Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex: A complex of proteins that forms a receptor for TRANSFERRIN in BACTERIA. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the transferrin-binding complex to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Transferrins: A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Transferrin-Binding Protein A: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.Transferrin-Binding Protein B: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Urinary Catheters: Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.

Construction and characterization of Moraxella catarrhalis mutants defective in expression of transferrin receptors. (1/4)

We have previously reported the construction of an isogenic mutant defective in expression of OmpB1, the TbpB homologue, in Moraxella catarrhalis 7169. In this report, we have extended these studies by constructing and characterizing two new isogenic mutants in this clinical isolate. One mutant is defective in expression of TbpA, and the other mutant is defective in expression of both TbpA and TbpB. These isogenic mutants were confirmed by using PCR analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. In vitro growth studies, comparing all three mutants, demonstrated that the tbpA mutant and the tbpAB mutant were severely limited in their ability to grow with human holotransferrin as the sole source of iron. In contrast, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant was capable of utilizing iron from human transferrin, although not to the extent of the parental strain. While affinity chromatography with human holotransferrin showed that each Tbp was capable of binding independently to transferrin, solid-phase transferrin binding studies using whole cells demonstrated that the tbpA mutant exhibited binding characteristics similar to those seen with the wild-type bacteria. However, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant exhibited a diminished capacity for binding transferrin, and no binding was detected with the double mutant. These data suggest that the M. catarrhalis TbpA is necessary for the acquisition of iron from transferrin. In contrast, TbpB is not essential but may serve as a facilitory protein that functions to optimize this process. Together these mutants are essential to provide a more thorough understanding of iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by M. catarrhalis.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the utilization of transferrin-bound iron. (2/4)

Staphylococcus aureus is known to be capable of utilizing transferrin-bound iron, via both siderophore- and transferrin-binding protein (named IsdA)-mediated iron-acquisition systems. This study was designed in order to determine which iron-acquisition system plays the essential or dominant role with respect to the acquisition of iron from human transferrin, in the growth of S. aureus. Holotransferrin (HT) and partially iron-saturated transferrin (PT), but not apotransferrin (AT), were found to stimulate the growth of S. aureus. S. aureus consumed most of the transferrin-bound iron during the exponential growth phase. Extracellular proteases were not, however, involved in the liberation of iron from transferrin. Transferrin-binding to the washed whole cells via IsdA was not observed during the culture. The expression of IsdA was observed only in the deferrated media with AT, but not in the media supplemented with PT or HT. In contrast, siderophores were definitely produced in the deferrated media with PT and HT, as well as in the media supplemented with AT. The siderophores proved to have the ability to remove iron directly from transferrin, but the washed whole cells expressing IsdA did not. In the bioassay, the growth of S. aureus on transferrin-bound iron was stimulated by the siderophores alone. These results demonstrate that the siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the uptake of iron from transferrin, whereas the IsdA-mediated iron-acquisition system may play only an ancillary role in the uptake of iron from transferrin.  (+info)

FbpA--a bacterial transferrin with more to offer. (3/4)

 (+info)

Use of an isogenic mutant constructed in Moraxella catarrhalis To identify a protective epitope of outer membrane protein B1 defined by monoclonal antibody 11C6. (4/4)

Moraxella catarrhalis-induced otitis media continues to be a significant cause of infection in young children, prompting increased efforts at identifying effective vaccine antigens. We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. As the human host presents a naturally iron-limited environment, proteins, like OMP B1, which are expressed in response to this nutritional stress are potential vaccine antigens. In this study, we have developed monoclonal antibody (MAb) 11C6, which reacts to a surface-exposed epitope of OMP B1 expressed by M. catarrhalis 7169. This antibody was used to clone ompB1, and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis. Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. In addition, ompB1 was used to construct an isogenic mutant in M. catarrhalis 7169. This mutant, termed 7169b12, was used as the control in bactericidal assays designed to determine if OMP B1 elicits protective antibodies. In the presence of MAb 11C6 and human complement, wild-type 7169 demonstrated a 99% decline in viability, whereas the ompB1 isogenic mutant was resistant to this bactericidal activity. Further analysis with MAb 11C6 revealed the presence of this OMP B1 epitope on 31% of the clinical isolates tested. These data suggest that OMP B1 is a potential vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.157.905.500.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.157.905. ... tnf receptor-associated factor 1 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.750 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.875 ... tnf receptor-associated factor 3 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.937 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 5 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.968 ... electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.468 -- electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 -- receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 -- receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 -- receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptors, tie MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.249 -- receptor, tie-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.500 -- receptor, tie-2 MeSH ...

*Transferrin

... bound to its receptor. Transferrin receptor complex. The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Beta-2 transferrin Transferrin receptor Total iron-binding capacity Transferrin saturation Ferritin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". Cell. 116 (4): 565-76. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00130-8. ...

*Innate immune system

The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria ... Also increased levels of lactoferrin and transferrin inhibit bacterial growth by binding iron, an essential nutrient for ... As with animals, plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex metabolic responses which lead to the ... 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". ...

*Lactoferrin

... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin. The affinity ... The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also facilitates absorption of iron ... Lactoferrin's primary role is to sequester free iron, and in doing so remove essential substrate required for bacterial growth ... Exons of the lactoferrin gene in oxen have a similar size to the exons of other genes of the transferrin family, whereas the ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... receptors, antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, ... bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107.288 -- antistreptolysin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.125 -- antibodies, bispecific ...

*Gallium scan

Gallium (III) (Ga3+) binds to transferrin, leukocyte lactoferrin, bacterial siderophores, inflammatory proteins, and cell- ... Somatostatin receptors are overexpressed in many NETs, so that the 68Ga DOTA conjugated peptide is preferentially taken up in ... The gallium-67 is then complexed with citric acid to form gallium citrate. The half life of gallium-67 is 78 hours. It decays ... and for this reason can be used in leukopenic patients with bacterial infection (here it attaches directly to bacterial ...

*Lactoferrin

... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin.[21] The ... Lactoferrin receptorEdit. The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also ... Lactoferrin is a protein found in the immune system, and is a common defense against bacterial infections, which it is able to ... protein complex. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • specific granule. • phagocytic vesicle lumen. • extracellular ...

*Protein moonlighting

The complex phenotypes of several disorders are suspected to be caused by the involvement of moonlighting proteins. The protein ... Other proteins like bacterial spore coat, a slime mold cyst protein, and epidermis differentiation-specific protein, contain ... Moreover, in case of its iron import activities it can traffic into cells holo-transferrin as well as the related molecule ... Many proteins that moonlight are enzymes; others are receptors, ion channels or chaperones. The most common primary function of ...

*Siderophore

The iron(III) complex is then reduced to iron(II) and the iron is transferred to nicotianamine, which although very similar to ... Transferrin is present in the serum at approximately 30 μM, and contains two iron-binding sites, each with an extremely high ... With bacterial vascular diseases, the infection is spread within the plants through the xylem. Once within the plant, the ... Siderophores are then recognized by cell specific receptors on the outer membrane of the cell. In fungi and other eukaryotes, ...

*FepA

The ferric enterobactin receptor FepA recognises the catecholate part of ferric enterobactin (FeEnt), and transports it across ... FepA is an integral bacterial outer membrane porin protein, which is involved in the active transport of iron bound by the ... Both steps occur independently of the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex and the proton motive force it provides. In the periplasm, FeEnt ... This can also be seen with pathogenic bacteria inside its host, where iron is bound tightly by haemoglobin, transferrin, ...

*Porphyromonas gingivalis

List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Naito M, Hirakawa H, Yamashita A, et al. (August 2008). "Determination of the Genome ... 2011). "The C5a receptor impairs IL-12-dependent clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and is required for induction of ... P. gingivalis can also degrade transferrin within host cells which provides the organism with an abundant iron source needed to ... be associated with modulating β2 integrin adhesive activity for uptake by monocytes using the CD14/TLR2/PI3K signaling complex ...

*Human iron metabolism

... also acts as a transferrin receptor. Transferrin-bound ferric iron is recognized by these transferrin receptors, triggering a ... Iron in such complexes can cause damage as described above. To prevent that kind of damage, all life forms that use iron bind ... So our control of iron levels appears to be an important defense against most bacterial infections; there are some exceptions ... "Comparison of the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.790 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.800 - receptor, macrophage colony- ... electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.977 - nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.988 ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114 - antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH ... D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776. ...

*Canine parvovirus

... the canine transferrin receptor. CPV2 has a high rate of evolution, possibly due to a rate of nucleotide substitution that is ... The fluids are typically a mix of a sterile, balanced electrolyte solution, with an appropriate amount of B-complex vitamins, ... Bacterial myocarditis has also been reported secondarily to sepsis. Dogs with CPV are at risk of intussusception, a condition ... and the success of new strains seems to depend on extending the range of hosts affected and improved binding to its receptor, ...

*Zinc

Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known. Zinc(I) compounds are rare and need ... In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). Because transferrin ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of ... One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial ...

*Zinc

... tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors.[42] Complexes ... In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%).[171] Because ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of ... One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial ...

*Bacteriocin

Farkas-Himsley H, Musclow CE (1986). "Bacteriocin receptors on malignant mammalian cells: are they transferrin receptors?". ... Farkas-Himsley H, Hill R, Rosen B, Arab S, Lingwood CA (1995). "The bacterial colicin active against tumor cells in vitro and ... Class IV bacteriocins are defined as complex bacteriocins containing lipid or carbohydrate moieties. Confirmation by ... This is partly due to questions about their mechanism of action and the presumption that anti-bacterial agents have no obvious ...

*Blood-brain barrier

"Transcytosis and brain uptake of transferrin-containing nanoparticles by tuning avidity to transferrin receptor". Proc Natl ... Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial cells by another protein complex that includes ZO-1 and ... Van Sorge, Nina M (2012). "Defense at the border: the blood-brain barrier versus bacterial foreigners". Future Microbiol. 7 (3 ... However, vectors targeting BBB transporters, such as the transferrin receptor, have been found to remain entrapped in brain ...

*Outline of immunology

Receptor mediated Graves' disease Myasthenia gravis Type 3 hypersensitivity / Immune complex Foreign Henoch-Schönlein purpura ... Serum albumin Transferrin Lymphatic System Primary Lymphoid Organs Thymus - Site of T Cell maturation Bone Marrow - Site of ... Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis Serum sickness Arthus reaction Autoimmune Systemic lupus erythematosus Subacute bacterial ... Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a receptor C5a receptor (CD88) C5AR2 Fc receptor Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) FcγRI (CD64) FcγRIIA ( ...

*Crohn's disease

Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in animals has shown a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Cannabinoids and/or modulation of ... As Crohn's disease most commonly affects the terminal ileum where the vitamin B12/intrinsic factor complex is absorbed, B12 ... People with Crohn's often also have issues with small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, which has similar symptoms. In the ... Serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation may be more easily interpreted in inflammation. Anemia of ...

*Index of oncology articles

... estrogen receptor - estrogen receptor negative - estrogen receptor positive - estrogen receptor test - estrogen replacement ... bacterial toxin - barium enema - barium solution - barium swallow - Barrett's esophagus - basal cell - basal cell carcinoma - ... transferrin-CRM107 - transitional cell - transitional cell carcinoma - transperineal biopsy - transrectal biopsy - transrectal ... boronophenylalanine-fructose complex - bortezomib - Bowen's disease - BPH - brachial plexopathy - brachial plexus - ...

*Saliva testing

In 2010 Jou, et al., found that patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma had elevated levels transferrin in saliva ... epidermal growth factor receptor, cathepsin-D, and p53 in saliva among women with breast carcinoma". Cancer Invest. 18: 101-9. ... either by spitting or interrupting the bioconversion of dietary nitrate to nitrite in the mouth with anti-bacterial mouthwash, ... "Spectroscopic characterization of the inclusion complex of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, buserelin acetate, ...

*Nephrotic syndrome

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can develop where there is ascites present. This is a frequent development in children but ... Anaemia (iron resistant microcytic hypochromic type) maybe present due to transferrin loss. ... Mutations in multiple components of the nuclear pore complex cause nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest pii: 98688. doi: 10.1172/ ... "Concerted Action of ANP and Dopamine D1-Receptor to Regulate Sodium Homeostasis in Nephrotic Syndrome". BioMed Research ...

*Antibody

... complexes. IgA. 2. Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... Ravetch J, Bolland S (2001). "IgG Fc receptors". Annu Rev Immunol. 19 (1): 275-290. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.275. PMID ...

*Lactate dehydrogenase

Transferrin receptor. Hormones. *ACTH stimulation test. *Thyroid function tests *Thyroid-stimulating hormone ... While LDH activity is correlated to muscle fatigue,[21] the production of lactate by means of the LDH complex works as a system ... High levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis.[34] In the case of ... "Skeletal muscle PGC-1α controls whole-body lactate homeostasis through estrogen-related receptor α-dependent activation of LDH ...

*Hemoglobin

Vaska's complex - iridium organometallic complex notable for its ability to bind to O2 reversibly. ... it is stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues and transported in plasma by beta globulins as transferrins. When the ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ... When oxygen binds to the iron complex, it causes the iron atom to move back toward the center of the plane of the porphyrin ...

*Antioxidant

A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium.[141] ... Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ... Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor ...
A mutant variant of a septicemic Escherichia coli strain (L3) isolated from an outbreak in chickens was constructed by the insertion of TnphoA transposon. Seven mutant derivatives were analyzed regarding the pathogenicity. Two of them (XP2, XP4) were less pathogenic in the one-day-old chick pathogenicity assay. The expression of several outer membrane proteins of mutant XP2 strain was suppressed, and strain XP4 had a 47.8(kDa) protein that was not expressed. None of these proteins was correlated to the iron-acquisition system. Mutant XP2 could have suppression of a regulatory protein responsible for the expression of other proteins not related to pathogenicity but important for the rapid bacterial growth, while mutant XP4 did not express a 47.8(kDa) protein. We propose that the 47.8(kDa) protein could be associated to the pathogenicity process of Escherichia coli strains responsible for septicemia in poultry ...
Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein in human blood, is a natural transport vehicle with multiple ligand binding sites. It, therefore, constitutes an attractive candidate for drug delivery. Targeting may occur via the most known interaction of the protein with the neonatal Fc receptor
This chapter highlights both the well established and the yet poorly understood aspects of siderophoremediated iron acquisition in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, with a particular emphasis in the siderophore system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis siderophore system is believed to play a crucial role in the procurement of a suitable iron supply to support bacterial multiplication in vivo and to be a key factor in the ability of this human pathogen to produce successful infections. The mycobacteria examined for iron-acquisition systems appear to rely on siderophores with high affinity for the ferric ion as the primary mechanism for iron acquisition. Transcription of genes of the exochelin (EXC) and mycobactin/carboxymycobactin (MBT/CMBT) systems is derepressed when the bacterium experiences iron limitations, thus leading to siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-mediated iron uptake. Several Mycobacterium species produce two structurally related families of high-affinity
On April 30, 2015, the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) adopted National Policy 25-201 Guidance for Proxy Advisory Firms (the Policy). The…
bayer-holding.info,. Registrar:Register.com, Inc.. 3. Procedural History. The Complaint was received by the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center (the Center) by email on February 8, 2002, and in hardcopy form on February 12, 2002. The Center has verified that the Complaint satisfies the formal requirements of the Restrictions Dispute Resolution Policy adopted by NeuLevel, Inc. and approved by ICANN on May 11, 2001 (the RDRP), the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) and the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Rules) as supplemented by the RDRP Supplemental Rules and the WIPO Supplemental Rules, which also apply to administrative proceedings under the RDRP (all the said Rules are together hereinafter referred to as the Rules). The Center has confirmed that payment in the required amount has been made by the Complainant. The Administrative Panel (the Panel) is satisfied that this is the case.. The Complaint was properly notified in ...
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In spite of the frequency and severe pain often experienced with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, these illnesses account for only a small portion of hospital discharges. Visits to a physicians office or alternative types of care account for the majority of health care related to AORC, with more than 100 million ambulatory visits in 2010. Among the 6.6 million hospital discharges for an AORC in 2011, age was a factor in increasing rates of hospitalization. Fewer than 1 in 100 persons ages 18 to 44 years had a hospital discharge with a diagnosis of an AORC, while 13 in 100 aged 75 years and older were discharged with an AORC diagnosis.. Osteoarthritis is the primary form of arthritis to affect older persons, and begins to show increasing rates for people in their 60s. By the age of 75 years, multiple forms of arthritis are often diagnosed and categorized as other rheumatic conditions. (Reference Table 9B.4.2 PDF CSV). ...
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List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia

... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.157.905.500.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.157.905. ... tnf receptor-associated factor 1 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.750 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.875 ... tnf receptor-associated factor 3 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.937 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 5 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.968 ... electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.468 -- electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.157)

Transferrin-Binding Protein A - RightDiagnosis.comTransferrin-Binding Protein A - RightDiagnosis.com

Transferrin-Binding Protein A information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN ... Introduction: Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Description of Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Transferrin-Binding Protein A: ... Transferrin *Binding *Protein Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases *Online Diagnosis *Self ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/transferrin_binding_protein_a.htm

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia

... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 -- receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 -- receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 -- receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptors, tie MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.249 -- receptor, tie-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.500 -- receptor, tie-2 MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.543)

Bacterial toxins financial definition of bacterial toxinsBacterial toxins financial definition of bacterial toxins

What is bacterial toxins? Meaning of bacterial toxins as a finance term. What does bacterial toxins mean in finance? ... Definition of bacterial toxins in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... redirected from bacterial toxins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to bacterial toxins: ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bacterial+toxins

Bacterial taxonomy | Article about Bacterial taxonomy by The Free DictionaryBacterial taxonomy | Article about Bacterial taxonomy by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... Bacterial taxonomy. Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used as a ... Confirmation of bacterial identification was performed on randomly selected colonies using standard bacterial taxonomy ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Bacterial+taxonomy

Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases | Profiles RNSBacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases | Profiles RNS

Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex ... "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in this ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/123270

Cross-Species Surface Display of Functional Spirochetal Lipoproteins by Recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi | Infection and...Cross-Species Surface Display of Functional Spirochetal Lipoproteins by Recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi | Infection and...

... this complex interacts with the outer membrane receptor LolB, which mediates anchoring to the inner leaflet of the outer ... Gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 2 facilitates but is not essential for transferrin utilization. J. Bacteriol. 176:3162- ... Only a few bacterial genera have actually been shown to deploy lipoproteins to their surface, and the mechanisms for this are ... which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor (2), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis (20 ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/72/3/1463

Receptors, Transferrin - MeSH - NCBIReceptors, Transferrin - MeSH - NCBI

Cell SurfaceReceptors, TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding ... TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding Protein B ... Receptors, Transferrin. Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind ... and ProteinsProteinsCarrier ProteinsTransferrin-Binding ProteinsReceptors, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Receptors,+Transferrin%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

Seroprevalence of viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern Botswana |...Seroprevalence of viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern Botswana |...

... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... Článek Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ... Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ...
more infohttps://www.prelekara.sk/casopisy/plos-one/2020-1-3/seroprevalence-of-viral-and-vector-borne-bacterial-pathogens-in-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris-in-northern-botswana-120049

Cellular Gold: Competition for Iron as the Cause of Reciprocal Positive Selection of Host and Pathogen Iron-Binding Proteins ...Cellular 'Gold': Competition for Iron as the Cause of Reciprocal Positive Selection of Host and Pathogen Iron-Binding Proteins ...

Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T. Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex. Cell. 2004 Feb ... Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1362-6. doi: 10.1126/ ... is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated ... transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, ...
more infohttps://evmedreview.com/cellular-gold-competition-for-iron-as-the-cause-of-reciprocal-positive-selection-of-host-and-pathogen-iron-binding-proteins/

Massachusetts Mesothelioma Information | Surviving MesotheliomaMassachusetts Mesothelioma Information | Surviving Mesothelioma

Bacterial Toxins, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Diphtheria Toxin, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Exotoxins, Metal Complexes ... Receptors, Transferrin Receptors, Therapy Evaluation, Non-human, Toxicology, Plant Poisons Animals, Chordates, Mammals, Rodents ... A monoclonal antibody to the human transferrin receptor has been coupled to an acid-releasable monoclonal antibody directed ... directed against carcinoembronic antigen and human transferrin receptor will be used. The anti- tumor effects of these ITs ...
more infohttps://survivingmesothelioma.com/mesothelioma-locations/mesothelioma-united-states/massachusetts/

Characterization of a Hemoglobin Protease Secreted by the Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain EB1 | JEMCharacterization of a Hemoglobin Protease Secreted by the Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain EB1 | JEM

The small quantities of extracellular iron are complexed to carrier proteins like transferrin present in serum and lactoferrin ... In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. A second more complex way to obtain heme ... 1969) Bacterial iron metabolism and immunity to Pasteurella septica and Escherichia coli. Nature 224:380-382, pmid:4898928.. ... 1992) Transferrins and heme-compounds as iron sources for pathogenic bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 18:217-233, pmid:1532495.. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/188/6/1091

Iron uptake and transport (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathwaysIron uptake and transport (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways

The transferrin/receptor complex is internalized as a clathrin-coated vesicle (Willingham et al, 1984; Harding et al, 1983).. R ... LCN2 can then limit bacterial growth by sequestrating the iron-laden siderophore so this event is pivotal in the innate immune ... Harding C, Heuser J, Stahl P.; Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat ... When endosomal pH reaches 6,0, protons replace the iron ions in the transferrin/receptor complex (Hemadi et al, 2006).. R-HSA- ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP2670

Hot Papers | Page 39 | NIH Intramural Research ProgramHot Papers | Page 39 | NIH Intramural Research Program

To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor ... Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for ... We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end product [RAGE], angiotensin II receptor type 1 [AT(1)R ...
more infohttps://irp.nih.gov/news-and-events/hot-papers?page=38

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

In AGAP2-depleted cells, Shiga toxin accumulates in transferrin-receptor-positive early endosomes, suggesting that AGAP2 ... Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky ... Several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial Shiga toxin. ADP- ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Patricia+V+Burgos

Selectivity of Ferric Enterobactin Binding and Cooperativity of Transport in Gram-Negative Bacteria | Journal of BacteriologySelectivity of Ferric Enterobactin Binding and Cooperativity of Transport in Gram-Negative Bacteria | Journal of Bacteriology

1997) The transferrin receptor expressed by gonococcal strain FA1090 is required for the experimental infection of human male ... Unexpectedly, the chirality of the iron complex did not affect the receptor-ligand interaction: FeEnEnt bound to FepA with ... Bacterial strains and plasmids.Bacterial strains, plasmids, and sources are listed in Table 1. ... That is, the presence of enterobactin induces synthesis of the receptor for its ferric complex, an advantageous strategy for ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/180/24/6689?ijkey=d932b0d2056dff38ea9a72f07bce97ee7fdf1d81&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Transferrin - WikipediaTransferrin - Wikipedia

transferrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transferrin

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 - PDFOverview of the Cattle Immune System 1 - PDF

C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune ... 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/18635229-Overview-of-the-cattle-immune-system-1.html

Bacterial Membranes: Structural and Molecular BiologyBacterial Membranes: Structural and Molecular Biology

... bacterial membrane proteins, secretion systems, signal transduction, signalling mechanisms, bacterial membranes in adhesion and ... The recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of ... Topics include: cell wall growth, shape and division, outer membrane protein biosynthesis, bacterial lipoproteins, mycobacteria ... A comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial ...
more infohttps://www.caister.com/membranes

ASMscience | Iron Acquisition Strategies of Bacterial PathogensASMscience | Iron Acquisition Strategies of Bacterial Pathogens

The region of human transferrin involved in binding to bacterial transferrin receptors is localized in the C-lobe. Mol ... Evaluation of transferrin-binding protein 2 within the transferrin-binding protein complex as a potential antigen for future ... Role of transferrin receptor from a Neisseria meningitidis tbpB isotype II strain in human transferrin binding and virulence. ... Use of heme-protein complexes by the Yersinia enterocolitica HemR receptor: histidine residues are essential for receptor ...
more infohttps://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0010-2015

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1): A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1): A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple...

All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or ... Gibbons, RJ; Hay, DI; Childs, WC; Davis, G. Role of cryptic receptors (cryptitopes) in bacterial adhesion to oral-surfaces. ... DMBT1 also binds to bovine and human lactoferrin, an 80 kDa iron binding protein belonging to the transferrin family [17,19]. ... Oho, T; Yu, H; Yamashita, Y; Koga, T. Binding of salivary glycoprotein-secretory immunoglobulin a complex to the surface ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/11/12/5212/htm

Transferrin - wikidocTransferrin - wikidoc

Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[5] ... Transferrin also has a transferrin iron-bound receptor; it is a disulfide-linked homodimer.[5] In humans, each monomer consists ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Transferrin

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune...Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune...

C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do ... 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also ... 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. ... Ab reacts with ach receptors on motor end plate. NO MICROBES! this type is mediated by ag-ab complexes which initiate an ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/24495387-Type-i-type-ii-type-iii-type-iv-delayed-type-cell-mediated-allergy-immediate-cytotoxic-antibody-dependent-immune-complex-diseases.html

exposed - Page 5 - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapyexposed - Page 5 - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy

Investigations in to the usage of transferrin receptor in tumor focusing on are ongoing.45 An alternative solution mechanism of ... 52 LCN2 binds to buy 471-53-4 particular receptors around the cell surface area (24p3R, megalin),53 and if LCN2 is complexed ... ligates bacterial catecholate-type ferric siderophores such as for example ferric-enterobactin, the principal siderophore of ... This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps ...
more infohttp://www.exposed-skin-care.net/author/exposed/page/5/

In vitro characterization of IroB, a pathogen-associated C-glycosyltransferase | PNASIn vitro characterization of IroB, a pathogen-associated C-glycosyltransferase | PNAS

Once Ent is secreted and complexes FeIII, the FeIII-Ent complex is internalized by specific receptors (13-15). After transport ... Bacterial growth in mammalian hosts is often limited by the availability of iron. FeIII is both insoluble and efficiently ... sequestered by mammalian proteins, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, and lactoferrin, leaving a remarkably low ... Once DGE has undergone secretion and scavenged FeIII from the host, the FeIII-DGE complex is internalized by the outer membrane ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/3/571?ijkey=404acce3987130de58a6fc95af57cf73e9348c05&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Other characterized surface lipoproteins of bacterial pathogens include Neisseria meningitidis TbpB, which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor ( 2 ), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis ( 20 ), a potential adhesin of Campylobacter jejuni , JlpA ( 31 ), and multiple polypeptides expressed by Mycoplasma spp. (asm.org)
  • Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them. (prelekara.sk)
  • This means that the innate immune system will respond similarly to different pathogens, injuries, or stressors, but often not efficiently enough to resist and eliminate complex disease conditions. (docplayer.net)
  • Hepcidin is transcriptionally induced in response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as bacterial pathogens and lipopolysaccharide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this setting although infection and dysfunction should not use of approximately one of bacterial pathogens. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called "natural," "primitive" (T-cell-independent), and "classical" IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of bacterial pathogens, Fe must be obtained from the tissues, cells, and fluids of the infected vertebrate host. (asm.org)
  • These and other Fe-binding molecules maintain the concentration of free Fe within a prospective host at approximately 10 −18 M, a concentration below the minimal level required by bacterial pathogens for survival and proliferation ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • In response to this selective pressure, efficient Fe acquisition systems have evolved in bacterial pathogens to "steal" the element from the various host Fe sequestration mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have already succeeded in identifying an alternative drug treatment to antibiotics that may result in reduced multi-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Future studies on the functions of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia T4SS effector molecules and signaling pathways will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the complex interplay between obligatory intracellular pathogens and their hosts. (springer.com)
  • It has been further proposed that GPI-CD1d binding occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum and that the complex was further transported to endosomes for displacement of GPI and loading of exogenous ligands reminiscent of the MHC class II-invariant chain pathway ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An intracellular molecule that undergoes structural and functional changes in response to binding of cell membrane receptors by ligands. (tabers.com)
  • TACE is a major shedding protease, responsible for the liberation of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor. (elifesciences.org)
  • The highly selective deficits observed in Gpr107 -null cells indicate that GPR107 interacts directly or indirectly with a limited subset of surface receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Since Braun's description of a lipoprotein (Lpp) in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli ( 10 ), the important roles of lipoproteins in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been increasingly appreciated. (asm.org)
  • Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Many members of the Pasteurellaceae family make excellent natural models for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and host-pathogen-interactions thus giving valuable insights into related human diseases. (caister.com)
  • Taking full advantage of this opportunity, I rotated in labs working on various aspects of biological science research covering virology, cell culture, bacterial pathogenesis, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. (purdue.edu)
  • Backert S, Meyer TF (2006) Type IV secretion systems and their effectors in bacterial pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • The Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase PulA is transported to the outer surface through a complex type II secretion apparatus ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. (jove.com)
  • It is now well-accepted that this potent bacterial toxin plays an important role in producing necrotizing fasciitis (NF), the rapid infection of soft tissue referred to as flesh-eating" disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The low concentration of free iron in the mucous membranes and in tissues is one of the first lines of host defense against bacterial infection. (rupress.org)
  • Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. (wikipathways.org)
  • 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also cause acute glomerulonephitis this is mediated by T-cells. (docplayer.net)
  • This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps treatment . (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Results ranging from heme transport being essential to virulence to being dispensable for virulence have been reported for different model systems of bacterial infection. (asmscience.org)
  • During pathogen attack, plants rapidly respond to infection via the recruitment and activation of immune complexes. (jove.com)
  • The observed inflammation and induction of high-affinity adaptive immune responses during pathogenic infection can be seen as a (preferably temporary) deviation of the bacterial-host relationship sharply away from its usual homeostatic set-point, with the corresponding decrease in function of the intestine that accompanies any such deviation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ectopic expression of these effectors enhances respective bacterial infection, whereas intracellular delivery of antibodies against these effectors or targeted knockdown of the effector with antisense peptide nucleic acid significantly impairs bacterial infection. (springer.com)
  • During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by outer-membrane regulators of peptidoglycan synthases. (caister.com)
  • General heme receptors have been identified in numerous bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Most bacteria live as complex communities adhered to surfaces rather than as planktonic isolated cells. (asm.org)
  • HmuR shares amino acid homology with TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors of gram-negative bacteria involved in the acquisition of iron from hemin and hemoglobin, including HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica , ShuA of Shigella dysenteriae , HpuB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis , HmbR of N. meningitidis , HgbA of Haemophilus ducreyi , and HgpB of H. influenzae . (asm.org)
  • In this study we have determined that a newly identified TonB-dependent hemoglobin-hemin receptor (HmuR) is involved in hemoglobin binding and utilization in P. gingivalis A7436. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that HmuR serves as the major TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor involved in the utilization of both hemin and hemoglobin in P. gingivalis . (asm.org)
  • In Serratia marcescens , the secreted protein HasA extracts heme from either hemopexin-heme or hemoglobin and delivers it to the outer membrane receptor HasR ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic manipulations of B. avium confirmed that bhuR , which encodes a putative outer membrane heme receptor, mediates efficient acquisition of Fe from hemin and hemoproteins (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and catalase). (asm.org)
  • GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
  • PA 7mer -EF/LF and receptors-is then internalized by the cell and delivered to early endosomes, where PA 7mer undergoes a conformational change that leads to its membrane insertion and pore-formation (pPA 7mer ) . (prolekare.cz)
  • TIP47 (tail-interacting protein of 47 kD) was characterized as a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), directing their transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (rupress.org)
  • The transport of lysosomal enzymes from the TGN to endosomes depends mainly on the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), MPR46 or MPR300. (rupress.org)
  • The hydrolases are delivered to lysosomes after pH-induced dissociation of the enzyme receptor complexes in endosomes, whereas the MPRs cycle back to the TGN ( Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • This entry represents the plug domain superfamily, which has been shown to be an independently folding subunit of the TonB-dependent receptors [ PMID: 15111112 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The encoded protein was predicted to bear an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, a large extracellular domain and a C-terminal seven transmembrane domain that is characteristic of members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily ( Edgar, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • The hemochromatosis gene product complexes with the transferrin receptor and lowers its affinity for ligand binding. (wikipathways.org)
  • The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene transfer into mammalian central nervous system using herpes virus vectors: Extended expression of bacterial lacZ in neurons using the neuron-specific enolase promoter. (springer.com)
  • In time-course experiments, a complex pattern of gene expression was observed that can be separated into different temporal clusters. (sdbonline.org)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. (cdc.gov)
  • This movie shows how Neisseria are able to extract iron from transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Gladue, "Linezolid effects on bacterial toxin production and host immune response: review of the evidence," Current Therapeutic Research- Clinical and Experimental, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This result is what is normally expected of immune system receptors involved in co-evolutionary processes between host and pathogen, sometimes referred to as "arms races. (evmedreview.com)
  • Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Via PRS, we show that dynamics within a selected local minimum can lend clues on the global, large scale conformational transition of hTf alone and in its complexes with the human and bacterial receptors. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Structure of chorismate mutase-like domain of DAHPS from Bacillus subtilis complexed with novel inhibitor reveals conformational plasticity of active site. (purdue.edu)
  • Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic pets to its ligand prospects to receptor desensitisation and behavioural version to following ligand publicity, providing further proof integration from the mammalian GPCRs in to the em C. elegans /em sensory signalling equipment. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Using em C. elegans /em to review em in vivo /em GPCR-ligand connections is an benefit because functional appearance of heterologous olfactory receptors in the AWA and AWB olfactory neurons provides previously been proven (Milani em et al /em ) and our unpublished observations. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The nociceptive neurons, ASH and ADL, travel repulsive reactions, therefore receptor activation is usually reflected within an avoidance response on ligand publicity, which may be analysed using strong behavioural assays [7, (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Mouse CD1d has also been found to control the function of a subset of T lymphocytes expressing receptors for NK cells (NKT cells) in a ligand-independent fashion that could be, however, augmented by the presence of glycosylceramides ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is not a fixed structure but its function depends on the complex interplay between the different cell types such as the endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and the extracellular matrix of the brain and blood flow maintained in the microvessels or brain capillaries. (hindawi.com)
  • BBB is physically located in endothelium of blood vessels (capillaries) and acts as a "physical barrier" due to formation of complex tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. (rupress.org)
  • The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex glycolipid with important biological functions. (caister.com)
  • TonB-dependent regulatory systems consist of six components: a specialised outer membrane-localized TonB-dependent receptor (TonB-dependent transducer) that interacts with its energizing TonB-ExbBD protein complex, a cytoplasmic membrane-localized anti-sigma factor and an extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-subfamily sigma factor [ PMID: 15993072 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Colocalization studies and proteomic analyses suggest that GPR107 associates with clathrin and the retromer protein VPS35 and that GPR107 might be responsible for the return of receptors to the plasma membrane from endocytic compartments. (biologists.org)
  • We have previously shown that processing of PA leads to a relocalization of the toxin from the glycerolipid region of the plasma membrane to lipid rafts , where the receptors encounter the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that modifies a juxtamembranous lysine of the cytoplasmic tail of the receptors . (prolekare.cz)
  • 2004) of the structure of the Tf/Tf-R complex suggests that both the N and C lobes of Tf contact Tf-R. Based on the results recounted above, one might predict that the C lobe uses a different face to interact with Tf-R versus TbpA, given the purifying selection predicted for the former and the positive selection demonstrated for the latter. (evmedreview.com)
  • sle B) LOCAL DISEASE (arthus reaction) Arthus reaction: intracutan injection of antigens to a presensitized person may lead to local intradermal Ab - Ag complex formation and local vasculitis, redness, swelling. (docplayer.net)
  • Any of the markers on T lymphocytes and other white blood cells that, along with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is responsible for the recognition of antigens. (tabers.com)
  • In humans, transferrin consists of a polypeptide chain containing 679 amino acids and two carbohydrate chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a class of complex nitrogen-containing compounds synthesized by all living organisms and yielding amino acids when hydrolyzed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
  • some (such as the folate receptor) accumulate in transferrin-containing compartments, others (such as CD59 and GPI-linked green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulate in the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • A complex containing protein, located on a cell membrane, capable of being stimulated by drugs in the extracellular fluid, and translating that stimulation into an intracellular response. (tabers.com)
  • Donadio S, Staver MJ, McAlpine JB, Swanson SJ, Katz L (1991) Modular organization of genes required for complex polyketide biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies . (wikidoc.org)
  • GPI-GFP and a proportion of the total CTxB and STxB taken up into cells are endocytosed independently of clathrin-associated machinery and are delivered to the Golgi complex via indistinguishable mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • CD1b and -c molecules have been found to present mycobacterial cell wall-derived Ags to T cells ( 3 ), and CD1a has been implicated in the presentation of bacterial Ags ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The virus uses these receptors to gain entry into T cells, macrophages, and other CD4 + cells. (tabers.com)
  • beta-2-microglobulin (beta2m) knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than wild-type mice, which is generally taken as a proof for the role of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-restricted CD8 T cells in protection against M. tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • Inside the cells, the internalized complex in the endosome is acidified by a vacuolar [H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Upon their delivery to the plasma membrane, protease activity is required to shed the bioactive extracellular domain to allow signal release and subsequent binding to receptors on signal-receiving cells. (elifesciences.org)