Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.
Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
A disorder characterized by incomplete arousals from sleep associated with behavior suggesting extreme fright. This condition primarily affects children and young adults and the individual generally has no recall of the event. Episodes tend to occur during stage III or IV. SOMNAMBULISM is frequently associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (1/7662)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (2/7662)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (3/7662)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (4/7662)

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations. (5/7662)

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. (6/7662)

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and other vibrio species. (7/7662)

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of the genus Vibrio and between isolates of V. vulnificus. Each V. vulnificus strain produced a unique band pattern, indicating that the members of this species are genetically quite heterogeneous. All of the vibrios were found to have amplification products whose sizes were within four common molecular weight ranges, while the V. vulnificus strains had an additional two molecular weight range bands in common. All of the V. vulnificus strains isolated from clinical specimens produced an additional band that was only occasionally found in environmental strains; this suggests that, as is the case with the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the presence of this band may be correlated with the ability of a strain to produce an infection in humans. In addition, band pattern differences were observed between encapsulated and nonencapsulated isogenic morphotypes of the same strain of V. vulnificus.  (+info)

Arbitrarily primed PCR to type Vibrio spp. pathogenic for shrimp. (8/7662)

A molecular typing study on Vibrio strains implicated in shrimp disease outbreaks in New Caledonia and Japan was conducted by using AP-PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR). It allowed rapid identification of isolates at the genospecies level and studies of infraspecific population structures of epidemiological interest. Clusters identified within the species Vibrio penaeicida were related to their area of origin, allowing discrimination between Japanese and New Caledonian isolates, as well as between those from two different bays in New Caledonia separated by only 50 km. Other subclusters of New Caledonian V. penaeicida isolates could be identified, but it was not possible to link those differences to accurate epidemiological features. This contribution of AP-PCR to the study of vibriosis in penaeid shrimps demonstrates its high discriminating power and the relevance of the epidemiological information provided. This approach would contribute to better knowledge of the ecology of Vibrio spp. and their implication in shrimp disease in aquaculture.  (+info)

From a blood culture, referring the isolate for further identification if uncertain should be done, both for clinical and epidemiological purposes, particularly if the patient is immunocompromised (e.g. patient in a transplant unit ...
USRCB - Currently private collection, former collection of Odessa University, part of Dr. Vasily Bayraktar`s strain collection ...
MLST of 336 assembled bacterial genomes.To evaluate our method, we used it for identification of the STs of 336 completely sequenced and preassembled bacterial genomes. These bacteria cover 56 MLST schemes. Table 1 shows the results with regard to the proportion of the MLST alleles in the tested genomes that were previously unseen and hence were not registered in the MLST databases. For 34 MLST schemes, all alleles in the MLST loci in the tested genomes matched perfectly to an allele already registered in the MLST databases (the proportion of new alleles equaled zero), while for the remaining 22 MLST schemes, 0.4% to 73.3% of the MLST alleles in the genomes were not in the MLST databases.. Two MLST schemes exist for E. coli: E. coli scheme 1, which employs seven genes (adk, fumC, gyrB, icd, mdh, purA, recA) (32), and E. coli scheme 2, which employs eight genes (dinB, icdA, pabB, polB, putP, trpA, trpB, uidA) (13). When the 36 completely sequenced E. coli isolates were typed using E. coli scheme ...
Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates harboured the vanB1 gene. The isolates were susceptible to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and vancomycin, and showed distinct profiles of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. Analysis of the clonal relatedness of the vanB E. faecalis isolates showed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of enterococcal strains carrying vanB genes in Brazil ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Multilocus Sequence Typing: An Adaptable Tool for Understanding the Global Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Charles Rivers fungal and bacterial identification lab provides microbial identification services using cGMP-compliant processes with the latest DNA sequence-based and MALDI-TOF technologies.
Microbial Identification & Characterization - biolog - world leader in cell based technology and assays for microbiology & cell biology using phenotype microarray technology
Molecular methods have been used to study the epidemiology of MRSA in hospital, national, and global settings, with PFGE proving the most satisfactory method on the basis of its discriminatory ability and reproducibility (24, 30). The major disadvantage of PFGE and other methods that compare DNA fragments on gels is the difficulty of comparing the results obtained in different laboratories, even when reagents and conditions are standardized (3, 5, 34). MLST provides a highly discriminatory method that defines each isolate as a string of seven integers-the allelic profile-and which produces data that can be held in a central database on the World Wide Web, along with associated epidemiological data, and which can be interrogated via the Internet (16, 28). This approach allows any laboratory that uses MLST to submit the sequences of the seven gene fragments of an S. aureus isolate to the MLST website (, where an allelic profile can be assigned and compared with those of all of ...
Ausvet is a global epidemiology consulting company. Our multidisciplinary team works with terrestrial and aquatic animals, humans, plants and OneHealth.
Ausvet is a global epidemiology consulting company. Our multidisciplinary team works with terrestrial and aquatic animals, humans, plants and OneHealth.
Microbial Identification & Characterization - biolog - world leader in cell based technology and assays for microbiology & cell biology
The new ICD-10 (10th revision for 2016) is publishing in Oct 2015. The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological purposes, many health management purposes and clinical use.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
What can make you burp, Burping in front of someone can be highly embarrassing. Though accepted in some cultures as a social norm, burping is not something you want to be seen doing.
Baking soda is found in nearly every American household and is mainly used for baking or cleaning. However, it turns out that this ingredient can be also...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French paediatric CF centre. During a 30 months period, 108 patients, aged 2 to 21 years, regularly followed up at the centre, provided sputum for culture. From 79 patients, a total of 278 isolates were genotyped by MLVA, resolving into 110 genotypes and 19 clonal complexes (CC) composed of similar or closely related isolates. 71% of the strains were distributed into four main CCs, in term of number of isolates and number of genotypes. Spa (Staphylococcus protein A) typing was performed on representative samples, showing an excellent
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. Instruments are estimated to account for the largest market share in 2017. On the basis of product and service, the microbial identification market is classified into instruments, consumables, and services. The instruments are expected to lead the global microbial identification market in 2017. Factors driving the growth of this segment include the wide use of instruments across applications and technological advancements, which have led to the launch of innovative products.. The phenotypic methods segment is estimated to dominate the market in 2017. By method, the market is segmented into phenotypic, genotypic, and proteomics-based methods. The phenotypic methods segment is anticipated to account for the largest share of the global microbial identification market in 2017. These methods are cost-effective, easy to perform, and can deliver results rapidly. Therefore, they are widely adopted across industries, which is a major factor ...
To develop effective and accurate typing of strains of Francisella tularensis, a potent human pathogen and a putative bioterrorist agent, we combined analysis of insertion-deletion (indel) markers with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat ana ...
Eleven Salmonella spp. isolates with the antigenic type 11:z41:e,n,z15 - not referred to in the 9th edition of the White-Kauffman-Le Minor Scheme - were identified at the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella in Greece. Their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were indistinguishable. No apparent epidemiological link has yet been identified; the results of a case-case study are pending.
Biolog microlog microbial identification system - Practical Handbook of Microbiology, Second Edition - Google Books Result. Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & intestinal good bacterial microbial balance.
The Plasmid PubMLST sequence definition database contains allele and profile data for incompatibility group plasmid MLST schemes. Plasmid and isolate data are stored in the isolates/plasmid database.. ...
QIAGEN offers a range of tools for your complete microbial identification workflow. Our solutions provide efficient mechanical disruption of difficult-to-lyse microbes, optimized chemistry for high yields of nucleic acids, accurate PCR- and Pyrosequencing-based analyses, and much more to facilitate and advance your research ...
Dirk Tasche of Deutsche Bundesbank. November 2002. Abstract: Assessing the discriminative power of rating systems is an important question to banks and to regulators. In this article we analyze the Cumulative Accuracy Profile (CAP) and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) which are both commonly used in practice. We give a test-theoretic interpretation for the concavity of the CAP and the ROC curve and demonstrate how this observation can be used for more efficiently exploiting the informational contents of accounting ratios. Furthermore, we show that two popular summary statistics of these concepts, namely the Accuracy Ratio and the area under the ROC curve, contain the same information and we analyse the statistical properties of these measures. We show in detail how to identify accounting ratios with high discriminative power, how to calculate confidence intervals for the area below the ROC curve, and how to test if two rating models validated on the same data set are different. All ...
A very simple, inexpensive and effective tool for Tuberculosis/ Mycobacterium research. Spoligotyping is a useful PCR-Based Method to Simultaneously D...
We love to eat tasty and yummy food. We can be experiencing that ... but we can experience certain things like a burp or even worse SMELLY BURPS.
Tecan has unveiled its latest innovation, the automated RESOLVEX™ A200 positive pressure workstation for LC-MS sample prep. This walkaway system further expands Tecan’s portfolio of MS sample preparation workstations and smart consumables, uniquely allowing the company to provide complete solutions to match any workflow, from manual processing to semi-automated high throughput systems based on a Freedom EVO® or Fluent® platform....
Background: The prevalence rate of asthma is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and number of patients with asthma is projected to reach 100 mil..
Welcome to La Burp Kids. I have been hand making my Weighted Blankets and products for over 8 years. All La Burp Kids products are listed in conjunction with qualified Occupational Therapists who use and recommend our products. If you need any help with your purchase dont hesitate to contact us.
This tutorial illustrates how to create a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) based on MLST allele numbers. The same steps are also applicable for clustering of other categorical character data sets such as MLVA.
Im just wondering why is is near impossible for me to burp. I may at most burp once a month and generally its a very small and no one knows I did it except me. I always feel I need to burp and know I will feel better after but I cannot even force out a burp. The gas doesnt all go out the other end either... so thats not the problem. Is there a pill to take or what can I do to burp and get the gas out more often?. Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
You must select a strain type and also whether the strain is a mutant or wild-type. To search the gene field for all strains carrying a particular locus, you will need to use the wildcard character *. For example, searching for his-3 finds 126 strains while searching for *his-3* finds 295 strains ...
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which defines strains from the sequences at seven house-keeping loci, has become the method of choice for molecular typing of many bacterial and fungal pathogens (and non-pathogens ...
f(1)= 20, f(3)=13, f(5)=15, f(7)=16, f(9)=11, on [0,6] a, used midpint rule with n=5 to estimate intergral form 0 to 10 f(x)dx b, use trapezoidal rule with n=4 to estimate intergral from 1 to 9 f(x)dx c, used simpsons rule with n=4 to estimate intergal from 1 to 9 (x)dx ...
結果3例B群流腦病例發病月齡分別為12 d、5月齡和8月齡,符合化膿性腦膜炎癥狀,腦脊液標本均分離培養出3株B群腦膜炎奈瑟菌。 MLST序列分型分析顯示,2株菌為ST-5664(CC4821),1株為ST-5662。 3株B群菌株均對環丙沙星、左氧氟沙星和復方新諾明等藥物耐藥 ...
It might not have been that bean dip. Some of the reasons why burps keep happening might surprise you. Find out more with this slideshow from WebMD.
United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Tobacco Products ...
Background Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is one of the antibiotic resistance strategies in the bacteria. Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections alarmingly increased in recent years in Turkey.Objectives The current study aimed at determining antibiotic resistance and genotypic profiles of ESBL-positive E. coli isolates.Methods Forty-five ESBL-positive E. coli species were isolated from a variety of units both at the Mevlana University Foundation Hospital and the Mevlana University Medical Center at Konya province in Turkey from December 2013 to December 2014. Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Genotypic profile was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Results The rate of ESBL production in E. coli strains was 13.1%. The isolates were highly resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams, while very low resistant to carbapenems. Four PFGE profiles were identified:
An evaluation of the utility of rep PCR typing compared to the 15 loci discriminatory set of MIRU-VNTR was undertaken. Twenty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates by standard method. The number of copies of tandem repeats of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci was determined by PCR amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplicons. M. tuberculosis outbreak-related strains were distinguished from other isolates. MIRU-VNTR typing identified 4 major clusters of strains. The same isolates clustered together after RFLP typing, but rep-PCR identified only 3 of them. The concordance between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR typing was complete, with the exception of two isolates with identical RFLP patterns that differed in the number of tandem repeat copies at two MIRU-VNTR alleles. A further isolate, even sharing the same RFLP pattern, differed by one repeat from the rest of its cluster. We also tested the use of an automated rep-PCR for ...
Summary Different PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques were evaluated for typing 26 clinical isolates belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. Seven isolates belonged to a previously defined outbreak while 19 isolates were unrelated epidemiologically. The PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques used were: (i) repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR; (ii) enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR; (iii) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with M13 forward primer; (iv) restriction analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene (ARDRA-16S); and (v) restriction analysis of an amplified region containing the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene (ARDRA 23S + spacer). The discrimination index for the PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques was: 0.99 for REP; 0.94 for ERIC; 0.87 for M13; 0.60 for ARDRA-16S digested with Hpa II and |0.50 for ARDRA 23S + spacer. It was concluded that REP-PCR possessed high discriminatory power and reproducibility in
This study analyzed 42 strains collected between 2009C2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to raised understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and is an opportunistic gram negative pathogen involved in a wide quantity of nosocomial infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, wound and meningitis infections frequently associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity [1]. 18 were international clones and 8 European or Asian restricted clones. The International clone II was the major clone reported in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa Australia, USA, and South America. To track and monitor these outbreaks, denote strain relatedness and assign an outbreak strain to its corresponding clonal lineage, many typing methods with different intrinsic ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Straube, Nicolas, White, William T., Ho, Hsuan-Ching, Rochel, Elisabeth, Corrigan, Shannon, Li, Chenhong, Naylor, Gavin J. P. (2013): A DNA sequence-based identification checklist for Taiwanese chondrichthyans. Zootaxa 3752 (1): 256-278, DOI: ...
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Bacteria is a prokaryotic organism having a large number of species. They are present in most of the habitats of earth. Some bacterias are useful while others are pathogenic and even threatful to life. Knowledge of the true bacterial species is fundamental for the effective utilization of that particular species . Most of the bacterias have not been characterized and only some of the species can be grown in labortary. Traditional methods of bacterial identification rely on phenotypic identification using gram staining, culture and biochemical methods. However, these methods of bacterial identification suffer from some drawbacks. The identification and characterization of bacterial species associated with particular traits can be done by using molecular traits.The most common way of molecular characterization of bacteria is by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. This technology allows us to identify any bacterial species to any level of precision by using a single cell. The technology uses molecular ...
Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii: In this study a multilocus sequence typ
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present research is to study the questions used in the 2018 MIR exam (a test that allows access to specialized medical training in Spain), describe their psychometric properties, and evaluate their quality. Materials and Methods: This analysis is performed with the help of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The answers given to the test questions by a total of 3868 physicians are analyzed. Results: According to CTT, the average difficulty index for all of the test questions was 0.629, which falls into the acceptable category. The average difficulty index with correction for random effects was 0.515, which corresponds to a value within the optimal range. The mean discrimination index was 0.277, which is in the good category, while the mean point biserial correlation coefficient, with a value of 0.275 fits in the regular category. The values of difficulty and discrimination calculated according to the model of two parameters of the IRT
Analysis of NTHi strain collections to ascertain the proportion of isolates containing phase variable modA alleles.(a-d) Presents the four separate strain col
Traditional and molecular typing schemes for the characterization of pathogenic microorganisms are poorly portable because they index variation that is difficult to compare among laboratories. To overcome these problems, we propose multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which exploits the unambiguous na …
Rapidly and accurately identify over 2,900 species of aerobic and anaerobic Bacteria, Yeasts, and Fungi using the Biolog Gen III Identification Phenotypic technology. Technology and instrumentation available from TECHNOPATH.
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Contains data for a collection of isolates that represent the total known diversity of S. pneumoniae. For every allelic profile in the profiles database there is at least one corresponding isolate deposited here. Any isolate may be submitted to this database and consequently it should be noted that it does not represent a population sample ...
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Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, SourcePos -, c SourcePos #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c SourcePos #. toConstr :: SourcePos -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: SourcePos -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c SourcePos) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, SourcePos -, SourcePos #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, SourcePos -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, SourcePos -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos #. gmapMp :: MonadPlus m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) -, SourcePos -, m SourcePos ...
Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, PackageDescription -, c PackageDescription #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c PackageDescription #. toConstr :: PackageDescription -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: PackageDescription -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, PackageDescription -, PackageDescription #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) ...
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has rejected south-east Queensland power generator Tarong Energys plan to sell fly-ash to one of the nations biggest concrete manufacturers.
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V35I, I135L, E138A, S162A, I167IV, V179I, R211RKMT, H221Y, D237N, V245Q, A272P, A288S, P294T, I329L, Q334E, Y339F, R356K, I375V, T377L, T386I, K388R, ...
V35T, K43R, V60I, V90VI, A98S, K122E, D123G, I135V, K173R, Q174E, D177E, I195K, T200A, R211S, V245Q, E248AT, D250E, A272P, V276I, Q278H, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, E297A, D320E, ...
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The Dr. Irene G. Bandy-Hedden Scholarship is open to incoming freshmen at Ohio University. You must intend to major in science or math education to be considered for this award. Preference is first...
This includes medical and laboratory techniques (such as with bacterial cultures). There are two types of asepsis - medical and ... "Medical Asepsis (Clean Technique)" (PDF). Indiana Department of Health. "Microbiology Techniques & Troubleshooting". Science ... The exact modes of infection depend on the types of surgery, but the most common bacteria that are responsible for SSIs are ... While all members of the surgical team should demonstrate good aseptic technique, it is the role of the scrub nurse or surgical ...
The technique uses many different bacterial strains in order to compare the different changes in the genetic material. The ... One technique entails cytogenetic assays using different mammalian cells. The types of aberrations detected in cells affected ... The benefits of this technique are that it is a fast and simple method and convenient for numerous substances. These techniques ... This technique is advantageous in that it detects low levels of DNA damage, requires only a very small number of cells, is ...
Sequence Typing is a technique that uses genomic information to establish evolutionary relationships between bacterial taxa. ... "Halobacterium noricense" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Halobacterium noricense at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "ATCC medium: 2185 Halobacterium NRC-1 medium". American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Lim SK, Kim JY, Song HS, Kwon MS, Lee J ... When the samples were compared to the fosmid library, some were over 88% similar to other known halophilic bacterial species. ...
Type strain of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e. ... Ranalli, G; Grazia L; Roggeri A (September 1999). "The influence of hay-packing techniques on the presence of Saccharopolyspora ... Inhalation of the bacteria can cause the disease farmer's lung, a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Handling hay bales ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacterial species that can form endospores include ... Another staining technique for endospores is the Schaeffer-Fulton stain, which stains endospores green and bacterial bodies red ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ... The main types within the cell are terminal, subterminal, and centrally placed endospores. Terminal endospores are seen at the ...
ISBN 978-0-12-384985-4. Type strain of Xenorhabdus cabanillasii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e. ... al.], edited by S. Patricia Stock ... [et (2009). Insect pathogens molecular approaches and techniques. Wallingford, UK: CABI. ... phylogeny and bacterial symbionts. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-474-2239-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Deutsche ...
The type of medium in the agar plates is also important. Chromagar Candida is a differential medium that is used to identify ... They have been working together since 2011 on making bacterial art. The artwork used yellow Nesterenkonia and orange ... Protist species used include Euglena gracilis (photosynthetic, green) and Physarum polycephalum (yellow-green). A technique ... called "bacteriography" involves selectively killing certain areas of a bacterial culture with radiation, in order to produce ...
In this situation, bacterial profile modification technique, which injects bacteria into the high permeable zone to promote ... "Effects of bacterial cells and two types of extracellular polymers on bioclogging of sand columns". Journal of Hydrology. 535: ... It is a type of microbial enhanced oil recovery. Biofilm Hydraulic conductivity Landfill liner Microbial enhanced oil recovery ... In extraction of petroleum, a technique of enhanced oil recovery is implemented to increase the amount of oil to be extracted ...
Their use is based on the variable bowel bacterial flora associated with persons of different homeopathic constitutional types ... In 1930, at the age of 43, he decided to search for a new healing technique. He spent the spring and summer discovering and ... In this period, he developed seven bacterial nosodes known as the seven Bach nosodes. Their use has been mostly confined to ...
The basics of this technique involve the preparation of a primer that will be a complementary strand to a wild type bacterial ... When the bacterial plasmid is replicated, the mutated strand will be replicated as well. The same technique can be used to ... Although there are three different types of solid state enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all three types begin with the ... The technique was developed by Kary Mullis in 1983 while working for the Cetus Corporation. Mullis would go on to win the Nobel ...
... it has been shown that silver nano particles lower the bacterial count on devices used compared to old techniques. However, the ... Although it varies for every type of cell proposed, as their cell membrane composition varies greatly, It has been seen that in ... Fungal strains such as Verticillium and bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae can be used in the synthesis of silver ... Bacterial and fungal synthesis of nanoparticles is practical because bacteria and fungi are easy to handle and can be modified ...
LPSN "Brucella pinnipedialis" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Brucella pinnipedialis at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics). 32 (1): 89-103. doi:10.20506/rst.32.1.2194. PMID 23837368 ...
2003) observed inhibiting bacterial growth with up to 83% of the efficacy of TBT oxide. Current research also aims to produce ... Different system types can be used to yield different biogenic products. In the field of paleochemotaxonomy the presence of ... By pairing these techniques with biochemical engineering design, algae and their biogenic substances can be produced on a large ... They are generally isolated and measured through the use of chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Additionally, the ...
The response is a classical example of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), a type IV of hypersensitivities. T cells ... A person who has been exposed to the bacteria is expected to mount an immune response in the skin containing the bacterial ... This intradermal injection is termed the Mantoux technique. ...
discuss several examples of types of studies in which RISA can be used. They cite several studies that have used this technique ... In this study, they were looking at a group of closely related bacterial types, all autotrophic β-proteobacterial ammonia ... The brightness of the fluorescently labeled primers correlates to how prevalent that bacterial type is in the community. The ... Different types of organisms may share a restriction site in the gene of interest; if that is the case, these organisms would ...
... and rest of Kinyoun technique can be used.[6]*Various bacterial spore staining techniques using Kenyon e.g. *Moeller's method ... Some acid-fast staining techniquesEdit. *Ziehl-Neelsen stain (classic and modified bleach types)[5] ... Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, ... The most common staining technique used to identify acid-fast bacteria is the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, in which the acid-fast ...
ISBN 0-08-053577-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Xenorhabdus bovienii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... ISBN 0-387-28022-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Lacey, edited by Lawrence A. (1997). Manual of techniques in ... the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema weiseri, is a non-virulent strain against lepidopteran ... the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema weiseri, is a non-virulent strain against lepidopteran ...
One technique entails cytogenetic assays using different mammalian cells.[6] The types of aberrations detected in cells ... The technique uses many different bacterial strains in order to compare the different changes in the genetic material. The ... Bacterial Reverse Mutation AssayEdit. See also: Ames test. The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay, ... The benefits of this technique are that it is a fast and simple method and convenient for numerous substances. These techniques ...
Bacterial colonies can be counted after 24 to 48 hours depending on the type of bacteria. Counts are reported as colony forming ... units per 100 mL (cfu/100 mL). One technique for detecting indicator organisms is the use of chromogenic compounds, which are ... None of the types of indicator organisms that are currently in use fit all of these criteria perfectly, however, when cost is ... Indicator bacteria are types of bacteria used to detect and estimate the level of fecal contamination of water. They are not ...
ISBN 978-1-84593-479-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Xenorhabdus ehlersii at BacDive - the ... phylogeny and bacterial symbionts. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-474-2239-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) UniProt ... Insect pathogens molecular approaches and techniques. Wallingford, UK: CABI. ...
... the differing terminology reflects the predominant techniques used for epidemiological typing. This strain is referred to as C ... As a result of suppression of healthy bacteria, via a loss of bacterial food source, prolonged use of an elemental diet ... Taking non-toxic types of C. difficile after an infection has promising results with respect to preventing future infections. ... C. difficile is one such type of bacterium. In addition to proliferating in the bowel, C. difficile also produces toxins. ...
ISBN 978-0-470-75383-5.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Starkeya novella at BacDive - the Bacterial ... ISBN 978-3-540-69771-8. Bartlett, edited by P.N. (2008). Bioelectrochemistry Fundamentals, Experimental Techniques and ... genome sequence of the facultatively chemolithoautotrophic and methylotrophic alpha Proteobacterium Starkeya novella type ... genome sequence of the facultatively chemolithoautotrophic and methylotrophic alpha Proteobacterium Starkeya novella type ...
The technique used is named after C. V. Raman who discovered the scattering properties in liquids. The Raman microscope begins ... However, the high photon flux can also cause sample degradation, and thus, for each type of sample, the laser wavelength and ... has permitted determination of assimilation rates of 13C and 15N-substrates as well as D2O by individual bacterial cells. Raman ... This technique is being used for the characterization of large scale devices, mapping of different compounds and dynamics study ...
With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia will stabilize in 3-6 days. It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms ... among other techniques. Mycoplasma, Legionella, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia can also be detected using PCR techniques on ... Viruses also make the body more susceptible to bacterial infections; in this way, bacterial pneumonia can occur at the same ... as there is no definitive test able to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial cause. The overall impression of a ...
... a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and epiglottitis. The techniques he and his colleague Ronald Eby invented were later ... microbiologist best known for developing a vaccine that protects children from infections by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib ... The conjugate vaccine technique Anderson and his colleagues developed led to a Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) vaccine ... "A lucky career in bacterial vaccines." (2012) Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol 8, issue 4, pp. 420-422 Clark, Thornton ...
This technique allows for replicate spots of one bacterial type to be tested or spots of different bacteria so that the MIC of ... After incubation, the plates are examined to determine if bacterial growth has occurred in the inoculated spots. The lowest ... Necessary controls include a control plate that does not receive any antibiotics and bacterial spread plates demonstrating that ... the bacterial inocula are in the correct concentration range. The dilution plates are then incubated at a temperature of 37 ...
... and the rest of the Kinyoun technique can be used. Various bacterial spore staining techniques using Kenyon e.g. Moeller's ... nonionic polyglycol ether surfactants type NP-7 Fite stain Fite-Faraco stain Wade Fite stain Ellis and Zabrowarny stain (no ... The most common staining technique used to identify acid-fast bacteria is the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, in which the acid-fast ... Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, John D Bancroft, 6th ed, p314 Dorner, W. 1926. Un procédé simple pour la ...
... bacterial typing techniques MeSH E05.200.875.150.125.150 - bacteriophage typing MeSH E05.200.875.150.125.765 - ribotyping MeSH ... embryo culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.484 - organ culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.617 - tissue culture techniques MeSH ... mycological typing techniques MeSH E05.200.875.837 - serial passage MeSH E05.200.875.950 - viral load MeSH E05.200.875.970 - ... cell culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.374 - coculture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.437 - diffusion chambers, culture MeSH ...
The technique has been improved through the use of stable isotopes to better trace energy flow through the web.[14] It was once ... "Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ... type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of ...
Positron-emission tomography (PET)[1] is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic ... Use of this tracer to explore the possibility of cancer metastasis (i.e., spreading to other sites) is the most common type of ... Three different PET contrast agents have been developed to image bacterial infections in vivo: [18F]maltose,[19] [18F] ... Time-of-flight (TOF) PET: For modern systems with a higher time resolution (roughly 3 nanoseconds) a technique called "Time-of- ...
Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... Education of caregivers in these techniques, and providing such barrier-separation supplies has been a priority of Doctors ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... Many over-the-counter treatments in many forms are available, which are often known as cosmeceuticals.[168] Certain types of ... The Leeds acne grading technique counts acne lesions on the face, back, and chest and categorizes them as inflammatory or non- ... Ablative lasers (such as CO2 and fractional types) have also been used to treat active acne and its scars. When ablative lasers ...
The pseudomembranous type rarely causes any symptoms apart from possibly some discomfort or bad taste due to the presence of ... Oral rinse technique can distinguish between commensal candidal carriage and candidiasis. If candidal leukoplakia is suspected ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... Most types of oral candidiasis are painless, but a burning sensation may occur in some cases. Candidiasis can therefore ...
There are two basic types of sake: Futsū-shu (普通酒, ordinary sake) and Tokutei meishō-shu (特定名称酒, special-designation sake). ... 75% of today's sake is made using this technique, left over from the war years. There were even a few breweries producing "sake ... The government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, and being devoid of bacterial ... Many types of sake have notes of apple from ethyl caproate, and banana from isoamyl acetate, particularly ginjōshu (吟醸酒).[ ...
... has been introduced into tomato plants and in vivo studies show significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot.[27 ... Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ... In 2000, the concentration of pro-vitamin A was increased by adding a bacterial gene encoding phytoene desaturase, although the ... "Control of Ethylene Synthesis by Expression of a Bacterial Enzyme in Transgenic Tomato Plants". The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187- ...
Types of trends in complexity[edit]. Passive versus active trends in complexity. Organisms at the beginning are red. Numbers ... such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have developed to evade it. For example, the parasite Trypanosoma ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics.[2][3][4] ...
"Revue Scientifique et Technique. 23 (2): 569-81. doi:10.20506/rst.23.2.1503. PMID 15702720.. ... After Lyme infection onset, antibodies of types IgM and IgG usually can first be detected respectively at 2-4 weeks and 4-6 ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ...
A similar hybridization technique is called a zoo blot. Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. ... Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... FISH is a very general technique. The differences between the various FISH techniques are usually due to variations in the ... This technique is used routinely in telomere length research. Flow-FISH[edit]. Flow-FISH uses flow cytometry to perform FISH ...
Another staining technique for endospores is the Schaeffer-Fulton stain, which stains endospores green and bacterial bodies red ... The position of the endospore differs among bacterial species and is useful in identification. The main types within the cell ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ...
... -based techniques can be used in a number of applications. The U.S. military is investigating swarm ... Examples in natural systems of SI include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth, fish schooling and ... Vicsek, T.; Czirok, A.; Ben-Jacob, E.;; Cohen, I.; Shochet, O. (1995). "Novel type of phase transition in a system of self- ... SDS is an agent-based probabilistic global search and optimization technique best suited to problems where the objective ...
... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... Daniel DC (Oct 2002). "Highlight: BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins in breast cancer". Microscopy Research and Technique. 59 (1): 68-83 ... indicating that genomic instability plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of this tumor type.[53][54][55][56] ... "Inactivation of miR-34a by aberrant CpG methylation in multiple types of cancer". Cell Cycle. 7 (16): 2591-600. doi:10.4161/cc. ...
Type V proteins are anchored to the lipid bilayer through covalently linked lipids. Finally Type VI proteins have both ... As an example of the relationship between the IMP (in this case the bacterial phototrapping pigment, bacteriorhodopsin) and the ... has among its aim to determine three-dimensional protein structures and to develop techniques for use in structural biology, ... Type III proteins have multiple transmembrane domains in a single polypeptide, while type IV consists of several different ...
... while archaeal flagella appear to have evolved from bacterial type IV pili.[106] In contrast to the bacterial flagellum, which ... Theron, J.; Cloete, T.E. (2000). "Molecular techniques for determining microbial diversity and community structure in natural ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[104][105] ... Ng SY; Chaban B; Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ...
Pneumonia, Atypical Bacterial at eMedicine Pneumonia, Typical Bacterial at eMedicine Memish ZA, Ahmed QA, Arabi YM, Shibl AM, ... Meanwhile, many such organisms are identified as bacteria, albeit unusual types (Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria without a ... However, newer techniques aid in the definitive identification of the pathogen, which may lead to more individualized treatment ... When comparing the bacterial-caused atypical pneumonias with these caused by real viruses (excluding bacteria that were wrongly ...
The techniques by which cells are studied have evolved. Advancement in microscopic techniques and technology such as ... "The Size, Shape, And Arrangement of Bacterial Cells". Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. ... The cell shape varies among the different types of organisms, and are thus then classified into two categories: eukaryotes and ... where specialized cells of the same type aggregate to form tissues, then organs and ultimately systems.[12] The G phases along ...
All types of pu'er tea are created from máochá (毛茶), a mostly unoxidized green tea processed from Camellia sinensis var. ... The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout ... However, due to production inconsistencies and variations in manufacturing techniques, the reputation of a tea company or ... Pu'erh is generally expected to be served Gongfu style, generally in Yixing teaware or in a type of Chinese teacup called a ...
GSD type III (Cori's disease, debranching enzyme deficiency). *GSD type VI (Hers' disease, liver glycogen phosphorylase ... Modern techniques have enabled a bedside test, identifying presence of lactase enzyme on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ... Yogurt - lactobacilli used in the production of yogurt metabolize lactose to varying degrees, depending on the type of yogurt.[ ... the most common type, is typically in late childhood or early adulthood,[1] but prevalence increases with age.[5] ...
The "No-Touch" technique is unique in that it aims at preventing bacterial contamination of the prosthesis by completely ... With all types of phalloplasty in trans men, scrotoplasty can be performed using the labia majora (vulva) to form a scrotum ... Techniques and related procedures[edit]. There are four different techniques for phalloplasty. All of the techniques involve ... Gillies technique[edit]. This technique was pioneered by Sir Harold Delf Gillies as one of the first competent phalloplasty ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... From England, the technique spread rapidly to the Colonies, and was also spread by African slaves arriving into Boston.[3][4] ... for the Variola Major type found elsewhere; however, blindness, infertility, and severe scarring were common. Figures from "The ...
Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used,[2] and result in a small overall benefit.[121] The two major types ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Osadnik CR, McDonald CF, Jones AP, Holland AE (March 2012). "Airway clearance techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Traditionally, two types of COPD were known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Most cases of COPD are a mixture of both ...
Land A, Braakman I (August 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... Techniques and Applications. 7 (6): 160-71. doi:10.1016/0735-0651(90)90030-J. PMID 2076345.. ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (March 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... "Entrez Gene: GAA glucosidase, alpha; acid (Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease type II)".. ...
Ng SY, Chaban B, Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Theron J, Cloete TE (2000). "Molecular techniques for determining microbial diversity and community structure in natural ... "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events". Gene 312: 151-63. PMID ... 1994). "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". J Mol Evol. (38(6)): 566-576.. ...
Ohjimi T, Ohjimi H (1981). "Special surgical techniques for relief of phimosis". J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 7 (4): 326-30. doi: ... Phimosis may occur after other types of chronic inflammation (such as balanoposthitis), repeated catheterization, or forcible ... Chronic bacterial prostatitis. *Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. *Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis ... to distinguish between these types of phimosis; [21] others use the term "non-retractile foreskin" to distinguish this ...
They should be inserted using sterile technique in hospital however non-sterile technique may be appropriate in those who self ... Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Lam, TB; Omar, MI; Fisher, E; Gillies, K; MacLennan, S (23 September 2014). "Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short- ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ...
Other imaging techniques used are ERCP and MRCP. Gallstone complications may be detected on blood tests.[2] ... Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in ... gallstones can be divided into the following types: cholesterol stones, pigment stones, and mixed stones.[3] An ideal ...
A high rate above the survival threshold may kill cancer cells with a high apoptotic threshold.[86][87] This technique can be ... Work at the Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, showed that a certain type of autophagy, i.e., chaperone-assisted ... it recruits autophagy adaptor such as NDP52 leading to the formation of an autophagosome and bacterial degradation.[64] ... CMA is significantly different from other types of autophagy because it translocates protein material in a one by one manner, ...
Regularly consuming smoked meats and fish may increase the risk of several types of cancer[21][22] and cardiovascular disease.[ ... Although refinements in technique and advancements in technology have made smoking much easier, the basic steps involved remain ... which slow bacterial growth. Other antimicrobials in wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other organic acids, ... The popularity of this type of smokers is on the rise after many BBQ pit-masters started using them for competition barbeque. ...
This type of fracture occurs only in very homogeneous minerals. Other types of fracture are fibrous, splintery, and hackly. The ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ... is observable with various techniques, such as thin-section petrography.[87] ... These rocks may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially ...
Collaborative study to enlarge the first WHO repository of platelet transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains: Expert ... "Bacterial Typing Techniques". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Multilocus Sequence Typing of Oenococcus oeni: Detection of Two Subpopulations Shaped by Intergenic Recombination Eric Bilhère ... Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles and Strain Type Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Turkeys in Eastern North ...
"Bacterial Typing Techniques" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Typing Techniques" was a major or minor ... "Bacterial Typing Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Bacterial Typing Techniques*Bacterial Typing Techniques. *Technique, Bacterial Typing. *Techniques, Bacterial Typing ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Typing Techniques" by people in Profiles. ...
Pediatric bacterial meningitis cases , 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 ... The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. Of 214 laboratory-confirmed ... Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. ... years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July ...
Publication types * Case Reports MeSH terms * Abscess / surgery* * Aortic Valve* * Endocarditis, Bacterial / complications* ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology * Bacterial Typing Techniques * Cephalosporins / pharmacology * Cluster Analysis * DNA ... Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 as the major cause of serious multidrug-resistant E. coli infections in the United States ... Background: Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (O25:H4), associated with the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, has ...
A live-cell super-resolution technique demonstrated by imaging germinosomes in wild-type bacterial spores *R. M. P. Breedijk ...
A live-cell super-resolution technique demonstrated by imaging germinosomes in wild-type bacterial spores *R. M. P. Breedijk ... Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around a sample to reconstruct an image ...
7 Techniques for Detection, Quantification and Control of Bacterial Toxins 183. L. Ramchandran, A. Warnakulasuriya, O. Donkor ... updating the analytical techniques required to examine bacterial and mould toxins and the potential for contamination of milk ... 2 Incidences of Mould and Bacterial Toxins in Dairy Products 19. M.L.Y. Wan, N.P. Shah and H.I. El -Nezami ... 8 Techniques for Detection, Quantification and Control of Mycotoxins in Dairy Products 201. O. Donkor, L. Ramchandran and T. ...
Bacterial strains, growth conditions, and genetic techniques.E. coli strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Luria- ... Type IV pilus structure and bacterial pathogenicity. Nature Rev. 2:363-378. ... type IV pili) (12). The pseudopili and the closely related class A type IV pili are composed of one major pilin subunit and ... when cotransformed with the compatible plasmid pCHAP8096 carrying wild-type secD, but not with pCHAP8092 carrying wild-type ...
Bacterial Infections [‎78]‎. Bacterial Proteins [‎1]‎. Bacterial Toxins [‎7]‎. Bacterial Typing Techniques [‎2]‎. ...
... and IgA antibodies against type 6B pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and cell wall C polysaccharide in chinchilla serum. - M ... Antibodies, Bacterial (blood) *Bacterial Capsules (immunology) *Cell Wall (immunology) *Chinchilla. *Immunoenzyme Techniques ... 1624568 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt, Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.) ... Enzyme immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against type 6B pneumococcal capsular ...
Bacterial strain collection and growth conditions.The bacterial strains used in this study are outlined in Table 1. All ... The ERIC type number is indicated for each, i.e., Lr1, L. reuteri ERIC type 1. *, the ERIC type was identified in both the NE ... The ERIC type number is indicated for each, i.e., Lr10, L. reuteri ERIC type 10. *, the ERIC type was identified in both the NE ... In summary, ERIC-PCR was selected from several Rep-PCR techniques for the typing of chicken lactobacilli. The technique was ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Typing Techniques. Burns / complications*, drug therapy, epidemiology. Case- ... We did molecular typing on 206 MRSA isolates from all patients on the BTU who had MRSA isolated from either nares cultures or ...
We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the ... Bacterial Typing Techniques. Feces / microbiology. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* ... Identification to the species level, followed by AP-PCR typing, demonstrated that 23.3% of the 86 infants were likely to be ... AP-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 is indicated as a potential tool for the typing of Lactobacillus strains.. ...
Go to Bacterial Biology: Help and Review Ch 4. Microbiology Laboratory Techniques:... ... Kelp, a type of algae that grows in the ocean, can grow into large kelp forests that provide shelter and food for a lot of ... After all, theres a massive number of types of algae and diatoms in the ocean. There are so many individual algae protists and ...
Learn about the types, lifecycles, uses, and hazards of bacteria here. ... Sterilization techniques and antibiotic medications have led to a significant drop in deaths from bacterial diseases. ... Spores: When some types of bacteria are low on resources, they can form spores. Spores hold the organisms DNA material and ... Some types of bacteria can cause diseases in humans, such as cholera, diptheria, dysentery, bubonic plague, pneumonia, ...
The MicroSEQ 500 16S rDNA PCR Kit is the PCR component of the MicroSEQ 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification System, which ... Sample Type (Specific):. DNA (Genomic). Technique:. SBT (Sequence-Based Typing). Library Type:. Bacterial Library (, 2000 ... The MicroSEQ® 500 16S rDNA PCR Kit is the PCR component of the MicroSEQ® 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification System, which ... MicroSeq bacterial and fungal application kits, and industry-leading thermal cyclers and sequencing systems. To ensure optimal ...
Using a variety of techniques to monitor different steps of T3SS formation, substantial insights into the assembly of this ... Aizawa SI (2001) Bacterial flagella and type III secretion systems. FEMS Microbiol Lett 202: 157-164.. *Wiley Online Library , ... Minamino T, Imada K & Namba K (2008) Mechanisms of type III protein export for bacterial flagellar assembly. Mol BioSyst 4: ... Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery. Authors. *. Andreas Diepold,. *Department of Biochemistry, University ...
... type b (Hib) disease and its prevention by vaccination for the period 1995 to 2005, comparing surveillance data for 1995-2000, ... Bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age in Western Australia. Med J Aust 1991;155:160-164. ... Sahai H, Khurshid A. Statistics in Epidemiology: Methods, Techniques, and Applications. 1st edn. CRC-Press; 1996. ... Non-type b Haemophilus influenzae disease: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in the Haemophilus influenzae type b ...
These so-called super-resolution techniques reveal unprecedented detail of bacterial cell biology. ... Type II protein secretion and its relationship to bacterial type IV pili and archaeal flagella. Microbiology 149: 3051-3072. ... Interaction with type IV pili induces structural changes in the bacterial outer membrane secretin PilQ. J. Biol. Chem. 280: ... Type IV pili, transient bacterial aggregates, and virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Science 280: 2114-2118. ...
Choosing an appropriate bacterial typing technique for epidemiologic studies. Epidemiol. Perspect. Innov. 2:10. ... Molecular epidemiologic typing systems of bacterial pathogens: current issues and perspectives. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 93:581- ... Multilocus sequence typing analysis of human and animal Clostridium difficile isolates of various toxigenic types. J. Clin. ... criteria for bacterial strain typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:2233-2239. ...
The experimental techniques discussed above allow us to control the spatial residence of bacteria. In particular, the formation ... The bacterial type IV pilus system - a tunable molecular motor. Berenike Maier * Department of Physics and Biocenter, ... Cycles of type IV pilus elongation, adhesion, and retraction power bacterial surface motility as has been demonstrated using ... Bacterial motility in micro-structured environments. Type IV pilus driven surface motility depends on the physico-chemical ...
Complex coacervation is a promising microencapsulation technique. In this work, a probiotic matrix of type-A gelatin/gum arabic ... based on the alkaline isoelectric point of type-A gelatin. Bacterial survival during ambient storage at room temperature and ... Complex coacervation is a promising microencapsulation technique. In this work, a probiotic matrix of type-A gelatin/gum arabic ... Ambient storage of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III by complex coacervation of type-A gelatin and gum arabic ...
Microscopical identification techniques.. Staining types.. Differentiate between gram-positive. and gram-negation. bacteria. ... Bacterial Morphology.. - Gram stain.. Reading from the agar. Growth Condition. Morphology. Gram stain. ... Pathogenic types.. Hazard types.. Routs of entry.. - Basic laboratory safety measures.. - Accidents and Injuries.. Definition. ... Microscope types.. The terms . Bacteriology. .. Microscope parts.. Analysis. (Wet & Staining). Definition. Principle. Uses. ...
ATCC (American Type Culture Collection). (2017). Bacterial Culture Guide - Tips and Techniques for Culturing Bacteria and ... Witten, I. H., Frank, E., and Hall, M. A. (2011). Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, 3rd Edn. ... Bacterial isolates from sewage samples can be used in lieu of human feces samples (USEPA, 2005). Our results showed a positive ... Worldwide, group A was the most common type with a median of 36.1%. It was followed by D (median 21.5%), B2 (median 20%), and ...
DiversiLab fingerprinting kits (previously called bacterial bar codes), a type of repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR), is a rapid ... Using a Commercial DiversiLab Semiautomated Repetitive Sequence-Based PCR Typing Technique for Identification of Escherichia ... Using a Commercial DiversiLab Semiautomated Repetitive Sequence-Based PCR Typing Technique for Identification of Escherichia ... Using a Commercial DiversiLab Semiautomated Repetitive Sequence-Based PCR Typing Technique for Identification of Escherichia ...
The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria. The virus or bacteria need to be killed in a way that does ... The technique was refined by Edward Jenner into a vaccine for cowpox in 1796. ... The protection from bacterial and viral infections provided by vaccines preserves the infants immune systems to fight off ... Antibody- A type of protein produced in the blood or in the body tissues that helps the body fight infection. ...
The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria. The virus or bacteria need to be killed in a way that does ... The technique of vaccination has been practiced since at least the early decades of the eighteenth century. Then, a common ... Since Jenners time, vaccines for a variety of bacterial and viral maladies have been developed. The material used for ... A third type of vaccination involves a toxoid, which is an inactivated form of a toxin produced by the target bacterium. ...
  • Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. (
  • There are many different types of bacteria. (
  • Flagellum: This is used for movement, to propel some types of bacteria. (
  • The MicroSEQ® 500 16S rDNA PCR Kit is the PCR component of the MicroSEQ® 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification System, which provides an easy-to-use DNA sequence-based method to identify most bacteria. (
  • Type IV pili (T4P) are filamentous surface appendages required for tissue adherence, motility, aggregation, and transformation in a wide array of bacteria and archaea. (
  • Whereas type I pili have evolved a catch-bond mechanism 1 in conjunction with force-induced unfolding, 2 type IV pili are grappling hooks that enable bacteria move over surfaces. (
  • This technique has the potential to track and monitor resistant bacteria in a real-time basis but has not yet been validated for typing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates. (
  • The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria. (
  • The team used a technique known as neutron reflectometry at STFC's ISIS facility in Oxfordshire to examine how Polymyxin B, a last resort antibiotic, interacts with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Targeting the outer membrane offers alternative ways to kill pathogens and our new data shows us why bacteria are vulnerable to this type of attack. (
  • As far as we know, this is the first study that includes molecular genetic techniques to detect bacteria associated with osteoradionecrosis. (
  • The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a specialized apparatus evolved by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins into host cells, thus facilitating the establishment of an infection. (
  • A bacterial isolate is a group of the same type of bacteria. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypable Haemophilus influenzae are the bacterial species most frequently associated with otitis media in young children, and nasopharyngeal colonization with these bacteria is associated with its development ( 2 - 6 ). (
  • Carriage of multiple genetic types of H. influenzae may result from inadequate clearance of colonizing bacteria or from exposure to multiple circulating strains ( 4 , 7 ). (
  • Deerfield Beach, FL -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 02/09/2017 -- Bacteria are type of microorganism that can cause disease and suchharmful bacteria are called as a pathogen. (
  • They found that fungal and gram-positive bacteria cells (which have a thicker cell wall and do not have an outer membrane) resisted common cell disruption techniques. (
  • in the remaining majority of the bacteria, the phage DNA becomes integrated into the bacterial chromosome and replicates along with it. (
  • Until the late 19th century, physicians rejected the connection between Louis Pasteur's germ theory that bacteria caused diseases and antiseptic techniques. (
  • The way bacteria grow or what they look like when they grow can help to identify the bacterial species. (
  • Every plant needs specific bacteria, and every soil type harbors specific bacteria. (
  • Zachow: "Plants are searching for exactly those types of bacteria that they need for perfect growth. (
  • In moist soil types, the bacteria grow along with the germinating seed and at the same time protect it. (
  • In vitro studies suggest different mechanisms leading to mucosal inflammation, including 1) direct modulation of proinflammatory signaling by bacterial type III effector proteins and 2) disruption or penetration of the intestinal epithelium so that penetrating bacteria or bacterial products can trigger innate immunity (i.e. (
  • This virtual lab will familiarize you with the science and techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences. (
  • Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by a type of bacteria and can be transmitted by engaging in anal, vaginal, or oral sexual activity. (
  • An integrated device for diagnostic analyses used to verify the presence of bacteria in at least a biological sample mixed with a eugonic culture broth, in order to identify the type of bacteria, and to test a series of antibiotics, identifying those effective to determine the antibiotic therapy. (
  • The device comprises first examination means to verify the presence of bacteria so as to define corresponding positive biological samples and identify the type of bacteria present in the positive biological samples to define said group of antibiotics, and second examination means to verify the sensitive or resistant response of each positive biological sample to a series of antibiotics of the group of antibiotics defined by the first examination means. (
  • It also opens the way to certain unique possibilities, such as the production of CPSs in nonpathogenic bacteria and the analysis of the biological properties of such polysaccharides on bacterial surfaces in isolation from all other virulence determinants. (
  • What type of bacteria evolved into mitochondria? (
  • Although the main use of the technology has, until now, been identification or typing of bacteria from a positive culture, applications in the field of virology, mycology, microbacteriology and resistances are opening up new opportunities. (
  • The shift in dominant species seen with antibiotics was accompanied by a shift in active bacterial genes and in chemical compounds produced by the bacteria. (
  • Troy Skwor's research focuses on antibiotic resistance within different bacterial populations, especially a group of bacteria known as aeromonads. (
  • This type of therapy uses a chemical, known as photosensitizers, in the presence of different wavelengths of light and oxygen, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species capable of killing bacteria and cancer cells. (
  • From the short sequences, they construct a picture of the types of bacteria and their relative abundance. (
  • Many infectious bacteria such as Shigella and Salmonella use type III secretion machines, also called injectisomes, to transfer virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. (
  • Very few phytopathogenic bacteria colonize intact plant roots, even if the local soil provides a favorable environment for bacterial growth. (
  • Like many other pathogenic bacteria, R. solanacearum possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity ( hrp ) genes. (
  • Using a technique that distinguishes among different types of bacteria, they were able to identify which bacterial species were present. (
  • These types of friendly bacteria (including Lactobaccilus sp. (
  • Similarly foods that promote the growth of these bacteria (as appropriate for your blood type) like cumin, larch arabinogalactan, green tea, dandelion root, and ginger, to name a few, are useful additions to the diet. (
  • Water borne bacteria, including E. coli as the top bacterial quality indicator, are over to be the vital concerns of some society. (
  • Three repetitive-element PCR techniques were evaluated for the ability to type strains of Lactobacillus species commonly identified in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The technique typed strains within these species equally as well as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (
  • Application of a high-throughput typing method capable of distinguishing species and strains is needed to determine if differences exist between the Lactobacillus populations of chickens raised under NE and commercial conditions. (
  • AP-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 is indicated as a potential tool for the typing of Lactobacillus strains. (
  • 1 Among the six encapsulated strains that have been identified (designated as types a to f), Hib is the most virulent. (
  • Typical EPEC strains carry a large EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmid that encodes a type IV pilus (T4P), the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) ( 73 ). (
  • Among these techniques, IS6110 insertion in the dnaA-dnaN region were used to spoligotyping is widely used to differentiate strains identify Beijing strains in 187 Mycobacterium tuberculosis belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (
  • en] A new Bifidobacterium species is described based on the study of ten Gram-positive strains with fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. (
  • The technique uses many different bacterial strains in order to compare the different changes in the genetic material. (
  • We looked at mismatch repair deficient cells after repeated cycles of single colony isolation on rich medium to generate lineages that are forced through severe bottlenecks, and compared the results to those for wild-type strains. (
  • discovered that a blend of airborne chemicals released from specific bacterial strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. (
  • MLVA-4 can establish or refute that a clonal outbreak of melioidosis has occurred within 8 hours of receipt of bacterial strains. (
  • For example, in the brewing industry, existing techniques are often incapable of discriminating between closely related lager and beer yeast strains. (
  • Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia colistr.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. (
  • Since most bacterial strains have pre-programmed "start" and "finish" codes, the team was able to identify the "start" point as the short sequence that was most prevalent in the sample. (
  • The same set of strains was investigated with five alternative molecular typing methods: enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR), repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), amplified fragment length polymorphism, single triplicate arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in order to compare the discriminatory power of these methods. (
  • The use of species-specific primers as well as rapid and highly powerful PCR-based molecular typing tools (namely ERIC- and REP-PCR techniques) should be respectively envisaged for identifying, differentiating and monitoring L. johnsonii strains from various environmental samples, for product monitoring, for species tracing in clinical studies as well as bacterial profiling of various microecological or gastrointestinal environments. (
  • Typing of bacterial strains is used to confirm or reject epidemiologic evidence that a particular bacterium is the source of infection in a food type, water source or nosocomial infection. (
  • Molecular typing is a valued instrument for analysis of genetic relationship among the microbial strains. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the molecular types of waterborne E. coli strains using REP-PCR. (
  • Subsequently, ERIC-PCR was used to type Lactobacillus species diversity of a large collection of isolates derived from chickens grown under commercial and necrotic enteritis disease induction conditions. (
  • The first three of these species are members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex (LAC) ( 22 , 32 ), a closely related group of species which are difficult to differentiate using traditional techniques, such as physiological and biochemical tests ( 34 ). (
  • We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the vagina of pregnant women and stool specimens from their newborn infants. (
  • Identification to the species level, followed by AP-PCR typing, demonstrated that 23.3% of the 86 infants were likely to be colonized in the intestine by the vaginal lactobacilli of their mothers, and that only 2 of the infants retained the same vaginal lactobacilli until 1 month of age. (
  • One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. (
  • Many bacterial species live at surfaces, and there they encounter a conflict. (
  • The following is a report of a study undertaken to identify the bacterial species in bone samples from patients suffering from osteoradionecrosis. (
  • Certain bacterial species will take a stain, and others will not. (
  • Success has been recorded with the bacterial species Pseudomonas poae and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. (
  • The study centered on the intestinal microbiome, the mix of bacterial species that live in the digestive tract, and that co-evolved with humans to play roles in nutrition and immunity. (
  • Past studies had already matched key DNA sequences to known bacterial species, enabling the team to define each mouse's microbiome, and to watch the effect of antibiotics on each. (
  • Specifically, the study found that four bacterial species groups (taxa) - Enterococcus, Blautia, Enterobacteriaceae, and Akkermansia - were significantly more abundant in the guts of mice treated with the single course of antibiotics, and likely involved in driving progression of type 1 diabetes. (
  • The results suggest that these taxa may be protective against Type 1 diabetes, and could be a focus of future development of probiotics, for instance, that seek to restore healthy species in newborns. (
  • Fecal samples taken from the malnourished children before, during, and after treatment revealed a persistent immaturity in their gut microbial communities, such that they lacked bacterial species typically found in well-nourished children of a similar age. (
  • We did molecular typing on 206 MRSA isolates from all patients on the BTU who had MRSA isolated from either nares cultures or clinical specimens obtained between April 11, 2002 and October 24, 2006. (
  • A recently developed multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) method showed improved discriminatory power for subtyping genetically diverse Listeria monocytogenes isolates and identified epidemic clone II isolates associated with two recent U.S. multistate listeriosis outbreaks. (
  • A set of 53 nonduplicate isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli underwent rep-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. (
  • The CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the extraction of genomic DNA and digestion with XbaI using the standardized E. coli (O157:H7) protocol established by the Centers for Disease and Prevention, Atlanta, GA ( 4 ). (
  • PulseNet investigates bacterial isolates from sick people, contaminated food, and the places where food is produced. (
  • Multiple sequence types with the major clone complex, CC92, were identified in high level triclosan-resistant isolates. (
  • Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S . Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. (
  • In addition, the association between risk factors for otitis media and colonization with multiple types of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae isolates has not been examined. (
  • it discriminated between 65 multilocus sequence types and showed relatedness between epidemiologically linked isolates from outbreak clusters and between isolates from individual patients. (
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) can identify genetically related isolates, but results take several days to obtain. (
  • We developed a simplified 4-locus multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA-4) for rapid typing and compared results with PFGE and MLST for a large number of well-characterized B. pseudomallei isolates. (
  • Comparison of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and 4-locus multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA-4) dendrograms for 65 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates. (
  • Bacterial isolates were detected and identified via standard microbiological and biochemical exams. (
  • Bacterial etiology of serious infections in young infants in developing countries: results of a multicenter study. (
  • In the last few decades, DNA fingerprint techniques have become available to study the transmission of TB and other mycobacterial infections. (
  • Additionally, bacterial infections leading to bubonic and pneumonic plague, most notably in Madagasc. (
  • Cranberry beans and other large-seeded bean types like kidney beans are prone to bacterial infections. (
  • Although antibiotics are useful in a wide variety of infections, it is important to realize that antibiotics only treat bacterial infections. (
  • Each antibiotic is effective only for certain types of infections, and your doctor is best able to compare your needs with the available medicines. (
  • Other times, bacterial infections may take up residence in the human groin. (
  • Often, hygiene techniques like engaging in hand washing regularly can decrease the likelihood of developing localized bacterial infections. (
  • This follows a previous warning issued in May regarding limiting the use of fluoroquinolones in certain bacterial infections. (
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • While molecular methods, such as DNA-DNA hybridization ( 22 ), ribotyping ( 71 ), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( 19 ), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR ( 19 ), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing ( 41 ), have been used with some success, many of these techniques are not readily adaptable to high-throughput applications required for large-scale ecological studies. (
  • 17 These experiments demonstrate that the type IV pilus system is among the strongest molecular motors known, although the mechanism of high force generation remains elusive. (
  • DiversiLab fingerprinting kits (previously called bacterial bar codes), a type of repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR), is a rapid, semiautomated, PCR-based, commercial typing system that can be easily performed by bench technologists with some molecular experience ( 3 ). (
  • Changes in the Molecular Epidemiology of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis in Senegal After Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction. (
  • Molecular techniques are beneficial in overcoming some limitations of traditional methods. (
  • The high incidence of infectious diseases, growing adoption of advanced molecular techniques, advancement in technology and new product development is expected to drive the bacterial diagnostics market. (
  • On the basis of techniques market is categorized into conventional techniques, biochemical techniques and molecular techniques. (
  • Molecular technique is widely used technique. (
  • Thus the techniques of molecular biolo gy revealed what the microscope had failed to show. (
  • The molecular basis for the UV response, the mammalian counterpart of the bacterial SOS response, is being studied by various molecular genetics techniques. (
  • 3) Cell type specific gene expression and molecular basis for differentiation. (
  • Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have used advanced imaging techniques to solve the structure of one of nature's most important molecular machines. (
  • Accordingly, there have been significant developments in the area of molecular detection of bacterial pathogens in the last 3 decades. (
  • The Use of DNASTAR Lasergene Educational Software with Molecular Techniques to Support Bacterial Identification. (
  • Molecular modeling of wild-type and mutant machines allowed us to propose a model of the sorting platform in which the hub consists mainly of a hexamer of the Spa47 ATPase, whereas the MxiN protein comprises the spokes and the Spa33 protein forms the pods. (
  • The molecular architecture of the Shigella type III secretion machine and its sorting platform provide the structural foundation for further dissecting the mechanisms underlying type III secretion and pathogenesis and also highlight the major structural distinctions from bacterial flagella. (
  • Specific identification and molecular typing analysis of Lactobacillus johnsonii by using PCR-based methods and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (
  • This bacterium is a model organism extensively studied by genetic, molecular, and biochemical techniques in order to develop strategies for the control of bacterial wilt. (
  • The Facility is prepared with equipment and tools to assist users in their needs regarding classical and last generation Molecular Biology and Biochemistry techniques as well as in vitro and in vivo practices. (
  • Our finding also showed that REP-PCR is a powerful molecular tool with high performance and good discriminatory power for molecular typing of waterborne E. coli. (
  • The pullulanase type II secretion system (T2SS) of Klebsiella oxytoca , the Pul secreton, is a prototype of a family of membrane protein complexes dedicated to the transport of folded proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu ( 49 ). (
  • Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. (
  • Macnab, 2004 ), the term 'Type III secretion system' is generally used in reference to the systems translocating effector proteins into host cells. (
  • Secretins constitute a superfamily of proteins that assemble into multimers and support the transport of macromolecules by four evolutionarily ancient secretion systems: T4P, type II secretion, type III secretion, and phage assembly. (
  • The viral proteins and nucleic acid molecules within the bacterial host assemble spontaneously into up to a hundred new phage particles. (
  • Besides many other virulence factors ( 4 ) S . typhimurium uses two type III secretion systems (TTSS) 4 ( 5 , 6 , 7 ), which allow delivery of so-called effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells to manipulate cell signaling and vesicular trafficking. (
  • Although silicone is relatively more prone to bacterial attachment, biofilm formation, nonspecific adhesion of proteins, and biomolecules than many other polymers, it is commonly used in urinary catheters, contact lenses, breast implants, endotracheal tubes, and voice prosthesis [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • A clearer picture of this motor-like protein, which spins along strands of bacterial messenger RNA to read and translate it into proteins, may help pharmaceutical researchers develop new antibiotics. (
  • Bacterial type III secretion machines are widely used to inject virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. (
  • The research team showed that DNA-based genetic immunization, using a device known as a gene gun, could successfully express membrane proteins in mice and induce the animals to produce a range of critical antibodies to bacterial and viral targets. (
  • Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. (
  • The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. (
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from local respiratory infection to serious invasive disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis and septicemia. (
  • 5 Prior to the introduction of immunisation, Hib was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in Australian children. (
  • and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib disease, a major cause of spinal meningitis ) and, in some states, hepatitis A . This series of vaccinations is recommended by the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is a requirement in all states before children can enter school. (
  • Hospital-based Surveillance Provides Insights Into the Etiology of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in the Post-Vaccine Era. (
  • Meningitis, Bacterial is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult . (
  • Meningitis caused by H. influenzae type B has decreased 55% with routine vaccination. (
  • 5minute , (
  • Of the cultures, 5% contained multiple genetic types of S. pneumoniae, and 43% contained multiple types of H. influenzae. (
  • Concurrent colonization with more than one serotype of S. pneumoniae has also been reported (13) , but the degree of colonization with multiple genetic types of S. pneumoniae has not been investigated. (
  • Lysogenic phages resemble bacterial genetic particles known as episomes . (
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses of the type 3 capsule locus have revealed four type-specific genes (Fig. 1 ). (
  • We combine advanced imaging and genetic techniques to visualize the frozen-hydrated diarrheal pathogen Shigella flexneri and reveal the intact type III secretion machine and its interaction with a host cell for the first time to our knowledge. (
  • The phages have been much used in the study of bacterial genetics and cellular control mechanisms largely because the bacterial hosts are so easily grown and infected with phage in the laboratory. (
  • Of extracts, and some antibiotics are not effective on the bacterial types effects plant extracts are locate within the limits of studied antibiotics that give inhibition zones between 10-30 mm against all bacterial pathogens. (
  • There are those who deny that air in the operating theatre is an important source of infection because bacterial pathogens from only a minute fraction of colonies grown from the air. (
  • Detection of bacterial pathogens in environmental samples using DNA microarrays. (
  • Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative pathogens. (
  • Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (O25:H4), associated with the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, has emerged internationally as a multidrug-resistant pathogen but has received little attention in the United States. (
  • A study was designed to evaluate the ability of the DiversiLab fingerprinting kit, a type of repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR), to identify Escherichia coli clone ST131 producing β-lactamase CTX-M-15. (
  • Exploiting such different types of drug molecules is one strategy we can use to overcome the antibiotic resistance that has built up over the years. (
  • Previous research showed some bacterial and fungal resistance to cell disruption, but did not quantify differences in the efficiencies and yields of cell disruption techniques. (
  • Fungal and gram-positive bacterial cells remained almost intact after ultra-sonication, indicating a strong resistance to some forms of cell disruption. (
  • The germplasm line USCR-CBB-20 combines resistance to common bacterial blight with high yield potential and resistance to viruses. (
  • Improved resistance to common bacterial blight in cranberry beans will reduce yield loss and improve economic returns to bean growers across the U.S. (
  • Our objective was to develop a cranberry bean line with improved resistance to common bacterial blight. (
  • A combination of marker-assisted selection for resistance QTL in early generations, followed by phenotypic selection for disease resistance in later generations, was used to develop the cranberry dry bean germplasm line USCR-CBB-20 with improved resistance to common bacterial blight. (
  • This line had an average disease score of 5.3 in greenhouse tests, which is a remarkable improvement over the previous cranberry germplasm line released for common bacterial blight resistance which scored 8.4 (note 9 is completely susceptible) in the same tests. (
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a laboratory technique used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint for a bacterial isolate. (
  • However, lack of awareness of new rapid techniques in the market, inferior laboratory conditions, and high cost would affect the growth of the market. (
  • Based on test type bacterial disease market classified into laboratory test, imaging tests and Biopsies. (
  • This includes medical and laboratory techniques (such as with bacterial cultures). (
  • In this technique, a bacterial sample from your infection is allowed to grow in a laboratory. (
  • So biologists couldn't make the laboratory studies that would have revealed its bacterial nature. (
  • The identification of various bacterial types carried depend routine laboratory techniques (Finegld and Baron, 1986). (
  • The book provides updated applications of MALDI-TOF techniques in clinical microbiology, presenting the latest information available on a technology that is now used for rapid microbial identification at relatively low cost, thus offering an alternative to conventional laboratory diagnosis and proteomic identification systems. (
  • High-level disinfectant chemicals possess sporicidal activity-only with extended exposure time are high level disinfections capable of killing high numbers of bacterial spores in laboratory tests. (
  • This laboratory, which is open to users both within and outside ICFO, includes state of the art nanofabrication tools and techniques for a wide range of optical applications, ranging from biosensing to optical communications, and spanning a broad range of materials, including polymers, semiconductors, metals, or crystals, among others. (
  • Bacterial infection causes inflammation of the meninges. (
  • Bacterial infection causes inflammation of the pia mater, arachnoid, and ventricular fluid. (
  • This can incorporate techniques such as flame sterilization, and methods to protect wounds and other susceptible sites from organisms that could cause infection. (
  • Another common cause of groin swelling is a bacterial infection that affects the groin region, often resulting in redness, and it is typically accompanied by pain and swelling. (
  • Often, a bacterial infection will occur through a cut or similar type of injury. (
  • Pain that is caused by a bacterial infection typically occurs directly at the site of the infection. (
  • The infection process was type III secretion system dependent and required two type III effectors, Gala7 and AvrA, which were shown to be involved at different stages of infection. (
  • Enzyme immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against type 6B pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and cell wall C polysaccharide in chinchilla serum. (
  • Since Jenner's time, vaccines for a variety of bacterial and viral maladies have been developed. (
  • The climatic temperature zone favors the spread of viral and bacterial diseases directly from person to person, transmission occurs via airborne or by sexual contact. (
  • In order to develop a new system for the analysis of capsular biosynthetic pathways we have explored the possibility of expressing type 3 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) from the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in Lactococcus lactis , an unencapsulated lactic acid bacterium being developed as a vaccine delivery vehicle for mucosal immunization. (
  • Ralstonia solanacearum , a gram-negative soil-borne pathogen responsible for bacterial wilt, naturally invades plants through axils of secondary roots. (
  • Disinfection effectiveness on various pathogen types. (
  • MLST sequence type (ST) is shown for each isolate, with the corresponding isolate number listed for the MLVA-4 profile and shown by the colored lines. (
  • A gram of soil typically contains about 40 million bacterial cells. (
  • A milliliter of fresh water usually holds about one million bacterial cells. (
  • Bacterial cells are different from plant and animal cells. (
  • The scientist takes bacterial cells from an agar plate. (
  • The scientist mixes bacterial cells with melted agarose and pours into a plug mold. (
  • The bacterial cells are broken open with biochemicals, or lysed, so that the DNA is free in the agarose plugs. (
  • With identical treatment, no intact cells were found in the Gram-negative bacterial enrichment culture (c). (
  • In contrast, the same techniques destroyed gram-negative bacterial cells (which have a thin cell wall and an outer membrane). (
  • The team did not find any intact cells in the gram-negative bacterial enrichment culture. (
  • A lysogenic bacterial culture can be treated with radiation or mutagens, inducing the cells to begin producing viruses and lyse. (
  • They can be performed in bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cells. (
  • Bacterial cells, which tend to have hydrophobic cell surfaces, are typically attracted to the hydrophobic surfaces of many biomaterials currently used in IMDs, such as silicone [ 7 ]. (
  • Capsule - Found in some bacterial cells, this additional outer covering protects the cell when it is engulfed by other organisms, assists in retaining moisture, and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients. (
  • Cell Wall - Outer covering of most cells that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape. (
  • Pili - Hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. (
  • Since the 1970s, when researchers turned up similarities between DNA in eukaryotes' mitochondria and bacterial genomes, scientists have suspected that the organelles descended from symbionts that took up residence within larger cells. (
  • In autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes, immune cells that normally control invading microbes instead destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. (
  • So most of the bacterial cells contain more than one genome - a genome and a half, for example, or a genome and three quarters. (
  • Both effectors were involved in development of root tip symptoms, and Gala7 was the main determinant for bacterial invasion of cortical cells. (
  • This article discusses the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease and its prevention by vaccination for the period 1995 to 2005, comparing surveillance data for 1995-2000, when both PRP-OMP and HbOC vaccines were used, with 2000-2005, when only PRP-OMP vaccine was used. (
  • 2000) suggests that there are two types of asepsis - medical and surgical. (
  • Type IVA pilins and T2SS pseudopilins have highly conserved N-terminal regions with properties reminiscent of signal sequences except for their cleavage and N methylation on the N-terminal, cytoplasmic side of the hydrophobic region by a specific prepilin signal peptidase/ N -methylase ( 40 ). (
  • Techniques based on PCR amplification of repetitive the possibility of rapid PCR-based typing with comparable discrimination to IS 6110 restriction fragment length poly- sequences are more rapid than RFLP, but their discrimina- morphism techniques. (
  • In this work, we proposed a 16S short-read sequences classification technique based on k-mer representation and deep learning architecture, in which each taxon (from phylum to genus) generates a classification model. (
  • A wider sampling of alphaproteobacteria and improved techniques for analyzing DNA sequences seemed to suggest that our previous hypotheses about the origin of mitochondria were wrong. (
  • Tetratricopeptide repeats are essential for PcrH chaperone function in Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion. (
  • Certain materials used in the design of IMDs are more prone to bacterial adhesion/biofilm formation than others. (
  • Central to these machineries is their ability to assemble and disassemble filaments that either remain periplasmic and function in protein secretion (pseudopili) or extend well beyond the cell surface and play a role in adhesion, surface motility, or microcolony or biofilm formation (type IV pili) ( 12 ). (
  • The pseudopili and the closely related class A type IV pili are composed of one major pilin subunit and several minor pilins. (
  • They generate pili, polymers that extend from the bacterial surface by ≈1 μm. (
  • In this highlight, we will concentrate on the biophysics of type IV pili. (
  • Type IV pili (T4P) are helical polymers with a diameter of 6 nm ( ref. 3 ) and a length on the order of 1 μm ( Fig. 1a ). (
  • Type IV pili can retract by depolymerization ( Fig. 1b ). (
  • Fig. 2 Experimental setups for characterization of force generation by type IV pili. (
  • Fluoroquinolones target bacterial topoisomerases, in particular the DNA gyrase protein (GyrA) and inhibit DNA replication. (
  • Metabolomics, Molec & Cell Bio, UC Davis Genome Center - Application of metabolomic techniques to study the impact of food on health and, response of biochemical networks to malnutrition and stress. (
  • Bacterial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation on IMD are dynamic and complex processes that are strongly influenced by the properties of the adhesion surface. (
  • Geographically, bacterial diagnostics market was dominated by North America followed by Europe due to test availability and high incidence of bacterial diseases. (
  • Countries in the Asia Pacific have the largest market for bacterial diagnostics due to high prevalence of diseases in this region. (
  • 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July 2005. (
  • Generic Protocol for Population-Based Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae type b. (
  • Because of this vital role in pathogenicity and because many capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are immunogenic and used as vaccine antigens, it is important to improve our understanding of the biological properties of these bacterial polysaccharides and of the genes and enzymes involved in their biosynthesis. (
  • To establish this system we used as an initial model the expression in Lactococcus lactis of the capsule biosynthesis genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 (strain WU2). (
  • Our data demonstrate the utility of SNP typing for monitoring bacterial populations over a defined period in a single endemic setting. (
  • Another aspect of his research is studying alternative treatments against the bacterial populations with an emphasis on photodynamic therapy. (
  • The largest manifestation of such aseptic techniques is in hospital operating theaters, where the aim is to keep patients free from hospital micro-organisms. (
  • However, while bacterial volatile determinants are known to also trigger secondary responses in planta , little is known about their role in regulating plant growth and/or defense responses. (
  • Gene disruptions and modifications of both the bacterial chromosome and bacterial plasmids are possible. (
  • This system will be especially useful for the engineering of large bacterial plasmids such as those from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries. (
  • In rec + backgrounds, gene replacement on the chromosome has been accomplished by integration and excision of episomes carrying bacterial homology ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • PCR is efficient and cost effective method for amplifying the bacterial genome. (
  • These type of microorganisms cause common illnesses with parasitic and pathological lifecycles. (
  • DNA techniques provide reliable, reproducible, and indisputable characterization of microorganisms used in food fermentations and other applications. (
  • The research team used genomic and statistical techniques to analyze the millions of pieces of bacterial DNA in samples taken from the study mice. (
  • The study began with the advanced genomic sequencing techniques used in many current microbiome studies, which sequence all of the bacterial DNA in a sample. (
  • A defective λ prophage supplies functions that protect and recombine an electroporated linear DNA substrate in the bacterial cell. (
  • This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model. (
  • These secretion machines are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagella and consist of a large cytoplasmic complex, a transmembrane basal body, and an extracellular needle. (
  • Examining and typing large numbers of lactobacilli from the chicken GIT to the strain level may facilitate a better understanding of microflora dynamics and niche competition. (
  • Immunochemical techniques have been in use for many years with early examples of bacterial strain typing dating back to the 1940s. (
  • This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. (
  • Streamlining every step in microbial identification, Applied Biosystems MicroSeq System combines the advantages of MicroSEQ ID Software with easy PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagents and protocols, MicroSeq bacterial and fungal application kits, and industry-leading thermal cyclers and sequencing systems. (
  • The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. (
  • Researchers compared different cell disruption techniques. (
  • Scientists compared how different types of microbes responded to common cell disruption methods. (
  • A virus infects a bacterial cell by first attaching to the bacterial cell wall by its tail. (
  • The tail fibers fix the base plate to the specific receptor site on the bacterial cell wall, and the tail sheath contracts like a syringe, forcing the DNA that is inside the virus through the cell wall and cell membrane. (
  • Our major efforts are to understand the regulation of transcription by growth factors and polypeptide hormones and cell type specific gene expression. (
  • A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. (
  • We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time. (
  • Many of these genes are known to influence the type of immune cell activation that damages pancreatic islets. (
  • In addition to EPS I, R. solanacearum secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through the type II secretion system (T2SS). (
  • All of the same types of factors that impact respiratory allergies like IgE, mast cell degranulation, cytokine imbalances, histamine release, and prostaglandin imbalances (its okay if you don't know what these terms mean) can be acted out in the digestive system. (
  • The type 3 capsule biosynthetic genes of S. pneumoniae have a cassette-like organization, a feature common to the capsule operons of all serotypes analyzed to date. (
  • The DiversiLab system successfully identified E. coli clone ST131 producing CTX-M-15 and provides a simple standardized typing protocol for monitoring the spread of this clone. (
  • This was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing techniques, where 16S rRNA was the gene used for analysis. (
  • The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay , is used in laboratories to test for gene mutation. (
  • 1 min 13 sec) A new gene can be inserted into a loop of bacterial DNA called a plasmid. (
  • Some people are allergic to certain types of antibiotics, most commonly penicillin. (
  • Although there are well over 100 antibiotics, the majority come from only a few types of drugs. (
  • A sensitivity list is the roster of antibiotics that kill a particular bacterial type. (
  • NEW YORK, July 24, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- A single course of antibiotics early in childhood may increase risk for Type 1 diabetes. (
  • As rates of children's exposure to antibiotics has increased in recent decades - with each child receiving nearly three courses on average in the first two years of life - the number of patients with type 1 diabetes has doubled, say the study authors. (
  • In prior work, and using mice that have an unusually high rate of type 1 diabetes, the research team had found that exposure to multiple courses of antibiotics accelerated onset of this disease. (
  • Our findings confirm earlier work showing that antibiotics can increase risk for type 1 diabetes,' says lead study author Xuesong Zhang, PhD, assistant professor of Medicine at NYU School of Medicine. (
  • Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids. (
  • 5. An integrated device as in claim 3, wherein said second containing means comprise a heating unit able to heat said biological samples in order to promote the bacterial growth. (
  • Particular attention is given to the mechanisms by which these bacterial VOCs elicit ISR. (
  • Single vaccine antigens of this type could then be used to elicit protection against a range of bacterial serotypes. (
  • 1998 ). The similarity resides on the so-called basal body (or base) spanning both bacterial membranes (Blocker et al . (
  • While bacterial community composition recovered using Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was not detectably biased by any method, the quantity of bacterial DNA varied drastically, reducing the number of samples that could be amplified and sequenced. (