Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Picibanil: A lyophilized preparation of a low-virulence strain (SU) of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. hemolyticus), inactivated by heating with penicillin G. It has been proposed as a noncytotoxic antineoplastic agent because of its immune system-stimulating activity.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Bifidobacteriales Infections: Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Bacteria, AerobicBacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Interleukin-8 controls bacterial transepithelial translocation at the cost of epithelial destruction in experimental shigellosis. (1/418)

In shigellosis, the network of cellular interactions mediated by a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines is clearly tipped toward acute destructive inflammation of intestinal tissues by the bacterial invader. This work has addressed the role played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a rabbit model of intestinal invasion by Shigella flexneri. IL-8, which is largely produced by the epithelial cells themselves, appears to be a major mediator of the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the subepithelial area and transmigration of these cells through the epithelial lining. Neutralization of IL-8 function by monoclonal antibody WS-4 caused a decrease in the amount of PMNs streaming through the lamina propria and the epithelium, thus significantly attenuating the severity of epithelial lesions in areas of bacterial invasion. These findings are in agreement with our previous work (31). In contrast to the PMNs, the bacteria displayed increased transepithelial translocation, as well as overgrowth in the lamina propria and increased passage into the mesenteric blood. By mediating eradication of bacteria at their epithelial entry site, although at the cost of severe epithelial destruction, IL-8 therefore appears to be a key chemokine in the control of bacterial translocation.  (+info)

Dietary calcium phosphate stimulates intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of a salmonella infection in rats. (2/418)

We have shown recently that dietary calcium phosphate (CaPi) has a trophic effect on the intestinal microflora and strongly protects against salmonella infection. It was speculated that precipitation by CaPi of intestinal surfactants, such as bile acids and fatty acids, reduced the cytotoxicity of intestinal contents and favored growth of the microflora. Because lactobacilli may have antagonistic activity against pathogens, the main purpose of the present study was to examine whether this CaPi-induced protection coincides with a reinforcement of the endogenous lactobacilli. In vitro, Salmonella enteritidis appeared to be insensitive to bile acids and fatty acids, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus was killed by physiologically relevant concentrations of these surfactants. Additionally, after adaptation to a purified diet differing only in CaPi concentration (20 and 180 mmol CaHPO4. 2H2O/kg), rats (n = 8) were orally infected with S. enteritidis. Besides reducing the cytotoxicity and the concentration of bile acids and fatty acids of ileal contents and fecal water, CaPi notably changed the composition of ileal bile acids in a less cell-damaging direction. Significantly greater numbers of ileal and fecal lactobacilli were detected in noninfected, CaPi-supplemented rats. As judged by the lower urinary NOx excretion, which is a biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, dietary CaPi reduced the invasion of salmonella. Additionally, the colonization resistance was improved considering the reduction of excreted fecal salmonella. In accordance, fewer viable salmonella were detected in ileal contents and on the ileal mucosa in the CaPi group. In conclusion, reducing the intestinal surfactant concentration by dietary CaPi strengthens the endogenous lactobacilli and increases the resistance to salmonella.  (+info)

Intestinal cytokine response after gut ischemia: role of gut barrier failure. (3/418)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intestinal ischemia with and without a reperfusion injury on intestinal cytokine production and gut permeability. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In humans and in animal models, the gut has been implicated as a cytokine-producing organ after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-type injuries. Because of the limitations of in vivo models, it has been difficult to demonstrate directly that the gut releases cytokines after an I/R injury or whether there is a relation between the magnitude of the ischemic process and the cytokine response. METHODS: Ileal mucosal membranes from rats subjected to sham or 45 or 75 min of superior mesenteric occlusion (SMAO) or 45 minutes of SMAO and 30 minutes of reperfusion (SMAO 45/30) were mounted in the Ussing chamber system. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were serially measured in the mucosal and serosal reservoirs of the Ussing system, as was mucosal permeability as reflected by the passage of bacteria or phenol red across the ileal membrane. In a second group of experiments, Escherichia coli C25 was added to the mucosal reservoir to determine if the cytokine response would be increased. RESULTS: Mucosal and serosal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were equally increased after SMAO, with the highest levels in the 75-minute SMAO group. The highest levels of interleukin-6 were found in rats subjected to 75 minutes of SMAO or SMAO 45/30; the serosal levels of interleukin-6 were four to sixfold higher than the mucosal levels. The addition of E. coli C25 resulted in a significant increase in the amount of interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha recovered from the mucosal reservoir. Increased ileal membrane permeability was observed only in rats subjected to 75 minutes of SMAO or SMAO 45/30. CONCLUSION: These results directly document that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 released from the gut increase after an ischemic or I/R injury, such as SMAO, and that there is a relation between the magnitude of the gut ischemic or I/R insult and the cytokine response.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella: masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. (4/418)

Bacterial pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to exploit their host's cellular processes so that they can survive and persist. Often, a bacterium must adhere very tightly to the cells and mediate its effects extracellularly, or it must find a way to invade the host's cells and survive intracellularly. In either case, the pathogen hijacks the host's cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton provides a flexible framework for the cell and is involved in mediating numerous cellular functions, from cell shape and structure to programmed cell death. Altering the host cytoskeleton is crucial for mediating pathogen adherence, invasion, and intracellular locomotion. We highlight recent advances in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri. Each illustrates how bacterial pathogens can exert dramatic effects on the host cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum colonizing the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. (5/418)

We have studied the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the immune functions of gnotobiotic rats. One group of germ-free rats was colonized with the type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli O6:K13:H1 and another group with the same E. coli strain together with L. plantarum 299v. One and 5 weeks after colonization, bacterial numbers were determined in the contents of the small intestine, caecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Small intestinal sections were examined for CD8+, CD4+, CD25+ (IL-2R alpha-chain), IgA+ and MHC class II+ cells and mitogen-induced spleen cell proliferation was determined. Immunoglobulin levels and E. coli-specific antibodies were measured in serum. Rats given L. plantarum in addition to E. coli showed lower counts of E. coli in the small intestine and caecum 1 week after colonization compared with the group colonized with E. coli alone, but similar levels after 5 weeks. Rats colonized with L. plantarum + E. coli had significantly higher total serum IgA levels and marginally higher IgM and IgA antibody levels against E. coli than those colonized with E. coli alone. They also showed a significantly increased density of CD25+ cells in the lamina propria and displayed a decreased proliferative spleen cell response after stimulation with concanavalin A or E. coli 1 week after colonization. The results indicate that L. plantarum colonization competes with E. coli for intestinal colonization and can influence intestinal and systemic immunity.  (+info)

Gut origin of sepsis: a prospective study investigating associations between bacterial translocation, gastric microflora, and septic morbidity. (6/418)

AIMS: To investigate the "gut origin of sepsis" hypothesis. METHODS: Prospective controlled study of 279 surgical patients in which cultures of nasogastric aspirates were compared with those obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes taken at laparotomy and the organisms cultured from subsequent septic complications. Bacterial translocation was confirmed if positive cultures were obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes. Postoperative sepsis was defined as any positive culture in the postoperative period. Bacterial species obtained in gastric microflora, mesenteric lymph nodes, and postoperative septic complications were compared. RESULTS: Only 85/279 patients (31%) had a sterile nasogastric aspirate; the most frequently identified organism was Candida spp. (54%) and the most common enteric organism cultured was E coli (20%). Multiple organisms were isolated in 39% and occurred more frequently in patients aged over 70 years, those undergoing non-elective surgery, and in those requiring proximal gastrointestinal surgery. Postoperative sepsis was more common in these patients. Bacterial translocation occurred in 21% and was significantly more frequent in those with multiple organisms in their nasogastric aspirates. E coli was the commonest organism isolated from the lymph node specimens (48%) and septic foci (53%). Fungal translocation did not occur. An identical genus was identified in the nasogastric aspirate and the septic focus in 30% of patients, in the nasogastric aspirate and the lymph node in 31%, and in the lymph node and a postoperative septic focus in 45%. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal gut colonisation is associated with both increased bacterial translocation and septic morbidity. The commonality of organisms identified supports the gut origin of sepsis hypothesis.  (+info)

Oral administration of a glutamine-enriched diet before or after endotoxin challenge in aged rats has limited effects. (7/418)

Numerous studies indicate beneficial effects of glutamine (Gln) in many models of catabolic adult rats. No data were available for aged rats. The effects of oral L-Gln-enriched diet were tested in endotoxemic 24-mo old rats. First, rats received for 7 d (from d0 to d7) an oral diet supplemented with either L-Gln [1g/(kg. d)] or casein (Cas: isonitrogenous supply) prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The rats were then killed after 24 h food deprivation (from d7 to d8). Endotoxemia induced a catabolic response as shown by muscle glutamine depletion, hyperphenylalaninemia, small bowel atrophy and impaired functionality and bacterial translocation. The Gln-enriched diet did not prevent muscle Gln depletion but significantly (P +info)

Bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats stimulates eNOS-derived NO production and impairs mesenteric vascular contractility. (8/418)

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the arterial vasodilation and associated vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors observed in liver cirrhosis. Bacteria, potent activators of NO and TNF-alpha synthesis, are found in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Here, we investigated the impact of bacterial translocation (BT) to MLNs on TNF-alpha production, vascular NO release, and contractility in the mesenteric vasculature of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Vascular response to the alpha-adrenoagonist methoxamine, which is diminished in the superior mesenteric arterial beds of cirrhotic rats, is further blunted in the presence of BT. BT promoted vascular NO release in cirrhotic rats, an effect that depended on pressure-induced shear stress and was blocked by the NO inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Removing the endothelium had the same effect. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), but not the inducible isoform (iNOS), was present in mesenteric vasculature of cirrhotic rats with and without BT, and its expression was enhanced compared with controls. TNF-alpha was induced in MLNs by BT and accumulated in parallel in the serum. This TNF-alpha production was associated with elevated levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a TNF-alpha-stimulated cofactor and enhancer of eNOS-derived NO biosynthesis and NOS activity in mesenteric vasculature. These findings establish a link between BT to MLNs and increased TNF-alpha production and elevated BH(4) levels enhancing eNOS-derived NO overproduction, further impairing contractility in the cirrhotic mesenteric vasculature.  (+info)

Redd et al. (1) suggest that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease progression in Africa, in contrast to its possible role in HIV pathogenesis in North American cohorts (2-4). They further postulate that this discrepancy may relate to mode of HIV transmission, because the Ugandan cohort in which they base their study is composed of heterosexual men and women, whereas North American cohorts typically contain more men who have sex with men and injection drug users. These conclusions are based on a study in which they prospectively examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation correlated with HIV progression and found that they did not. However, we suggest that these data are not sufficient to conclude that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease in Africa. First, significant levels of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] were demonstrated in HIV infected subjects but were not directly compared with levels in ...
Plastic wound retractors are currently used in abdominal surgery for wound retraction. They allow access to intra-abdominal organs through an incision in abdominal surgery. Plastic wound retractors may also act as a barrier to bacterial translocation from the abdominal cavity to the wound. The purpose of this study was to compare microbial flora from inside and outside the plastic wound retractor to establish whether plastic wound retractors affect bacterial translocation.. METHODS This multi-centre prospective observational study is being conducted between November 2007 and January 2010. Patients undergoing elective or emergency abdominal surgery in which an Alexis® wound retractor is used are eligible for inclusion in the study. Swabs are taken from inside and outside the Alexis® wound protector immediately prior to removal of the wound protector from the abdominal cavity. Swabs undergo gram stain and culture. Inside the wound swab is defined as the part of the wound protector in contact ...
The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review, we will summarize recent findings from the last 2 years.. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as a ...
Results 19 patients (36, 5%) had an abnormal GP (,0,033). There are no differences in gender, age, aetiology; diabetes, WCC, MELD (9, 0 ± 2, 7 vs 9, 4 ± 3, 5) and complications of cirrhosis (infection: 18, 2% vs 10.5%, ascites: 54, 5% vs 31, 6%; HE 15, 2% 10, 5% and varices: 42, 4% vs 52, 6%). Only 2 patients showed evidence of BT. At 1-month, in patients with a GP ,0,033, 69% showed an increase, 7 (24, 1%) a decrease and 2 were unchanged in the GP rate. In patients with abnormal GP, it worsened in 31, 3% and in 68, 7% it improved. The two patients that showed evidence of BT became negative after one month and both of them displayed an improvement of their GP. 3-patients became positive after 1-month, with two showing worsening of GP. Conversely, all of these changes were not associated with any complications of cirrhosis. ...
Principal Investigator:小川 絵里, Project Period (FY):2018-04-01 - 2021-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般
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The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that constitutes the largest and most important barrier against the external environment. It acts as a selectively permeable barrier, permitting the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water while maintaining an effective defense against intral …
In this study, we successfully employed ISH to detect pathogens in the blood from patients with decompensated LC in whom blood culture results were negative for bacterial infection. These findings suggested that bacterial translocation cannot be always detected by conventional blood culture because SBP is known to occur after bacterial translocation, defined as the passage of bacteria from the intestine or colon through the intestinal epithelial cells and entrapment in the mesenteric lymph nodes [8, 11]. After bacterial translocation, bacteria are thought to enter the systemic bloodstream and access ascitic fluid, which exhibits low bactericidal capacity [9, 12-14]. Bacterial translocation has been demonstrated in some studies in both human and animal models of LC [15, 16]. However, it is unclear how SBP develops from bacterial translocation because this event cannot be detected easily by conventional blood culture [11]. Such et al. reported that bacterial DNA can be detected simultaneously in ...
CKD associates with systemic inflammation, but the underlying cause is unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of intestinal microbiota. We report that collagen type 4 alpha 3-deficient mice with Alport syndrome related progressive CKD displayed systemic inflammation, including increased plasma levels of pentraxin-2 and activated antigen presenting cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and Th17 or IFN gamma-producing T cells in the spleen as well as regulatory T cell suppression. CKD related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. Uremia did not affect secretory IgA release into the ileum lumen or mucosal leukocyte subsets. To test for causation between dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in CKD, we eradicated facultative anaerobic microbiota with antibiotics. This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, ...
To investigate the role of β-(1-3)-D-glucan on 99mTc labelled Escherichia coli translocation and cytokines secretion in rats submitted to small bowel ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Five groups (n=10 each) of Wistar rats were subjected to control(C), sham(S), group IR subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R), and group I/R+glucan subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R) and injected with 2mg/Kg intramuscular. Translocation of labelled bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and serum was determined using radioactivity/count and colony forming units/g(CFU/g). Serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results: CFU/g and radioactivity/count were higher in I/R than in I/R+glucan rats. In C, S and S+glucan groups, bacteria and radioactivity/count were rarely detected. The I/R+glucan rats had enhancement of IL-10 and suppressed production of serum TNFα, IL-1β and, IL-6, compared to I/R untreated animals. ...
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: ART-naïve HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected patients from Icona with a CD4 cell count ,200/μl and with a known date of prior HIV neg/pos tests and ≥1 plasma sample stored were included in the study. Plasma MT (LPS, sCD14) and IA (IL-6,TNFα) were measured using ELISA while activated CD8 + CD38 + HLA-DR + were measured by flow cytometry, with one measurement being performed for all patients and two measurements for a smaller group of subjects. The association between these biomarkers and the time to i) a single ALT ,200 IU/l and ii) a Fib-4 ,1.45 was also investigated. A standard survival analysis with robust standard errors was used for all evaluations. Follow-up was censored at patients last clinical follow-up. RESULTS: We studied 127 HIV-infected hepatitis viruses co-infected patients (118 HCV, 9 ...
Heavy alcohol consumption in an HIV-infected person may accelerate HIV disease progression and end organ disease with one leading explanatory pathway being via enhanced microbial translocation and inflammation/altered coagulation. Heavy alcohol consumption and HIV infection are both causes of microbial translocation, the process by which bacterial products leak across the gastrointestinal membrane with resultant destructive immune activation. Among HIV-infected people, high levels of microbial translocation (as measured by soluble CD14) and inflammation/altered coagulation (as measured by IL-6 and D-dimer) are each associated with an increased risk of death. Of importance, among HIV-infected persons, heavy drinking is also significantly associated with higher levels of D-dimer in cross-sectional studies. Of note, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a reduction in D-dimer levels. Yet the following is not known: is there a longitudinal relationship between alcohol ...
In the BT 1010 group, the culture was 100% positive at the MLN, liver and spleen (5.3 and 3 log10 CFU/g, respectively), while the blood, PF and lung were negative. In a-PH animals, the BT 1010 pattern was 100% to the MLN, liver and spleen (5.4 and 4 log10 CFU/g, respectively), lung (100%, 3 log10, P , 0.05) and PF (10%, 0.6 log10). In turn, c-PH-BT1010 findings were similar to BT1010 alone but there was an increased translocation to PF (40%, 1 log10, P , 0.05). On the other hand, for BT 107 all cultures were negative, but in PH-BT107 translocation occurred to the MLN (a-PH 50%, 1 log10 CFU/g; c-PH 25%, 0.7 log10 CFU/g) plus to the PF (a-PH 12.5%, 0.08 log10 CFU/g; c-PH 25%, 0.16 log10 CFU/g), evidencing a change in the gut threshold for BT in the PH state. Bacterial challenge in the a-PH state showed that the liver, spleen and kidney go into a hypoperfusion state (-38, -45.2 and -36 Δ%, respectively), in contrast to the ileum hyperperfusion response (+75 Δ%). Similarly, at c-PH the liver and ...
To investigate the safety of laparoscopic intervention for diagnosis and treatment at 8 mm Hg pressure in one-hour period on acute peritonitis related intra-abdominal sepsis model. In this study, we included 32 female Wistar-Albino rats, weighi
In this study of untreated, HIV-infected patients, sCD14, a marker of microbial translocation and monocyte activation was detectable in both plasma and CSF. High CSF and plasma sCD14 was not explained by higher HIV RNA or lower CD4+ cell counts, while a significant association between plasma sCD14 and LPS was found. Furthermore, significant associations between CSF sCD14 and markers of inflammation and axonal damage in the CSF were found, independent of age, HIV RNA, and CD4+ cell count. Hence, it is possible that elevated monocyte activation, partly driven by microbial translocation, may contribute to the pathogenesis in CNS by promoting inflammation.. Infection of the CNS occurs early during HIV infection [34, 35]. HIV enters the CNS unassisted or in infected monocytes that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) [36-38]. In the CNS, HIV and migrated immune cells lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further immune activation. Inflammation in the CNS creates a neurotoxic ...
The novel findings in this study are that an increase in gut apoptotic activity occurs after endotoxin infusion and is associated with increased gut macromolecular permeability and increased pulmonary cytokine expression. In this setting, the cointervention of feeding decreases the extent of apoptotic activity, gut permeability, and pulmonary cytokine expression. In other experimental settings, increased gut apoptosis results in increased gut permeability (38, 39). Further investigations suggest that increased gut permeability increases the systemic inflammatory response and involvement of distant organs (30). Together, our new results and previous observations suggest an important association between gut apoptosis, gut barrier function, and pulmonary inflammation during sepsis. Enteral feeding ameliorates increased gut apoptotic activity, which, we postulate, may be a key step in improving gut barrier function and decreasing inflammation in distant organs during sepsis.. Gut injury in sepsis ...
The manipulation of your intestine microbiota is advanced and could lead to germs-host interactions.[10] Although probiotics are considered to become safe, there are actually problems regarding their safety in sure scenarios.[10][ninety] A number of people, such as Those people with immunodeficiency, small bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, cardiac valve condition and untimely infants, can be at larger risk for adverse gatherings.[eight] In severely unwell individuals with inflammatory bowel sickness You will find a danger of your passage of viable microbes from your gastrointestinal tract to The inner organs (bacterial translocation) like a consequence of bacteremia, that may lead to adverse health repercussions ...
Affiliation:近畿大学,医学部,講師, Research Field:Digestive surgery,General surgery, Keywords:apoptosis,IGF-1,oxidative stress,加齢,敗血症,膵癌,bacterial translocation,aged,術後肝不全,アポトーシス, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:0
IgA class autoantibodies in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a hint toward bacterial translocation and their pathogenetic role in fibrogenesis
Within the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection, there is a state of constant systemic immune activation that is attributed in part to the enteropathy caused by HIV itself and to the translocation of microbes and/or microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the circulation [8, 30].. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 plus Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 at 109 cfu/mL as probiotics, 10 g of agave inulin as prebiotic, and the combination of both as synbiotic in antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected subjects.. There have been some studies in patients with HIV infection, using different probiotics in which mixed results have been obtained; this is perhaps secondary to the use of different concentrations and probiotic strains, which do not trigger the same immunostimulatory effect [15, 31, 32].. Certain serious adverse effects have been reported with the use of probiotics, particularly endocarditis, liver abscess, bacteremia, and septicemia or septic shock, ...
We show here the importance of NOD2 in driving a proinflammatory immune response by myeloid cells, inducing the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, thus resulting in pancreatic insulitis and the consequent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and STZ-induced T1D development. Mice lacking NOD2, but not NOD1, did not develop STZ-induced T1D and were unable to induce a Th1 and Th17 immune response in the PLNs and pancreas. Furthermore, diabetic mice had changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, which may be related to the observed bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, antibiotic treatment impaired both the bacterial translocation to the PLNs and the changes in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with protection from the disease. Additionally, we show here that NOD2 plays a critical role in gut microbiota recognition because the addition of the NOD2 ligand, MDP, was sufficient to promote STZ-induced T1D in Abx-treated, STZ-injected WT mice. ...
Background: Increased rectal luminal lactate concentration may be associated with the severity of the septic shock and high dose of vasopressors. It suggests hypoperfusion of the gut mucosa. This is potentially associated with bacterial translocation from the gut leading to local and systemic inflammation. In acute pancreatitis (AP) bacterial translocation is considered as the key event leading to infection of necrotic pancreatic tissue and high severity of illness. Methods: We used rectal luminal equilibration dialysis for the measurement of gut luminal lactate in 30 consecutive patients admitted to hospital due to acute pancreatitis to test the hypothesis that a single measurement of rectal luminal lactate predicts the severity of acute pancreatitis, the length of hospital stay, the need of intensive care and ultimately, mortality. We also tested the physiological validity of luminal lactate concentration by comparing it to luminal partial tension of oxygen. Additionally, a comparison between ...
The indications for laparoscopic surgery have expanded to include diseases possibly associated with peritonitis such as appendicitis, perforated peptic ulcers, and diverticulitis. The safety of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum in the presence of peritonitis has not been proved. Our previous i...
Gastrointestinal side effects of HAART are usually well tolerated and do not contribute to significant treatment discontinuation. However, diarrhea of moderate to severe intensity can occur in patients receiving multi-drug therapy [21-23]. The mechanisms underlying antiretroviral-induced diarrhea are unclear. The intestinal epithelium acts as a highly selective barrier, preventing the passage of toxic molecules and luminal bacterial translocation [24]. The normal barrier function is maintained by steady enterocyte turnover finely regulated by cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Cell-to-cell contacts within the intestinal epithelium structured by a scaffold of tight and adherens junctions, located apically, are further responsible for sealing the intestinal barrier [25-27]. The results of this study suggest that selected antiretroviral drugs influence small intestinal absorptive and secretory functions.. We have assessed intestinal mucosal morphology, permeability changes, and ...
This paper belongs to a series of three publications that examine the intestinal barrier, its role in health and disease and the potential impact of probiotics on function. In this review, the authors describe the role of different mechanisms and interactions that support the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. The authors also discuss biomarkers in blood, feces, or urine that can be used to assess intestinal permeability and epithelial integrity.. The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of ...
Clark, EC, Patel, SD, Chadwick, PR, Warhurst, G, Curry, A and Carlson, GL 2003, Glutamine deprivation facilitates tumour necrosis factor induced bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cells by depletion of enterocyte fuel substrate , Gut, 52 (2) , pp. 224-230. Item not available from this repository ...
Dyavar Shetty R, Velu V, Titanji K, Bosinger SE, Freeman GJ, Silvestri G, Amara R R. 2012. PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques.. J Clin Invest. 122(5):1712-6. ...
Our bodies have four lines of defense against infection: skin, mucosal lining, immune system, and gut microflora, sometimes referred to as gut microbi
INTRODUCTION: The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden.. METHODS: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. RESULTS: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had ...
Background Infection following abdominal operation remains a major factor affecting the morbidity of patients after surgery.. Aim To determine the effects of perioperative administration of probiotics on the gut barrier function and the surgical outcome in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery.. Methods One hundred patients with colorectal carcinoma were randomly divided into the control group (n = 50) and the probiotics group (n = 50). The probiotics were given orally for 6 days preoperatively and 10 days post-operatively. Outcomes were measured by bacterial translocation, gut permeability, the effect on the faecal microbiota, and the clinical outcomes such as infectious-related complications and gut defecation function.. Results Compared with the control group, probiotics group had increased transepithelial resistance (P , 0.05), reduced transmucosal permeation of horseradish peroxidase and lactulose/mannitol ratio, reduced bacterial translocation (P , 0.05), decreased ileal-bile ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an animal model of mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) has an inflammatory profile and whether immune activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has a cumulative effect on subsequent stimuli in this model. We also evaluated the action of lithium (Li) on inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to an animal model of mania. After the open-field test, they were given LPS to induce systemic immune activation. Subsequently, the animals blood was collected, and their serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were measured. RESULTS: LDX induced hyperactivity in the animals, but no inflammatory marker levels increased except brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Li had no effect on serum BDNF levels but prevented iNOS levels from increasing in animals subjected to immune
The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function ...
(Phys.org)-A team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure of tight junctions in the small intestine, and has made progress in better understanding their ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor mediated targeting of M-cells. AU - TYRER, Peter Charles. AU - Foxwell, Ruth. AU - KYD, Jenelle Maree. AU - Otczyk, Diana. AU - Cripps, Allan W.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The intestinal epithelium is a complex system of highly specialised cells that provide digestive and absorptive functions as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Induction of an adaptive immune response in the intestine can occur through the interaction of antigen with M-cells that overlay the lymphoid aggregates of the intestine (Peyers patches). This study demonstrated that specific common microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns are recognised by pattern recognition receptors on the surface of the M-cells and this interaction initiates transcytosis through the M-cell of particulate antigen from the intestinal milieu to underlying antigen presenting cells within the Peyers patch. The study has found that among the pattern recognition molecules that have a role in recognising bacterial ...
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death ...
Additional evidence is needed to determine the non-haemodynamic effects of BB and the therapeutic window for them. However, performing trials or studies to test these questions is very difficult. At present we have no reliable methods to test the effects of BB on the SNS activity in the splanchnic compartment. The plasma concentrations of norepinephrine are unreliable because they depend on the release rate and clearance from the plasma pool and because post-synaptic concentrations may be up to 1000 times higher than plasma levels. In theory, the non-haemodynamic effects of BB may be identified in large multicentre multinational randomised controlled trials comparing BB with placebo. One potential outcome measure could be spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a clinical marker of gut bacterial translocation. The trial would have to include patients with ascites but exclude those with medium to large varices for ethical reasons. Considering that several patients have contraindications to BB ...
The second problem also arose from the bypassed jejunum, which emptied normally downstream into the ileum but had no upstream connection and hence no inflow of food or liquids from the stomach. The flow of liquid through the intestine is necessary to cleanse it; with no liquid flow, bacteria from the large intestine are free to grow and colonize the small intestine, all the way up to the blind end of the jejunum. This leads to sepsis by bacterial translocation, so effectively in fact that JI bypasses are used in the lab to create sepsis in animal experimental models.. ...
Though used primarily as a vegetable, a plantain, like a banana, is a fruit that can be used in both savory and sweet dishes depending on its level of ripeness. When still green, a plantain is hard and starchy, like a potato. As it ripens, the peel turns nearly black, while the flesh becomes yellow and sweet. Fully ripe plantains are soft and creamy in texture, emit a mild banana fragrance, and are supremely sweet. Plantains take several days to ripen, so if you want to cook some soon then buy ones that are already blackened in the supermarket ...
Raksti​​. Analysis of the spatiotemporal development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the early human embryo / J.Easterbrook, S.Rybtsov, A.Ivanovs ...[et al.] // Stem Cell Reports. - Vol.12, No.5 (2019, May), p.1056-1068. - Web of Science un/vai Scopus. - DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.03.003. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation of maxillary sinus before and after sinus floor elevation / L.Neimane, L.Zamure, V.Klimecs, A.Grišuļonoks, A.Skaģers, A.Ivanovs // Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Sect.B. - Vol.73, No.4 (2019, Aug.), p.387-392. - Web of Science un/vai Scopus. - DOI: 10.2478/prolas-2019-0060. Difference in markers of microbial translocation and cell apoptosis in HIV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients / M.Madelane, A.Krumina, R.Simanis, G.Skenders, A.Ivanovs, G.Sture, L.Viksna // Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Sect.B. - Vol.73, No.4 (2019, Aug.), p.304-311. - Web of Science un/vai Scopus. - DOI: 10.2478/prolas-2019-0048. Risk ...
Why eat plantains? They are definitely a far better choice than potatoes and can often be substituted in their place. Sometimes they are even a better choice than bananas. Here are some of the benefits of plantains: 1 - Plantains contain more Vitamin A than bananas. Vitamin A is a powerful antioxidant, maintains healthy…
Plantains are generally called as herbaceous plants of genus Musa. The fruits produced by plantains are soft and sweet banana which is also used for cooking. They are firmer and have lower sugar content than the desert bananas.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 2 ...
That is a great question! The New Lean for Life book (Cynthia Stamper Graff & Reginald Allouche, M.D., 2013) provides some fascinating information on the
1. The figure given below shows the conversion of a substrate into product by an enzyme. In which one of the four options (a-d) the components of reaction labelled as A, B, C and D are identified correctly?2. Accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate inhibits the activity of enzyme glucohexokinase. This is an example of ...
But some microbes are beneficial to human health. In a different experiment recently on the space station called Micro-10, Venkat and colleagues sent fungi to the space station to see if they produce novel compounds that could be used for medical purposes. There is some evidence that because of the stress of microgravity, fungi could give rise to new substances that could have applications for cancer treatment. Both Microbial Tracking-1 and Micro-10 were payloads managed by NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, on the recent SpaceX-8 flight to the space station on April 8, 2016 ...
The amino acid L-glutamine plays a key role in maintaining mucosal cell integrity and gut barrier function. L-Glutamine also enhances the guts immune function, in part by increasing the production of secretory immunoglobulin A, an antibody that promotes immune function. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), helps maintain normal intestinal permeability because it enhances mucus production and is involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans, the building blocks of the guts connective tissue. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast that helps to decrease intestinal permeability. Like L-glutamine, this beneficial yeast exerts its protective effect on the GI tract by increasing the production of secretory immunoglobulin A. Bacillus coagulans is a safe and effective probiotic that survives in stomach acid and produces lactic acid in the intestine. The probiotics in Gastriplex can be very effective in helping to maintain a healthy GI tract in an animal. The botanical, slippery elm, which has ...
Six Changeable Factors of Unhealthy Aging and Chronic Disease. Research of the past twenty years has identified several important factors in premature aging and in the development of chronic diseases. These six major factors all are interrelated in the big picture of "dis-ease.". 1. Chronic Inflammation of the Intestinal Tract (Gut): The gut is now considered a major organ of immunity. 70% of lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced by the intestinal tract. The GI tract has its own immune system and its own bacterial colonies that are essential for life. One function of the small intestine is to selectively prevent toxins and antigens from being absorbed. The small intestine, when damaged by parasites, pathological bacteria, food antigens, etc., will cause a break down in intestinal barrier function, and the result is not only abnormal intestinal permeability, but also an increase in pro inflammatory cells that induce systemic inflammation. This process contributes to the aging process and ...
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Bananas and plantains are one of the most important crops in the world, yet very few hybrids are cultivated. Bananas face considerable pressure from multiple biotic and abiotic stresses, but its...
I was out with a friend at the weekend who shot a roe buck. On inspection of the mesenteric lymph chain we found one of the nodes swollen to the size of a small golf ball? Otherwise the animal was in excellent condition. Wondered if anyone could help and indicate what this may have been? Thanks
When trying to parse the xtext models I was getting resource factory not found...I am not sure about the problem correctly why it is happening. ...
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British Journal of Nutrition 2017.. This paper belongs to a series of three publications that examine the intestinal barrier, its role in health and disease and the potential impact of probiotics on function. In this review, the available evidence for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity is investigated.. Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major etiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can impact barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are employed to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues ...
Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection
Primary (spontaneous) bacterial peritonitis - Occurs without an apparent source of contamination and is thought to be secondary to bacterial translocation across the bowel. It is most commonly found in patients with underlying cirrhosis and ascites, but may be found in patients with congestive heart failure, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic viral hepatitis, or acute viral hepatitis. Presentation can be subtle, and up to 30% of patients may be asymptomatic. Fever is common, but presentation can be marked by altered mental status or abdominal pain in those with cirrhosis. This infection is often paucibacillary, and culture is not uncommonly negative. When an organism is identified, common organisms include Escherichia coli, streptococci, enterococci, and pneumococci ...
Infectious thoracic aortitis is a rare disease, especially since the incidence of syphilis and tuberculosis has dropped in western countries. However, the risk to develop an infectious aortitis and subsequent mycotic aneurysm formation is still present, particularly in case of associated endocarditis, sepsis, and in immunosuppressive disorders. Moreover, the number of surgical and endovascular thoracic aortic repairs is continuously increasing, and infective graft complications are observed more frequently. Several etiopathogenetic factors may play a role in thoracic aortic and prosthetic infections, including hematogenous seeding, local bacterial translocation, and iatrogenous contamination. Also, fistulization of the esophagus or the bronchial tree is commonly associated with these diseases, and it represents a critical event requiring a multidisciplinary management. Knowledge on underlying micro-organisms, antibiotic efficacy, risk factors, and prevention strategies has a key role in the ...
If you havent noticed, im a real sucker for fried plantain. Sometimes i wonder if its possible to actually fry plantain without sneaking a few into my mouth while at it. Add stewed gizzards to the mix and you have a totally different ball game entirely. For me i dont overcook my gizzard because i love the crunchy sound it makes in my mouth. The term gizdodo is a word used to describe the gizzard and plantain combo; giz for gizzard, dodo for plantain. There are two versions of this meal i.e the stewed version and the stir-fried version. Either way you choose to prepare it youd still end up with a hearty dish.. ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
I discovered patacones, or tostones last year in Costa Rica, plantain being a stable food item there. They are usually twice fried plantain slices, fried for a couple of mins of each side, then flattened before being fried again. I chose a healthier alternative by cooking them first then frying them once. Adding a good dose of healthy Himalayan salt in the process is the key to a great savoury dish. I use this as an alternative to bread as a side, or mash them up for a hashbrown for breakfast, being a great substitute for potatoes ...
Step aside sound barrier: Chemical engineers at Johns Hopkins University have broken the mucus barrier, a long-standing adversary to drug delivery in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. We get asked all the time, Why on Earth do you want to study mucus?
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
Bodycleanse Join our community. Size matters. Herbal My specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. We offer 161 products in our store. Where to buy plantainsWhere to buy yuca/plantains below 96th st? - Chowhound.
The plantain, called platoon macho in Mexico, had a long and colorful history before arriving on the countrys tropical shores, where it is now abundant. It is a vital ingredient in many Latin recipes today.
If youre looking to lose fat, controlling your consumption of sugars, starches, and other carbs can speed progress. But theres a "newly discovered" type of carb called "Resistant Starch" thats taking the health world by storm.. Learn More ...
RepairVite effectively helps with intestinal barrier repair. At OVitaminPro.com we have effective, low priced Apex Energetics RepairVite.
Asserting Carbon Offsets from Landfill Gas Flaring at Reginas Landfill Site - Presented at SWANA 5th Canadian Waste Symposium, Banff, Alberta April 21, 2010 B…
Background: Leclercia adecarboxylata is a motile, aerobic, gram-negative bacillus previously reported to cause clinically significant solitary bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients, as well as polymicrobial wound infections in immunocompetent patients. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a known reservoir for this rarely pathogenic organism, and may be a source for bacterial translocation into the blood. Case and Methods: A 51-year-old Filipino female with a history of hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis, presented to multiple emergency departments with persistent fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain over the course of two weeks. Blood cultures collected during one of her visits grew Leclercia adecarboxylata. She was called back to the hospital and admitted for further work-up. Computed tomography revealed possible small bowel wall thickening. Given her presenting symptoms, the GI tract was considered the most likely ...
Immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which play a pivotal role in peripheral tolerance [1], have also been found to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of disease caused by certain persistent infections [2,3]. The overall impact of Treg cells on HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) disease progression remains controversial and has proven difficult to assess due to lack of specific inhibitors of Treg-cell activity and the complex role of immune activation in HIV/SIV disease. Treg cells potentially exert contrasting effects: slowing progression by suppressing generalized immune hyperactivation and HIV replication in non-Treg cells, or accelerating progression by suppressing virus-specific immune responses, and/or contributing to the loss of T helper-17 cells, thereby increasing immune activation mediated by microbial translocation from the gut [3-7]. Although there is conflicting data regarding the frequency of Treg cells in the blood during the course of infection, it ...
Allergies are associated to increased intestinal permeability, which means that your intestinal barrier is Leaky and allows increased passage of intestinal bacteria or food proteins into peripheral circulation. This fact sensitizes the immune system against several proteins (antigens) because immune tolerance is broken. Increased intestinal permeability allows paracellular transport of antigens which means that antigens pass between two cells and not through M-cells. M-cells are responsible for what is known as immune tolerance. If then any other part of your immune system, for example, mucous associated lymphoid tissue (nose), is challenged with proteins similar (molecular mimicry) to those of bacterial or food antigens your immune system will develop hyper reactivity producing normally a high amount of antibodies (IgE). This is due to the fact that the immune system, usually, is sensitized in the gut, although symptoms appear in the nose or eyes. IgE stimulate some immune cells, namely Mast ...
Personalized medicine approach using a human Colon Chip opens up gateway to study mucus barrier functions in patients with intestinal diseases in vitro.
This article describe what intestinal permeability is, the different processes involved in maintaining the gut barrier and what contributes to leaky gut.
Definition of superior mesenteric lymph nodes. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Oats influences the function of gut microflora in children with celiac disease, reports the latest issue of the Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.. ...
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This thesis describes a part of a larger project aimed at developing oral mucosal vaccines based on lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB are considered attractive candidates as vaccine delivery vectors because of their Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) status. Furthermore, many LAB are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, where some are further thought to have probiotic effects on the host. Lactobacillus plantarum is of particular interest because of its ability to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of humans for up to seven days, and also because of its resistance to bile and low pH. Different delivery routes and targets may be considered to obtain efficient LAB-based mucosal vaccines, and this thesis describes the development of one such route, where L. plantarum is targeted to M-cells in the gastrointestinal tract through expression and surface-display of M-cell binding proteins. The idea behind this strategy is that M-cells may transcytose the bound bacteria to underlying Peyers ...
... helps you feel better by helping to rebalance your intestinal flora after it has been compromised.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-colonizing natural yeast probiotic shown to promote gastrointestinal health and help enhance immune function naturally.
Saccharomyces Boulardii by Seeking Health contains 5 billion beneficial organisms that may help support bowel regularity and provide relief from occasional diarrhea, while supporting a healthy digestive system, especially during times of increased stress.
Vitamin C: for building a strong immune system and scavenge free radicals in the body.. Potassium: which is an important component that helps in controlling heart and blood pressure.. B6: which help treat anemia and neuritis.. The great thing about plantains is that they are gluten-free and great for people suffering from celiac disease. They are also low in fat and are good for anyone on a weight loss diet plan. If you are suffering from diabetes, unripe plantain in controlled portions are great for you too. Enjoy plantains ripe or unripe as a side to soups and stews.. Happy and healthy cooking xoxo. ...
Plantain popularly known as dodo is an average Nigerians favourite food. No matter how it is prepared, most Nigerians will eat this healthy food without giving it a thought. Even the most sought after Nigerian Jollof rice is bae with the dodo. Jollof rice is not the only meal that plantain goes well with plantain. […]
Airway exposure of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is shown to regulate type I and type II helper T cell induced asthma. While high doses of LPS derive Th1- or Th17-immune responses, low LPS levels lead to Th2 responses. In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of Th1/Th2/Th17 asthma regulation suggested by Lee (S. Lee, H.J. Hwang, and Y. Kim, Modeling the role of TGF-$\beta$ in regulation of the Th17 phenotype in the LPS-driven immune system, Bull Math Biol., 76 (5), 1045-1080, 2014) and show that the system can undergo a Hopf bifurcation at a steady state of the Th17 phenotype for high LPS levels in the presence of time delays in inhibition pathways of two key regulators: IL-4/Th2 activities ($H$) and TGF-$\beta$ levels ($G$). The time delays affect the phenotypic switches among the Th1, Th2, and Th17 phenotypes in response to time-dependent LPS doses via nonlinear crosstalk between $H$ and $G$. An extended reaction-diffusion model also predicts coexistence of these phenotypes under various ...
Cut plantain in half. Slice each half into two to four pieces. Spread plantain slices on a plate and sprinkle with cinnamon. Microwave on high for about 1 1/2 minutes ...
Cacalia atriplicifolia, Pale Indian Plantain is found naturally in prairies, open woodlands and along stream edges, and is native to all but the northernmost part of the eastern United States. Growing up to eight feet tall, it is towers in the prairie garden, and seldom flops. The white flowers are attractive in their own right, but somewhat eclipsed by the phenomenal foliage. Pale Indian Plantain is aggressive and may not be suitable for small landscape plantings. Synomyms: Arnoglossum atriplicifolium.
Celiac.com 03/05/2010 A team of researchers recently studied the relationship between increased levels of antigliadin antibodies and intestinal barrier gene variants. The research team included V. M. Wolters, B. Z. Alizadeh, M. E. Weijerman,
Peanut white kernel has probiotic-like effects that improve human gut microflora. It helps prevent food-borne illnesses caused by intestinal bacteria.
Test reagents. Recombinant human GDNF (PeproTech) and TNF-α (Biomol) were used at 100 ng/ml (7, 16). The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 was used at 30 μM (Calbiochem) and anisomycin (Sigma-Aldrich) was used at 60 μM to activate p38 MAPK (16).. Human tissue samples. Human tissue samples were obtained from patients suffering from IBD with an indication for surgical resection. Tissue samples from patients with CD (n = 9) derived from the terminal ileum. They were taken from the center of the inflamed parts of the resection specimens and from the periphery where no inflammation was seen. In patients with ulcerative pancolitis (n = 9) a sample of the affected colon was taken. Since the whole colon was inflamed in these patients, no uninflamed tissue was collected. Control tissue samples (colon or terminal ileum) from patients not suffering from IBD derived from patients that required right or left hemi-colectomy due to colon carcinoma in which the surgical resection routinely involved a part of the ...
The phrase "leaky gut" used to be confined to the outer fringes of medicine, employed by alternative practitioners with letters like D.C., L.Ac and N.D. after their names. Conventional researchers and doctors originally scoffed at the idea that a leaky gut contributes to autoimmune problems, but now theyre eating their words. It has been repeatedly shown in several well-designed studies that the integrity of the intestinal barrier is a major factor in autoimmune disease.. This new theory holds that the intestinal barrier in large part determines whether we tolerate or react to toxic substances we ingest from the environment. The breach of the intestinal barrier (which is only possible with a "leaky gut") by food toxins like gluten and chemicals like arsenic or BPA causes an immune response which affects not only the gut itself, but also other organs and tissues. These include the skeletal system, the pancreas, the kidney, the liver and the brain.. This is a crucial point to understand: you ...
Proteins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a major component of the outer membrane of some bacteria, acting as a protective barrier, and their production is boosted by age. Unfortunately, they can also trigger the bodys immune system and cause inflammation. Levels of LPS production in the gut microbiota, and expression levels of inflamm-aging markers such as p16. P16 is a cell-cycle regulator, and is an inductor of senescence, the process of deterioration with age. With age, p16 expression increases in order to suppress stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Results from the study showed that LPS lead to increased p16 expression in the colon of aged mice, along with increased activation of inflammatory markers. These results indicate that aging can accelerate inflamm-aging by inducing p16 expression in mice by increasing LPS levels in gut microbiota.. Such age-related gut microbiota modifications and imbalances are associated with inflamm-aging and immunosenescence, a decline in ...
HIV pathogenesis, its impact during acute infection and the consequences of chronic immune activation, despite antiretroviral therapy., an article published by the Physicians Research Network, New York City.
Milk is not only a composite of nutrients but emerged as a source of exosomes acting as a promising drug delivery vehicle for siRNA. siRNA is known for its immense therapeutic potential but has various physiological limitations including stable delivery. To investigate the suitability of siRNA for physiological
Stus Views & MS News" / MS Views and News DOES NOT endorse any products or services found on this blog. It is up to you to seek advice from your healthcare provider. The intent of this blog is to provide information on various medical conditions, medications, treatments, and procedures for your personal knowledge and to keep you informed of current health-related issues. It is not intended to be complete or exhaustive, nor is it a substitute for the advice of your physician. Should you or your family members have any specific medical problem, seek medical care promptly. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Koichiro Tsuboi, Mayo Nishitani, Atsushi Takakura, Yasuyuki Imai, Masaaki Komatsu, Hiroto Kawashima].
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The gut barrier plays an important role in human health. When barrier function is impaired, altered permeability and barrier dysfunction can occur, leading to inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome or obesity. Several bacteria, including pathogens and commensals, have been found to directly or indirectly modulate intestinal barrier function. The use of probiotic strains could be an important landmark in the management of gut dysfunction with a clear impact on the general population. Previously, we found that Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 can protect intestinal barrier functions in mice inflammation model. Here, we investigated its mechanism of action. Our results show that CNCM I-3690 can (i) physically maintain modulated goblet cells and the mucus layer and (ii) counteract changes in local and systemic lymphocytes. Furthermore, mice colonic transcriptome analysis revealed that CNCM I-3690 enhances the expression of genes related to healthy gut permeability: motility and absorption,
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (T), Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (T, started as an anon), Thymoma, Thyrotoxic ... Chromosomal translocation, Eicosanoid, Epitope, Gastric acid, Glomerular hyperfiltration (T), Kinin-kallikrein system, ...
Bacterial conjugation, transduction and transformation are their methods. In addition, the complete DNA sequence of many ... called translocation). ...
Bauer & Metzler (2013)[4] therefore carried out an experiment using a bacterial genome in which they investigated the average ... The form of transport through a cell membrane in which a metabolite is modified is called group translocation transportation. ...
In nature, these enzymes protect bacteria against phage infection by digesting the phage DNA when it enters the bacterial cell ... Non-homologous recombination can be damaging to cells, as it can produce chromosomal translocations and genetic abnormalities. ... Tani K, Nasu M (2010). "Roles of Extracellular DNA in Bacterial Ecosystems". In Kikuchi Y, Rykova EY (eds.). Extracellular ... Thanbichler M, Wang SC, Shapiro L (October 2005). "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic structure". Journal ...
... and translocation (movement) of the ribosome along the mRNA. If the tRNA's anticodon matches the mRNA, another tRNA already ... "Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-38. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC ... "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding". Science. 332 (6032): 981-4. Bibcode ...
Bacterial mostly divide by asexual cell division, but do have a kind of sex by horizontal gene transfer. Bacterial conjugation ... called translocation). ...
... works by binding to a site on the bacterial 30S and 50S ribosome, preventing formation of the 70S complex.[7] As a ... A proprietary formulation of micronized, nebulized tobramycin has been tested as a treatment for bacterial sinusitis.[3] Tobrex ... Tobrex and TobraDex are indicated in the treatment of superficial infections of the eye, such as bacterial conjunctivitis. ... "Nebulized Tobramycin in treating bacterial Sinusitis" (Press release). July 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-06.. ...
Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus ... implications for protein translocation". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1083-92. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.10.034. PMID 18158904.. ... Michie KA, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75: 467-92. doi: ... The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long ...
Unfolding and translocationEdit. After a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is recognized by the 19S regulatory particle in an ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... While energy is needed for substrate unfolding, it is not required for translocation.[27][28] The assembled 26S proteasome can ... The ATP molecules bound before the initial recognition step are hydrolyzed before translocation. ...
Without this translocation, the A site remains occupied, thus the addition of an incoming tRNA and its attached amino acid to ... Erythromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[2] This includes respiratory tract ... Erythromycin interferes with aminoacyl translocation, preventing the transfer of the tRNA bound at the A site of the rRNA ... By binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequent structure and function processes ...
... bacterial translocation) as a consequence of bacteremia, which can cause adverse health consequences.[5] Rarely, consumption of ... Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... In the following decades, intestinal lactic-acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as ... and the pathogens causing bacterial vaginosis.[86] In 2013, researchers found that administration of hydrogen peroxide- ...
Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well- ... Bacterial infection may also increase the risk of cancer, as seen in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma.[52][53] ... known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome, or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic ... "Chronic bacterial and parasitic infections and cancer: a review" (PDF). Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 4 (5): ...
Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems I and II. *Light-harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts ... The implications for the division in the four types are especially manifest at the time of translocation and ER-bound ... General bacterial porin family, known as trimeric porins (n=16,S=20) ... Alpha-helical proteins are present in the inner membranes of bacterial cells or the plasma membrane of eukaryotes, and ...
Specialized export proteins exist for translocation of mature mRNA and tRNA to the cytoplasm after post-transcriptional ... support a bacterial origin for the eukaryotic cell.[78] ...
Ng SY, Chaban B, Jarrell KF; Chaban; Jarrell (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of ... Subramaniam S, Henderson R; Henderson (August 2000). "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by ... Cavalier-Smith T (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial ... Koonin EV, Mushegian AR, Galperin MY, Walker DR; Mushegian; Galperin; Walker (1997). "Comparison of archaeal and bacterial ...
Bacterial[edit]. Main article: Cancer bacteria. Heliobacter pylori is known to cause MALT lymphoma. Other types of bacteria ... Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well- ... Samaras V, Rafailidis PI, Mourtzoukou EG, Peppas G, Falagas ME (June 2010). "Chronic bacterial and parasitic infections and ... and inflammation from bacterial infection or other viruses. Each cell has a chance of damage. Cells often die if they are ...
Tularemia, a bacterial disease caused by Francisella tularensis, is variously transmitted, including by biting flies. Culex and ... chromosomal translocations, sex distortion and gene replacement have been explored. They are cheaper and not subject to vector ... Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding,[60] and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in ...
... which likely result from the introduction of bacterial pathogens (in particular, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae,[38][39] and some ... "Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterzygosity". BMC Ecology. 11 (5): 5 ...
Proton translocation mechanism[edit]. The coupling of proton translocation and electron transport in Complex I is currently ... The bacterial NDHs have 8-9 iron-sulfur centers. A recent study used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and double ... Escherichia coli complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) is capable of proton translocation in the same direction to the established Δψ ... translocation mechanism (i.e. all four protons move across the membrane at the same time).[14][17] Alternative theories suggest ...
First, adjuvants may help in the translocation of antigens to the lymph nodes where they can be recognized by T cells. This ... components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), single-stranded DNA ( ...
... bacterial, and fungal infection. In a multi-center study, disease-free survival at 3 years was not different between T cell- ... block dephosphorylation of the transcription factor NFAT of activated T-cells and its translocation into the nucleus.[39] ...
IFNγ, or type II interferon, is a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral, some bacterial and ... protein import into nucleus, translocation. • positive regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic. • response to virus. • ... positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation. • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT ... the purification process from bacterial expression system is also very costly. Other expression systems like Pichia pastoris ...
Michie K, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annu Rev Biochem 75: 467-92. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... December 2007). "Ribosome binding of a single copy of the SecY complex: implications for protein translocation". Mol. Cell 28 ( ...
XXY males with SLE have an abnormal X-Y translocation resulting in the partial triplication of the PAR1 gene region.[104] ...
... binds to bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) enzyme,[33] which is encoded by the gene FabI. This ... Degradation in Soil and Translocation into Onion and Tomato". Journal of Environment Quality. 45 (3): 1029-35. doi:10.2134/ ... A bacterial host transformed by a plasmid harboring a triclosan-resistant mutant FabI gene (mFabI) as a selectable marker can ... Some studies suggest that antimicrobial hand soaps containing triclosan provide a slightly greater bacterial reduction on the ...
... while awaiting results of bacterial cultures, and to help prevent secondary bacterial infections. Currently, there is no ... and blockage of MHC class I translocation and expression). ...
... bacterial translocation) as a consequence of bacteremia, which can cause adverse health consequences. Rarely, consumption of ... Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species found in the healthy vagina to ... In the following decades, intestinal lactic acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as ... preventing and alleviating bacterial vaginosis. The consumption of probiotics may modestly help to control high blood pressure ...
Bacterial colonies (such as E. coli) can be rapidly screened by PCR for correct DNA vector constructs.[23] PCR may also be used ... PCR assays can be performed directly on genomic DNA samples to detect translocation-specific malignant cells at a sensitivity ... Cai, H; Caswell JL; Prescott JF (March 2014). "Nonculture Molecular Techniques for Diagnosis of Bacterial Disease in Animals: A ... Similarly, unusual deletions, insertions, translocations, or inversions can be analyzed, all without having to wait (or pay) ...
Translocation of preproteins across the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial ... Ammonia oxidizing bacterial community composition and process performance in wastewater treatment plants under low temperature ... Metrozol is also used, alongside other medicines, to get rid of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial infection often associated ... In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. Synthesis and pharmacological ...
Bacterial - genetics , Aminopeptidases , Bacterial Proteins - genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , CD13 Antigens - metabolism ... Translocation, Genetic , Humans , Child, Preschool , Immunophenotyping , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Male , Antigens ... Bacterial Proteins - metabolism , Bacterial Proteins - biosynthesis , Protein Biosynthesis - genetics , Kinetics , Nisin - ... Bacterial - genetics , CD13 Antigens - genetics , Glucuronidase - biosynthesis , Nisin - pharmacology , Glucuronidase - ...
J. William Costerton "Bacterial Biofilms" * Prof. Andreas Fery "Functional polymeric/colloidal assemblies: Novel approaches ... Murugappan Muthukumar "Macromolecular Translocation through Nanopores" * Dr. Michael Hansen "Probing Molecular Packing and ...
Spatial dynamics of chromosome translocations in living cells Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in the ... Bacterial metabolism of bile acids promotes generation of peripheral regulatory T cells A segregated cortical stream for ... Bacterial superglue enables easy development of efficient virus-like particle based vaccines A reservoir of mature cavity ... A conserved bacterial protein induces pancreatic beta cell expansion during zebrafish development ARID1A loss impairs enhancer- ...
Fewer bacterial endospores attached to the surface of parasites with knocked out Mi-muc-1 gene compared to the control. ... induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through inhibition of Smad3 nuclear translocation" - Kensuke Hirata, Yuki Takakura, ...
In addition, samples were collected at 12, 20, 24, 30, and 36 h post-challenge to confirm infection by quantifying bacterial ... translocation) across the plasma membrane of MEC, thus providing fatty acid for milk fat synthesis. Genes involved in TAG ... Ibeagha-Awemu EM, Lee JW, Ibeagha AE, Bannerman DD, Paape MJ, Zhao X: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces increased expression ... LXR reciprocally represses a set of inflammatory genes after bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS), TNF, or IL-1β stimulation [57 ...
ref,. Solenoid structures are often found in bacterial surface proteins, and their extended surface allows protein-protein or ... 152:23-47.,/ref,. The LCTs are single-chain protein toxins, comprising three domains: receptor-binding, translocation and ... catalysis, which mediate cell entry via receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation into the cytoplasm, and enzymatic ...
This work presents the first complete bacterial genome in the genus Phenylobacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated ... Bacterial growth and genomic library construction. P. zucineum strain HLK1Twas grown in LB (Luria-Bertani) broth at 37°C and ... Wickner W, Schekman R: Protein translocation across biological membranes. Science. 2005, 310 (5753): 1452-1456. 10.1126/science ... Among all the sequenced bacterial genomes, C. crescentus shares the greatest number of similar ORFs with P. zucineum ...
Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. 2. + + 128. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal. 2. + + 129. Central Nervous System Viral ... Translocation, Genetic. 1. + + 296. Leiomyoma. 1. + + 297. Wilms Tumor. 1. + + 298. Herpesviridae Infections. 1. + + ...
Bacterial translocation (BT) from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of septic ...
Among them, bacterial translocation is considered the leading cause of postoperative infection6. ... Rayes, N., et al., Effect of enteral nutrition and synbiotics on bacterial infection rates after pylorus-preserving ... Probiotics may contain fully understood and quantified bacteria or bacterial cultures not defined. Enterococcus, Bacteroides, ... immune system by indirect reduction of intestinal translocation by pathogens which would determine infections after reaching ...
Bactropin is used to treat bacterial infections in different parts of the body. Bactropin belongs to a group of medicines ... is observed in acute promyelocytic leukaemia klaz clarithromycin dosage as a consequence of a chromosomal translocation ... There are many different types of medicines used to treat bacterial infections. Sulfamethoxazole in Bactropin belongs to a ...
Complete maturation of the plastid protein translocation channel requires a type I signal peptidase. J. Cell Biol. 171, 425-430 ... it is not surprising that all plastid proteases identified so far are homologues of bacterial proteases (reviewed in Adam et al ... loss of ClpC1 leads to lower protein translocation rates in isolated chloroplasts (Constan et al., 2004; Kovacheva et al., 2005 ... ClpC1 also associated with the chloroplasts protein translocation machinery in the inner envelope, interacting in particular ...
Studies of the gut-brain axis indicate that this inflammation may be related to the translocation of intestinal microbes across ... Studies of the gut-brain axis indicate that this inflammation may be related to the translocation of intestinal microbes across ... Discordant patterns of bacterial translocation markers and implications for innate immune imbalances in schizophrenia. ... Plasma LBP has been traditionally considered as a marker of bacterial translocation which specifically detects and binds any ...
2. Bacterial DNA detection by polymerase-chain-reaction test (PCR) 3. Live culture 4. Antigen detection: Finding particles and ... translocations, methylation, and other alterations of genomic DNA) that are useful to diagnose, evaluate, prognose, and treat ... The IgG Western Blot must show the strong presence of five out of ten pre-selected bacterial proteins, and the presence of any ... Bacterial biological warfare bioagents capable of being detected by the present methods include, but are not limited to, ...
... with subsequent increase in intestinal permeability that facilitates the colonization and enhances bacterial translocation in ... Alternatively,numerous bacterial strains have been created (DIAL strains) that keep exactly the same plasmid at unique steady ... coli translocation towards the liver and spleen with the infected birds as determined by conventional bacteriology (Awad et al ... We also located important differences within the abundance of particular bacterial species in the infected birds compared with ...
It is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (such as middle ear, urine, respiratory, and intestinal infections). ... Effects of phorbol ester on translocation and down-regulation of protein kinase C and phosphorylation of endogenous proteins in ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis: an evolving story with new paradigms.. tamsulosin side effects headache ... translocation, detoxification and storage of divalent metal ion in plant cells. ... The bacterial communities associated with honey bee (Apis mellifera) foragers. Modification of urinary bladder function after ...
... antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by targeting the 50S ribosomal subunit preventing peptide bond formation and translocation ...
... extracts of bacterial and parasitic cell walls and peptidoglycans. Cardosa et al. (1986) showed that IgG CWest Nile virus ... correlates with the translocation of viral capsids to the nucleus and infection, which is essential for the overall ... translocation in HIV-1-infected patients compared to healthy controls [128,131]; gut dysbiosis, accompanied by systemic ... aim to reduce microbial translocation and misbalance, diminish subsequent immune activation and reduce morbidity and mortality ...
Horattas MC, Haller N, Ricchiuti D. Increased transperitoneal bacterial translocation in laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc 2003 ... but other studies showed that CO2PP can influence septic development by increasing bacterial (E. coli) translocation in rats [7 ...
Alami, M., Trescher, D., Wu, L. F. and Muller, M. (2002). Separate analysis of twin-arginine translocation (Tat)-specific ... In vitro Assay for Bacterial Membrane Protein Integration into Proteoliposomes. 细菌膜蛋白在蛋白质脂质体中的体外整合 Hanako Nishikawa. Masaru ... Nishikawa, H., Sasaki, M. and Nishiyama, K. (2020). In vitro Assay for Bacterial Membrane Protein Integration into ... Nishikawa, H., Sasaki, M. and Nishiyama, K. (2020). In vitro Assay for Bacterial Membrane Protein
Bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics have become serious public health problems that increase the need ... which cleaves DNA at a site remote from its initial target sequence after extensive DNA translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis ...
The stock of pores encodes a algorithm of cloning the determinants of medium is or bacterial types one by one and handling them ... vector translocation assumption using the community CIRS at older models( 8, 10, 11). ...
These eight basic amino acids seem to be the key alfuzosin 10 mg retardtabletten to its highly efficient membrane translocation ... It is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (such as middle ear, urine, respiratory, and intestinal infections ... These results confirm that phages are well adapted to bacterial populations living within eukaryotes and more broadly suggest ... Ecological mechanism of protection of intestinal bacterial flora against Salmonella typhimurium infection. In contrast to beta- ...
  • An immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These effects were accompanied by increases in FoxO3a activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in downregulation of four master genes of melanogenesis: MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Disruption of DNA-binding activity alone by point mutation of a lysine residue, K51, preceding the structural domain had little effect on Myb2 nuclear localization, suggesting that nuclear translocation of Myb2, which requires an ordered structural domain, is independent of its DNA binding activity. (asm.org)
  • We provide a method to simultaneously screen a library of antibody fragments for binding affinity and cytoplasmic solubility by using the Escherichia coli twin-arginine translocation pathway, which has an inherent quality control mechanism for intracellular protein folding, to display the antibody fragments on the inner membrane. (jove.com)
  • The method harnesses the intrinsic intracellular folding quality control mechanism of the Escherichia coli twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway to display an scFv library on the E. coli inner membrane. (jove.com)
  • Bacterial inner-membrane display relies on the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway for transporting displayed antibodies, in contrast to other common display methods that use the secretory pathway. (jove.com)
  • Alternatively,numerous bacterial strains have been created (DIAL strains) that keep exactly the same plasmid at unique steady state copy numbers (Kittleson et PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048438 al. (pkcinhibitor.com)
  • Bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics have become serious public health problems that increase the need to develop new bactericidal materials. (termsreign.gq)
  • Bacterial Strains and Methods. (pnas.org)
  • D, C) could possibly be experimentally tested with Seafood experiments using obtainable strains (we.e. complementing of Megaira probes against bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtainable from RDP (discharge 11, revise 4) and SILVA (discharge 123) directories. (antibodyassay.com)
  • Studies of the gut-brain axis indicate that this inflammation may be related to the translocation of intestinal microbes across a permeabilized gut-vasculature barrier. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment with dead L. salivarius or FOS feeding increased ROS production, bacterial killing activity, and protein expression of Reg3β as well as TLR4 in the intestinal mucosa and reversed the inhibitory effects of antibiotics on PA phagocytic activity of AMs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The FLF supplemented with non-fermented coarse cereals had probiotic and prebiotic-like impacts on the intestinal and faecal bacterial composition of pigs. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • A comparison between the TAP translocation efficiency of wild-type and mutant peptide demonstrated that the mutation at the C-terminus leads to a reduced transportation rate. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Here we demonstrate that sumoylation of the IκB kinase homolog immune response-deficient 5 plays an important role in the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes through a highly conserved sumoylation consensus site during bacterial challenge. (cnrs.fr)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • For conjugative transfer, DNA substrates are processed by (i) excision from the chromosome by excisionase/integrase enzymes or DDE transposases (for ICEs), (ii) processing of the plasmid or ICE circular transfer intermediate at the origin-of-transfer sequence ( oriT ) by the Dtr factors (the Dtr- oriT complex is termed a relaxosome), (iii) recruitment of the relaxase-T-strand intermediate to the T4CP, and (iv) translocation through the T4SS channel. (asm.org)
  • Alternatively, protein substrates are maintained in a translocation-competent form and delivered to the T4CP or another receptor or translocation system, e.g. (asm.org)
  • The inhibition of EcoKI, which cleaves DNA at a site remote from its initial target sequence after extensive DNA translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis, suggests that these enzymes would be unable to function on chromosomal DNA even during times of DNA damage when potentially lethal, unmodified target sites occur on the chromosome. (termsreign.gq)
  • In some cases, one parent has a rearrangement of chromosomal material, such as a balanced translocation or inversion , that increases the risk to have a child with a chromosome 8q duplication. (nih.gov)
  • If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe . (explained.today)
  • Heterologous transformation of Agrocybe aegerita with a bacterial neomycin-resistance gene fused to a fungal promoter-like DNA sequence. (faintpower.tk)
  • Molecular characterization of bacterial endosymbionts 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sequence comparison The majority of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences characterized with this study displayed identity higher than 99.7% with Sp9-41, a second symbiont morphologically much like was present in Linezolid enzyme inhibitor the micronucleus (Supplementary Fig.?S1). (antibodyassay.com)
  • The chapter focuses on the biological and biochemical implications of the need for eukaryotic cofactors for bacterial toxin activity by using the studies of the enzymatic activity of ExoU as a paradigm. (asmscience.org)
  • That is why using other bacterial diseases as a model for Lyme disease is difficult and leads to misunderstandings in the medical community on how to diagnose and treat Lyme disease. (borrelioosi.net)
  • Oral administration of scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, significantly improved the survival of mice with bacterial sepsis. (farlong.com)
  • In a different experimental setup we challenged SPF C57BL/6 wild-type mice and SPF JH-/- antibody-deficient animals (already containing an SPF flora) with graded doses of E. cloacae and compared the levels of live bacterial penetration to the MLN18 h later. (ormedmedical.us)
  • The bacterial strain was selected owing to its multifunctional ability to produce siderophores, solubilize phosphate and to produce plant growth hormones like IAA. (aimspress.com)
  • This review examines the literature on this topic, and concludes that for bacterial vectors there can in fact, in some cases, be an enhancement in immunogenicity, typically humoral, while for viral vectors pre-existing immunity is a hindrance for subsequent induction of cell-mediated responses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bacterial growth, conjugations, temperature induction of the yop virulon in a Ca 2+ -deficient medium, and Yop protein analysis were as described ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The IgA system therefore can work by negative feedback, whereby increased penetration of commensals into DC leads to IgA induction, which in turn limits bacterial translocation through the mucosa. (ormedmedical.us)
  • These bacterial plant promoters are frequently present in different environments, and are associated with many plant species, both wild and agricultural. (aimspress.com)
  • 2016) Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes. (aimspress.com)
  • Apart from environmental and bacterial sources, mammals too are capable of synthesizing H 2 S. Endogenous levels of H 2 S have been measured in the circulatory system with rat serum being reported to contain ~46uM H 2 S (67). (pancreapedia.org)
  • The stock of pores encodes a algorithm of cloning the determinants of medium is or bacterial types one by one and handling them into recombination trajectories by astigmatid and contemporary overhangs. (mid-southrealty.com)
  • bioRxiv 12 June 2020 IMMUN Selective and Effective Cancer Treatments using Target-Switchable Intracellular Bacterial Toxin Delivery Systems Seong Guk Park…Sebyung Kang. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The last section contains a concluding perspective on the state and future of studies on bacterial pathogenicity. (asmscience.org)
  • We are seeking a post-doctoral researcher to work on an EPSRC-funded project to develop an integrated mathematical model to explore the early stages of bacterial biofilm formation. (softmat.net)