The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A lyophilized preparation of a low-virulence strain (SU) of Streptococcus pyogenes (S. hemolyticus), inactivated by heating with penicillin G. It has been proposed as a noncytotoxic antineoplastic agent because of its immune system-stimulating activity.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Interleukin-8 controls bacterial transepithelial translocation at the cost of epithelial destruction in experimental shigellosis. (1/418)

In shigellosis, the network of cellular interactions mediated by a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines is clearly tipped toward acute destructive inflammation of intestinal tissues by the bacterial invader. This work has addressed the role played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a rabbit model of intestinal invasion by Shigella flexneri. IL-8, which is largely produced by the epithelial cells themselves, appears to be a major mediator of the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the subepithelial area and transmigration of these cells through the epithelial lining. Neutralization of IL-8 function by monoclonal antibody WS-4 caused a decrease in the amount of PMNs streaming through the lamina propria and the epithelium, thus significantly attenuating the severity of epithelial lesions in areas of bacterial invasion. These findings are in agreement with our previous work (31). In contrast to the PMNs, the bacteria displayed increased transepithelial translocation, as well as overgrowth in the lamina propria and increased passage into the mesenteric blood. By mediating eradication of bacteria at their epithelial entry site, although at the cost of severe epithelial destruction, IL-8 therefore appears to be a key chemokine in the control of bacterial translocation.  (+info)

Dietary calcium phosphate stimulates intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of a salmonella infection in rats. (2/418)

We have shown recently that dietary calcium phosphate (CaPi) has a trophic effect on the intestinal microflora and strongly protects against salmonella infection. It was speculated that precipitation by CaPi of intestinal surfactants, such as bile acids and fatty acids, reduced the cytotoxicity of intestinal contents and favored growth of the microflora. Because lactobacilli may have antagonistic activity against pathogens, the main purpose of the present study was to examine whether this CaPi-induced protection coincides with a reinforcement of the endogenous lactobacilli. In vitro, Salmonella enteritidis appeared to be insensitive to bile acids and fatty acids, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus was killed by physiologically relevant concentrations of these surfactants. Additionally, after adaptation to a purified diet differing only in CaPi concentration (20 and 180 mmol CaHPO4. 2H2O/kg), rats (n = 8) were orally infected with S. enteritidis. Besides reducing the cytotoxicity and the concentration of bile acids and fatty acids of ileal contents and fecal water, CaPi notably changed the composition of ileal bile acids in a less cell-damaging direction. Significantly greater numbers of ileal and fecal lactobacilli were detected in noninfected, CaPi-supplemented rats. As judged by the lower urinary NOx excretion, which is a biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, dietary CaPi reduced the invasion of salmonella. Additionally, the colonization resistance was improved considering the reduction of excreted fecal salmonella. In accordance, fewer viable salmonella were detected in ileal contents and on the ileal mucosa in the CaPi group. In conclusion, reducing the intestinal surfactant concentration by dietary CaPi strengthens the endogenous lactobacilli and increases the resistance to salmonella.  (+info)

Intestinal cytokine response after gut ischemia: role of gut barrier failure. (3/418)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intestinal ischemia with and without a reperfusion injury on intestinal cytokine production and gut permeability. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In humans and in animal models, the gut has been implicated as a cytokine-producing organ after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-type injuries. Because of the limitations of in vivo models, it has been difficult to demonstrate directly that the gut releases cytokines after an I/R injury or whether there is a relation between the magnitude of the ischemic process and the cytokine response. METHODS: Ileal mucosal membranes from rats subjected to sham or 45 or 75 min of superior mesenteric occlusion (SMAO) or 45 minutes of SMAO and 30 minutes of reperfusion (SMAO 45/30) were mounted in the Ussing chamber system. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were serially measured in the mucosal and serosal reservoirs of the Ussing system, as was mucosal permeability as reflected by the passage of bacteria or phenol red across the ileal membrane. In a second group of experiments, Escherichia coli C25 was added to the mucosal reservoir to determine if the cytokine response would be increased. RESULTS: Mucosal and serosal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were equally increased after SMAO, with the highest levels in the 75-minute SMAO group. The highest levels of interleukin-6 were found in rats subjected to 75 minutes of SMAO or SMAO 45/30; the serosal levels of interleukin-6 were four to sixfold higher than the mucosal levels. The addition of E. coli C25 resulted in a significant increase in the amount of interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha recovered from the mucosal reservoir. Increased ileal membrane permeability was observed only in rats subjected to 75 minutes of SMAO or SMAO 45/30. CONCLUSION: These results directly document that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 released from the gut increase after an ischemic or I/R injury, such as SMAO, and that there is a relation between the magnitude of the gut ischemic or I/R insult and the cytokine response.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella: masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. (4/418)

Bacterial pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to exploit their host's cellular processes so that they can survive and persist. Often, a bacterium must adhere very tightly to the cells and mediate its effects extracellularly, or it must find a way to invade the host's cells and survive intracellularly. In either case, the pathogen hijacks the host's cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton provides a flexible framework for the cell and is involved in mediating numerous cellular functions, from cell shape and structure to programmed cell death. Altering the host cytoskeleton is crucial for mediating pathogen adherence, invasion, and intracellular locomotion. We highlight recent advances in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri. Each illustrates how bacterial pathogens can exert dramatic effects on the host cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum colonizing the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. (5/418)

We have studied the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the immune functions of gnotobiotic rats. One group of germ-free rats was colonized with the type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli O6:K13:H1 and another group with the same E. coli strain together with L. plantarum 299v. One and 5 weeks after colonization, bacterial numbers were determined in the contents of the small intestine, caecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Small intestinal sections were examined for CD8+, CD4+, CD25+ (IL-2R alpha-chain), IgA+ and MHC class II+ cells and mitogen-induced spleen cell proliferation was determined. Immunoglobulin levels and E. coli-specific antibodies were measured in serum. Rats given L. plantarum in addition to E. coli showed lower counts of E. coli in the small intestine and caecum 1 week after colonization compared with the group colonized with E. coli alone, but similar levels after 5 weeks. Rats colonized with L. plantarum + E. coli had significantly higher total serum IgA levels and marginally higher IgM and IgA antibody levels against E. coli than those colonized with E. coli alone. They also showed a significantly increased density of CD25+ cells in the lamina propria and displayed a decreased proliferative spleen cell response after stimulation with concanavalin A or E. coli 1 week after colonization. The results indicate that L. plantarum colonization competes with E. coli for intestinal colonization and can influence intestinal and systemic immunity.  (+info)

Gut origin of sepsis: a prospective study investigating associations between bacterial translocation, gastric microflora, and septic morbidity. (6/418)

AIMS: To investigate the "gut origin of sepsis" hypothesis. METHODS: Prospective controlled study of 279 surgical patients in which cultures of nasogastric aspirates were compared with those obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes taken at laparotomy and the organisms cultured from subsequent septic complications. Bacterial translocation was confirmed if positive cultures were obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes. Postoperative sepsis was defined as any positive culture in the postoperative period. Bacterial species obtained in gastric microflora, mesenteric lymph nodes, and postoperative septic complications were compared. RESULTS: Only 85/279 patients (31%) had a sterile nasogastric aspirate; the most frequently identified organism was Candida spp. (54%) and the most common enteric organism cultured was E coli (20%). Multiple organisms were isolated in 39% and occurred more frequently in patients aged over 70 years, those undergoing non-elective surgery, and in those requiring proximal gastrointestinal surgery. Postoperative sepsis was more common in these patients. Bacterial translocation occurred in 21% and was significantly more frequent in those with multiple organisms in their nasogastric aspirates. E coli was the commonest organism isolated from the lymph node specimens (48%) and septic foci (53%). Fungal translocation did not occur. An identical genus was identified in the nasogastric aspirate and the septic focus in 30% of patients, in the nasogastric aspirate and the lymph node in 31%, and in the lymph node and a postoperative septic focus in 45%. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal gut colonisation is associated with both increased bacterial translocation and septic morbidity. The commonality of organisms identified supports the gut origin of sepsis hypothesis.  (+info)

Oral administration of a glutamine-enriched diet before or after endotoxin challenge in aged rats has limited effects. (7/418)

Numerous studies indicate beneficial effects of glutamine (Gln) in many models of catabolic adult rats. No data were available for aged rats. The effects of oral L-Gln-enriched diet were tested in endotoxemic 24-mo old rats. First, rats received for 7 d (from d0 to d7) an oral diet supplemented with either L-Gln [1g/(kg. d)] or casein (Cas: isonitrogenous supply) prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The rats were then killed after 24 h food deprivation (from d7 to d8). Endotoxemia induced a catabolic response as shown by muscle glutamine depletion, hyperphenylalaninemia, small bowel atrophy and impaired functionality and bacterial translocation. The Gln-enriched diet did not prevent muscle Gln depletion but significantly (P +info)

Bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats stimulates eNOS-derived NO production and impairs mesenteric vascular contractility. (8/418)

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the arterial vasodilation and associated vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors observed in liver cirrhosis. Bacteria, potent activators of NO and TNF-alpha synthesis, are found in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Here, we investigated the impact of bacterial translocation (BT) to MLNs on TNF-alpha production, vascular NO release, and contractility in the mesenteric vasculature of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Vascular response to the alpha-adrenoagonist methoxamine, which is diminished in the superior mesenteric arterial beds of cirrhotic rats, is further blunted in the presence of BT. BT promoted vascular NO release in cirrhotic rats, an effect that depended on pressure-induced shear stress and was blocked by the NO inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Removing the endothelium had the same effect. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), but not the inducible isoform (iNOS), was present in mesenteric vasculature of cirrhotic rats with and without BT, and its expression was enhanced compared with controls. TNF-alpha was induced in MLNs by BT and accumulated in parallel in the serum. This TNF-alpha production was associated with elevated levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a TNF-alpha-stimulated cofactor and enhancer of eNOS-derived NO biosynthesis and NOS activity in mesenteric vasculature. These findings establish a link between BT to MLNs and increased TNF-alpha production and elevated BH(4) levels enhancing eNOS-derived NO overproduction, further impairing contractility in the cirrhotic mesenteric vasculature.  (+info)

Redd et al. (1) suggest that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease progression in Africa, in contrast to its possible role in HIV pathogenesis in North American cohorts (2-4). They further postulate that this discrepancy may relate to mode of HIV transmission, because the Ugandan cohort in which they base their study is composed of heterosexual men and women, whereas North American cohorts typically contain more men who have sex with men and injection drug users. These conclusions are based on a study in which they prospectively examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation correlated with HIV progression and found that they did not. However, we suggest that these data are not sufficient to conclude that microbial translocation is not an important contributor to HIV disease in Africa. First, significant levels of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] were demonstrated in HIV infected subjects but were not directly compared with levels in ...
Plastic wound retractors are currently used in abdominal surgery for wound retraction. They allow access to intra-abdominal organs through an incision in abdominal surgery. Plastic wound retractors may also act as a barrier to bacterial translocation from the abdominal cavity to the wound. The purpose of this study was to compare microbial flora from inside and outside the plastic wound retractor to establish whether plastic wound retractors affect bacterial translocation.. METHODS This multi-centre prospective observational study is being conducted between November 2007 and January 2010. Patients undergoing elective or emergency abdominal surgery in which an Alexis® wound retractor is used are eligible for inclusion in the study. Swabs are taken from inside and outside the Alexis® wound protector immediately prior to removal of the wound protector from the abdominal cavity. Swabs undergo gram stain and culture. Inside the wound swab is defined as the part of the wound protector in contact ...
The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as ...
The decrease in counts and proportion of bifidobacteria to other flora in gut may play an important role in the development of bacterial translocation after thermal injury. Supplementation of exogenous bifidobacteria could improve gut barrier function, and attenuate bacterial/endotoxin translocation …
Background/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection of bacterial translocation after subclinical ischemia reperfusion injuries in rats with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review, we will summarize recent findings from the last 2 years.. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as a ...
Results 19 patients (36, 5%) had an abnormal GP (,0,033). There are no differences in gender, age, aetiology; diabetes, WCC, MELD (9, 0 ± 2, 7 vs 9, 4 ± 3, 5) and complications of cirrhosis (infection: 18, 2% vs 10.5%, ascites: 54, 5% vs 31, 6%; HE 15, 2% 10, 5% and varices: 42, 4% vs 52, 6%). Only 2 patients showed evidence of BT. At 1-month, in patients with a GP ,0,033, 69% showed an increase, 7 (24, 1%) a decrease and 2 were unchanged in the GP rate. In patients with abnormal GP, it worsened in 31, 3% and in 68, 7% it improved. The two patients that showed evidence of BT became negative after one month and both of them displayed an improvement of their GP. 3-patients became positive after 1-month, with two showing worsening of GP. Conversely, all of these changes were not associated with any complications of cirrhosis. ...
Principal Investigator:小川 絵里, Project Period (FY):2018-04-01 - 2021-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般
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Sub-Saharan Africa represents arguably the most important intersection of high endemicity of both chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HIV …
A recent review in eLife synthesises data from multiple studies to propose a synergistic interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infection and obesity and/or diabetes leading to impaired endothelial function and gut barrier function. This impairment results in microbial translocation into the systemic circulation and the ensuing cytokine storm.
The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that constitutes the largest and most important barrier against the external environment. It acts as a selectively permeable barrier, permitting the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water while maintaining an effective defense against intral …
Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial translocation in cultured enterocytes. T2 - Magnitude, specificity, and electron microscopic observations of endocytosis. AU - Wells, Carol L. AU - Jechorek, Robert P.. AU - Olmsted, Stephen B.. AU - Erlandsen, Stanley L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - Previous in vivo evidence has shown that bacterial phagocytosis by enterocytes may be an initial step in bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium. This study analyzed the interactions of cultured enterocytes, namely Caco-2 cells, with nine strains of enteric bacteria, tested in pure culture and in mixed culture. These nine strains had a spectrum of invasive potential and included Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes (three strains), Escherichia coli (three strains), Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Numbers of viable intracellular bacteria recovered from Caco-2 cells were: L. monocytogenes,S. typhimurium,P. ...
In this study, we successfully employed ISH to detect pathogens in the blood from patients with decompensated LC in whom blood culture results were negative for bacterial infection. These findings suggested that bacterial translocation cannot be always detected by conventional blood culture because SBP is known to occur after bacterial translocation, defined as the passage of bacteria from the intestine or colon through the intestinal epithelial cells and entrapment in the mesenteric lymph nodes [8, 11]. After bacterial translocation, bacteria are thought to enter the systemic bloodstream and access ascitic fluid, which exhibits low bactericidal capacity [9, 12-14]. Bacterial translocation has been demonstrated in some studies in both human and animal models of LC [15, 16]. However, it is unclear how SBP develops from bacterial translocation because this event cannot be detected easily by conventional blood culture [11]. Such et al. reported that bacterial DNA can be detected simultaneously in ...
CKD associates with systemic inflammation, but the underlying cause is unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of intestinal microbiota. We report that collagen type 4 alpha 3-deficient mice with Alport syndrome related progressive CKD displayed systemic inflammation, including increased plasma levels of pentraxin-2 and activated antigen presenting cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and Th17 or IFN gamma-producing T cells in the spleen as well as regulatory T cell suppression. CKD related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. Uremia did not affect secretory IgA release into the ileum lumen or mucosal leukocyte subsets. To test for causation between dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in CKD, we eradicated facultative anaerobic microbiota with antibiotics. This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, ...
To investigate the role of β-(1-3)-D-glucan on 99mTc labelled Escherichia coli translocation and cytokines secretion in rats submitted to small bowel ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Five groups (n=10 each) of Wistar rats were subjected to control(C), sham(S), group IR subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R), and group I/R+glucan subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R) and injected with 2mg/Kg intramuscular. Translocation of labelled bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and serum was determined using radioactivity/count and colony forming units/g(CFU/g). Serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results: CFU/g and radioactivity/count were higher in I/R than in I/R+glucan rats. In C, S and S+glucan groups, bacteria and radioactivity/count were rarely detected. The I/R+glucan rats had enhancement of IL-10 and suppressed production of serum TNFα, IL-1β and, IL-6, compared to I/R untreated animals. ...
We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients. ART-naïve HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected patients from Icona with a CD4 cell count |200/μl and with a known date of prior HIV neg/pos tests and ≥1 plasma sample stored were included in the study. Plasma MT (LPS, sCD14) and IA (IL-6,TNFα) were measured using ELISA while activated CD8 + CD38 + HLA-DR + were measured by flow cytometry, with one measurement being performed for all patients and two measurements for a smaller group of subjects. The association between these biomarkers and the time to i) a single ALT |200 IU/l and ii) a Fib-4 |1.45 was also investigated. A standard survival analysis with robust standard errors was used for all evaluations. Follow-up was censored at patients last clinical follow-up. We studied 127 HIV-infected hepatitis viruses co-infected patients (118 HCV, 9 HBV). Overall median (IQR) CD4, VL, age
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: ART-naïve HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected patients from Icona with a CD4 cell count ,200/μl and with a known date of prior HIV neg/pos tests and ≥1 plasma sample stored were included in the study. Plasma MT (LPS, sCD14) and IA (IL-6,TNFα) were measured using ELISA while activated CD8 + CD38 + HLA-DR + were measured by flow cytometry, with one measurement being performed for all patients and two measurements for a smaller group of subjects. The association between these biomarkers and the time to i) a single ALT ,200 IU/l and ii) a Fib-4 ,1.45 was also investigated. A standard survival analysis with robust standard errors was used for all evaluations. Follow-up was censored at patients last clinical follow-up. RESULTS: We studied 127 HIV-infected hepatitis viruses co-infected patients (118 HCV, 9 ...
Heavy alcohol consumption in an HIV-infected person may accelerate HIV disease progression and end organ disease with one leading explanatory pathway being via enhanced microbial translocation and inflammation/altered coagulation. Heavy alcohol consumption and HIV infection are both causes of microbial translocation, the process by which bacterial products leak across the gastrointestinal membrane with resultant destructive immune activation. Among HIV-infected people, high levels of microbial translocation (as measured by soluble CD14) and inflammation/altered coagulation (as measured by IL-6 and D-dimer) are each associated with an increased risk of death. Of importance, among HIV-infected persons, heavy drinking is also significantly associated with higher levels of D-dimer in cross-sectional studies. Of note, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a reduction in D-dimer levels. Yet the following is not known: is there a longitudinal relationship between alcohol ...
In the BT 1010 group, the culture was 100% positive at the MLN, liver and spleen (5.3 and 3 log10 CFU/g, respectively), while the blood, PF and lung were negative. In a-PH animals, the BT 1010 pattern was 100% to the MLN, liver and spleen (5.4 and 4 log10 CFU/g, respectively), lung (100%, 3 log10, P , 0.05) and PF (10%, 0.6 log10). In turn, c-PH-BT1010 findings were similar to BT1010 alone but there was an increased translocation to PF (40%, 1 log10, P , 0.05). On the other hand, for BT 107 all cultures were negative, but in PH-BT107 translocation occurred to the MLN (a-PH 50%, 1 log10 CFU/g; c-PH 25%, 0.7 log10 CFU/g) plus to the PF (a-PH 12.5%, 0.08 log10 CFU/g; c-PH 25%, 0.16 log10 CFU/g), evidencing a change in the gut threshold for BT in the PH state. Bacterial challenge in the a-PH state showed that the liver, spleen and kidney go into a hypoperfusion state (-38, -45.2 and -36 Δ%, respectively), in contrast to the ileum hyperperfusion response (+75 Δ%). Similarly, at c-PH the liver and ...
To investigate the safety of laparoscopic intervention for diagnosis and treatment at 8 mm Hg pressure in one-hour period on acute peritonitis related intra-abdominal sepsis model. In this study, we included 32 female Wistar-Albino rats, weighi
In this study of untreated, HIV-infected patients, sCD14, a marker of microbial translocation and monocyte activation was detectable in both plasma and CSF. High CSF and plasma sCD14 was not explained by higher HIV RNA or lower CD4+ cell counts, while a significant association between plasma sCD14 and LPS was found. Furthermore, significant associations between CSF sCD14 and markers of inflammation and axonal damage in the CSF were found, independent of age, HIV RNA, and CD4+ cell count. Hence, it is possible that elevated monocyte activation, partly driven by microbial translocation, may contribute to the pathogenesis in CNS by promoting inflammation.. Infection of the CNS occurs early during HIV infection [34, 35]. HIV enters the CNS unassisted or in infected monocytes that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) [36-38]. In the CNS, HIV and migrated immune cells lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further immune activation. Inflammation in the CNS creates a neurotoxic ...
The novel findings in this study are that an increase in gut apoptotic activity occurs after endotoxin infusion and is associated with increased gut macromolecular permeability and increased pulmonary cytokine expression. In this setting, the cointervention of feeding decreases the extent of apoptotic activity, gut permeability, and pulmonary cytokine expression. In other experimental settings, increased gut apoptosis results in increased gut permeability (38, 39). Further investigations suggest that increased gut permeability increases the systemic inflammatory response and involvement of distant organs (30). Together, our new results and previous observations suggest an important association between gut apoptosis, gut barrier function, and pulmonary inflammation during sepsis. Enteral feeding ameliorates increased gut apoptotic activity, which, we postulate, may be a key step in improving gut barrier function and decreasing inflammation in distant organs during sepsis.. Gut injury in sepsis ...
The manipulation of your intestine microbiota is advanced and could lead to germs-host interactions.[10] Although probiotics are considered to become safe, there are actually problems regarding their safety in sure scenarios.[10][ninety] A number of people, such as Those people with immunodeficiency, small bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, cardiac valve condition and untimely infants, can be at larger risk for adverse gatherings.[eight] In severely unwell individuals with inflammatory bowel sickness You will find a danger of your passage of viable microbes from your gastrointestinal tract to The inner organs (bacterial translocation) like a consequence of bacteremia, that may lead to adverse health repercussions ...
Studies examine four mechanisms that could sustain the HIV reservoirs in children versus adults: (1) immune tolerance of HIV due to perinatal infection, and/or (2) cross immune tolerance to HIV generated by increased levels of maternal microchimerism (MMc); (3) modulation of gene expression by HIV integration in genes of Treg that promote survival of these cells impairing antiviral functions; and (4) by the persistent loss of gut T-helper (Th)17 cells due to bacterial translocation eliciting pro-inflammatory cytokines that favor the development and persistence of Tregs instead of effective antiviral CD4+ T-cell help. ...
Affiliation:近畿大学,医学部,講師, Research Field:Digestive surgery,General surgery, Keywords:apoptosis,IGF-1,oxidative stress,加齢,敗血症,膵癌,bacterial translocation,aged,術後肝不全,アポトーシス, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:0
In this analyze, we evaluated the impartial impression of microbial translocation and pro-swelling on innate and adaptive immune responses. Apparently, we identified an inverse relation among baseline serum LPS and subsequent adaptive immune response in HAART-naive people. purchase 163769-88-8This association was not observed amongst HAART-addressed subjects. We also located the release of professional-inflammatory cytokines soon after LPS stimulation was enhanced in PBMCs from viremic HAART-naive topics as opposed to HAART-handled subjects, as nicely as in PBMCs from wholesome controls pre-handled with HIV-one-derived RNA, and very similar conclusions have been demonstrated in prior scientific studies [twenty,27]. More, the TNF-a response depended a lot more on increasing HIV RNA levels than on adjustments in LPS stage. Hence, LPS may act in synergy with HIV RNA and cause a disruption of adaptive immune functions by inappropriate immune diversion. Anti-Gal immunoglobulins are potential novel ...
|p|Bio.Me Barrier is a multi-strain probiotic, which has been formulated specifically to support intestinal barrier function. The strains in Bio.Me Barrier have the ability to stimulate a regulatory immune response by raising interleukin-10, inhibiting ma
|p|Bio.Me Barrier is a multi-strain probiotic, which has been formulated specifically to support intestinal barrier function. The strains in Bio.Me Barrier have the ability to stimulate a regulatory immune response by raising interleukin-10, inhibiting ma
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IgA class autoantibodies in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a hint toward bacterial translocation and their pathogenetic role in fibrogenesis
Within the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection, there is a state of constant systemic immune activation that is attributed in part to the enteropathy caused by HIV itself and to the translocation of microbes and/or microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the circulation [8, 30].. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 plus Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 at 109 cfu/mL as probiotics, 10 g of agave inulin as prebiotic, and the combination of both as synbiotic in antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected subjects.. There have been some studies in patients with HIV infection, using different probiotics in which mixed results have been obtained; this is perhaps secondary to the use of different concentrations and probiotic strains, which do not trigger the same immunostimulatory effect [15, 31, 32].. Certain serious adverse effects have been reported with the use of probiotics, particularly endocarditis, liver abscess, bacteremia, and septicemia or septic shock, ...
We show here the importance of NOD2 in driving a proinflammatory immune response by myeloid cells, inducing the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, thus resulting in pancreatic insulitis and the consequent destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells and STZ-induced T1D development. Mice lacking NOD2, but not NOD1, did not develop STZ-induced T1D and were unable to induce a Th1 and Th17 immune response in the PLNs and pancreas. Furthermore, diabetic mice had changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, which may be related to the observed bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, antibiotic treatment impaired both the bacterial translocation to the PLNs and the changes in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with protection from the disease. Additionally, we show here that NOD2 plays a critical role in gut microbiota recognition because the addition of the NOD2 ligand, MDP, was sufficient to promote STZ-induced T1D in Abx-treated, STZ-injected WT mice. ...
Background: Increased rectal luminal lactate concentration may be associated with the severity of the septic shock and high dose of vasopressors. It suggests hypoperfusion of the gut mucosa. This is potentially associated with bacterial translocation from the gut leading to local and systemic inflammation. In acute pancreatitis (AP) bacterial translocation is considered as the key event leading to infection of necrotic pancreatic tissue and high severity of illness. Methods: We used rectal luminal equilibration dialysis for the measurement of gut luminal lactate in 30 consecutive patients admitted to hospital due to acute pancreatitis to test the hypothesis that a single measurement of rectal luminal lactate predicts the severity of acute pancreatitis, the length of hospital stay, the need of intensive care and ultimately, mortality. We also tested the physiological validity of luminal lactate concentration by comparing it to luminal partial tension of oxygen. Additionally, a comparison between ...
The indications for laparoscopic surgery have expanded to include diseases possibly associated with peritonitis such as appendicitis, perforated peptic ulcers, and diverticulitis. The safety of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum in the presence of peritonitis has not been proved. Our previous i...
Emerging data increasingly point towards the duodenum as a key region underlying the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD), one of the most prevalent functional GI disorders. The duodenum plays a major role in the control and coordination of gastroduodenal function. Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity and low-grade inflammation have been associated with altered neuronal signalling and systemic immune activation, and these alterations may ultimately lead to dyspeptic symptoms. Likely luminal candidates inducing the duodenal barrier defect include acid, bile, the microbiota and food antigens although no causal association with symptoms has been convincingly demonstrated. Recognition of duodenal pathology in FD will hopefully lead to the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, allowing biologically targeted rather than symptom-based therapy. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of FD with a focus on the duodenum. ...
Impairment of the intestinal barrier and subsequent microbial translocation (MT) may be involved in chronic immune activation which plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. with CD8 T-cell activation at month 6 defining the T-cell activation set point (% HLA-DR+CD38+ and %Ki-67+). Soluble Compact disc14 and IL-1RA plasma levels predicted the T-cell activation collection point also. Degrees of I-FABP a marker of mucosal problems had been similar to healthful settings at baseline but improved at month 6. No reduction in anti-endotoxin primary antibody (EndoCAb) no peptidoglycan had been recognized during PHI. Furthermore 16 rDNA was just recognized at low amounts in 2 out 27 individuals at baseline and in a single additional individual at M6. Completely data support the hypothesis that T-cell and monocyte activation in PHI arent primarily powered by systemic MT but instead by viral replication. Furthermore the innate immune system arranged point described by the first degrees of sCD14 and ...
Gastrointestinal side effects of HAART are usually well tolerated and do not contribute to significant treatment discontinuation. However, diarrhea of moderate to severe intensity can occur in patients receiving multi-drug therapy [21-23]. The mechanisms underlying antiretroviral-induced diarrhea are unclear. The intestinal epithelium acts as a highly selective barrier, preventing the passage of toxic molecules and luminal bacterial translocation [24]. The normal barrier function is maintained by steady enterocyte turnover finely regulated by cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Cell-to-cell contacts within the intestinal epithelium structured by a scaffold of tight and adherens junctions, located apically, are further responsible for sealing the intestinal barrier [25-27]. The results of this study suggest that selected antiretroviral drugs influence small intestinal absorptive and secretory functions.. We have assessed intestinal mucosal morphology, permeability changes, and ...
This paper belongs to a series of three publications that examine the intestinal barrier, its role in health and disease and the potential impact of probiotics on function. In this review, the authors describe the role of different mechanisms and interactions that support the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. The authors also discuss biomarkers in blood, feces, or urine that can be used to assess intestinal permeability and epithelial integrity.. The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of ...
Clark, EC, Patel, SD, Chadwick, PR, Warhurst, G, Curry, A and Carlson, GL 2003, Glutamine deprivation facilitates tumour necrosis factor induced bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cells by depletion of enterocyte fuel substrate , Gut, 52 (2) , pp. 224-230. Item not available from this repository ...
Dyavar Shetty R, Velu V, Titanji K, Bosinger SE, Freeman GJ, Silvestri G, Amara R R. 2012. PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques.. J Clin Invest. 122(5):1712-6. ...
MegaIgG2000 - Total Immune Defense - a dairy-free immunoglobulin concentrate that supports healthy digestion and maintains a healthy gut barrier function.
Our bodies have four lines of defense against infection: skin, mucosal lining, immune system, and gut microflora, sometimes referred to as gut microbi
INTRODUCTION: The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden.. METHODS: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. RESULTS: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had ...
Background Infection following abdominal operation remains a major factor affecting the morbidity of patients after surgery.. Aim To determine the effects of perioperative administration of probiotics on the gut barrier function and the surgical outcome in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery.. Methods One hundred patients with colorectal carcinoma were randomly divided into the control group (n = 50) and the probiotics group (n = 50). The probiotics were given orally for 6 days preoperatively and 10 days post-operatively. Outcomes were measured by bacterial translocation, gut permeability, the effect on the faecal microbiota, and the clinical outcomes such as infectious-related complications and gut defecation function.. Results Compared with the control group, probiotics group had increased transepithelial resistance (P , 0.05), reduced transmucosal permeation of horseradish peroxidase and lactulose/mannitol ratio, reduced bacterial translocation (P , 0.05), decreased ileal-bile ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an animal model of mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) has an inflammatory profile and whether immune activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has a cumulative effect on subsequent stimuli in this model. We also evaluated the action of lithium (Li) on inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to an animal model of mania. After the open-field test, they were given LPS to induce systemic immune activation. Subsequently, the animals blood was collected, and their serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were measured. RESULTS: LDX induced hyperactivity in the animals, but no inflammatory marker levels increased except brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Li had no effect on serum BDNF levels but prevented iNOS levels from increasing in animals subjected to immune
p,Stroke is a multiphasic process in which initial cerebral ischemia is followed by secondary injury from immune responses to ischemic brain components. Here we demonstrate that peripheral CD11bCD45 myeloid cells magnify stroke injury via activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1), an amplifier of proinflammatory innate immune responses. TREM1 was induced within hours after stroke peripherally in CD11bCD45 cells trafficking to ischemic brain. TREM1 inhibition genetically or pharmacologically improved outcome via protective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Positron electron tomography imaging using radiolabeled antibody recognizing TREM1 revealed elevated TREM1 expression in spleen and, unexpectedly, in intestine. In the lamina propria, noradrenergic-dependent increases in gut permeability induced TREM1 on inflammatory Ly6CMHCII macrophages, further increasing epithelial permeability and facilitating bacterial translocation across the gut barrier. Thus, ...
bacterial translocation: The passage of bacteria from the large intestine to the small intestine, where they do not belong in large numbers. This causes SIBO.. basal ganglia: An area of the brain involved with in regulating movement, thought, and feelings.. basal ganglia direct pathway: The direct pathway is excitatory and increases movements, thoughts, and feelings.. basal ganglia indirect pathway: The indirect pathway is inhibitory and decreases movements, thoughts, and feelings.. BDNF: BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) supports neuron survival, growth, and synapses.. bi-directional axis: The communication system between the brain and the gut; also referred to as the gut-brain axis and the brain-gut axis.. blood-brain barrier: A protective layer around the brain that keeps unwanted substances out of the brain while allowing desirable ones in.. brain fatigue: Decrease in brain function that arises from reading, driving, working, involved conversation, and other tasks that require mental ...
Regardless of infection route, the intestine is the primary site for HIV-1 infection establishment and results in significant mucosal CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion, induces an inflammatory state that propagates viral dissemination, facilitates microbial translocation, and fosters establishment of one of the largest HIV reservoirs. Here we test the prediction that HIV infection modifies the composition and function of the mucosal commensal microbiota. Rectal mucosal microbiota were collected from human subjects using a sponge-based sampling methodology. Samples were collected from 20 HIV-positive men not receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), 20 HIV-positive men on cART and 20 healthy, HIV-negative men. Microbial composition of samples was analyzed using barcoded 16S Illumina deep sequencing (85,900 reads per sample after processing). Microbial metagenomic information for the samples was imputed using the bioinformatic tools PICRUST and HUMAnN. Microbial composition and imputed function in
The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function ...
( team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure of tight junctions in the small intestine, and has made progress in better understanding their ...
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To promote beneficial gut flora and provide comprehensive support for a healthy gut barrier* Perma-Clear offers comprehensive support for a healthy intestin
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Lee, PA; Tullman-Ercek, D; Georgiou, G (2006). "The bacterial twin-arginine translocation pathway". Annual Review of ... "Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes". Nature. 450 (7170): 663-9. ... and transit through this channel is known as translocation. While secreted proteins are threaded through the channel, ...
Deitch, Edwin A. (1 June 1989). "Simple Intestinal Obstruction Causes Bacterial Translocation in Man". Archives of Surgery. 124 ... Mitochondrial DNA resembles bacterial DNA. If bacteria triggers leukocytes, mitochondrial DNA may do the same. When confronted ... This results in increased gut permeability, changed immune function of the gut and increased translocation of bacteria. Liver ...
Henrichsen, J. (December 1972). "Bacterial surface translocation: a survey and a classification". Bacteriological Reviews. 36 ( ... Bacterial cells can also be targeted by twitching: during the cell invasion phase of the lifecycle of Bdellovibrio, type IV ... Twitching motility is a form of crawling bacterial motility used to move over surfaces. Twitching is mediated by the activity ... Ng, Sandy Y. M.; Chaban, Bonnie; Jarrell, Ken F. (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison ...
... and coordinated translocation of a bacterial population across solid or semi-solid surfaces, and is an example of bacterial ... Henrichsen, J (1972). "Bacterial surface translocation: a survey and a classification" (PDF). Bacteriological Reviews. 36 (4): ... Henrichsen, J. (December 1972). "Bacterial surface translocation: a survey and a classification". Bacteriological Reviews. 36 ( ... The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth. Viral activity may ...
... and coordinated translocation of a bacterial population across solid or semi-solid surfaces, and is an example of bacterial ... Henrichsen, J (1972). "Bacterial surface translocation: a survey and a classification". Bacteriological Reviews. 36 (4): 478- ... Harshey, Rasika M. (2003-01-01). "Bacterial Motility on a Surface: Many Ways to a Common Goal". Annual Review of Microbiology. ...
Henrichsen J (December 1972). "Bacterial surface translocation: a survey and a classification". Bacteriological Reviews. 36 (4 ... structurally resemble bacterial type IV pili. Bacterial type IV pili are surface structures that can be extended and retracted ... While the bacterial flagellum is hollow, which allows flagellin monomers to travel through its interior to the tip of the ... However, unlike the bacterial flagellum archaellum has not shown to play a role in archaeal biofilm formation. In archaeal ...
Collinson, I (2005). "The structure of the bacterial protein translocation complex SecYEG". Biochemical Society Transactions. ...
Gastrointestinal: bleeding (ulcer), dysmotility, pneumoperitoneum, bacterial translocation. *Neurological: Hypoxic brain damage ...
Like YopN, TyeA is localized at the bacterial surface. The structure of TyeA is composed of two pairs of parallel alpha-helices ... TyeA is also required for translocation of YopE and YopH. TyeA interacts with YopN and with YopD, a component of the ... In molecular biology, the protein domain TyeA is short for Translocation of Yops into eukaryotic cells A. It controls the ... 1998). "TyeA, a protein involved in control of Yop release and in translocation of Yersinia Yop effectors". EMBO J. 17 (7): ...
"Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein-translocation complex SecYEG". Nature. 418 (6898): 662-5. Bibcode: ... The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase itself comprises 7 proteins, ... in the bacterial cytoplasm. SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the ... indicating that SecDF is involved in earlier translocation steps. Comparison with SecD and SecF proteins from other organisms ...
"Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein-translocation complex SecYEG". Nature. 418 (6898): 662-5. Bibcode: ... The SecY protein is the main transmembrane subunit of the bacterial Sec or Type II secretory pathway and a protein-secreting ... Ito K (September 1992). "SecY and integral membrane components of the Escherichia coli protein translocation system". Molecular ... The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase pathway comprises 7 proteins, ...
"Reduced gut bacterial translocation in European sea bass". Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 30 (2): 674-81. doi:10.1016/j.fsi. ... The cause can be viral or bacterial, however, E. coli is often involved. As MOS can bind E. coli (see Effects of MOS on the ... As mentioned earlier MOS affects bacterial attachment in the intestinal tract. In controlled studies with chickens, a reduction ... verification needed] Corrigan, A.; Horgan, K. A. "The Effects of Mannan oligosaccharide Supplementation on Bacterial ...
Roberts, Jeffrey; Park, Joo-Seop (2004). "Mfd, the bacterial transcription repair coupling factor: translocation, repair and ... quickens the bacterial mutation process. This work researches ways to slow the rate of bacterial mutations and to block their ... In 2015, Merrikh Lab at University of Washington discovered the bacterial protein called Mutation Frequency Decline (Mfd) ... "Structural Basis for Bacterial Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair". Cell. 124 (3): 507-520. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.045. PMID ...
Antibiotics are sometimes prescribed to prevent bacterial translocation from the intestines. Antioxidants such as vitamin E, B- ...
Rapoport TA (November 2007). "Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes ... This also results in the translocation of the amino terminus of the protein into the ER membrane lumen. This translocation, ... These proteins are inserted into the membrane by translocation, until the process is interrupted by a stop-transfer sequence, ... At the plasma membrane, these two pathways deliver proteins to the SecYEG translocon for translocation. Bacteria may have a ...
Rapoport TA (November 2007). "Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes ... Although post-translational translocation is known to occur in eukaryotes, it is poorly understood. It is however known that in ... Signal peptidase may cleave either during or after completion of translocation to generate a free signal peptide and a mature ... Gilmore R, Blobel G, Walter P (November 1982). "Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum. I. Detection in the ...
For the bacterial secretion pathway, see Twin-arginine translocation pathway.. Tat. Representation of a fragment of the Tat ... mediates further translocation of Tat into the cell nucleus.[17][18] As of 2000[update] The biological role of this domain and ...
"The C-terminal tail of the bacterial translocation ATPase SecA modulates its activity". eLife. 8: e48385. doi:10.7554/eLife. ... during both post-translational translocation and co-translational translocation ) and the phospholipid bilayer is important for ... The capability to bind to the SecB chaperone during post-translational translocation, the ribosome ( ... of proteins which are functionally centred on the translocon channel which mediates the export of proteins across the bacterial ...
A bacterial translocation-specific chaperone maintains newly synthesized precursor polypeptide chains in a translocation- ... Zhou J, Xu Z (October 2005). "The structural view of bacterial translocation-specific chaperone SecB: implications for function ... With regard to head morphogenesis, chaperone gp31 interacts with the bacterial host chaperone GroEL to promote proper folding ... New functions for chaperones continue to be discovered, such as bacterial adhesin activity, induction of aggregation towards ...
The antibiotic action involves inhibition of protein synthesis in the bacterial cell during translocation. Resistance to ...
Previous history of abscess infection or gut perforation with bacterial translocation may be elicited. Clostridial infection ... It is caused by a mixture of bacterial types, usually in abdominal or groin areas. This type of infection is usually caused by ... other bacterial infections require two or more days to become symptomatic. Type II infection: This infection accounts for 20 to ... stimulating a massive systemic immune response which is not effective against the bacterial antigen, precipitating shock. Type ...
"Detecting folding intermediates of a protein as it passes through the bacterial translocation channel". Cell. 138 (6): 1164-73 ... DsbA is a bacterial thiol disulfide oxidoreductase (TDOR). DsbA is a key component of the Dsb (disulfide bond) family of ... Heras B, Shouldice SR, Totsika M, Scanlon MJ, Schembri MA, Martin JL (March 2009). "DSB proteins and bacterial pathogenicity". ...
This leaking, known as bacterial "translocation", can lead to lethal conditions such as sepsis. In humans, translocation is ... In rodent studies, L. reuteri was found to greatly reduce the amount of bacterial translocation following either the surgical ... one of which is bacterial translocation. In mice, the absence of L. reuteri has been causally linked to maternal diet. A gut ... "The role of oral administration of oatmeal fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC on bacterial translocation after acute liver ...
... in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
It is a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor by inhibiting ribosomal translocation, in a similar way to macrolides. It does so ... Clindamycin is formulated in a vaginal cream and as vaginal ovules for treatment of bacterial vaginosis. It is also available ... Clindamycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections, including bone or joint infections, ... A disadvantage is that bacterial resistance can develop fairly quickly. Gastrointestinal upset may also occur. Toxoplasmosis ...
The signal peptide acts as a signal for translocation of pre-prothermolysin to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. In the ... These enzymes are also termed 'neutral' proteinases or thermolysin -like proteinases (TLPs). Like all bacterial extracellular ...
Leo JC, Grin I, Linke D (April 2012). "Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane". ... The folding of this domain is thought to be intrinsically linked to its method of outer membrane translocation. Trimeric ... In molecular biology, an autotransporter domain is a structural domain found in some bacterial outer membrane proteins. The ... "Structure of the translocator domain of a bacterial autotransporter". The EMBO Journal. 23 (6): 1257-66. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj. ...
... bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibit polypeptide elongation by hindering peptidyl transfer RNA translocation ... Jacobs, Michael R. (March 2003). "How can we predict bacterial eradication?". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 7: ...
Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus ... implications for protein translocation". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1083-92. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.10.034. PMID 18158904.. ... Michie KA, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75: 467-92. doi: ... The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long ...
... in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... It is homologous to the basal body in bacterial flagella. It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. ...
Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... For example, if the goal of an experiment is to detect the breakpoint of a translocation, then the overlap of the probes - the ... The same physics that make a variety of colors possible for M-FISH can be used for the detection of translocations. That is, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
... while archaeal flagella appear to have evolved from bacterial type IV pili.[106] In contrast to the bacterial flagellum, which ... Subramaniam S; Henderson R (August 2000). "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature ... Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[104][105] ...
1994). "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". J Mol Evol. (38(6)): 566-576.. ... Subramaniam S, Henderson R (2000). "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature 406 ( ... Ng SY, Chaban B, Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Cavalier-Smith T. (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial ...
Unfolding and translocationEdit. After a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is recognized by the 19S regulatory particle in an ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... While energy is needed for substrate unfolding, it is not required for translocation.[27][28] The assembled 26S proteasome can ... The ATP molecules bound before the initial recognition step are hydrolyzed before translocation. ...
An inhibitory protein, IκBα, that normally binds to NF-κB and inhibits its translocation, is phosphorylated by IKK and ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... protein import into nucleus, translocation. • positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis. • positive ...
... bacterial translocation) as a consequence of bacteremia, which can cause adverse health consequences.[5] Rarely, consumption of ... Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... In the following decades, intestinal lactic-acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as ... and the pathogens causing bacterial vaginosis.[86] In 2013, researchers found that administration of hydrogen peroxide- ...
200kb bacterial artificial chromosomes to small oligonucleotides) that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is ... characterizing chromosomal translocations and determining the origin of ring chromosomes. ... particularly sensitive for detection of genomic gains or losses across the genome but does not detect balanced translocations ...
The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and ... Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA ... Several other bacterial virulence effectors like VirB5, VirB7 (the minor components of the T-complex), VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and ... The bacterial virulence genes expression of approximately 10 operons is activated by perception of phenolic compounds such as ...
A bacterial cytochrome c functions as a nitrite reductase.[19]. Role in apoptosis[edit]. Cytochrome c also has an intermediate ... "Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the ... Ambler RP (May 1991). "Sequence variability in bacterial cytochromes c". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1058 (1): 42-7. doi: ... This raises the possibility about existence of yet-unidentified specific mechanisms for protein translocation from mitochondria ...
Gendrel, D.; Cohen, R. (2008). "Diarrhées bactériennes et antibiotiques : les recommandations européennes" [Bacterial diarrheas ... "Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of Campylobacter jejuni in nonpolarized and polarized ... jejuni is now recognized as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.[4][5] C. jejuni ...
"Bacterial Programmed Cell Death and Multicellular Behavior in Bacteria". PLoS Genetics. 2 (10): e135. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ... the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome translocations often found in follicular lymphoma. Unlike other ...
... interferes with transcription by binding to the β-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase.[14] This results in the ... blockage of the translocation step that normally follows the formation of the first phosphodiester bond, which occurs in the ... Because of this local action within the gut and the lack of horizontal transfer of resistant genes the development of bacterial ... Rifaximin is particularly indicated where small intestine bacterial overgrowth is suspected of involvement in a person's IBS. ...
Natural bacterial transformation occurs in many bacterial species, and can be regarded as a sexual process for transferring DNA ... chromosomal translocation). ... Transformation requires the action of numerous bacterial gene ... "Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5. ... "Bacterial transformation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-3520-5. ...
Dimroth P. Bacterial sodium ion-coupled energetics. „Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek". 65 (4), s. 381-95, 1994. DOI: 10.1007/BF00872221 ... Energy transduction by coupling of proton translocation to electron transfer by the cytochrome bc1 complex. „J. Biol. Chem.". ...
Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... and class switch recombination in chromosomal translocations". DNA Repair (Amst.). 5 (9-10): 1234-1245. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep. ... "Class switching and Myc translocation: how does DNA break?". Nat. Immunol. 5 (11): 1101-1103. doi:10.1038/ni1104-1101. PMC ...
Bui, D.M.; Gregan, J.; Jarosch, E.; Ragnini, A.; Schweyen, R. J. (1999). "The bacterial magnesium transporter CorA can ... The major driving force for the translocation of ions in plant cells is ΔpH.[78] H+-ATPases pump H+ ions against their ...
The predicted translocation pathway in BtuCD is open to the periplasm and closed at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane while ... In bacterial efflux systems, certain substances that need to be extruded from the cell include surface components of the ... For importers, since translocation is directed from the periplasm to the cytoplasm, then the outward-facing conformation will ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ...
In addition to some of these AB5 toxins being used to create vaccines to prevent bacterial infection, they are also being ... Teter, Ken (10 December 2013). "Toxin Instability and Its Role in Toxin Translocation from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the ... Bacterial AB5 Toxins Held, Paul. "An Introduction to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Technology and its ... This can further help us understand the signaling cascade that follows a cellular loss of K+ when exposed to bacterial ...
unsuccessful transfer or abortive transfer which is any bacterial DNA transfer of the donor cell recipients who have set the ... This can cause chromosomal translocations, sometimes leading to cancer. In B cellsEdit. Main article: Immunoglobulin class ... regular bacterial recombination, as well as noneffective transfer of genetic material, expressed as ... In bacteria, transformation is a process of gene transfer that ordinarily occurs between individual cells of the same bacterial ...
XXY males with SLE have an abnormal X-Y translocation resulting in the partial triplication of the PAR1 gene region.[104] ...
It has also been used to treat small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. It is not given via injection, as neomycin is extremely ... MLS (transpeptidation/translocation). Macrolides. *Azithromycin#. *Boromycin. *Clarithromycin#. *Dirithromycin. *Erythromycin# ...
Setlow P (April 2007). "I will survive: DNA protection in bacterial spores". Trends in Microbiology. 15 (4): 172-80. doi: ... as well as the domain responsible for mediating translocation of the light chain into the cell cytoplasm as the vacuole ... correctly described Clostridium botulinum as the bacterial source of the toxin. Thirty-four attendees at a funeral were ...
... higher type I IFN levels are associated with worsening disease in bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis and lepromatous ... STATs and reduced STAT nuclear translocation.[9][15] ...
Dimroth P (1994). "Bacterial sodium ion-coupled energetics". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 65 (4): 381-95. doi:10.1007/BF00872221. ... Energy transduction by coupling of proton translocation to electron transfer by the cytochrome bc1 complex" (PDF). J. Biol. ... Some bacterial electron transport chains use different quinones, such as menaquinone, in addition to ubiquinone.[11] ... a form of the enzyme that contains additional proteins with little similarity in sequence to other bacterial and eukaryotic ATP ...
Links to bacterial transformationEdit. The process of bacterial transformation also shares many similarities with chromosomal ... "Non-allelic homologous recombination between retrotransposable elements is a driver of de novo unbalanced translocations" ... Bacterial transformation itself has been linked to DNA repair many times.[5] The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis ... It is likely that crossing over may have evolved from bacterial transformation, which in turn developed from DNA repair, thus ...
Dimroth P (1994). "Bacterial sodium ion-coupled energetics". 《Antonie van Leeuwenhoek》 65 (4): 381-95. doi:10.1007/BF00872221. ... Energy transduction by coupling of proton translocation to electron transfer by the cytochrome bc1 complex" (PDF). 《J. Biol. ...
The diet of red‐tailed phascogales in a trial translocation at Alice Springs Desert Park, Northern Territory, Australia. ... The serum of red-tailed phascogales has been showed to have antimicrobial properties against some bacterial species.[17] ...
Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of intestinal bacterial translocation to facilitate definition of its proposed role in ... Bacterial translocation has been long been considered as a possible direct cause of sepsis when under certain conditions ... This review provides a brief overview of bacterial translocation in the intestine, discusses our current understanding of the ... Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of intestinal bacterial translocation to facilitate definition of its proposed role in ...
Role of the Intestine in a Self-Limiting Inflammatory Response With Demonstrable Bacterial Translocation, Annals of Thoracic ...
Transfected Cta1 Translocation Assay. The mounted cells had been then permeabilized by including 0.2% Triton X-one hundred in ... Bacterial Pathogenesis. EGCG and PB2 thus seem to particularly disrupt CT-GM1 interactions, in distinction to the inhibition of ... However, the compounds might nonetheless inhibit toxin translocation through different mechanisms.. Coimmunoprecipitation of ... lowered CTA1 subunit places it in a translocation-competent conformation for ERAD-mediated export to the cytosol . As our ...
Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation in a mouse model of alcohol-induced liver injury ... To find a possible cause for the bacterial overgrowth and subsequent bacterial translocation, the gene expression of ... In order to measure the bacterial translocation, bacteria from the mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured quantitatively. The ... The bacterial load of aerobic bacteria after one day and one week of alcohol administration showed no significant increase. ...
... and TRANSLOCATION (molecular basis of the bacterial cell wall permeability) - that showcase an unprecedented partnership ... In Europe, the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) has launched two projects - Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe ( ...
bacterial infection [1]. bacterial translocation [2]. bacterium [1]. Baltic Sea diet [1]. ...
Bacterial translocation in colorectal cancer patients. Alina Ogizbayeva, Yermek Turgunov. J CLIN MED KAZ 2021; 18(3):8-13 ...
... approach reveals translocation and stalling of UvrB on the DNA lesion as a mechanism of damage verification in bacterial ...
There may be an icreased incidence Räkkikaappi bacterial translocation and destructive effect on Staphylococcus aureus due to ...
... and enhanced the bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal organs (Figure 5). Figure 5: Oral administration of FB1 ... can cause increased translocation of bacterial pathogens across the intestine. In piglets, oral administrations of FB1 for ...
Bacterial translocation in the course of acute pancreatitis is a lifethreatening complication. In this study we examined ... These antimicrobial peptides help to provide and keep the intestinal bacterial balance and are therefore responsible for an ... Bacterial translocation in the course of acute pancreatitis is a lifethreatening complication. In this study we examined ... These antimicrobial peptides help to provide and keep the intestinal bacterial balance and are therefore responsible for an ...
Bacterial translocation in the course of acute pancreatitis is a lifethreatening complication. In this study we examined ... These antimicrobial peptides help to provide and keep the intestinal bacterial balance and are therefore responsible for an ... Bacterial translocation in the course of acute pancreatitis is a lifethreatening complication. In this study we examined ... These antimicrobial peptides help to provide and keep the intestinal bacterial balance and are therefore responsible for an ...
Bacterial DNA translocation holds increased insulin resistance and systemic inflammatory levels in morbid obese patients. The ... Immunobiology of recurrent bacterial translocation episodes and low-level inflammation in digestive and metabolic diseases. We ... Genetic susceptibility to increased bacterial translocation influences the response to biological therapy in patients with ... microbiological and genetic approaches to study the main pathogenic mechanisms of bacterial translocation, from intestinal ...
Also, dense sources of fat could promote the translocation of bacterial endotoxins from the gut. ...
Secondary game of the month free spins bacterial infections can also occur from gut translocation. Doctor eric hattaway ...
Bacterial spot. Bacterial wilt. Copper oxychloride. Vitigran Blue 35 WP. 4.0-6.0. Spray when the first cluster is well formed. ... It invades the roots of tomato then progresses to the vascular bundle where it interferes with the translocation of nutrients ... 4. Bacterial spot - is caused by Xanthomonas campestris var. vesicatoria an agent of bacterial spot, which is characterized by ... TMV-MR bacterial wilt-MR. Magilas for fresh. 30. 1-2. 30. Pink red. large. oblong. Determinate. Dry and wet season. Dumping off ...
Genetic susceptibility to increased bacterial translocation influences the response to biological therapy in patients with ... Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis. ...
a translocation domain that after cell-binding facilitates delivery of the killing domain to its cellular target ... The activity of bacteriocins against Gram-negative bacterial species is potentially of great value given the current paucity of ... Therapeutic use in patients to treat serious bacterial infections. *A platform technology to develop a range of novel ... a killing domain which is responsible for killing the sensitive bacterial cell; examples include DNAses, RNAses and pore- ...
This bacterial factor acts as an autophosphorylating tyrosine kinase and induces apoptosis in mouse macrophages (Tenguria et al ... This, in turn, opens epithelial barrier to facilitate translocation of L. monocytogenes through gut barrier (Drolia et al., ... Cell Host & Microbe). L. monocytogenes causes gastroenteritis in healthy individuals but bacterial factors that contribute to ...
... however the most likely one is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). ... This change in the PH and environment of the small intestine allows for bacterial trans location and overgrowth. A lack in the ... Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is exactly what it sounds like, an overgrowth of commensal bacteria and archaea that has ... The bi-product of this bacterial fermentation of sugars and fibres is excess amounts of methane or hydrogen gasses and in less ...
Bacterial Translocation, and Interactions with Diet: Pathophysiological Links between Major Depressive Disorder and Non- ... It can cause bacterial overgrowth, and at the same time reduce some of the friendly "good" microbes like Lactobacillus. ...
The disruption of the bacterial balance creates mal-absorption, leaky gut and a translocation of bacteria into the bloodstream. ...
The antibiotic viomycin traps the ribosome in an intermediate state of translocation.: During protein synthesis, transfer RNA ... Viomycin blocks translocation on bacterial ribosomes and is believed to bind at the subunit interface. Using fluorescent ... The antibiotic viomycin traps the ribosome in an intermediate state of translocation.. Authors * Dn, Ermolenko ... During protein synthesis, transfer RNA and messenger RNA undergo coupled translocation through the ribosome s A, P and E sites ...
... some toxic debris such as partially digested food particles and bacterial fragments may leak through the intestinal walls and ... Deitch, E.A., The role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and ... some toxic debris such as partially digested food particles and bacterial fragments may leak through the intestinal walls. ...
... probiotics could be used as means of reducing bacterial translocation and secondary infection. However, even though probiotics ...
  • Here, we demonstrate in mice important roles for the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in maintaining LP macrophage populations, preventing translocation of commensal bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), and limiting colitogenic Th17 responses. (
  • In this model, the addition of HS to PHT leads to an increased mortality but without uniform translocation of the gut flora beyond mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • The migration and colonization of bacteria and/or bacterial products from the bowel to mesenteric lymph nodes is a controlled process in healthy persons. (
  • Cyclophosphamide treatment in this study, however, significantly decreased E. coli C25 translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), although the numbers of lymphoid cells, especially B cells, in the PP, MLN, and spleen were remarkably reduced. (
  • The incidence of bacterial translocation at 24 hours after CLP as assessed by cultivation of mesenteric lymph nodes and blood was significantly decreased in the H2 group versus the control group. (
  • Translocation of labelled bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and serum was determined using radioactivity/count and colony forming units/g(CFU/g). (
  • The intestinal permeability, glutathione level, NF-κB DNA-binding activity, TLR4 expression of intestinal mucosa, BT to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and bacterial killing activity of peritoneal cells were measured after thermal injury. (
  • Increasing evidence indicates that these infections result from bacterial translocation (BT) from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, combined with failure of host defense mechanisms to clear the translocating organisms ( 8 , 37 ). (
  • METHODS: For this study, 110 rats were given intraperitoneal bacterial innoculations with Escherichia coli and equally divided into five groups of 20 animals each. (
  • The hypothesis that PHT induces bacterial translocation (BT) was tested in a rat model with or without mono-association with streptomycin resistant Escherichia coli C25 and with or without hypovolemic shock. (
  • Translocation of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be observed using intravital microscopy. (
  • Effects of intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide, an immunosuppressant, on the degree of bacterial translocation and morphological changes of Peyer's patches (PP) in the intestine were investigated with antibiotic-decontaminated SPF mice and germfree mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli C25. (
  • Methods: Balb/c mice were treated with 10 μg of antimurine interleukin-6, a nonspecific mouse IgG, or placebo 1 hour before they underwent bacterial challenge by gavage of 10 10 Escherichia coli and burn injury. (
  • In Escherichia coli, many Tat substrates contain prosthetic groups and undergo cytoplasmic assembly processes prior to the translocation event. (
  • To investigate the role of β-(1-3)-D-glucan on 99mTc labelled Escherichia coli translocation and cytokines secretion in rats submitted to small bowel ischemia/reperfusion injury. (
  • Charpentier X, Oswald E (2004) Identification of the secretion and translocation domain of the enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector Cif, using TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a new fluorescence-based reporter. (
  • We are interested in the mechanism of substrate recognition and protein translocation by the Tat pathway in the model organism Escherichia coli . (
  • About 25% to 30% of the bacterial proteins function in the cell envelope or outside of the cell. (
  • The Sec translocase mediates the translocation of proteins across the membrane and the insertion of membrane proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • Fully synthesized bacterial secretory proteins are transported across the plasma membrane post-translationally by the ATPase SecA. (
  • However, extensive analysis of type III effector proteins, Yops, from Yersinia , has identified two modular domains at the N terminus of Yops sufficient for secretion and translocation ( 14 ). (
  • Type III secretion systems (TTSS or secretons), essential determinants of the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with animal or plant hosts, serve to translocate bacterial proteins into eukaryotic host cells to manipulate them during infection. (
  • TTS is characterized by ( i ) host contact-mediated TTSS induction, ( ii ) energy requirement for protein secretion and translocation into host cells, ( iii ) secretion-regulated expression of genes encoding proteins secreted downstream in the pathway, and ( iv ) dedicated cytoplasmic chaperones for some secreted proteins. (
  • The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) protein export system is found in the cytoplasmic membrane of most prokaryotes and is dedicated to the transport of folded proteins. (
  • In contrast, the Bacillus anthracis species uses a different binary toxin, which consists of two enzymatic proteins: the lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors, and a protein translocation channel, PA. (
  • Similarly, the first 20 aa of the effector proteins Map, EspF, and Tir, which are encoded in the same region as the TTSS, mediated secretion and translocation in a type III-dependent but chaperone-independent manner. (
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Cif is composed of a C-terminal effector domain and an exchangeable N-terminal translocation signal and that the TEM-1 reporter system is a convenient tool for the study of the translocation of toxins or effector proteins into host cells. (
  • Genetic evidence suggests that a family of bacterial and eukaryotic integral membrane proteins (referred to as Wzx and Rft1, respectively) mediates the transbilayer movement of isoprenoid lipid-linked glycans. (
  • A family of bacterial and eukaryotic integral membrane proteins (referred to as Wzx and Rft1, respectively) is implicated in mediating the transbilayer movement of isoprenoid lipid-linked glycans ( 16 , 21 , 27 , 41 , 47 ). (
  • Wzx proteins, on the other hand, are found in bacterial systems that use a Wzy (polymerase)-dependent pathway for the assembly of O antigen and certain capsular polysaccharides (for recent reviews see references 39 and 47 ). (
  • Properties of signal peptide-specific systems are highlighted for the development of new therapeutic and antimicrobial applications, as compounds can target signal peptides from either host cells or pathogens and thereby selectively prevent translocation of those specific proteins. (
  • Since protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, translocation of proteins across biological membranes is essential for cellular function. (
  • The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is a protein targeting pathway dedicated to the transport of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • Bacterial proteins, whether surface bound or secreted, are crucial for mediating bacterial virulence. (
  • Thus, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind bacterial pathogenesis, it is important to study whether these effector proteins are translocated into eukaryotic target cells. (
  • Here, we present a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method that can be used to identify the localization of bacterial proteins in the eukaryotic cell cytosol. (
  • These machines have broad clinical significance not only for delivering bacterial toxins or effector proteins directly into targeted host cells, but also for direct involvement in phenomena such as biofilm formation and the rapid horizontal spread of antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. (
  • A variety of bacteria that intimately interact with eukaryotic hosts-both pathogens and symbionts-have adopted T4SSs to transmit bacterial proteins to the host cytoplasm. (
  • We propose that the Ab response against actin produced by tumor-infiltrating B lymphoplasmacytic cells is Ag-driven, affinity-matured, and elicited due to the increased rate of apoptosis occurring within the MCB tumor that facilitates the translocation and proteolytic fragmentation of intracellular proteins. (
  • Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strain that involves extracellular translocation of proteins that lack N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequences. (
  • A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins secreted by this pathway (i.e., hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). (
  • The core of the Translocatome database is the manually curated data set of 213 human translocating proteins listing the source of their experimental validation, several details of their translocation mechanism, their local compartmentalized interactome, as well as their involvement in signalling pathways and disease development. (
  • In addition, using the well-established and widely used gradient boosting machine learning tool, XGBoost, Translocatome provides translocation probability values for 13 066 human proteins identifying 1133 and 3268 high- and low-confidence translocating proteins, respectively. (
  • The database has user-friendly search options with a UniProt autocomplete quick search and advanced search for proteins filtered by their localization, UniProt identifiers, translocation likelihood or data complexity. (
  • The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system is similar to Sec in the process of protein secretion, however, it sends proteins only in their folded (tertiary) state. (
  • Effects of intra-abdominal pressure increase on intestinal ischemia and bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis model. (
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well known, but the role of Lactobacillus species probiotics is still controversial. (
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 attenuated GI leakage in these models, as shown by the reductions of FITC-dextran gut translocation, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, bacteremia, and sepsis mortality. (
  • Bacterial translocation as a direct cause of sepsis is an attractive hypothesis that presupposes that in specific situations bacteria cross the intestinal barrier, enter the systemic circulation, and cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. (
  • Despite good evidence from experimental studies to support the theory of bacterial translocation as a cause of sepsis, there is little evidence in human studies to confirm that translocation is directly correlated to bloodstream infections in critically ill children. (
  • Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, bacterial sepsis remains a significant cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, particularly among critically ill children. (
  • Among these different possibilities, bacterial translocation across the gastrointestinal tract has been suggested as one of the principal pathogenetic mechanisms of sepsis and organ dysfunction among critically ill children [ 2 ]. (
  • Although clinical evidence suggests the importance of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of sepsis syndrome, bacterial translocation itself may not be the primary cause [ 8 ]. (
  • The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to discuss bacterial translocation, including its definition and role in causing sepsis syndrome and organ failure in critically ill children. (
  • Hydrogen-rich saline regulates intestinal barrier dysfunction, dysbiosis and bacterial translocation in sepsis. (
  • In this study, the authors focused on the key factors responsible for bacterial translocation including the intestinal microbiome and investigated the impact of molecular hydrogen therapy as a countermeasure against bacterial translocation in a murine model of sepsis . (
  • The translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium of immunocompromised patients can lead to bacteremia and life-threatening sepsis. (
  • Pseudomonas (PSA) burn wound sepsis results in prolonged bacterial translocation (BT) of enteric organisms such as E. coli to the ric lymph nodes (MLN) and organs in rats. (
  • Reduction of the number of translocating organisms did not result in improved mean survival time after injury, suggesting that mortality from PSA burn wound sepsis occurs independently of bacterial translocation. (
  • Protein targeting by the bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. (
  • It is the two successive arginines from which the name twin arginine translocation came from. (
  • Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates wherein peptidyl-tRNA enters the P site of the small ribosomal subunit via reversible, swivel-like motions of the small subunit head domain within the elongation factor G (GDP)-bound ribosome complex. (
  • However, the mechanism by which SecA couples its energy consumption to this translocation activity is unclear. (
  • Bacterial translocation (BT) is an important mechanism in the development of infection in liver cirrhosis. (
  • Although the exact mechanism of immune activation by Gram-positive bacteria remains unknown, recent studies of immune activation by bacterial LPS provide a clue. (
  • To understand the protein translocation mechanism, it is important to elucidate the structure of the Ib-pore as well as the Ia-bound Ib-pore. (
  • Translocation of verotoxin-1 across T84 monolayers: mechanism of bacterial toxin penetration of epithelium. (
  • Philpott DJ, Ackerley CA, Kiliaan AJ, Karmali MA, Perdue MH, Sherman PM. Translocation of verotoxin-1 across T84 monolayers: mechanism of bacterial toxin penetration of epithelium. (
  • The mechanism clearly consists of translocation of protons across the membrane, says Grond. (
  • Association of markers of bacterial translocation with immune activation in decompensated cirrhosis. (
  • Portal hypertension factor without cirrhosis increases and changes the pattern of BT, especially to the lung at a-PH and to the PF at c-PH states, under small bowel Gram-negative bacterial overgrowth conditions. (
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 without antioxidants does not decrease bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. (
  • 1] showing that bacterial translocation occurs not only in rats with advanced CCl4-induced cirrhosis but also in rats with early stages of liver injury. (
  • VSL#3 probiotic treatment decreases bacterial translocation in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. (
  • Effect of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 and antioxidants on intestinal flora and bacterial translocation in rats with experimental cirrhosis. (
  • to prevent bacterial translocation in a rat model of experimental cirrhosis. (
  • We conclude that melatonin prevents bacterial translocation while precluding the harmful effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on intestinal tissues in a rat model of superior mesenteric artery occlusion. (
  • Obstruction [ 16 , 17 ] and ischemia [ 18 , 19 ] cause mucosal injury with a subsequent increase of mucosal permeability and thus bacterial translocation. (
  • We describe a novel animal model to study bacterial translocation under conditions of intestinal obstruction and ischemia in vivo. (
  • Background/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection of bacterial translocation after subclinical ischemia reperfusion injuries in rats with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. (
  • It is well known that mesenteric ischemia per se, regardless of the IAP, may lead to decreased integrity, increased permeability, bacterial translocation (BT), and the development of MOF [ 10 - 12 ]. (
  • Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation and apoptosis in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acidinduced colitis of rats. (
  • An E. coli MC1000 qseC mutant was constructed, and E. coli MC1000 and MC1000ΔqseC with streptomycin resistance were used to track bacterial translocation after gavage in rats. (
  • We found the incidence of bacterial translocation in the M-HS rats was higher than in the Δ-HS rats. (
  • Bacterial translocation, endotoxaemia and apoptosis following Pringle manoeuvre in rats. (
  • Intestinal mucosal oxidative damage and bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats. (
  • Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. (
  • Bloodstream infection may arise through multiple routes, including bacterial translocation across the epithelial-mucosa as in the airways, gastrointestinal tract, kidney or genital tract, and skin breaks as in wounds and during insertion of central venous catheters or other medical devices [ 1 ]. (
  • Inhibition of bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract of mice injected with cyclophosphamide. (
  • These data suggested that inhibition of bacterial translocation in mice treated with cyclophosphamide may be the result of morphological and physiological changes of epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract, especially M-cells, as a point of entry of invading bacteria, independent of the changes in immunological function. (
  • The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to a vast and complex bacterial ecosystem, hosting over 400 different species. (
  • A phenomenon related to leaky gut syndrome is that of bacterial translocation, whereby whole bacteria or bacterial poisons (endotoxins) pass through the gastrointestinal walls and are absorbed by the lymph glands, liver, lungs and other organs. (
  • Bacterial infection is a frequent complication following operations in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Apart from the basic aspects of the intestinal microflora and the immune system of the gut, gastrointestinal permeability and translocation as well as the contribution of the intestine and the intestinal bacteria to the metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and drugs are discussed. (
  • In addition, experimental as well as clinical data demonstrating the significance of gut-derived bacterial toxins for the development of liver diseases and the effect of liver diseases on gastrointestinal functions are discussed. (
  • Section II: Gastrointestinal Permeability and Translocation. (
  • Taken together with the abolition of LPS effect in TLR4 mutant mice, we conclude that commensal microflora induce host defense and decrease bacterial translocation in burn mice through toll-like receptor 4. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of bacterial translocation in the E. coli rat peritonitis model is increased with insufflation using CO2 or helium, and this effect is more significant at lower pressures (3 mmHg) than at higher pressures (14 mmHg). (
  • Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine whether the absence of the ability of E. coli to sense epinephrine/norepinephrine would attenuate the bacterial translocation to extraintestinal organs in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. (
  • Therefore, a role for E. coli sensing epinephrine/norepinephrine in the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation following hemorrhagic shock is proposed. (
  • Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. (
  • Translocation of GFP-transfected E. coli from an obstructed segment of terminal ileum across the gut wall and into distant organs was investigated by intravital microscopy. (
  • Survival and the extent of translocation of E coli were determined as well as the correlation between the IL-6 levels and survival times. (
  • Conclusions: Interleukin-6 appears to play a major role in both the intensity of translocation of E coli from the intestine following burn injury and the host's ability to kill translocated organisms. (
  • One hundred ten E. coli isolates from 110 cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or spontaneous bacteremia were characterized for their phylogenetic group and virulence genotype (34 extraintestinal virulence factor genes). (
  • In conclusion, E. coli isolates causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in cirrhotic patients are genetically diverse. (
  • A variety of natural substances have been shown in experimental and clinical studies to enhance the protective and barrier functions of the gut walls, and hence to diminish hyperpermeability and bacterial translocation. (
  • These results suggest luminal administration of hydrogen-rich saline , which prevents intestinal dysbiosis, hyperpermeability and bacterial translocation , could potentially be a new therapeutic strategy in critical illness. (
  • Similarly, we recently demonstrated gut leakage after antibiotic administration, and gut bacterial translocation, in a mouse model of Clostridium difficile infection ( 2 ). (
  • The basis for the earliest steps in innate immune response to Gram-positive bacterial infection is poorly understood. (
  • These data suggest that the similarity of clinical response to invasive infection by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is due to bacterial recognition via similar TLRs. (
  • Bacterial infection typically results in activation of the innate immune system. (
  • We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. (
  • McCann JR, McDonough JA, Pavelka MS, Braunstein M (2007) Beta-lactamase can function as a reporter of bacterial protein export during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of host cells. (
  • Mobilization en bloc of large gene regions can efficiently transfer entire arsenals of functional modules that promote survival and infection activities. (
  • We tested our hypothesis following PGC-1 expression in an acute pancreatitis (AP) model, characterized initially by a strong sterile inflammatory response, followed, few days later, by bacterial intestinal translocation and disseminated infection. (
  • Cornelis GR (2000) Type III secretion: a bacterial device for close combat with cells of their eukaryotic host. (
  • Bacterial translocation (BT) is defined as the passage of viable bacteria from the intestinal lumen to other tissues or organs. (
  • The process by which bacteria and their products migrate from the GIT to the bloodstream and other organs is called "bacterial translocation," which was first described as a clinical phenomenon by Wolochow and colleagues in the 1960s ( 1 ) and was investigated experimentally by Berg and coworkers in the 1980s ( 2 - 10 ). (
  • Melatonin reduces bacterial translocatio. (
  • melatonin on bacterial translocation and apoptosis in a rat ulcerative colitis model. (
  • The effect of melatonin on bacterial tra. (
  • Early apoptosis of monocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response and of bacterial translocation in an experimental model of multiple trauma, Clinical Exp Immunology 2006;145:139-146. (
  • No data exist to date on the effects of Pm on mucosal barrier dysfunction, systemic bacterial translocation (BT), endotoxaemia and apoptosis. (
  • Although several ExPEC virulence factors have been identified ( 21 , 28 , 29 ), they have not been directly linked to translocation from the intestine. (
  • Commensal depletion decreased TLR4 expression as well as NF-κB activation of intestine, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as TNFα expression of lung, and bacterial killing activity of peritoneal cells. (
  • Collectively, commensal microflora induce TLR4 expression of intestine and bacterial killing activity of inflammatory cells in burn. (
  • SecA is a central component of the general secretion system that is essential for bacterial growth and thus an ideal target for antimicrobial agents. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that altered intestinal microbiota, likely secondary to the consumption of a high-fat diet, and enhanced translocation of bacteria and their toxins could serve as an important trigger of TLR-4 mediated low-grade inflammation in the pancreas resulting in beta-cell dysfunction. (
  • Therefore, we conclude that uremia associates with intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and bacterial trans location, which trigger the state of persistent systemic inflammation in CKD. (
  • Increasing evidence relates them to the higher susceptibility to bacterial translocation (BT) by liver dysfunction and hemodynamic changes. (
  • This bacterial translocation and the associated absorption of endotoxins can result in multiple organ stress and dysfunction. (
  • Bacterial translocation is a major cause of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in critical illness, and its management is an important therapeutic strategy. (
  • The use of β-lactamase translational fusions has proven to be a convenient and sensitive tool for detecting bacterial protein secretion. (
  • This paper provides an overview of the gut microflora and its significance, a focus on the mechanisms employed by bacteria to gain access to the systemic circulation, and how critical illness creates a hostile environment in the gut and alters the microflora favoring the growth of pathogens that promote bacterial translocation. (
  • The purpose with this study was to find whether high doses of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v affects the potentially pathogenic microflora of the gut, bacterial translocation and cell proliferation in patients undergoing planned colon surgery. (
  • These devices perform regulated posttranslational and cotranslational protein translocation across three biological membranes, involving novel pathways of protein targeting. (
  • NCs comprise a 10 × 60-nm external needle inserted within a 30-nm (in diameter) cylinder traversing both bacterial membranes and the peptidoglycan. (
  • As they explain in the journal Angewandte Chemie , proton transport across bacterial membranes is involved. (
  • A further observation was that active lugdunin derivatives break down the electrical potential (the difference in voltage between the interior and exterior) of bacterial cell membranes, thereby killing the bacteria. (
  • Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. (
  • To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. (
  • Thus modulation of microbiota composition/translocation could potentially halt the decline in beta-cell function characterized of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • 1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. (
  • It has been reported that treatment with cyclophosphamide induces bacterial translocation. (
  • Expression of these oncogenic bacterial genes induces tumour formation in a broad range of plant hosts [ 1 ]. (
  • CKD related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. (
  • In this article we show that the translocation pathway of diphtheria toxin allows much larger molecules to be translocated than does the translocation pathway of colicin Ia. (
  • There was a statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels and in the incidence of bacterial translocation in group II, along with a decrease in glutathione levels. (
  • Secretion and translocation of bacterial pathogen effectors into host cells via dedicated secretion machineries like type III secretion systems (T3SSs) or type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) is a key feature employed by pathogens to attack host cells. (
  • These complications are attributed to bacterial translocation demonstrated in animal and human studies. (
  • Bacterial translocation (BT) may cause infections, in particular, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). (
  • All these knockout strains displayed markedly increased translocation of commensal bacteria to mLNs. (
  • The flagellar assembly pathway takes at least one bacterial generation to complete from initiation of transcription ( 21 ), a long time for a bacterium entering a well defended host. (
  • This difference cannot be attributed to specific recognition of the A chain by diphtheria toxin's translocation pathway because the translocation pathway also accommodates folded myoglobin. (
  • This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, significantly reduced serum endotoxin levels, and fully reversed all markers of systemic inflammation to the level of nonuremic controls. (
  • The study aims to establish whether a plastic wound retractor (Alexis®) reduces translocation of enteric bacteria to the surgical incision site. (
  • Efficacy of a Plastic Wound Retractor (Alexis®) in Impeding Translocation of Enteric Bacteria to the Surgical Incision Site in Abdominal Surgery. (
  • Electron microscopic visualization of bacterial adherence and uptake by Caco-2 cells indicated that the epithelial interactions of normal enteric bacteria were similar to these observed with invasive strains of salmonella and listeria. (
  • Bacterial translocation and changes in the intestinal microbiome in mouse models of liver disease. (
  • The LPS component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall appears to activate cells via CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane ( 38 ), consists of lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and, in some microorganisms, an O-specific polysaccharide (or O antigen) ( 39 , 47 ). (
  • Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. (
  • Although several virulence factors and their roles in pathogenesis are well described for ExPEC strains that cause urinary tract infections and meningitis, they have not been linked to translocation through intestinal barriers, a fundamentally distant yet important clinical phenomenon. (
  • 2000). The attempt was made to investigate the impact of selected stressors (short term transport (1 h), long term transport (7-8 hrs), high temperature, high humidity and intense handling/moving) on bacterial translocation, endogenous contamination, endotoxin levels and bactericidal activity of body fluids. (
  • Rft1 is involved in the translocation of a dolichol-pyrophosphoryl (PP)-linked heptasaccharide across the membrane into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum ( 20 ). (
  • Broad inhibition of translocation is also an interesting target for the development of new anticancer drugs because cancer cells heavily depend on efficient protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum to support their fast growth. (
  • Bacteremia was demonstrated within 24 h in 50 to 88% of mice with GI leakage plus the administration of pathogenic bacteria but not with GI leakage induction alone or bacterial gavage alone. (
  • In the low-pressure groups of both gases (helium and CO2), bacterial translocation was significantly increased, as compared with the control group. (
  • BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. (
  • Translocation requires the energy sources of ATP and the proton motive force (PMF) while the membrane protein insertion is coupled to polypeptide chain elongation at the ribosome. (
  • In general, translocation from the cytosol requires three key steps: (1) substrate recognition and targeting to the destination membrane, while maintaining the substrate in a translocation-competent state (2) translocation across or integration into that membrane, which usually requires energy expenditure in the form of GTP, ATP or proton motive force and (3) release, folding and maturation of the protein substrate. (
  • Furthermore, in a murine model of chemotherapy-induced translocation, ExPEC lacking fimH colonized at levels comparable to that of the wild type but demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in translocation to the kidneys, spleen, and lungs. (
  • Previous in vivo evidence has shown that bacterial phagocytosis by enterocytes may be an initial step in bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium. (
  • This unexpected relationship between aminoacyl-tRNA decoding and translocation suggests that miscoding antibiotics may impact protein synthesis by impairing the recognition of peptidyl-tRNA in the small subunit P site during EF-G-catalyzed translocation. (
  • are the most investigated gram-positive bacteria and a model organism to study bacterial chromosome replication and cell differentiation and together with other beneficial microbes have been extensively used as a source of industrial enzymes and antibiotics by biotechnology companies (Hendricks et al. (
  • The present study is to demonstrate the effect of the presence of bacterial translocation detected by bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (bactDNA) in blood and ascites using the polymerase ch. (

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