Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hypodermoclysis: Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Haemophilus ducreyi: A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (1/7662)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (2/7662)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (3/7662)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (4/7662)

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations. (5/7662)

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. (6/7662)

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and other vibrio species. (7/7662)

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of the genus Vibrio and between isolates of V. vulnificus. Each V. vulnificus strain produced a unique band pattern, indicating that the members of this species are genetically quite heterogeneous. All of the vibrios were found to have amplification products whose sizes were within four common molecular weight ranges, while the V. vulnificus strains had an additional two molecular weight range bands in common. All of the V. vulnificus strains isolated from clinical specimens produced an additional band that was only occasionally found in environmental strains; this suggests that, as is the case with the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the presence of this band may be correlated with the ability of a strain to produce an infection in humans. In addition, band pattern differences were observed between encapsulated and nonencapsulated isogenic morphotypes of the same strain of V. vulnificus.  (+info)

Arbitrarily primed PCR to type Vibrio spp. pathogenic for shrimp. (8/7662)

A molecular typing study on Vibrio strains implicated in shrimp disease outbreaks in New Caledonia and Japan was conducted by using AP-PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR). It allowed rapid identification of isolates at the genospecies level and studies of infraspecific population structures of epidemiological interest. Clusters identified within the species Vibrio penaeicida were related to their area of origin, allowing discrimination between Japanese and New Caledonian isolates, as well as between those from two different bays in New Caledonia separated by only 50 km. Other subclusters of New Caledonian V. penaeicida isolates could be identified, but it was not possible to link those differences to accurate epidemiological features. This contribution of AP-PCR to the study of vibriosis in penaeid shrimps demonstrates its high discriminating power and the relevance of the epidemiological information provided. This approach would contribute to better knowledge of the ecology of Vibrio spp. and their implication in shrimp disease in aquaculture.  (+info)

USRCB - Currently private collection, former collection of Odessa University, part of Dr. Vasily Bayraktar`s strain collection ...
Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates harboured the vanB1 gene. The isolates were susceptible to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and vancomycin, and showed distinct profiles of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. Analysis of the clonal relatedness of the vanB E. faecalis isolates showed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of enterococcal strains carrying vanB genes in Brazil ...
Microbial Identification & Characterization - biolog - world leader in cell based technology and assays for microbiology & cell biology using phenotype microarray technology
Molecular methods have been used to study the epidemiology of MRSA in hospital, national, and global settings, with PFGE proving the most satisfactory method on the basis of its discriminatory ability and reproducibility (24, 30). The major disadvantage of PFGE and other methods that compare DNA fragments on gels is the difficulty of comparing the results obtained in different laboratories, even when reagents and conditions are standardized (3, 5, 34). MLST provides a highly discriminatory method that defines each isolate as a string of seven integers-the allelic profile-and which produces data that can be held in a central database on the World Wide Web, along with associated epidemiological data, and which can be interrogated via the Internet (16, 28). This approach allows any laboratory that uses MLST to submit the sequences of the seven gene fragments of an S. aureus isolate to the MLST website (http://mlst.ox.ac.uk), where an allelic profile can be assigned and compared with those of all of ...
Microbial Identification & Characterization - biolog - world leader in cell based technology and assays for microbiology & cell biology
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
What can make you burp, Burping in front of someone can be highly embarrassing. Though accepted in some cultures as a social norm, burping is not something you want to be seen doing.
Baking soda is found in nearly every American household and is mainly used for baking or cleaning. However, it turns out that this ingredient can be also...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French paediatric CF centre. During a 30 months period, 108 patients, aged 2 to 21 years, regularly followed up at the centre, provided sputum for culture. From 79 patients, a total of 278 isolates were genotyped by MLVA, resolving into 110 genotypes and 19 clonal complexes (CC) composed of similar or closely related isolates. 71% of the strains were distributed into four main CCs, in term of number of isolates and number of genotypes. Spa (Staphylococcus protein A) typing was performed on representative samples, showing an excellent
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. Instruments are estimated to account for the largest market share in 2017. On the basis of product and service, the microbial identification market is classified into instruments, consumables, and services. The instruments are expected to lead the global microbial identification market in 2017. Factors driving the growth of this segment include the wide use of instruments across applications and technological advancements, which have led to the launch of innovative products.. The phenotypic methods segment is estimated to dominate the market in 2017. By method, the market is segmented into phenotypic, genotypic, and proteomics-based methods. The phenotypic methods segment is anticipated to account for the largest share of the global microbial identification market in 2017. These methods are cost-effective, easy to perform, and can deliver results rapidly. Therefore, they are widely adopted across industries, which is a major factor ...
To develop effective and accurate typing of strains of Francisella tularensis, a potent human pathogen and a putative bioterrorist agent, we combined analysis of insertion-deletion (indel) markers with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat ana ...
Eleven Salmonella spp. isolates with the antigenic type 11:z41:e,n,z15 - not referred to in the 9th edition of the White-Kauffman-Le Minor Scheme - were identified at the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella in Greece. Their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were indistinguishable. No apparent epidemiological link has yet been identified; the results of a case-case study are pending.
Biolog microlog microbial identification system - Practical Handbook of Microbiology, Second Edition - Google Books Result. Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & intestinal good bacterial microbial balance.
The Plasmid PubMLST sequence definition database contains allele and profile data for incompatibility group plasmid MLST schemes. Plasmid and isolate data are stored in the isolates/plasmid database.. ...
QIAGEN offers a range of tools for your complete microbial identification workflow. Our solutions provide efficient mechanical disruption of difficult-to-lyse microbes, optimized chemistry for high yields of nucleic acids, accurate PCR- and Pyrosequencing-based analyses, and much more to facilitate and advance your research ...
A very simple, inexpensive and effective tool for Tuberculosis/ Mycobacterium research. Spoligotyping is a useful PCR-Based Method to Simultaneously D...
Tecan has unveiled its latest innovation, the automated RESOLVEX™ A200 positive pressure workstation for LC-MS sample prep. This walkaway system further expands Tecan’s portfolio of MS sample preparation workstations and smart consumables, uniquely allowing the company to provide complete solutions to match any workflow, from manual processing to semi-automated high throughput systems based on a Freedom EVO® or Fluent® platform....
Background: The prevalence rate of asthma is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and number of patients with asthma is projected to reach 100 mil..
This tutorial illustrates how to create a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) based on MLST allele numbers. The same steps are also applicable for clustering of other categorical character data sets such as MLVA.
Im just wondering why is is near impossible for me to burp. I may at most burp once a month and generally its a very small and no one knows I did it except me. I always feel I need to burp and know I will feel better after but I cannot even force out a burp. The gas doesnt all go out the other end either... so thats not the problem. Is there a pill to take or what can I do to burp and get the gas out more often?. Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
You must select a strain type and also whether the strain is a mutant or wild-type. To search the gene field for all strains carrying a particular locus, you will need to use the wildcard character *. For example, searching for his-3 finds 126 strains while searching for *his-3* finds 295 strains ...
f(1)= 20, f(3)=13, f(5)=15, f(7)=16, f(9)=11, on [0,6] a, used midpint rule with n=5 to estimate intergral form 0 to 10 f(x)dx b, use trapezoidal rule with n=4 to estimate intergral from 1 to 9 f(x)dx c, used simpsons rule with n=4 to estimate intergal from 1 to 9 (x)dx ...
結果3例B群流腦病例發病月齡分別為12 d、5月齡和8月齡,符合化膿性腦膜炎癥狀,腦脊液標本均分離培養出3株B群腦膜炎奈瑟菌。 MLST序列分型分析顯示,2株菌為ST-5664(CC4821),1株為ST-5662。 3株B群菌株均對環丙沙星、左氧氟沙星和復方新諾明等藥物耐藥 ...
United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Center for Tobacco Products ...
Hybridization of EcoRI- and HindIII-digested chromosomal DNAs from 41 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis with probes for rRNA genes was performed (ribotyping). The ability of ribotyping to distinguish strains at the subspecies level was compared with results previously determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). With EcoRI, seven ribopatterns (usually differing by only one band) were found, while PFGE had previously shown 25 clearly different patterns plus six related variants. Digestion with HindIII generated a few additional patterns but still failed to differentiate some strains that had very different PFGE patterns. Ribotyping with BscI has also been reported to be inadequate for subspecies strain differentiation (L. M. Hall, B. Duke, M. Guiney, and R. Williams, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:915-919, 1992). Although ribotyping with other restriction endonucleases may perform better in distinguishing different strains, at present PFGE appears to be superior for strain differentiation. ...
An evaluation of the utility of rep PCR typing compared to the 15 loci discriminatory set of MIRU-VNTR was undertaken. Twenty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates by standard method. The number of copies of tandem repeats of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci was determined by PCR amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplicons. M. tuberculosis outbreak-related strains were distinguished from other isolates. MIRU-VNTR typing identified 4 major clusters of strains. The same isolates clustered together after RFLP typing, but rep-PCR identified only 3 of them. The concordance between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR typing was complete, with the exception of two isolates with identical RFLP patterns that differed in the number of tandem repeat copies at two MIRU-VNTR alleles. A further isolate, even sharing the same RFLP pattern, differed by one repeat from the rest of its cluster. We also tested the use of an automated rep-PCR for ...
Summary Different PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques were evaluated for typing 26 clinical isolates belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. Seven isolates belonged to a previously defined outbreak while 19 isolates were unrelated epidemiologically. The PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques used were: (i) repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR; (ii) enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR; (iii) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with M13 forward primer; (iv) restriction analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene (ARDRA-16S); and (v) restriction analysis of an amplified region containing the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene (ARDRA 23S + spacer). The discrimination index for the PCR-based DNA fingerprinting techniques was: 0.99 for REP; 0.94 for ERIC; 0.87 for M13; 0.60 for ARDRA-16S digested with Hpa II and |0.50 for ARDRA 23S + spacer. It was concluded that REP-PCR possessed high discriminatory power and reproducibility in
This study analyzed 42 strains collected between 2009C2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to raised understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and is an opportunistic gram negative pathogen involved in a wide quantity of nosocomial infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, wound and meningitis infections frequently associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity [1]. 18 were international clones and 8 European or Asian restricted clones. The International clone II was the major clone reported in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa Australia, USA, and South America. To track and monitor these outbreaks, denote strain relatedness and assign an outbreak strain to its corresponding clonal lineage, many typing methods with different intrinsic ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Straube, Nicolas, White, William T., Ho, Hsuan-Ching, Rochel, Elisabeth, Corrigan, Shannon, Li, Chenhong, Naylor, Gavin J. P. (2013): A DNA sequence-based identification checklist for Taiwanese chondrichthyans. Zootaxa 3752 (1): 256-278, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3752.1.16 ...
For Any Query, Contact Our Expert @ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10395883 In Nutshell, the report focuses on global major leading Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) Market players with information such as company profiles, contact information. Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) Market Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share, Product Type and Applications, Regions, analysis is also carried out. Whats more, the Global Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) Market development trends and marketing channels are analysed.. Price of Report: $3480 (Single User License). No of Pages: 111. Ask for Discount @ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10395883 Table and Figures Covered in This Report:. · Table and Figure: Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) Product Picture. · Table and Figure: Development of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) Manufacturing ...
Bacteria is a prokaryotic organism having a large number of species. They are present in most of the habitats of earth. Some bacterias are useful while others are pathogenic and even threatful to life. Knowledge of the true bacterial species is fundamental for the effective utilization of that particular species . Most of the bacterias have not been characterized and only some of the species can be grown in labortary. Traditional methods of bacterial identification rely on phenotypic identification using gram staining, culture and biochemical methods. However, these methods of bacterial identification suffer from some drawbacks. The identification and characterization of bacterial species associated with particular traits can be done by using molecular traits.The most common way of molecular characterization of bacteria is by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. This technology allows us to identify any bacterial species to any level of precision by using a single cell. The technology uses molecular ...
Development of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii: In this study a multilocus sequence typ
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present research is to study the questions used in the 2018 MIR exam (a test that allows access to specialized medical training in Spain), describe their psychometric properties, and evaluate their quality. Materials and Methods: This analysis is performed with the help of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The answers given to the test questions by a total of 3868 physicians are analyzed. Results: According to CTT, the average difficulty index for all of the test questions was 0.629, which falls into the acceptable category. The average difficulty index with correction for random effects was 0.515, which corresponds to a value within the optimal range. The mean discrimination index was 0.277, which is in the good category, while the mean point biserial correlation coefficient, with a value of 0.275 fits in the regular category. The values of difficulty and discrimination calculated according to the model of two parameters of the IRT
Analysis of NTHi strain collections to ascertain the proportion of isolates containing phase variable modA alleles.(a-d) Presents the four separate strain col
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Cows with metabolic disorders characterized by phosphorus and endocrine malfunctions. The high possibility of placenta formation, placental function and fetal organogenesis slowdown. Microcirculatory disorders in fetus and maternal parts of the placenta.
Sulfur burps refer to the burps that precede the rotten eggs smell. The digestive tract creates hydrogen sulfide gas. Typically, this gas is not present
Sulfur Burps is a habit that generally happens and is felt by everyone when experiencing certain things. Usually, belching takes only a few seconds with low frequency or only 3-4 times a day. However, there … Continue reading How To Prevent Sulfur Burps From The Beginning?. ...
Contains data for a collection of isolates that represent the total known diversity of S. pneumoniae. For every allelic profile in the profiles database there is at least one corresponding isolate deposited here. Any isolate may be submitted to this database and consequently it should be noted that it does not represent a population sample ...
IT FEELS LIKE I CONSTANTLY HAVE A AIR POCKET IN MY THROAT. KIND OF FEELS LIKE YOU HAVE TO BURP BUT THE AIR IS - Answered by a verified Health Professional
Nino Bambinos 100% organic cotton burp cloth set is useful for kids of any age. These can be used to wipe the babys mouth after every feed and keep it handy whenever the weather changes. ...
Study Flashcards On Biochemical Tests for Microbiology Unknowns at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
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Methods. gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d =, c (d -, b) -, d -, c b) -, (forall g. g -, c g) -, PackageDescription -, c PackageDescription #. gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b =, c (b -, r) -, c r) -, (forall r. r -, c r) -, Constr -, c PackageDescription #. toConstr :: PackageDescription -, Constr #. dataTypeOf :: PackageDescription -, DataType #. dataCast1 :: Typeable t =, (forall d. Data d =, c (t d)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. dataCast2 :: Typeable t =, (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) =, c (t d e)) -, Maybe (c PackageDescription) #. gmapT :: (forall b. Data b =, b -, b) -, PackageDescription -, PackageDescription #. gmapQl :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQr :: (r -, r -, r) -, r -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, r) -, PackageDescription -, r #. gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, [u] #. gmapQi :: Int -, (forall d. Data d =, d -, u) -, PackageDescription -, u #. gmapM :: Monad m =, (forall d. Data d =, d -, m d) ...
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has rejected south-east Queensland power generator Tarong Energys plan to sell fly-ash to one of the nations biggest concrete manufacturers.
I once received a Nickelodeon burp award...I chugged a Diet Coke before I went onstage and it was like, Bwaaaappp. I think thats the best award Ive ever received ...
V35I, I135L, E138A, S162A, I167IV, V179I, R211RKMT, H221Y, D237N, V245Q, A272P, A288S, P294T, I329L, Q334E, Y339F, R356K, I375V, T377L, T386I, K388R, ...
V35T, K43R, V60I, V90VI, A98S, K122E, D123G, I135V, K173R, Q174E, D177E, I195K, T200A, R211S, V245Q, E248AT, D250E, A272P, V276I, Q278H, T286A, E291D, V292I, I293V, E297A, D320E, ...
100% واي أيزوليت ..بروتين بنائي متفوق. صممت تركيبة المصل النقي المركّزة لغرض تحقيق هدفين مهمين وهما: * توفير تركيز حقيقي عالي من البروتين في تركيبة ذات نكهة، *والسماح للمستخدم بتناول بروتين يساعد في إحداث أهم وأسرع تدفق للأحماض الأمينية إلى العضلات وبالتالي يعطي أقوى دفعة لتركيبة بنائية. ويتميز مصدر البروتين الخاص في تركيبة (واي أيزوليت 100%) بوجود إمكانية حركية فريدة في امتصاص الأحماض الأمينية ذلك أن بيبيدات المصل تنقل بفعالية إلى مجرى الدم و العضلات. فالامتصاص الأسرع والأفضل للأحماض الأمينية يعطي بناء عضلي أفضل. يحتوي هذا المنتج على نسبة منخفضة من ...
A total of 486 Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from 17 Finnish food processing plants (representing meat, poultry, fish, and dairy production) were collected and typed by automated ribotyping using EcoRI as the restriction enzyme. The isolates were divided into 16 different ribotypes (RTs). Some of these isolates (121), representing all EcoRI types and 16 food plants, were subjected to ribotyping with the PvuII enzyme, to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing with AscI and SmaI restriction enzymes, and to serotyping with O-antigen antisera. Nineteen ribotypes were generated with PvuII, 42 macrorestriction patterns were generated with AscI and 24 with SmaI, and three serotypes were generated with antisera. When the results were combined, the overall number of RTs was 23, and that of the PFGE types was 46. Thus, the overall discrimination power of PFGE was higher (discrimination index [DI] 0.966) than that of ribotyping (DI 0.906). The most common serotype (90.1% of the isolates) was
Abstract. To evaluate the performance of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) typing versus the current standard for the typing of Shigella pulsed gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we typed 116 Shigella isolates from a village in an endemic setting over a 20-month period using both methods. PFGE identified 37 pulse types and had a discrimination index of 0.925 (95% confidence interval = 0.830-1.00), whereas ERIC-PCR identified 42 types and had a discrimination index of 0.961 (95% confidence interval = 0.886-1.00). PFGE and ERIC-PCR showed a 90.4% correlation in the designation of isolates as clonal or non-clonal in pairwise comparisons. Both systems were highly reproducible and provided highly similar and supplementary data compared with serotyping regarding the transmission dynamics of shigellosis in this community. ERIC-PCR is considerably more rapid and inexpensive than PFGE and may have a complementary role to PFGE for initial investigations of
Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method
Discrimination by automatic ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, RAPD, was compared for 40 different B. cereus dairy isolates, 4 different B. mycoides isolates and 6 culture collection strains. RAPD-PCR has previously shown to be useful for tracing contamination routes of B. cereus to milk. Automatic ribotyping using EcoRI and PvuII separated the B. cereus and B. mycoides isolates/strains into 36 different ribotypes. RAPD-typing with primers generated 40 different RAPD-profiles. However, 17 isolates clustered into eight groups, irrespective of the primer and restriction enzyme used, and in all but one case, the isolates with the same pattern were isolated from the same dairy. Automatic ribotyping proved to be a useful, standardized and quick method to discriminate between B. cereus strains, only slightly less discriminatory than RAPD-typing.. ...
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of man, but is also able to colonize and cause disease in a wide variety of mammals and birds. An extended multilocus sequencing approach, involving multilocus sequence typing (MLST), sas typing, spa typing and agr typing, was used to examine the molecular diversity of 118 S. aureus isolates recovered from a range of host species and to compare these data with the known diversity of human-derived isolates. MLST revealed that the commonest animal-associated MLST types were ST133, ST5, ST71, ST97, ST126 and ST151. ST133 appears to be an ungulate-animal-specific genotype, as no evidence of ST133 associating with humans has yet been found in the literature. Novel and unique sas alleles were identified in the animal-associated strains that may represent animal-associated sas alleles. However, sas typing exhibited a lower typeability than MLST for the animal strains (91.3 %). Phylogenetic analyses using neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony trees localized
The BURP domain-containing protein family is defined by its conserved amino acid motif whose name is based on four typical members, BNM2, USP, RD22, and PG1β. BURP domain-containing proteins have so far only been found in plants, suggesting that their functions may be plant specific. Generally, the BURP family proteins consist of several modules: an N-terminal hydrophobic domain, a presumptive transit peptide; a variable internal region containing either a short conserved segment or other segments; an optional segment consisting of repeated units which is unique to each member; and the BURP domain at the C-terminus [1].. BURP domain-containing proteins were classified into four subfamilies, BNM2-like, USP-like, RD22-like, and PG1β-like [2]. All members of each subfamily contain BURP domain at the C-terminal region. Within the domain there are several conserved amino acid residues, including four cystein-histidine repeats and one tryptophan residue. The spacing between the four CH residues is ...
The growth of microbial identification market is mainly driven by increasing prevalence of various infectious diseases, growing concerns towards the food safety and technological developments leading to the introduction of innovative products with faster turnaround time.
Microbial Identification Industry 2017 Market Research Report initially provides a basic overview of the industry that covers definition, applications and
If a laboratory wants to implement the IQCP option for their microbial identification system, they must assess the risk of an inaccurate result, develop a quality control plan based on the risk, and create a post-implementation monitoring process. Once the IQCP plan has been approved by the laboratory director, the laboratory may use streamlined QC as specified by the manufacturers instructions. Additional microorganisms may be added.5 ASM, CAP, and CLSI provide materials about and examples of IQCP for phenotypic microbial identification and AST systems.. Other Microbial Identification Systems. In addition to phenotypic microbial ID systems, the CAP Microbiology Checklist lists requirements for proteolytic and molecular tests. For example, according to CAP MIC.16605, laboratories using MALDI-TOF systems to perform organism identification must run appropriate control organisms each day of patient testing. "Appropriate controls would include at least one bacterium, with a representative yeast and ...
IR Biotyper is Brukers infrared spectroscopy solution matching the needs for fast, easy-to-apply and economical strain typing methods with high discriminatory power on the level of routine molecular methods. Sample preparation is easy and up to 30 isolates can be analyzed within one run with a processing time from culture harvesting to result of just three hours. Running costs are significantly lower in comparison to other methods. IR spectroscopy is very well suited for strain typing and could ideally be combined with Brukers MALDI Biotyper MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry system, to meld the strength of rapid and easy microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF with IR strain typing into one workflow. ...
IR Biotyper is Brukers infrared spectroscopy solution matching the needs for fast, easy-to-apply and economical strain typing methods with high discriminatory power on the level of routine molecular methods. Sample preparation is easy and up to 30 isolates can be analyzed within one run with a processing time from culture harvesting to result of just three hours. Running costs are significantly lower in comparison to other methods. IR spectroscopy is very well suited for strain typing and could ideally be combined with Brukers MALDI Biotyper MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry system, to meld the strength of rapid and easy microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF with IR strain typing into one workflow. ...
Identification of Staphylococci to species level in veterinary microbiology is important to inform therapeutic intervention and management. We report on the efficacy of three routinely used commercial phenotypic methods for staphylococcal species identification, namely API Staph 32 (bioMérieux), RapID (Remel) and Staph-Zym (Rosco Diagnostica) compared to genotyping as a reference method to identify 52 staphylococcal clinical isolates (23 coagulase positive; 29 coagulase negative) from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals. Genotyping of a 412 bp fragment of the staphylococcal tuf gene and coagulase testing were carried out on all 52 veterinary samples along with 7 reference strains. In addition, genotyping of the staphylococcal rpo B gene, as well as PCR-RFLP of the pta gene, were performed to definitively identify members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG). The API Staph 32 correctly identified all S. aureus isolates (11/11), 83% (10/12) of the SIG species, and 66% (19/29) of the
Cardiogenesis submits an IDE for its PHOENIX System Cardiogenesis Corporation , today announced that it all has submitted an IDE to the Food and Drug
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CAGEF provides typing services for isolated bacteria using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), 16S rRNA, and species-specific gene sequencing. We use high-throughput Sanger and Next-Gen targeted amplicon sequencing to determine variants and compare these against the species-approriate pubMLST database or against available gene sequences to determine relationships. Besides providing the resulting sequences in FASTA format, we offer phylogenetic and eBURST network analyses.. Request a Quote. For typing, we require a minimum of 300ng of total DNA, at a minimum concentration of 20ng/μl. The OD260/280 for all samples should be at least 1.8.. ...
qPCR assays for rapid, sensitive microbial and viral detection Save time spent designing primers and probes by using predesigned assay sets. The following assays have been tested on the cobas omni Utility Channel: C. difficile; Influenza A, B /RSV; HSV / VZV. Primers and probes are HPLC purified and verified by mass spectrometry, delivering batch-to-batch consistency to provide confidence in your data.
anyone know about the sulphur burps or a diagnosis for it? This discussion is related to |a href=http://www.medhelp.org/posts/show/230476|Sulfur / Rotten Egg Burps, followed by throwing up|/a|.
Meuzelaar, H. L. C, & Kistemaker, P. G. (1973). A technique for fast and reproducible fingerprinting of bacteria by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 45, 587-590 ...
Dr. Acosta Jr responded: Eructation. Burping may be a medical/gastrointestinal problem such as |a href="/topics/gastroparesis" track_data="{
Question - Need to constantly burp, discomfort under sternum. Drinking ginger ale. What should I do?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Vomiting, Ask a Gastroenterologist
Question - Quit smoking. Had gained weight. Taking prilosec for years. Getting regular burps. Possible cause? . Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Omeprazole, Ask a General & Family Physician
With the fingerprint data module, BioNumerics offers the most comprehensive tools for processing electrophoresis profiles and spectra.
I have been having burps/gases in my throat that seem to come from beer or carbonated drinks. I have strange burps that feel like they are in my throat, but never progress upwards to my mouth. These burps make strange noises in my throat,
In this video learn how the Selectra Pro M series can deliver simplified powerful operation improve efficiency, reduce errors and increase walkaway time to deliver trouble free results laboratories can trust.
So I try this and that, and finally, find another protocol that has me process 10 bugs in an impossibly small amount of liquid, and wouldnt you know, it works. It works!! See the picture below, both lanes labeled D, and how they are actually brighter than the ladder (L), which means that there is plenty of DNA in the sample. No smearing shows that the DNA is of good quality as well ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Theres something else in this box. I dont even want to say the name of it because I dont want to give the dodgy people that make these things any more hits on google. The ACCC has outed these things as a scam and anyone who was foolish enough to buy one of these things was due a refund. I was surprised and disappointed to see it in the box - and if I was one of the other brands, Id be pretty angry about being put in a group with such a nasty product ...
Endemic melioidosis is caused by genetically diverse Burkholderia pseudomallei strains. However, clonal outbreaks (multiple cases caused by 1 strain) have occurred, such as from contaminated potable water. B. pseudomallei is designated a group B bioterrorism agent, which necessitates rapidly recognizing point-source outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) can identify genetically related isolates, but results take several days to obtain. We developed a simplified 4-locus multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA-4) for rapid typing and compared results with PFGE and MLST for a large number of well-characterized B. pseudomallei isolates. MLVA-4 compared favorably with MLST and PFGE for the same isolates; it discriminated between 65 multilocus sequence types and showed relatedness between epidemiologically linked isolates from outbreak clusters and between isolates from individual patients. MLVA-4 can establish or refute that a clonal ...
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most important infectious disease in the world. In Taiwan, the incidence of TB increased in recent years. The failure of control implies the necessity to reevaluate the epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is widely thought that most cases of TB are caused by reactivation of a latent infection. Treatment programs have therefore focused on cure rates rather than tracking of additional cases. But recent studies showed that exogenous reinfection plays an important role in the development of TB. In addition, it seems that the higher the local incidence, the more important exogenous reinfection is. The question of exogenous reinfection versus endogenous reactivation has an impact on the distribution of resources for the prevention and treatment of TB. Based on these evidences, we hypothesize that exogenous reinfection is very important in the Taiwan endemic. Therefore, we design a series of studies to evaluate the individual contribution of exogenous ...
During 2015-2016, we evaluated the performance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a routine typing tool. Its added value for microbiological and epidemiologic surveillance of listeriosis was compared with that for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the current standard method. A total of 2,743 Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected as part of routine surveillance were characterized in parallel by PFGE and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) extracted from WGS. We investigated PFGE and cgMLST clusters containing human isolates. Discrimination of isolates was significantly higher by cgMLST than by PFGE (p<0.001). cgMLST discriminated unrelated isolates that shared identical PFGE profiles and phylogenetically closely related isolates with distinct PFGE profiles. This procedure also refined epidemiologic investigations to include only phylogenetically closely related isolates, improved source identification, and facilitated epidemiologic investigations, enabling identification
Introduction:. For this task, complete the Aseptic Technique and Culturing Microbes LabPaq experiment. Next, complete the microbial identification experiments listed below. Then, write a lab report discussing the results of these experiments. The instructions for completing the LabPaq experiment are located at the "LabArchives" website found in the web links section below.. Microbial identification experiments:. • Biochemical Testing for Microbial Identification-Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer, and Catalase LabPaq experiment using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. • Biochemical Testing for Microbial Identification-Carbohydrate Fermentation LabPaq experiment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. • Bacterial Identification through Functional Media-Motility Testing LabPaq experiment using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. • Environmental Influences on Growth-Salt Tolerance Testing LabPaq experiment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...
One of the functions of the Subcommittees on Taxonomy is to recommend to the ICSB (now ICSP) through the Judicial Commission minimal standards for the description of new taxa for the purpose of establishing validity of publication. Such recommendations shall include a list of characters and methods for their assessment, and shall be reviewed, at the request of the Judicial Commission, at regular intervals. If accepted by the ICSB (now ICSP), they shall be published in the IJSB (now IJSEM) and other microbiological journals. They shall specify the minimal requirements only and shall in no way limit the extent of investigation beyond these limits. The Judicial Commission may, at the request of any specialist in the field of study, wether a member of the Subcommittee or not, call for a revision of the minimal standards if the evidence before the Commission is considered sufficient to warrant such a call ...
[420 Pages Report] Check for Discount on German Automated Microbiology Market 2014: Molecular Diagnostics, Microbial Identification, Antibiotic Susceptibility, Blood Culture, Urine Screening, Immunodiagnostics report by Venture Planning Group. ...
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In molecular biology, the BURP domain is a ~230-amino acid protein domain, which has been named for the four members of the group initially identified, BNM2, USP, RD22, and PG1beta. It is found in the C-terminal part of a number of plant cell wall proteins, which are defined not only by the BURP domain, but also by the overall similarity in their modular construction. The BURP domain proteins consists of either three or four modules: (i) an N-terminal hydrophobic domain - a presumptive transit peptide, joined to (ii) a short conserved segment or other short segment, (iii) an optional segment consisting of repeated units which is unique to each member, and (iv) the C-terminal BURP domain. Although the BURP domain proteins share primary structural features, their expression patterns and the conditions under which they are expressed differ. The presence of the conserved BURP domain in diverse plant proteins suggests an important and fundamental functional role for this domain. It is possible that ...
The experience achieved using the tool "Questionnaires", available inside the Virtual Campus of architectural engineering school in northeast Spain, is presented. "Questionnaires" is an adequate and simple instrument to evaluate the knowledge level achieved by students. This work shows and identifies the control indices of adaptation for the questionnaires, like the Facility Index, the Standard Deviation, the Discrimination Index and the Discrimination Coefficient. Derived from these parameters, the educational performances are inferred, identified and predicted. The conclusions of this work, permit to modify deficient knowledge-evaluation practices, to identify needs for specific groups or for students with particular requirements; being, in this way, feasible to apply these parameters with guarantee of success in similar evaluation ...
Figure 1. Dendogram derived from PFGE profiles of a) ApaI and b) AscI macrorestriction, showing pattern similarity among the 22 L. monocytogenes strains of the study. Clusters are indicated on the left side of the Figure as well as a 90 % similarity line. PFGE groups are shown in rectangles on the right side of the figure. The source and other information associated with each strain are also shown.. The analysis of macrorestriction patterns obtained by PFGE-ApaI showed 68 % similarity of the 22 strains studied, distributed in 2 clusters: I and II as shown in Figure 1a. Closely related isolates (greater than 90 % similarity in banding patterns) were assigned a PFGE group. Cluster I had 3 isolates and included clone 001 and a ground beef strain (BS78) with a similarity of 83 %. Cluster II had 19 strains and included the PFGE-ApaI group 1 that grouped 15 strains with 92 % similarity. This group contained 80 % (12/15) of the ground beef strains, the strain isolated in the human sporadic case of 2008 ...
Figure 1. Dendogram derived from PFGE profiles of a) ApaI and b) AscI macrorestriction, showing pattern similarity among the 22 L. monocytogenes strains of the study. Clusters are indicated on the left side of the Figure as well as a 90 % similarity line. PFGE groups are shown in rectangles on the right side of the figure. The source and other information associated with each strain are also shown.. The analysis of macrorestriction patterns obtained by PFGE-ApaI showed 68 % similarity of the 22 strains studied, distributed in 2 clusters: I and II as shown in Figure 1a. Closely related isolates (greater than 90 % similarity in banding patterns) were assigned a PFGE group. Cluster I had 3 isolates and included clone 001 and a ground beef strain (BS78) with a similarity of 83 %. Cluster II had 19 strains and included the PFGE-ApaI group 1 that grouped 15 strains with 92 % similarity. This group contained 80 % (12/15) of the ground beef strains, the strain isolated in the human sporadic case of 2008 ...
Looking for online definition of BURP or what BURP stands for? BURP is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
5, 3, 5, 7, and 10% NaCl. The pH range for growth was determined in MB, which was adjusted before sterilization to pH 3-11 (at 0.5 pH unit intervals) using HCl and NaOH. Growth in MB at 4, 10, 15, 20, 30, 37, 40, and 45 °C was tested after 3 days of incubation. For the cellular fatty acid determination, fatty acid see more methyl esters of strain CC-SAMT-1T and reference strains were extracted. from the cells cultivated on MA for 60 h at 30 °C by saponification, methylation, and extraction as described previously (Kämpfer & Kroppenstedt, 1996) and separated by gas chromatography (model 7890A; Agilent). Peaks were automatically integrated, and fatty acid names and percentages were determined using the microbial identification standard software package midi (version 6; Sasser, 1990) by adopting the database RTSBA6. Respiratory quinones of strain CC-SAMT-1T were extracted, separated, and identified by following Minnikin et al. (1984) and analyzed by HPLC (Collins & Jones, 1980). Polar lipids of ...
DIAGNOSING LYME DISEASE. According to both the Federal CDC and the Maine CDC, the surveillance criteria used by these agencies for epidemiological purposes, or tracking, is NOT sufficient to be used for clinically diagnosing and treating patients.. If you have an identifiable Erythema Migrans, you need no further testing-an EM IS Lyme disease, and treatment should be started immediately.. Testing for Lyme disease is most often done per the CDC recommended 2 tier tests, the Elisa and the Western Blot. There are disagreements in the medical community about the sensitivity and specificity of these tests. One group of physicians might say there are too many false positives and another will say the tests are not sensitive enough and produce too many false negatives. These tests are indirect tests, that is they measure antibodies produced by the patient against the infecting organism. There are multiple factors which can influence the outcome of these tests, including timing of the test in relation to ...
This chapter summarizes the recent findings of bacterial genomics and comments on the themes and trends which are emerging. A variety of techniques and methods are available to construct physical maps, and those most commonly employed involve pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments generated by digesting intact genomic DNA, immobilized in agarose plugs, with rare-cutting enzymes. Hybridization techniques are often used to construct a map and to deduce the positions of genetic markers. In recent years significant effort has been devoted to developing direct-mapping techniques for large DNA molecules that do not require gel electrophoresis. Among the more promising of these are two new methods known as DNA combing and optical mapping, both of which make use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to visualize single DNA molecules. Overall, bacterial genomes range in size from about 0.6 to 9.4 Mb. In a recent review, it was suggested that there may be a relationship
In programming language theory, subtyping (also subtype polymorphism or inclusion polymorphism) is a form of type polymorphism in which a subtype is a datatype that is related to another datatype (the supertype) by some notion of substitutability, meaning that program elements, typically subroutines or functions, written to operate on elements of the supertype can also operate on elements of the subtype. If S is a subtype of T, the subtyping relation is often written S <: T, to mean that any term of type S can be safely used in a context where a term of type T is expected. The precise semantics of subtyping crucially depends on the particulars of what "safely used in a context where" means in a given programming language. The type system of a programming language essentially defines its own subtyping relation, which may well be trivial [clarification needed]. Due to the subtyping relation, a term may belong to more than one type. Subtyping is therefore a form of type polymorphism. In ...
Heres how you can order isolates and seeds of differential hosts. Isolates To request isolates, please email the following individuals
Allele, Antigen, Disease, Electrophoresis, Gene, Identification, Methods, Molecular Typing, Multilocus Sequence Typing, Neisseria, Neisseria Meningitidis, Patients, Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis, Strains
Biochemical Profile. The biochemical profile is very valuable test in the senior pet as it evaluates multiple organ systems. The liver and kidney function are evaluated and the blood sugar is checked. Elevations in the blood sugar may indicate diabetes. Electrolytes are also checked and abnormalities may indicate the need for further diagnostics. The cholesterol may be elevated in certain endocrine problems (thyroid and adrenal disorders). Plasma proteins and albumin level are also reported, and decreases might indicate kidney, liver or gastrointestinal disease ...
Burp Cloths Enchanted: Baby burp time is suddenly on point thanks to the trendy, beloved fabrics that made you fall in love with Copper Pearl! Who wo
Bruker has received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance for its third expanded claim for the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Biotyper-CA system, which is designed for microbial identification.
Kistemaker, P. G, Boerboom, A. J. H, & Meuzelaar, H. L. C. (1975). Laser Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry: Some Aspects and Applications to Technical Polymers. Dyn. Mass Spectrom., 4, 139-152 ...
This includes medical and laboratory techniques (such as with bacterial cultures). This can incorporate techniques such as ... 2000) suggests that there are two types of asepsis - medical and surgical. Medical or clean asepsis reduces the number of ... In an operating room, while all members of the surgical team should demonstrate good aseptic technique, it is the role of the ... The largest example of aseptic techniques is in hospital operating theatres where the aim is to keep patients free from ...
... it has been shown that silver nano particles lower the bacterial count on devices used compared to old techniques. However, the ... Although it varies for every type of cell proposed, as their cell membrane composition varies greatly, It has been seen that in ... Fungal strains such as Verticillium and bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae can be used in the synthesis of silver ... Bacterial and fungal synthesis of nanoparticles is practical because bacteria and fungi are easy to handle and can be modified ...
Type strain of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... Ranalli, G; Grazia L; Roggeri A (September 1999). "The influence of hay-packing techniques on the presence of Saccharopolyspora ... Inhalation of the bacteria can cause the disease farmer's lung, a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Handling hay bales ...
... and rest of Kinyoun technique can be used.[6]*Various bacterial spore staining techniques using Kenyon e.g. *Moeller's method ... Some acid-fast staining techniquesEdit. *Ziehl-Neelsen stain (classic and modified bleach types)[5] ... Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, ... The most common staining technique used to identify acid-fast bacteria is the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, in which the acid-fast ...
ISBN 0-12-384985-3. Type strain of Xenorhabdus cabanillasii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... al.], edited by S. Patricia Stock ... [et (2009). Insect pathogens molecular approaches and techniques. Wallingford, UK: CABI. ... phylogeny and bacterial symbionts. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-474-2239-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Deutsche ...
Another staining technique for endospores is the Schaeffer-Fulton stain, which stains endospores green and bacterial bodies red ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ... The main types within the cell are terminal, subterminal, and centrally placed endospores. Terminal endospores are seen at the ...
The technique uses many different bacterial strains in order to compare the different changes in the genetic material. The ... One technique entails cytogenetic assays using different mammalian cells. The types of aberrations detected in cells affected ... The benefits of this technique are that it is a fast and simple method and convenient for numerous substances. These techniques ... This technique is advantageous in that it detects low levels of DNA damage, requires only a very small number of cells, is ...
ISBN 0-08-053577-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Xenorhabdus bovienii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... ISBN 0-387-28022-7. Lacey, edited by Lawrence A. (1997). Manual of techniques in insect pathology. San Diego: Academic. ... the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema weiseri, is a non-virulent strain against lepidopteran ... the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema weiseri, is a non-virulent strain against lepidopteran ...
ISBN 1-84593-479-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Xenorhabdus ehlersii at BacDive - the Bacterial ... ISBN 0-12-384985-3. al.], edited by S. Patricia Stock ... [et (2009). Insect pathogens molecular approaches and techniques. ... phylogeny and bacterial symbionts. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-474-2239-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) UniProt ...
One technique entails cytogenetic assays using different mammalian cells.[6] The types of aberrations detected in cells ... The technique uses many different bacterial strains in order to compare the different changes in the genetic material. The ... Bacterial Reverse Mutation AssayEdit. See also: Ames test. The Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay, also known as the Ames Assay, ... The benefits of this technique are that it is a fast and simple method and convenient for numerous substances. These techniques ...
... and analysis of bacterial genes for antimicrobial resistance.[18] Techniques used are based on analyzing samples of DNA and RNA ... brain tumors as well as many other types of cancer and infectious diseases.[17] Techniques are numerous but include ... "Nonculture Molecular Techniques for Diagnosis of Bacterial Disease in Animals: A Diagnostic Laboratory Perspective". Veterinary ... "Types of Oncologists". Cancer.Net : American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). 2011-05-09. Archived from the original on 1 ...
In this situation, bacterial profile modification technique, which injects bacteria into the high permeable zone to promote ... "Effects of bacterial cells and two types of extracellular polymers on bioclogging of sand columns". Journal of Hydrology. 535: ... It is a type of microbial enhanced oil recovery. Hydraulic conductivity Biofilm Septic tank Slow sand filter Landfill liner ... In extraction of petroleum, a technique of enhanced oil recovery is implemented to increase the amount of oil to be extracted ...
The basics of this technique involve the preparation of a primer that will be a complementary strand to a wild type bacterial ... When the bacterial plasmid is replicated, the mutated strand will be replicated as well. The same technique can be used to ... Although there are three different types of solid state enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all three types begin with the ... The technique was developed by Kary Mullis in 1983 while working for the Cetus Corporation. Mullis would go on to win the Nobel ...
discuss several examples of types of studies in which RISA can be used. They cite several studies that have used this technique ... In this study, they were looking at a group of closely related bacterial types, all autotrophic β-proteobacterial ammonia ... The brightness of the fluorescently labeled primers correlates to how prevalent that bacterial type is in the community. The ... Different types of organisms may share a restriction site in the gene of interest; if that is the case, these organisms would ...
This technique for the creation of an effective immunogen is most often applied to bacterial polysaccharides for the prevention ... of invasive bacterial disease. B cell Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Hib vaccine Immunogenicity Meningococcal vaccine ... ISBN 978-1-904455-74-5. Lee C, Lee LH, Koizumi K (2002). "Polysaccharide Vaccines for Prevention of Encapsulated Bacterial ...
16s rRNA sequencing to provide bacterial identifications Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis for strain typing of ... techniques. Microarrays permit the exploration of thousands of sequences at one time. This technique is used in molecular ... The closely related technique of quantitative PCR permits the quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules and is used to ... Molecular techniques have had a direct influence on the clinical practice of medical microbiology. In many cases where ...
This technique also uses an antibody to the protein of interest, along with classical electron microscopy techniques. The ... The total complement of proteins present at a time in a cell or cell type is known as its proteome, and the study of such large ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods (San Diego, Calif.). 20 ... This technique even allows the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, using modified tRNAs,[47] and may allow ...
Bacterial colonies can be counted after 24 to 48 hours depending on the type of bacteria. Counts are reported as colony forming ... units per 100 mL (cfu/100 mL). One technique for detecting indicator organisms is the use of chromogenic compounds, which are ... None of the types of indicator organisms that are currently in use fit all of these criteria perfectly, however, when cost is ... Indicator bacteria are types of bacteria used to detect and estimate the level of fecal contamination of water. They are not ...
... the differing terminology reflects the predominant techniques used for epidemiological typing. This strain is referred to as C ... It involves infusion of bacterial flora acquired from the feces of a healthy donor to reverse the bacterial imbalance ... Taking non-toxic types of C. difficile after an infection has promising results with respect to preventing future infections. ... In 2005, molecular analysis led to the identification of the C. difficile strain type characterized as group BI by restriction ...
There are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use ... For single-celled eukaryotes, such as yeast, the isolation of pure cultures uses the same techniques as for bacterial cultures ... Some types of bacteria can only grow in the presence of certain additives. This can also be used when creating engineered ... One method of bacterial culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, ...
Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the ... Mushrooms and other fungi play a role in the development of new biological remediation techniques (e.g., using mycorrhizae to ... spur plant growth) and filtration technologies (e.g. using fungi to lower bacterial levels in contaminated water).[44] ... Many types of cystidia exist, and assessing their presence, shape, and size is often used to verify the identification of a ...
... and analysis of bacterial genes for antimicrobial resistance.[21] Techniques used are based on analyzing samples of DNA and RNA ... There are four different types (type one, two, three and four), all with varying types and degrees of an immune response. The ... A few examples of autoimmune diseases are Type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and Celiac disease. The third and final type of ... brain tumors as well as many other types of cancer and infectious diseases.[20] Techniques are numerous but include ...
Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens, and in turn, the identity of such ... Because the clumping reaction occurs quickly and is easy to produce, agglutination is an important technique in diagnosis. Two ... If agglutination occurs, this indicates that the donor and recipient blood types are incompatible. Leukoagglutination occurs ...
However, the microbiome eventually returns to a state of equilibrium, even though the composition of bacterial types has ... By mapping the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans using genome sequencing techniques, the researchers of the HMP have ... Other studies using the HMP data and techniques include role of microbiome in various diseases in the digestive tract, skin, ... "NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body". NIH News. 13 June 2012. The Human Microbiome Project ...
In 2009, researchers at the University of Vermont unveiled a new type of tap that prevents backflow of sap into the tree, ... Improvements in tubing and vacuum pumps, new filtering techniques, "supercharged" preheaters, and better storage containers ... reducing bacterial contamination and preventing the tree from attempting to heal the bore hole. Experiments show that it may be ... but these techniques were not widely used. Heating methods also diversified: modern producers use wood, oil, natural gas, ...
The technique has been improved through the use of stable isotopes to better trace energy flow through the web.[14] It was once ... "Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including different types of plant tissue (e.g. leaf ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ... type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), productivity (rates of ...
Collaborative study to enlarge the first WHO repository of platelet transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains: Expert ... "Bacterial Typing Techniques". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Multilocus Sequence Typing of Oenococcus oeni: Detection of Two Subpopulations Shaped by Intergenic Recombination Eric Bilhère ... Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles and Strain Type Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Turkeys in Eastern North ...
"Bacterial Typing Techniques" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Typing Techniques" was a major or minor ... "Bacterial Typing Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Bacterial Typing Techniques*Bacterial Typing Techniques. *Technique, Bacterial Typing. *Techniques, Bacterial Typing ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Typing Techniques" by people in Profiles. ...
Pediatric bacterial meningitis cases , 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 ... The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. Of 214 laboratory-confirmed ... Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. ... years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July ...
A live-cell super-resolution technique demonstrated by imaging germinosomes in wild-type bacterial spores *R. M. P. Breedijk ... Confocal microscopy is an optical imaging technique that scans a focused point of light around a sample to reconstruct an image ...
Bacterial Infections [‎78]‎. Bacterial Proteins [‎1]‎. Bacterial Toxins [‎7]‎. Bacterial Typing Techniques [‎2]‎. ...
Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Bacterial Typing Techniques* ... found that all belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST91. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 154 pulse types with 655 S. ... containing gtr genes for type X-specific glucosylation. Multilocus sequence typing of 15 genes from 37 serotype X variant ... It differs from serotype X by agglutination to the monovalent anti-IV type antiserum and the group antigen-specific monoclonal ...
The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that DC2a-G7(T) is a member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and the closest type ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Bacterial Typing Techniques ... The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that DC2a-G7(T) is a member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and the closest type ... The type strain of Roseimicrobium gellanilyticum is DC2a-G7(T) (=NBRC 108606(T)=DSM 25532(T)). ...
... is widespread among bacterial pathogens and acts as an effective weapon against competitor bacteria and eukaryotic hosts by ... The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread among bacterial pathogens and acts as an effective weapon against competitor ... VgrG and PAAR Proteins Define Distinct Versions of a Functional Type VI Secretion System PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun 28;12(6): ... Bacterial Proteins / metabolism* * Chromatography, Affinity * Coculture Techniques * Escherichia coli * Immunoblotting * Mass ...
A comparison was made of results obtained by genome fingerprinting and by conventional typing methods. … ... Publication types * Comparative Study MeSH terms * Bacterial Typing Techniques* * Bacteriophage Typing * Cystic Fibrosis / ... Conventional typing methods are based on the presence of specific bacterial surface structures. Therefore, conventional typing ... It was possible to subdivide the majority of the genome types with the conventional typing methods, indicating the likelihood ...
The PVC superphylum is composed of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (those three founders giving ... Publication types * Review MeSH terms * Bacteria, Anaerobic / genetics * Bacterial Typing Techniques * Chlamydiaceae / genetics ... We continue by describing new discoveries due to novel techniques and data that combined with the reinterpretations of old ones ... These are exciting times for PVC researchers! The PVC superphylum is composed of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, ...
Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Bacterial Typing Techniques ... Strain LMG 18877T (= RB2256T = DSM 13593T) was selected as the type strain. ...
Publication types * Comparative Study MeSH terms * Bacterial Proteins / analysis * Bacterial Typing Techniques / methods* ... Reference strains of other bacterial species were also analyzed and compared with the GAS isolates. MALDI preparations were ... despite their sharing the same emm type. Almost 30% of the biomarkers detected were tentatively identified as ribosomal ... optimized by varying solvents, matrices, plating techniques, and mass ranges for S. pyogenes ATCC 700294. Spectral variability ...
7 Techniques for Detection, Quantification and Control of Bacterial Toxins 183. L. Ramchandran, A. Warnakulasuriya, O. Donkor ... updating the analytical techniques required to examine bacterial and mould toxins and the potential for contamination of milk ... 2 Incidences of Mould and Bacterial Toxins in Dairy Products 19. M.L.Y. Wan, N.P. Shah and H.I. El -Nezami ... 8 Techniques for Detection, Quantification and Control of Mycotoxins in Dairy Products 201. O. Donkor, L. Ramchandran and T. ...
Publication types * Review MeSH terms * Adaptation, Physiological* * Bacteriological Techniques * Cystic Fibrosis / ... Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Cystic Fibrosis: Unusual Bacterial Adaptation and Pathogenesis Microbiol Sci. 1986 Oct;3(10):302-8. ...
Bacterial strains, growth conditions, and genetic techniques.E. coli strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Luria- ... Type IV pilus structure and bacterial pathogenicity. Nature Rev. 2:363-378. ... type IV pili) (12). The pseudopili and the closely related class A type IV pili are composed of one major pilin subunit and ... when cotransformed with the compatible plasmid pCHAP8096 carrying wild-type secD, but not with pCHAP8092 carrying wild-type ...
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial / genetics* * Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field * Humans * In Vitro Techniques ... Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of molecular typed cystic fibrosis Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates and differences ... technique under XbaI and SpeI restriction was compared with that obtained with 51 non-CF strains recovered from respiratory ... were determined with the standard National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards agar dilution technique, but with 24-hr ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Typing Techniques. Burns / complications*, drug therapy, epidemiology. Case- ... We did molecular typing on 206 MRSA isolates from all patients on the BTU who had MRSA isolated from either nares cultures or ...
We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the ... Bacterial Typing Techniques. Feces / microbiology. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* ... Identification to the species level, followed by AP-PCR typing, demonstrated that 23.3% of the 86 infants were likely to be ... AP-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 is indicated as a potential tool for the typing of Lactobacillus strains.. ...
ELISA technique to detect Bacillus anthracis from soil samples has been developed. The application of streptavidine-coated ... Bacterial Typing Techniques * Base Sequence * DNA Probes * DNA, Bacterial / analysis * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / ... A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA technique to detect Bacillus anthracis from soil samples has been developed. The ...
Bacterial Typing Techniques. Base Sequence. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / microbiology. DNA, Bacterial / analysis. Drug ... 0/Antibiotics, Antitubercular; 0/DNA, Bacterial; 0/RNA, Bacterial; 0/Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 13292-46-1/Rifampin; EC 3.1.-/ ... RNA, Bacterial / analysis. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Ribonucleases. Rifampin / pharmacology*. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sputum / ...
Bacterial Typing Techniques * Brazil * DNA, Bacterial / genetics * Genes, Bacterial * Humans * Italy * Molecular Sequence Data ... is proposed (type strain, IEC26(T) = DSM 46749(T) = CCUG 66121(T)). The novel species is characterized by slow growth, ... 5 Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. ...
Bacterial Typing Techniques. Cerebrospinal Fluid / microbiology. DNA Fingerprinting. Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field. Feces ... Meningitis, Bacterial / diagnosis*, microbiology. Milk, Human / microbiology. Molecular Epidemiology. Salmonella Infections / ... Next Document: Evaluation of the Cavidi ExaVir Load assay (version 3) for plasma human immunodeficiency virus type .... ...
... to identify the bacterial nucleic acid. The PCR or blood culture result was classified as a true-positive if there was other ... Bacterial Typing Techniques* * Cell Culture Techniques * DNA, Bacterial / analysis * DNA, Ribosomal / analysis ... Objective: To confirm the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique (versus blood cultures) and to gain a ... to identify the bacterial nucleic acid. The PCR or blood culture result was classified as a true-positive if there was other ...
Bacterial Proteins / drug effects * Bacterial Proteins / genetics * Bacterial Typing Techniques * Base Sequence ...
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • The pullulanase type II secretion system (T2SS) of Klebsiella oxytoca , the Pul secreton, is a prototype of a family of membrane protein complexes dedicated to the transport of folded proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. (wiley.com)
  • Macnab, 2004 ), the term 'Type III secretion system' is generally used in reference to the systems translocating effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Secretins constitute a superfamily of proteins that assemble into multimers and support the transport of macromolecules by four evolutionarily ancient secretion systems: T4P, type II secretion, type III secretion, and phage assembly. (asm.org)
  • The viral proteins and nucleic acid molecules within the bacterial host assemble spontaneously into up to a hundred new phage particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although silicone is relatively more prone to bacterial attachment, biofilm formation, nonspecific adhesion of proteins, and biomolecules than many other polymers, it is commonly used in urinary catheters, contact lenses, breast implants, endotracheal tubes, and voice prosthesis [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacterial display can be used to find target proteins with desired properties and can be used to make affinity ligands which are cell-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial display was then introduced in 1986, allowing the surface display of larger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 1986, when they used bacterial surface proteins OmpA and LamB to display peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that the proteins were now subject to cleavage by proteinase K. The non-OmpA peptides inserted were therefore a target of proteinase K. Insertion of the foreign peptides did not affect bacterial cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first evidence of using bacterial surface display techniques to express proteins on the surface of cells, without altering the function of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many surface proteins are involved in bacterial cell attachment and invasion of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using bacterial display, target proteins on the host cell can be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • These surface proteins need to first be translocated across the bacterial cell membranes from the cytoplasm to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The display of heterologous proteins on the bacterial cell surface normally requires the fusion of the protein with a surface protein, called a scaffold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins can also be displayed on the bacterial cell surface through the use of autotransporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • HaloTagged fusion proteins can be expressed using standard recombinant protein expression techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then become associated with antibodies different from the desired antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaproteomics is used to classify experiments that deal with all the genes and proteins identified from complex communities, where individuals cannot be binned into species or organisms types. (wikipedia.org)
  • While proteomics is largely a discovery-based approach that is followed by other molecular or analytical techniques to provide a full picture of the subject system, it is not limited to simple cataloging of proteins present in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • To characterise a specific type of cancer, the proteins that are produced from the altered gene expression or the mRNA precursor to the protein can be examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the ease with which proteins can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated, this type of modification is a flexible mechanism for cells to respond to external signals and environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein-DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This comprehensive and accessible collection of techniques will help dairy processors, food scientists, technologists, researchers and students to further minimise the incidences of dairy food-borne illnesses in humans. (wiley.com)
  • Research is investigating the approach for viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases in humans, as well as for several cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the small amount needed and the fast rate that temephos breaks down in water, this type of larvicide does not pose an unreasonable health risk to humans, but at large doses it can cause nausea or dizziness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparison was made of results obtained by genome fingerprinting and by conventional typing methods. (nih.gov)
  • It was possible to subdivide the majority of the genome types with the conventional typing methods, indicating the likelihood of bacterial phenotypes occurring in the lung of the cystic fibrosis patient. (nih.gov)
  • PCR is efficient and cost effective method for amplifying the bacterial genome. (sbwire.com)
  • In this study, a typing strategy, based on the amplification of a conserved repeat-motif in the bacterial genome, was applied in a hospital setting to analyse an MRSA collection. (nih.gov)
  • Using a fluorescent-labelled oligonucleotide primer RW3A, which annealed to several dispersed short-repeat sequences occurring throughout the bacterial genome, DNA amplification fingerprint patterns were produced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
  • This technique makes many copies of the virus genome using virus-specific probes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 'helper' phage infects the bacterial host by first attaching to the host cell's pilus and then, after attachment, transporting the phage genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, extensive research is being done to develop new techniques and algorithms to streamline the genome assembly process and make it a more computationally efficient process and to increase the accuracy of the process as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of genomic libraries include: Determining the complete genome sequence of a given organism (see genome project) Serving as a source of genomic sequence for generation of transgenic animals through genetic engineering Study of the function of regulatory sequences in vitro Study of genetic mutations in cancer tissues In contrast to the library types described above, a randomized mutant library is created by de novo synthesis of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotide sequences of interest are preserved as inserts to a plasmid or the genome of a bacteriophage that has been used to infect bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most molecular biology techniques for haplotyping can accurately determine haplotypes of only a limited region of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systems of serotyping, subtyping, and virulence typing of STEC are used to aid in epidemiology, diagnosis, and pathogenesis studies. (nih.gov)
  • This article discusses the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease and its prevention by vaccination for the period 1995 to 2005, comparing surveillance data for 1995-2000, when both PRP-OMP and HbOC vaccines were used, with 2000-2005, when only PRP-OMP vaccine was used. (health.gov.au)
  • The use of "molecular epidemiology" for this type of research masked the presence of these challenges, and hindered the development of methods and guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central to these machineries is their ability to assemble and disassemble filaments that either remain periplasmic and function in protein secretion (pseudopili) or extend well beyond the cell surface and play a role in adhesion, surface motility, or microcolony or biofilm formation (type IV pili) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacterial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation on IMD are dynamic and complex processes that are strongly influenced by the properties of the adhesion surface. (hindawi.com)
  • Certain materials used in the design of IMDs are more prone to bacterial adhesion/biofilm formation than others. (hindawi.com)
  • These transition zones are particularly attractive for bacterial adhesion and biofilm development. (hindawi.com)
  • Types of leukocyte adhesion deficiency include LAD1, LAD2, and LAD3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Jenner's time, vaccines for a variety of bacterial and viral maladies have been developed. (faqs.org)
  • Molecular microbiology techniques are currently being used in the development of new genetically engineered vaccines, in bioremediation, biotechnology, food microbiology, probiotic research, antibacterial development and environmental microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • that were all located in surface-exposed loops of the trimeric outer membrane porin, aiming at developing multivalent live bacterial vaccines (12-15). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the type of vaccine currently in use for hepatitis B, and it is experimentally popular, being used to try to develop new vaccines for difficult-to-vaccinate-against viruses such as ebolavirus and HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These recent developments have created demand for the implementation of techniques enabling direct sequencing of microbial genomes in clinical samples without having to culture an isolate. (frontiersin.org)
  • This led to development of laser capture microdissection (LCM), a technique that can isolate individual cell types individual cells, which gave rise to cDNA libraries of specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germplasm line USCR-CBB-20 combines resistance to common bacterial blight with high yield potential and resistance to viruses. (usda.gov)
  • Bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, are estimated to be the most widely distributed and diverse entities in the biosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types of samples include: Blood Skin Sputum, gargles and bronchial washings Urine Semen Faeces Cerebrospinal fluid Tissues (biopsies or post-mortem) Dried blood spots Viruses are often isolated from the initial patient sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this, antibodies that are specific to different types of viruses are mixed with the tissue sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predicted topology of PrePulG in the inner membrane (IM) is that of a type II bitopic membrane protein, with an N-in, C-out orientation. (asm.org)
  • Two assembly factors common to the T2SS and type IV pilus assembly and retraction system, a polytopic IM protein of the PilC family (PulF in the Pul secreton) and an oligomeric ATPase of the PilB (VirB11) family (PulE) ( 36 ), probably catalyze filament polymerization. (asm.org)
  • Southern blotting, northern blotting, western blotting and Eastern blotting are molecular techniques for detecting the presence of microbial DNA sequences (Southern), RNA sequences (northern), protein molecules (western) or protein modifications (Eastern). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scaffolds are used to display the heterologous protein on the bacterial cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • These techniques involve alignment of target protein sequences with other related protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of these reactions were measured by spectrometer or other similar physical techniques to quantitatively determine the value of an analyte, so as measured quantitatively analytes such as creation, BUN, lipid profile, total protein, glucose, direct bilirubin and overall, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the tests performed in this section mentioned techniques are: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies by agglutination with latex particles, c-reactive protein, chromatography for determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus, ELISA for determination of hormones and the presence of other microorganisms causing diseases among other tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • It involves the variation of protein expression, frequently in an on-off fashion, within different parts of a bacterial population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella use this technique to switch between different types of the protein flagellin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HaloTag is a modified bacterial enzyme designed to covalently bind to a synthetic ligand of choice and fuse to a protein of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial enzyme is a haloalkane dehalogenase, which acts as a hydrolase and is designed to facilitate visualization of the subcellular localization of a protein of interest, immobilization of a protein of interest, or capture of the binding partners of a protein of interest within its biochemical environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different protein engineering techniques have been employed to improve both the activity and specificity of the nuclease domain used in ZFNs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is usually a cytotoxic protein derived from a bacterial or plant protein, from which the natural binding domain has been removed so that the Fv directs the toxin to the antigen on the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subunit is often named with a Greek or Roman letter, and the numbers of this type of subunit in a protein is indicated by a subscript. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example of a bacterial virulence factor acting like a eukaryotic protein is Salmonella protein SopE it acts as a GEF, turning the GTPase on to create more GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein-DNA interaction are of mainly two types, either specific interaction, or non-specific interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many in vitro and in vivo techniques which are useful in detecting DNA-Protein Interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following lists some methods currently in use: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is a widespread technique to identify protein-DNA interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial one-hybrid system (B1H) is used to identify which protein binds to a particular DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneered by Stanley Fields and Ok-Kyu Song in 1989, the technique was originally designed to detect protein-protein interactions using the Gal4 transcriptional activator of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique, when using a library, assumes that each cell is transfected with no more than a single plasmid and that, therefore, each cell ultimately expresses no more than a single member from the protein library. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exploiting such different types of drug molecules is one strategy we can use to overcome the antibiotic resistance that has built up over the years. (labmate-online.com)
  • Improved resistance to common bacterial blight in cranberry beans will reduce yield loss and improve economic returns to bean growers across the U.S. (usda.gov)
  • Our objective was to develop a cranberry bean line with improved resistance to common bacterial blight. (usda.gov)
  • A combination of marker-assisted selection for resistance QTL in early generations, followed by phenotypic selection for disease resistance in later generations, was used to develop the cranberry dry bean germplasm line USCR-CBB-20 with improved resistance to common bacterial blight. (usda.gov)
  • This line had an average disease score of 5.3 in greenhouse tests, which is a remarkable improvement over the previous cranberry germplasm line released for common bacterial blight resistance which scored 8.4 (note 9 is completely susceptible) in the same tests. (usda.gov)
  • Temephos, marketed as Abate and ProVect, is an organophosphate which prevents mosquito larvae from developing resistance to bacterial larvicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. (asm.org)
  • A recently developed multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) method showed improved discriminatory power for subtyping genetically diverse Listeria monocytogenes isolates and identified epidemic clone II isolates associated with two recent U.S. multistate listeriosis outbreaks. (asm.org)
  • These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used to assist and promote colonization of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional typing methods are based on the presence of specific bacterial surface structures. (nih.gov)
  • These chromogenic compounds are modified to change color or fluorescence by the addition of either enzymes or specific bacterial metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • These commercial antibodies are usually well characterized and are known to bind to only one specific type of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once an adaptive response has been mounted against one type of flagellin, or if a previous encounter has left the adaptive immune system ready to deal with one type of flagellin, switching types renders previously high affinity antibodies, TCRs, and BCRs ineffective against the flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000) suggests that there are two types of asepsis - medical and surgical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bacterial ID Virtual Lab was first released in 2000 as a browser-based interactive lab. (hhmi.org)
  • The conjugate vaccine technique Anderson and his colleagues developed led to a Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) vaccine that was introduced in developed countries 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, many sophisticated techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay have been developed to assess the chemicals' potential to cause DNA damage that may lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping. (rush.edu)