either accessory spleens or traumatic seeding (splenosis). Significant antibody titer increases (more than twofold) were found for both IgM and IgG in the autotransplanted patients. Splenectomized-only patients showed no significant increase in Ig levels in patients without splenic regrowth and partial improvement in patients with splenosis/accessory spleens. CONCLUSIONS: Considering this significant antipneumococcal antibody increase, spleen autotransplants can be expected to permit an adequate humoral response to pneumococcal infections and presumably also to other TI-2 antigens, and to protect against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or sepsis.  (+info)

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (3/3096)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of a streptokinase from Streptococcus uberis. (4/3096)

A bovine plasminogen activator was purified from the culture supernatant of the bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis NCTC 3858. After the final reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography step a single protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa was detected in the active fraction. A partial peptide map was established, and degenerate primers were designed and used for amplification of fragments of the gene encoding the activator. Inverse PCR was subsequently used for obtaining the full-length gene. The S. uberis plasminogen activator gene (skc) encodes a protein consisting of 286 amino acids including a signal peptide of 25 amino acids. In an amino acid sequence comparison the cloned activator showed an identity of approximately 26% to the streptokinases isolated from Streptococcus equisimilis and Streptococcus pyogenes. Interestingly, the activator from S. uberis was found to lack the C-terminal domain possessed by the streptokinase from S. equisimilis. This is apparently a general feature of the streptokinases of this species; biochemical and genetic analysis of 10 additional strains of S. uberis revealed that 9 of these were highly similar to strain NCTC 3858. Sequencing of the skc gene from three of these strains indicated that the amino acid sequence of the protein is highly conserved within the species.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (5/3096)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (6/3096)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (7/3096)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa hybrid outer membrane protein F-I vaccine in human volunteers. (8/3096)

A hybrid protein [Met-Ala-(His)6OprF190-342-OprI21-83] consisting of the mature outer membrane protein I (OprI) and amino acids 190 to 342 of OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+ chelate-affinity chromatography. After safety and pyrogenicity evaluations in animals, four groups of eight adult human volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at 4-week intervals and revaccinated 6 months later with either 500, 100, 50, or 20 microg of OprF-OprI adsorbed onto A1(OH)3. All vaccinations were well tolerated. After the first vaccination, a significant rise of antibody titers against P. aeruginosa OprF and OprI was measured in volunteers receiving the 100- or the 500-microg dose. After the second vaccination, significant antibody titers were measured for all groups. Elevated antibody titers against OprF and OprI could still be measured 6 months after the third vaccination. The capacity of the elicited antibodies to promote complement binding and opsonization could be demonstrated by a C1q-binding assay and by the in vitro opsonophagocytic uptake of P. aeruginosa bacteria. These data support the continued development of an OprF-OprI vaccine for use in humans.  (+info)

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Virosomes are artificially constructed spherical vesicles composed of lipids and viral envelope proteins. They are used as a delivery system for vaccines and other therapeutic agents. In the context of vaccines, virosomes can be used to present viral antigens to the immune system in a way that mimics a natural infection, thereby inducing a strong immune response.

Virosome-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. For example, they are non-infectious, meaning they do not contain live or attenuated viruses, which makes them safer for certain populations such as immunocompromised individuals. Additionally, virosomes can be engineered to target specific cells in the body, leading to more efficient uptake and presentation of antigens to the immune system.

Virosome-based vaccines have been developed for a variety of diseases, including influenza, hepatitis A, and HIV. While they are not yet widely used, they show promise as a safe and effective alternative to traditional vaccine approaches.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

These serotypes are the basis for the pneumococcal vaccines. Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine ... Bacterial cell structure Quellung reaction, a method to visualize capsule under a microscope Peterson JW (1996). Bacterial ... When viewed, bacterial capsules appear as a bright halo around the cell on a dark background. The capsule is considered a ... Most bacterial capsules are composed of polysaccharide, but some species use other materials, such as poly-D-glutamic acid in ...
This research has opened the door to further exploration of orally administered vaccines which exploit bacterial adhesins. A ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
1980N-0208 Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; ... The vaccine is required for US military members who are deployed to the Middle East, although some have objected to the vaccine ... The anthrax vaccine program to which he had devoted his entire career of more than 20 years was failing. The anthrax vaccines ... and debate ensued about whether these problems were really vaccine-related. The DOD maintained that the vaccine was safe, but ...
Ellis, Ronald W.; Brodeur, Bernard R. (2012). New Bacterial Vaccines. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 158. ISBN ... There have been several attempts to create a vaccine in the past few decades. These vaccines, which are still in the ... Although there are currently no vaccines available, the vaccine approach has a greater likelihood of effectively preventing ... A vaccine that will protect against the 180 to 200 types of bacteria causing the disease has been worked on for over 20 years, ...
Ellis, Ronald W.; Brodeur, Bernard R. (2003-11-30). New Bacterial Vaccines. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-306- ... "A mechanism for glycoconjugate vaccine activation of the adaptive immune system and its implications for vaccine design". ... Vaccines. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 1994. ISBN 978-0-87969-434-0. McAdam, Alexander J. (2021-10-19). Munson, Erik (ed.). " ... "Research Guides: Vaccines: An Evolving History: Archive & Manuscript Collections". guides.library.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2022- ...
Finn A (1 January 2004). "Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines". British Medical Bulletin. 70 (1): 1-14. doi: ... All Hib vaccines that are currently used are conjugate vaccine. An initial Hib vaccine consisting of plain (unconjugated) type ... The first Hib vaccine licensed was a unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, called PRP. This vaccine was first marketed in the ... Hib vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio vaccines and hepatitis B vaccines are available in the United ...
2004, January 7). 69 FR 1320 - Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review. [ ... "Vaccines with the MF59 Adjuvant Do Not Stimulate Antibody Responses against Squalene". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 13 (9 ... PB was used as a prophylactic against nerve agents; it is not a vaccine. Taken before exposure to nerve agents, PB was thought ... These include low-level exposure to nerve agents, close proximity to oil well fires, receipt of multiple vaccines, and effects ...
... vaccines; skin contact with chemicals (e.g. p-phenylenediamine, thiomersal, and cladribine); viral, bacterial, fungal, and ...
Lactobacillus vaccines are used in the therapy and prophylaxis of non-specific bacterial vaginitis and trichomoniasis. The ... To test their assumption, further 700 patients each received treatment with an inactivated bacterial vaccine composed of one of ... Today Gynatren is the only lactobacillus vaccine marketed for the treatment of non-specific bacterial vaginitis and ... Treatment with the experimental bacterial vaccines was capable to eliminate trichomoniasis in 28% of infected patients and ...
"CTAB in polysaccharide (bacterial) vaccines". 22 October 2021. Archived from the original on 2017-05-17. Mehta, S. K.; Kumar, ... as a purification agent in the downstream vaccine processing of polysaccharide vaccines. Glycoproteins form broad, fuzzy bands ...
She worked as Senior Scientific Director for Bacterial Vaccines at GSK plc. She was involved with the development of the first ... Pizza has focused on the design and development of new vaccines. In 1986, she joined Sclavo, a vaccine research centre in Siena ... Mariagrazia Pizza on LinkedIn Pizza, Mariagrazia (August 2011). "A life passion for vaccines". Human Vaccines. 7 (8): 808-810. ... She spent six years there, contributing to the development of the first pertussis vaccine, which was able to protect infants, ...
... conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. Currently,[ ... He is the head of vaccine research and development (R&D) at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Vaccines. Previously, he has served as ... Rappuoli joined Chiron as head of European vaccines research in 1992 with the acquisition of Italian vaccines company Sclavo ... Rappuoli, was previously the global head of vaccines research for Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics (Siena, Italy) Since 2015, Dr ...
Vaccine burden: Miller E, Andrews N, Waight P, Taylor B (March 2003). "Bacterial infections, immune overload, and MMR vaccine. ... Vaccine hesitancy is a delay in acceptance, or refusal, of vaccines despite the availability of vaccine services and supporting ... when the routine vaccine schedule could contain more than 3,000 antigens (in a single shot of DTP vaccine). The vaccine ... the more vaccines offered, the higher the likelihood of vaccine deferral). The use of combination vaccines to protect against ...
Vaccine burden: Miller E, Andrews N, Waight P, Taylor B (March 2003). "Bacterial infections, immune overload, and MMR vaccine. ... parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'". Vaccine. 24 (20): 4321-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03 ... Vaccine. 36 (39): 5825-31. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.08.036. PMID 30139653. S2CID 52073320. "Vaccines, Autism, and Retraction ... Vaccine overload became popular after the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program in the United States accepted the case of nine- ...
Other uncharacterized bacterial byproducts are also present. Whether or not the EF and LF contribute to the vaccine's efficacy ... anthrax vaccine strain and the similar British anthrax vaccine (known as AVP), anthrax vaccine adsorbed lacks the capsule ... Anthrax vaccine adsorbed is classified as a subunit vaccine that is cell-free and containing no whole or live anthrax bacteria ... The vaccine efficacy of anthrax vaccine adsorbed in humans was initially established by Philip S. Brachman of the United States ...
This type of vaccine can also be used when there is antigenic variability within the same bacterial species such that ... Autogenous vaccines, also called autologous vaccines, autovaccines, "self" or custom vaccines, are vaccines that are prepared ... including autogenous vaccines. Vaccine Therapeutic vaccines Immune system Immunotherapy Giedrys-Kalemba S, Czernomysy-Furowicz ... Autogenous vaccines soon became less popular as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infection due to the discovery of ...
Vaccine delivery is a very common application of bacterial surface display. There are two types of live bacterial vaccines that ... Conventional vaccines require the addition of adjuvants. Another advantage of generating vaccines using bacterial display ... aiming at developing multivalent live bacterial vaccines (12-15). This was the first evidence of using bacterial surface ... Using bacterial surface display of antigens is a valuable alternative to conventional vaccine design for various reasons, one ...
"Connaught Labs, Persistent Pertussis & Bacterial Vaccines Improvement". Connaught Fund. Retrieved 2020-02-13. FARRELL, LEONE; ... She compared a concentrated, a heated, and a control version of the vaccine using several tests. She was not, however, able to ... Taylor also contributed to Connaught Laboratories research on the polio vaccine. In 1957, she developed a variant of the Nash ... Edith M. Taylor (1899-1993) was a Canadian biochemist known primarily for her work in producing novel techniques in vaccine ...
There is no vaccine. There are two treatment options depending on the location of the infection. Amoebiasis in tissues is ... Bacterial colitis can result in similar symptoms. Prevention of amoebiasis is by improved sanitation, including separating food ... Amoebic dysentery is one form of traveler's diarrhea, although most traveler's diarrhea is bacterial or viral in origin. ...
Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases. Access Online via Elsevier, 2009. Chan, Voon Loong. "Bacterial ... Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Wiley. com, 2008. "Helicobacter cholecystus" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN ... Type strain of Helicobacter cholecystus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
... ethical committees for vaccine programmes; bacterial vaccine development and distribution efforts; and landmine issues and the ... vaccine that is part of the current triple vaccine. Briefly, they cloned the pertussis toxin, mapped the antigenic epitopes ... This model is now used to produce other safe acellular vaccines. They also showed that 'toxoidation' of whole bacteria with ... using antibodies from individuals, who had the disease and or were vaccinated with the old whole-cell vaccine, and attached ...
"CDC - ABCs: Surveillance Reports main page - Active Bacterial Core surveillance". 19 July 2021. Archived from the original on 1 ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and ... Barocchi MA, Censini S, Rappuoli R (April 2007). "Vaccines in the era of genomics: the pneumococcal challenge". Vaccine. 25 (16 ... Merck is investigating a 21-valent vaccine (code named V116) against pneumococcus serotypes. The vaccine is geared towards ...
Regarding application, E.Coli is being utilised as the expression system of the dengue vaccine. Yeast matches bacterial cells' ... A conjugate vaccine is a type of vaccine which combines a weak antigen with a strong antigen as a carrier so that the immune ... A subunit vaccine is a vaccine that contains purified parts of the pathogen that are antigenic, or necessary to elicit a ... Capsular vaccines like ViCPS tend to be weak at eliciting immune responses in children. Making a conjugate vaccine by linking ...
Vaccine. 27 (46): 6468-6470. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.013. ISSN 1873-2518. PMID 19555714. v t e (Articles with short ... Frasch, Carl E. (2009-10-30). "Preparation of bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugates: analytical and manufacturing ... Polysaccharide-protein conjugates are used for food industry, vaccines, and drug delivery systems. Zhou, Yang; Petrova, Stella ... Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 20 (6): 858-866. doi:10.1128/CVI.00754-12. PMC 3675967. PMID 23554468. Luo, Yanan; Wang, Xuenv ...
... not useful for non-protein based antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides) Potential for atypical processing of bacterial and ... A DNA vaccine is a type of vaccine that transfects a specific antigen-coding DNA sequence into the cells of an organism as a ... DNA vaccines are members of the genetic vaccines, because they contain a genetic information (DNA or RNA) that codes for the ... A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. Another West Nile virus vaccine has been ...
Lee C, Lee LH, Koizumi K (2002). "Polysaccharide Vaccines for Prevention of Encapsulated Bacterial Infections: Part 1". Infect ... The most commonly used conjugate vaccine is the Hib conjugate vaccine. Other pathogens that are combined in a conjugate vaccine ... A conjugate vaccine is a type of subunit vaccine which combines a weak antigen with a strong antigen as a carrier so that the ... The vaccine was soon incorporated with the schedule for infant immunization in the United States. The Hib conjugate vaccine is ...
Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, ... The subgroup of genetic vaccines encompass viral vector vaccines, RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines. Viral vector vaccines use a ... Examples include IPV (polio vaccine), hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and most influenza vaccines. Toxoid vaccines are made ... RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines are examples of third generation vaccines. In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing ...
They proposed a new method for choosing the best vaccine to fight and eliminate certain bacterial strains using genomic data ... Sharma, Shradhha (February 3, 2020). "Pioneering SFU research customizes vaccines to reduce bacterial disease". sfu.ca. Simon ... and Nick Croucher published a study in the journal Nature Microbiology regarding vaccines. ...
"Plasmid maintenance systems suitable for GMO-based bacterial vaccines". Vaccine. 23 (17-18): 2060-2065. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... The transgenic organisms are usually applied to use as oral vaccines, which allows the active substances to enter the human ... With the help of recombinant DNA techniques, the genes encoded for viral or bacterial antigens could be genetically transcribed ... This technique has been widely used in vaccine production including rice, maize, and soybeans. Additionally, transgenic plants ...
The first typhus vaccine was developed by the Polish zoologist Rudolf Weigl in the interwar period; the vaccine did not prevent ... The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infection. Epidemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii spread by ... A vaccine has been in development for scrub typhus known as the scrub typhus vaccine. The American Public Health Association ... "Typhus, War, and Vaccines". History of Vaccines. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-02-26. Pennington H ( ...
Table 5-01: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Bacterial. VACCINE. TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER). DESCRIPTION1 & ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION ... Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Bacterial. CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travel-Associated Infections & Diseases ... For all diphtheria vaccines licensed for use in the United States, see: Vaccines Licensed for Use in the United States. ... For all pertussis vaccines licensed for use in the United States, see: Vaccines Licensed for Use in the United States. ...
H. influenzae vaccine was introduced in routine childhood vaccines in 1998, and bivalent meningococcal AC vaccine was ... Trend of bacterial meningitis in Bahrain from 1990 to 2013 and effect of introduction of new vaccines ... However, the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis continues to shift with the ongoing introduction of vaccines against the most ... This outbreak was the stimulus to introduce the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in 1998 as a part of the 5-antigen vaccine ( ...
The vaccine neutralizes a specific variant of an enzyme produced by an acne-associated bacteria, while leaving the healthy ... a team of researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine has created an acne vaccine that successfully ... Bacterial enzyme research paves the way for acne vaccine. by Sara Bock, University of California ... medicalxpress.com/news/2024-01-bacterial-enzyme-paves-acne-vaccine.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any ...
Vaccine Impact. *New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). Seven U.S. study sites focus on population-based surveillance and ... Bacterial Surveillance. *Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs). This laboratory- and population-based surveillance system ... Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network. CDC uses four primary networks to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness. Monitoring ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Impact Monitoring Project (HPV-IMPACT). Since HPV infections and related diseases are not ...
... is an inflammation of structures above the insertion of the glottis and is most often caused by bacterial infection. Before ... Vaccines, Inactivated (Bacterial). Class Summary. These agents are used to induce active immunization against Haemophilus ... This vaccine is used for routine immunization of children against invasive diseases caused by H influenzae type b by decreasing ... This agent inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent ...
S. pneumoniae was the main etiological agent of bacterial meningitis in adults aged ≥50 years and the most lethal in all age ... The CFR for pneumococcal and bacterial meningitis remained stable in most age groups during the study period. These findings ... Additional analyses of bacterial meningitis were performed to compare the patterns and trends. Over the 13-year period, 81,203 ... Trends in Pneumococcal and Bacterial Meningitis in Brazil from 2007 to 2019. ...
An extensive collection of isolates for some bacterial pathogens are available through the Active Bacterial Core surveillance ( ... Both documents require a limit on dissemination of the bacterial isolates and include an agreement to acknowledge the source of ... I agree to acknowledge Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Programs (EIP) Network when publishing or ... Acknowledgment for ABCs will be in the following standardized format: Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging ...
Vaccines; Biological-warfare-agents; Biological-weapons; Infectious-diseases; Microorganisms; Bacterial-disease; Bacteria; ... update the previous recommendations for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: ... Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. ... Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ...
Bacterial Vaccines, Products Analogous to Bacterial Vaccines. C.04.050 Except as provided in this Division, a bacterial vaccine ... C.04.090 A product analogous to a bacterial vaccine shall be. *. (a) a bacterial antigen, other than a bacterial vaccine, such ... Virus and Rickettsial Vaccines. C.04.100 A virus vaccine, rickettsial vaccine, shall be a suspension of, or prepared from, ... C.04.091 The expiration date of a product analogous to a bacterial vaccine shall be not later than 18 months after the date of ...
Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF ... There are vaccines to prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis. ... Bacterial Meningitis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish * Fungal Meningitis (Centers for Disease ... Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): What You Need to Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Also in Spanish ...
Recommendations for Vaccine Use and Other Preventive Measures Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee ... Currently, several candidate vaccines containing at least one of the bacterial components thought to provide protection are ... Acellular pertussis vaccine: immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis vs. a whole-cell pertussis vaccine combined ... Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System -- United States. MMWR 1990;39:730-3. * CDC. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: ...
FDA approves new combination vaccine that protects children against two bacterial diseases Archived 16 June 2012 at the Wayback ... Meningococcal vaccine refers to any vaccine used to prevent infection by Neisseria meningitidis.[8] Different versions are ... "First ever MenB vaccine available for use". Oxford Vaccine Group. 24 January 2013. Archived from the original on 25 October ... three conjugate vaccines (MCV-4), Menactra, Menveo, and MenQuadfi.[citation needed] The pure polysaccharide vaccine Menomune, ...
Categories: Bacterial Vaccines Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
... genetics and bacterial evasion mechanisms. / Miller, Lloyd S.; Fowler, Vance G.; Shukla, Sanjay K. et al. In: FEMS Microbiology ... Miller, L. S., Fowler, V. G., Shukla, S. K., Rose, W. E., & Proctor, R. A. (2019). Development of a vaccine against ... Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus invasive infections: Evidence based on human immunity, genetics and ... Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus invasive infections: Evidence based on human immunity, genetics and ...
Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (IIV) and Recombinant Influenza Vaccine (RIV). As with other vaccines, a history of severe ... More common complications of influenza include secondary bacterial pneumonia (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus ... inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV); live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV); and recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). ... Vaccine 2008;26(Suppl 3):C8-14.. Bresee J, Fry A, Sambhara S, et al. Inactivated influenza vaccines. In: Plotkin S, Orenstein W ...
... anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, ... anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted (Rx). Brand and Other Names:Cyfendus. *Classes: Vaccines, Inactivated, Bacterial ... Monkeypox Vaccines: Q&A With the CDCs Agam Rao, MD * 2010comvax-hepatitis-b-vaccine-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccine- ... Unknown whether vaccine is excreted in human milk. Human data are not available to assess the impact of the vaccine on milk ...
Bacterial vaccines. Bacterial vaccines. Introduction of Pharmaceutical microbiology Introduction of Pharmaceutical microbiology ... Application of rDNA technology to produce Interferon, Hepatitis-B Vaccine & I.... Application of rDNA technology to produce ... Application of rDNA technology to produce Interferon, Hepatitis-B Vaccine & I.... Application of rDNA technology to produce ... to measure the concentration of endotoxins of gram-negative bacterial origin  reagent: amoebocyte lysate from horseshoe crab, ...
These serotypes are the basis for the pneumococcal vaccines. Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine ... Bacterial cell structure Quellung reaction, a method to visualize capsule under a microscope Peterson JW (1996). Bacterial ... When viewed, bacterial capsules appear as a bright halo around the cell on a dark background. The capsule is considered a ... Most bacterial capsules are composed of polysaccharide, but some species use other materials, such as poly-D-glutamic acid in ...
vaccines tdap (tetanus, pertussis, diptheria), menactra (bacterial mening), gardasil in PANS / PANDAS (Lyme included) ...
BCG Vaccine and Epigenetics - Genomics and Precision Health Blog ... How can a live attenuated bacterial vaccine protect against ... This vaccine is one of the most used vaccines in the world today, commonly given as part of childhood vaccine programs in ... BCG vaccine is not the only vaccine shown to have nonspecific protective effects against infection. Measles vaccine and oral ... In 1921, a live attenuated vaccine, called the BCG vaccine, was introduced to protect against TB. The vaccine provides better ...
With the advent of pneumococcal vaccines, weve seen this decrease in mortality due to a bacterial cause of pneumonia. But we ... vaccine or the pneumococcal vaccine. Then, we have to think about it a little differently. ... Pneumonia pre-vaccine and pre-antibiotics was famously called the "Captain of the Men of Death" after consumption. What weve ... Again, going back to my original point, a child could have RSV and be just as severe as a child who has a bacterial pneumonia. ...
We learned that antibiotics could treat life-threatening bacterial infections and vaccines could prevent disabling childhood ...
... for treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has been published by the WHO Prequalification Unit - Medicines ... Vaccines Stream Menu. * About Vaccines Prequalification * What We Do * Documents A-Z ... Single ingredient medicine to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. *Cefiderocol 1 g in vial (as sulfate toxylate) ... A 1st Invitation for Expression of Interest (EOI) for treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has been published ...
Gene-based vaccines to combat bacterial diseases, hurdles and opportunities. Canceled - to be re-scheduled ... Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness: can we trust results from parties with a vested interest?. ...
... or invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is a significant clinical challenge. Young infants post vaccination are therefore often ... spanning the introduction of the capsular group-B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) into routine immunisation schedules. Data ... Differentiating vaccine reactions from invasive bacterial infections in young infants presenting to the emergency department in ... Differentiating vaccine reactions from invasive bacterial infections in young infants presenting to the emergency department in ...
Developing effective veterinary vaccines against bacterial pathogens. Investigating novel technologies for tumour treatment. ... Application of molecular biology techniques for Pathogen detection, bacterial pathogenesis and vaccine development ... Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial Biofilms in collaboration with the Royal Childrens Hospital and Griffith University ... Epidemiology and virulence of Campylobacter concisus as an emerging bacterial pathogen. In collaboration with The Royal ...
Bacterial Vaccines. 4. 2022. 402. 0.270. Why? Interleukin-2. 2. 2023. 1887. 0.270. Why? ...
  • This laboratory- and population-based surveillance system for invasive bacterial pathogens provides an infrastructure for public health research. (cdc.gov)
  • Initiate antibiotics to provide empiric coverage of the most likely bacterial pathogens in the context of the clinical setting. (medscape.com)
  • An extensive collection of isolates for some bacterial pathogens are available through the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) Isolate Bank. (cdc.gov)
  • An inactivated vaccine (or killed vaccine ) is a vaccine consisting of virus particles, bacteria , or other pathogens that have been grown in culture and then killed to destroy disease-producing capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, live vaccines use pathogens that are still alive (but are almost always attenuated , that is, weakened). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens for inactivated vaccines are grown under controlled conditions and are killed as a means to reduce infectivity and thus prevent infection from the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Today, inactivated vaccines exist for many pathogens, including influenza , polio (IPV), rabies , hepatitis A and pertussis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because inactivated pathogens tend to produce a weaker response by the immune system than live pathogens, immunologic adjuvants and multiple " booster " injections may be required in some vaccines to provide an effective immune response against the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meningitis can be caused by many different pathogens, but the highest global burden is seen with bacterial meningitis. (who.int)
  • Meningitis can be caused by many different pathogens which include bacteria, viruses, and fungi, but the highest global burden stems from bacterial meningitis. (who.int)
  • The host specificity of bacterial pathogens and the genetic basis of susceptibility are also considered. (cshlpress.com)
  • Penicillin, one of the first antibiotics to be brought to market, is often still used to treat diphtheria," explains Sylvain Brisse, Head of the Biodiversity and Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens Unit and Head of the National Reference Center (CNR) for Corynebacteria of the Diphtheriae Complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • This retrospective analysis of reported cases of meningitis in Bahrain aimed to assess the trend in the incidence of bacterial meningitis from 1990 to 2013, before and after the introduction of new vaccines. (who.int)
  • The incidence of meningitis due to H. influenzae and N. meningitidis showed a marked reduction after the introduction of the corresponding vaccines in 1998 and 2001 respectively, and S. pneumoniae became the predominant organism after Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (who.int)
  • The changing trend in the etiology of bacterial meningitis points to the need to study vaccination programme modifications, such as pneumococcal vaccine for the adult population, especially high-risk groups. (who.int)
  • Bacterial meningitis can cause epidemics, lead to death within 24 hours, and leave one in five persons affected with lifelong disability after infection. (who.int)
  • Many cases and deaths are preventable through vaccination, but progress in defeating meningitis lags behind other vaccine-preventable diseases. (who.int)
  • This first draft global road map on defeating meningitis sets out a path to tackle the main causes of acute bacterial meningitis (meningococcus, pneumococcus, haemophilus influenzae and group B streptococcus). (who.int)
  • Trends in Pneumococcal and Bacterial Meningitis in Brazil from 2007 to 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additional analyses of bacterial meningitis were performed to compare the patterns and trends . (bvsalud.org)
  • Over the 13-year period, 81,203 and 13,837 cases were classified as bacterial and pneumococcal meningitis , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • S. pneumoniae was the main etiological agent of bacterial meningitis in adults aged ≥50 years and the most lethal in all age groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • The CFR for pneumococcal and bacterial meningitis remained stable in most age groups during the study period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be deadly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumococcal infections and meningococcal infections are the most common causes of bacterial meningitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antibiotics can treat bacterial meningitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are vaccines to prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With the introduction of the NmA conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac® between 2010 and 2020, more than 325 million people aged between 1 and 29 years have been vaccinated in 24 of the 26 Member States in the African meningitis belt. (who.int)
  • NEW YORK (AP) - U.S. health officials are warning of an increase in rare bacterial illnesses than can lead to meningitis and possible death. (cp24.com)
  • Before the vaccine was introduced, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children less than 5 years of age in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial illnesses such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, meningitis, and dysentery are some of the most devastating worldwide. (cshlpress.com)
  • What Is the Meningitis Vaccine? (passporthealthusa.com)
  • Both viral and bacterial meningitis can cause brain problems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Meningitis is caused by a bacterial or viral infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Meningitis in newborn babies usually comes from a bacterial infection of the blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vaccines have made some causes of bacterial meningitis very rare. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In all ages, symptoms of bacterial meningitis can get worse very quickly. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since HPV infections and related diseases are not nationally notifiable, CDC and partners have created a surveillance system to monitor the impact of HPV vaccine on HPV-related cervical disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Measles vaccine and oral polio vaccine have also been associated with decreased overall childhood mortality beyond the specific diseases the vaccines target. (cdc.gov)
  • We learned that antibiotics could treat life-threatening bacterial infections and vaccines could prevent disabling childhood diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Although antibiotics and vaccines control their prevalence to some extent, the emergence of new virulence mechanisms and new forms of resistance to antibacterial agents makes research in this field critical to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. (cshlpress.com)
  • How much risk is actually posed by "vaccine-preventable" diseases to the immunocompromised? (blogspot.com)
  • Thirty years ago, we vaccinated against eight diseases, according to CHOP's Vaccine Education Center . (scarymommy.com)
  • This vaccine helps protect against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, which are contagious bacterial diseases. (dillons.com)
  • We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW) for 2012. (who.int)
  • Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. (who.int)
  • Data describing cases in NCIMS were extracted for selected vaccine-preventable diseases according to the date of onset, with 2012 data compared with data for recent years. (who.int)
  • There also are vaccines against meningococcal disease. (cp24.com)
  • With the advent of pneumococcal vaccines, we've seen this decrease in mortality due to a bacterial cause of pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia pre-vaccine and pre-antibiotics was famously called the "Captain of the Men of Death" after consumption. (medscape.com)
  • A Henry Ford Hospital study has found that a drug approved just two years ago for treating bacterial infections may hold promise for treating the potentially fatal MRSA pneumonia. (medindia.net)
  • In 2010 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved CPT-F, an injectable antibiotic, for treating patients with bacterial infections like community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and skin infections. (medindia.net)
  • C.04.050 Except as provided in this Division, a bacterial vaccine shall be a sterile suspension of killed cultures of bacteria, with or without the addition of other medication, and shall not include an autogenous vaccine. (gc.ca)
  • The capsule-which can be found in both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria-is different from the second lipid membrane - bacterial outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins and is found only in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCG, the century-old TB vaccine, is derived from the live bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bacterial - Carried and spread by bacteria, this form of the disease is vaccine-preventable. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • However, polysaccharides are not highly antigenic, especially in children, so many capsular vaccines contain polysaccharides conjugated with protein carriers, such as the tetanus toxoid or diphtheria toxoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • I heard no one mention the fact that vaccine efficacies of 40%, 60%, 80% (approximately correct for influenza , diphtheria , mumps vaccines) might also pose some risk to the immunodeficient. (blogspot.com)
  • Before the vaccine era, diphtheria was the most deadly respiratory infection in young children. (pasteur.fr)
  • A team of Institut Pasteur scientists has identified the origins of penicillin resistance in the bacterial agent responsible for diphtheria. (pasteur.fr)
  • Thanks to the vaccine developed in the 1920s by Gaston Ramon (page in French) , a veterinarian and biologist at the Institut Pasteur, diphtheria has virtually disappeared in industrialized countries and many other world regions. (pasteur.fr)
  • C.04.061 No person shall sell any lot of typhoid vaccine unless such lot has been shown to meet a test for potency made by an acceptable method. (gc.ca)
  • Inactivated vaccines were first developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s for cholera , plague , and typhoid . (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings highlight the value of expanding pneumococcal vaccination policies , including vaccines that provide better indirect protection from children to adults and broadening vaccination to older adults . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, all vaccination attempts aimed at preventing S. aureus invasive infections have failed in human trials, especially all vaccines aimed at generating high titers of opsonic antibodies against S. aureus surface antigens to facilitate antibody-mediated bacterial clearance. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Vaccination with live virus vaccines is not recommended during treatment and until B-cell repletion. (medscape.com)
  • Reasons for this policy in the United States include low TB incidence, varying effectiveness of the vaccine against adult pulmonary TB, and potential for vaccination to cause a false positive TB skin test. (cdc.gov)
  • It is recommended that everyone over the age of 6 months receive an updated COVID-19 vaccine, regardless of their prior vaccination status. (dillons.com)
  • Adults and students at post-high school educational institutions who are uncertain about their vaccination status should talk to their provider about receiving this vaccine. (dillons.com)
  • CDC uses four primary networks to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Split virus vaccines are produced by using a detergent to disrupt the viral envelope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. (cdc.gov)
  • MMWR 2002;51:1024--6) and reflect the status of anthrax vaccine supplies in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • elivaldogene autotemcel, anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted. (medscape.com)
  • teplizumab decreases effects of anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • Serious - Use Alternative (1) elivaldogene autotemcel, anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted. (medscape.com)
  • This blog began in 2007, focusing on anthrax vaccine, and later expanded to other public health and political issues. (blogspot.com)
  • And CDC encourages state and local public health departments to serotype all invasive Hi isolates in order to monitor changes in the epidemiology in the post-vaccine era. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the rising prevalence of bacterial illnesses among aquaculture species drives the market growth. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • We offer flu shots and other vaccines to prevent serious bacterial and viral illnesses. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Officials recommend that all children should get a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, which protects against the rising strain, at around the time they enter a middle school. (cp24.com)
  • These serotypes are the basis for the pneumococcal vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • L'incidence des méningites dues à H. influenzae et N. meningitidis a marqué une nette réduction après l'introduction des vaccins correspondants en 1998 et 2001 respectivement, et S. pneumoniae est devenu l'organisme prédominant après Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (who.int)
  • Century-old tuberculosis vaccine extends survival of mice with hard-to-treat liver cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • A UC Davis Health study found that a single dose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) , the vaccine for tuberculosis (TB), reduced liver tumor burden and extended the survival of mice with liver cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The MMR vaccine protects your child against not only measles but also mumps and rubella. (scarymommy.com)
  • This vaccine helps protect against the respiratory disease measles, the infectious disease mumps and the viral disease rubella. (dillons.com)
  • How can a live attenuated bacterial vaccine protect against viral infection? (cdc.gov)
  • This vaccine helps protect against chickenpox, a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. (dillons.com)
  • [6] [10] For example, there have been rare instances of the live attenuated form of poliovirus present in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) becoming virulent, leading to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) replacing OPV in many countries with controlled wild-type polio transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine provides better effectiveness against childhood TB than against adult pulmonary TB. (cdc.gov)
  • Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness: can we trust results from parties with a vested interest? (cam.ac.uk)
  • This vaccine is one of the most used vaccines in the world today, commonly given as part of childhood vaccine programs in developing countries and countries with high TB incidence. (cdc.gov)
  • In the pre-vaccine era, Hib incidence rates were more than 20 per 100,000 children less than 5 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. (who.int)
  • Remítase a los Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Vaccine Recommendations and Guidelines for the most updated vaccine-specific recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Administer all immunizations according to immunization guidelines at least 4 weeks before initiating ublituximab for live or live-attenuated vaccines and, whenever possible, at least 2 weeks before initiating for non-live vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • Now we have HR 2232 that says every child, all the time, must receive whatever vaccines a group of industry insiders (CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ) add to the vaccine schedule. (blogspot.com)
  • Make sure they're ready and protected with the right school vaccines as well as a certificate of immunization for the school's records. (dillons.com)
  • The objectives of vaccine-preventable disease surveillance in NSW are, at an individual level, to identify events that may require immediate public health control measures and, at a population level, to identify risk factors such as age and geographic location that inform better targeted immunization efforts. (who.int)
  • Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. (who.int)
  • Epigenetic changes associated with BCG vaccine may be important for "training" immune cells and producing its observed protective effects against infection. (cdc.gov)
  • BCG vaccine is not the only vaccine shown to have nonspecific protective effects against infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Whooping cough, also known as pertussis, is a bacterial infection of the lungs and breathing tubes which can cause serious health problems. (yahoo.com)
  • The increase in cases comes amid a steady decline in uptake of the vaccine against the infection in pregnant women and children, officials said. (yahoo.com)
  • But the bacterial infectious agent, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae), is still transmitted among the human population, and can cause infection in unvaccinated individuals. (pasteur.fr)
  • I agree to acknowledge Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Programs (EIP) Network when publishing or presenting these data. (cdc.gov)
  • Acknowledgment for ABCs will be in the following standardized format: Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Programs (EIP) Network. (cdc.gov)
  • The protective efficacy of these inactivated vaccines was demonstrated in the 1950s. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, we don't know how long this immune memory lasts, so efficacy of this vaccine over time is still a mystery. (innovations-report.com)
  • Risk/benefit assessments should be applied to most situations relating to the efficacy or safety of vaccines to ensure public safety and public health. (blogspot.com)
  • most other vaccines have efficacy in the 60-90% range. (blogspot.com)
  • Actually, any statistician could tell you that low efficacy poses considerably more risk than exemption rates of 1-5% in Maine (depending on which required vaccine we are discussing). (blogspot.com)
  • Vaccines with low efficacy make the claim of herd immunity a joke--but did even one "expert" at the hearings know or care? (blogspot.com)
  • How is the BCG vaccine involved in trained immunity? (cdc.gov)
  • The United States, Canada, Australia, and many western European countries do not include the vaccine in general childhood vaccine programs, offering it only to certain high-risk populations . (cdc.gov)
  • Under this definition, inactivated vaccines also include subunit vaccines and toxoid vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • C.04.065 A fabricator shall, in the preparation of pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, use only strains of Bordetella pertussis that meet the requirements of an antigenic test made by an acceptable method. (gc.ca)
  • Antigenic drift is the primary reason people can get influenza more than once and why it is necessary to annually review and update the composition of influenza vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • C.04.066 No person shall sell any lot of pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine unless such lot has been shown to meet a test for potency made by an acceptable method. (gc.ca)
  • The number of whooping cough cases in the UK has soared - prompting health officials to raise concerns about vaccine uptake. (yahoo.com)
  • Since vaccine protection fades, the CDC also recommends a booster dose at age 16. (cp24.com)
  • Individuals who are moderately or severely immunocompromised may require an additional dose of this vaccine. (dillons.com)
  • [6] [7] When manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not infectious, but improper inactivation can result in intact and infectious particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently there are no vaccines for the other strains of Hi. (cdc.gov)
  • in Hib disease to almost zero, vaccine pressure may have contributed to disease replacement by other Hi strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Most bacterial capsules are composed of polysaccharide, but some species use other materials, such as poly-D-glutamic acid in Bacillus anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chapters are devoted to the pathogenic mechanisms of specific bacterial species (e.g. (cshlpress.com)
  • Vaccine-specific recommendations may be outdated. (cdc.gov)
  • A 1st Invitation for Expression of Interest (EOI) for treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections has been published by the WHO Prequalification Unit - Medicines Assessment Team (PQT/MED). (who.int)
  • In this review, we summarize the data from humans regarding the immune responses that protect against invasive S. aureus infections as well as host genetic factors and bacterial evasion mechanisms, which are important to consider for the future development of effective and successful vaccines and immunotherapies against invasive S. aureus infections in humans. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • It is sometimes carried by a plasmid, a bacterial genetic element known to carry multiple resistance genes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Inactivated vaccines tend to produce an immune response that is primarily antibody-mediated. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] [10] However, deliberate adjuvant selection allows inactivated vaccines to stimulate a more robust cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCG vaccine has been shown to increase methylation of one of the histone proteins, resulting in increased cytokine production in certain immune cells. (cdc.gov)
  • We had a good reason to believe that the BCG vaccine could stimulate an immune response. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bacterial immunotherapy, such as BCG, offers an alternative to current immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors. (innovations-report.com)
  • If you're unsure whether you've received this vaccine or if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or have a weakened immune system, talk with your healthcare provider to review your medical history and decide if this vaccine is right for you. (dillons.com)
  • Do not administer live or live-attenuated vaccines to infants of mothers exposed to ublituximab during pregnancy, before confirming recovery of B-cell counts as measured by CD19+ B cells. (medscape.com)
  • Breastfed infants still ingest 7 milligrams of aluminum in their first six months of life, compared to the 4.4 mg they get from vaccines. (scarymommy.com)
  • C.04.051 No person shall sell a bacterial vaccine unless the culture that has been used in its preparation has been tested by an acceptable method for identity and purity and when so tested it shall be true to name and a pure strain, and a record of the culture shall be maintained which shall include a statement of its origin, properties and characteristics. (gc.ca)
  • One possible explanation is vaccine-mediated strain replacement. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines provide protection against this strain as well. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • Care Act, but the specifics of what drugs and vaccines people receive has been left to the states. (blogspot.com)
  • We already have the 1995 Vaccines for Children Act that provides vaccines to every child in the country (55%) who might not afford them. (blogspot.com)
  • In the last few days there have been multiple news articles and testimonies in the Maine and Vermont legislatures about the need to impose vaccine mandates to protect immunocompromised children. (blogspot.com)
  • Personally, I think it's a bad idea to test the smallpox vaccine on children. (ahrp.org)
  • I believe this smallpox vaccine should not be tested on children because it carries a risk of fatal or serious side effects. (ahrp.org)
  • I do not believe that the vaccine should be tested on children because it is not safe, nor is it warrented for the small chance of exposure. (ahrp.org)
  • Parents can also help protect their children by ensuring they receive their vaccines at the right time or catching up as soon as possible if they have missed any. (yahoo.com)
  • The DTaP vaccine is available for children under 7 years old while the Tdap vaccine is available to adolescents 11-12 years old. (dillons.com)
  • this was the lowest number of cases notified within the last decade and the first time since the introduction of the vaccine in 1993 that no cases were notified in children less than five years of age ( Table 1 ). (who.int)
  • Leave the testing to consenting, informed adults if they want to increase the U.S. vaccine supply. (ahrp.org)
  • The authors also describe novel vaccine strategies and antimicrobial approaches (e.g., phage therapy or biofilm disruption), as well as the use of probiotics to benefit human health. (cshlpress.com)