Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex: A complex of proteins that forms a receptor for TRANSFERRIN in BACTERIA. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the transferrin-binding complex to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Transferrins: A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Transferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Transferrin-Binding Protein A: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.Transferrin-Binding Protein B: A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Urinary Catheters: Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Construction and characterization of Moraxella catarrhalis mutants defective in expression of transferrin receptors. (1/4)We have previously reported the construction of an isogenic mutant defective in expression of OmpB1, the TbpB homologue, in Moraxella catarrhalis 7169. In this report, we have extended these studies by constructing and characterizing two new isogenic mutants in this clinical isolate. One mutant is defective in expression of TbpA, and the other mutant is defective in expression of both TbpA and TbpB. These isogenic mutants were confirmed by using PCR analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. In vitro growth studies, comparing all three mutants, demonstrated that the tbpA mutant and the tbpAB mutant were severely limited in their ability to grow with human holotransferrin as the sole source of iron. In contrast, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant was capable of utilizing iron from human transferrin, although not to the extent of the parental strain. While affinity chromatography with human holotransferrin showed that each Tbp was capable of binding independently to transferrin, solid-phase transferrin binding studies using whole cells demonstrated that the tbpA mutant exhibited binding characteristics similar to those seen with the wild-type bacteria. However, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant exhibited a diminished capacity for binding transferrin, and no binding was detected with the double mutant. These data suggest that the M. catarrhalis TbpA is necessary for the acquisition of iron from transferrin. In contrast, TbpB is not essential but may serve as a facilitory protein that functions to optimize this process. Together these mutants are essential to provide a more thorough understanding of iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by M. catarrhalis. (+info)
Staphylococcus aureus siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the utilization of transferrin-bound iron. (2/4)Staphylococcus aureus is known to be capable of utilizing transferrin-bound iron, via both siderophore- and transferrin-binding protein (named IsdA)-mediated iron-acquisition systems. This study was designed in order to determine which iron-acquisition system plays the essential or dominant role with respect to the acquisition of iron from human transferrin, in the growth of S. aureus. Holotransferrin (HT) and partially iron-saturated transferrin (PT), but not apotransferrin (AT), were found to stimulate the growth of S. aureus. S. aureus consumed most of the transferrin-bound iron during the exponential growth phase. Extracellular proteases were not, however, involved in the liberation of iron from transferrin. Transferrin-binding to the washed whole cells via IsdA was not observed during the culture. The expression of IsdA was observed only in the deferrated media with AT, but not in the media supplemented with PT or HT. In contrast, siderophores were definitely produced in the deferrated media with PT and HT, as well as in the media supplemented with AT. The siderophores proved to have the ability to remove iron directly from transferrin, but the washed whole cells expressing IsdA did not. In the bioassay, the growth of S. aureus on transferrin-bound iron was stimulated by the siderophores alone. These results demonstrate that the siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the uptake of iron from transferrin, whereas the IsdA-mediated iron-acquisition system may play only an ancillary role in the uptake of iron from transferrin. (+info)
FbpA--a bacterial transferrin with more to offer. (3/4)(+info)
Use of an isogenic mutant constructed in Moraxella catarrhalis To identify a protective epitope of outer membrane protein B1 defined by monoclonal antibody 11C6. (4/4)Moraxella catarrhalis-induced otitis media continues to be a significant cause of infection in young children, prompting increased efforts at identifying effective vaccine antigens. We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. As the human host presents a naturally iron-limited environment, proteins, like OMP B1, which are expressed in response to this nutritional stress are potential vaccine antigens. In this study, we have developed monoclonal antibody (MAb) 11C6, which reacts to a surface-exposed epitope of OMP B1 expressed by M. catarrhalis 7169. This antibody was used to clone ompB1, and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis. Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. In addition, ompB1 was used to construct an isogenic mutant in M. catarrhalis 7169. This mutant, termed 7169b12, was used as the control in bactericidal assays designed to determine if OMP B1 elicits protective antibodies. In the presence of MAb 11C6 and human complement, wild-type 7169 demonstrated a 99% decline in viability, whereas the ompB1 isogenic mutant was resistant to this bactericidal activity. Further analysis with MAb 11C6 revealed the presence of this OMP B1 epitope on 31% of the clinical isolates tested. These data suggest that OMP B1 is a potential vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis infections. (+info)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.157.905.500.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.157.905. ... tnf receptor-associated factor 1 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.750 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.875 ... tnf receptor-associated factor 3 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.937 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 5 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.968 ... electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.468 -- electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 -- receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 -- receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 -- receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptors, tie MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.249 -- receptor, tie-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.500 -- receptor, tie-2 MeSH ...
... bound to its receptor. Transferrin receptor complex. The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Beta-2 transferrin Transferrin receptor Total iron-binding capacity Transferrin saturation Ferritin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". Cell. 116 (4): 565-76. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00130-8. ...
Innate immune system
The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria ... Also increased levels of lactoferrin and transferrin inhibit bacterial growth by binding iron, an essential nutrient for ... As with animals, plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex metabolic responses which lead to the ... 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". ...
... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin. The affinity ... The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also facilitates absorption of iron ... Lactoferrin's primary role is to sequester free iron, and in doing so remove essential substrate required for bacterial growth ... Exons of the lactoferrin gene in oxen have a similar size to the exons of other genes of the transferrin family, whereas the ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... receptors, antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.071 -- antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 -- antibodies, ... bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.4184.108.40.2068 -- antistreptolysin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.125 -- antibodies, bispecific ...
Gallium (III) (Ga3+) binds to transferrin, leukocyte lactoferrin, bacterial siderophores, inflammatory proteins, and cell- ... Somatostatin receptors are overexpressed in many NETs, so that the 68Ga DOTA conjugated peptide is preferentially taken up in ... The gallium-67 is then complexed with citric acid to form gallium citrate. The half life of gallium-67 is 78 hours. It decays ... and for this reason can be used in leukopenic patients with bacterial infection (here it attaches directly to bacterial ...
... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin. The ... Lactoferrin receptorEdit. The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also ... Lactoferrin is a protein found in the immune system, and is a common defense against bacterial infections, which it is able to ... protein complex. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • specific granule. • phagocytic vesicle lumen. • extracellular ...
The complex phenotypes of several disorders are suspected to be caused by the involvement of moonlighting proteins. The protein ... Other proteins like bacterial spore coat, a slime mold cyst protein, and epidermis differentiation-specific protein, contain ... Moreover, in case of its iron import activities it can traffic into cells holo-transferrin as well as the related molecule ... Many proteins that moonlight are enzymes; others are receptors, ion channels or chaperones. The most common primary function of ...
The iron(III) complex is then reduced to iron(II) and the iron is transferred to nicotianamine, which although very similar to ... Transferrin is present in the serum at approximately 30 μM, and contains two iron-binding sites, each with an extremely high ... With bacterial vascular diseases, the infection is spread within the plants through the xylem. Once within the plant, the ... Siderophores are then recognized by cell specific receptors on the outer membrane of the cell. In fungi and other eukaryotes, ...
The ferric enterobactin receptor FepA recognises the catecholate part of ferric enterobactin (FeEnt), and transports it across ... FepA is an integral bacterial outer membrane porin protein, which is involved in the active transport of iron bound by the ... Both steps occur independently of the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex and the proton motive force it provides. In the periplasm, FeEnt ... This can also be seen with pathogenic bacteria inside its host, where iron is bound tightly by haemoglobin, transferrin, ...
List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Naito M, Hirakawa H, Yamashita A, et al. (August 2008). "Determination of the Genome ... 2011). "The C5a receptor impairs IL-12-dependent clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and is required for induction of ... P. gingivalis can also degrade transferrin within host cells which provides the organism with an abundant iron source needed to ... be associated with modulating β2 integrin adhesive activity for uptake by monocytes using the CD14/TLR2/PI3K signaling complex ...
Human iron metabolism
... also acts as a transferrin receptor. Transferrin-bound ferric iron is recognized by these transferrin receptors, triggering a ... Iron in such complexes can cause damage as described above. To prevent that kind of damage, all life forms that use iron bind ... So our control of iron levels appears to be an important defense against most bacterial infections; there are some exceptions ... "Comparison of the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.790 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.800 - receptor, macrophage colony- ... electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.977 - nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.988 ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114 - antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH ... D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776. ...
... the canine transferrin receptor. CPV2 has a high rate of evolution, possibly due to a rate of nucleotide substitution that is ... The fluids are typically a mix of a sterile, balanced electrolyte solution, with an appropriate amount of B-complex vitamins, ... Bacterial myocarditis has also been reported secondarily to sepsis. Dogs with CPV are at risk of intussusception, a condition ... and the success of new strains seems to depend on extending the range of hosts affected and improved binding to its receptor, ...
Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known. Zinc(I) compounds are rare and need ... In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). Because transferrin ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of ... One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial ...
... tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors. Complexes ... In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). Because ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of ... One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial ...
Farkas-Himsley H, Musclow CE (1986). "Bacteriocin receptors on malignant mammalian cells: are they transferrin receptors?". ... Farkas-Himsley H, Hill R, Rosen B, Arab S, Lingwood CA (1995). "The bacterial colicin active against tumor cells in vitro and ... Class IV bacteriocins are defined as complex bacteriocins containing lipid or carbohydrate moieties. Confirmation by ... This is partly due to questions about their mechanism of action and the presumption that anti-bacterial agents have no obvious ...
"Transcytosis and brain uptake of transferrin-containing nanoparticles by tuning avidity to transferrin receptor". Proc Natl ... Each of these transmembrane proteins is anchored into the endothelial cells by another protein complex that includes ZO-1 and ... Van Sorge, Nina M (2012). "Defense at the border: the blood-brain barrier versus bacterial foreigners". Future Microbiol. 7 (3 ... However, vectors targeting BBB transporters, such as the transferrin receptor, have been found to remain entrapped in brain ...
Outline of immunology
Receptor mediated Graves' disease Myasthenia gravis Type 3 hypersensitivity / Immune complex Foreign Henoch-Schönlein purpura ... Serum albumin Transferrin Lymphatic System Primary Lymphoid Organs Thymus - Site of T Cell maturation Bone Marrow - Site of ... Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis Serum sickness Arthus reaction Autoimmune Systemic lupus erythematosus Subacute bacterial ... Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a receptor C5a receptor (CD88) C5AR2 Fc receptor Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) FcγRI (CD64) FcγRIIA ( ...
Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in animals has shown a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Cannabinoids and/or modulation of ... As Crohn's disease most commonly affects the terminal ileum where the vitamin B12/intrinsic factor complex is absorbed, B12 ... People with Crohn's often also have issues with small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, which has similar symptoms. In the ... Serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation may be more easily interpreted in inflammation. Anemia of ...
Index of oncology articles
... estrogen receptor - estrogen receptor negative - estrogen receptor positive - estrogen receptor test - estrogen replacement ... bacterial toxin - barium enema - barium solution - barium swallow - Barrett's esophagus - basal cell - basal cell carcinoma - ... transferrin-CRM107 - transitional cell - transitional cell carcinoma - transperineal biopsy - transrectal biopsy - transrectal ... boronophenylalanine-fructose complex - bortezomib - Bowen's disease - BPH - brachial plexopathy - brachial plexus - ...
In 2010 Jou, et al., found that patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma had elevated levels transferrin in saliva ... epidermal growth factor receptor, cathepsin-D, and p53 in saliva among women with breast carcinoma". Cancer Invest. 18: 101-9. ... either by spitting or interrupting the bioconversion of dietary nitrate to nitrite in the mouth with anti-bacterial mouthwash, ... "Spectroscopic characterization of the inclusion complex of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, buserelin acetate, ...
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can develop where there is ascites present. This is a frequent development in children but ... Anaemia (iron resistant microcytic hypochromic type) maybe present due to transferrin loss. ... Mutations in multiple components of the nuclear pore complex cause nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest pii: 98688. doi: 10.1172/ ... "Concerted Action of ANP and Dopamine D1-Receptor to Regulate Sodium Homeostasis in Nephrotic Syndrome". BioMed Research ...
... complexes. IgA. 2. Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... Ravetch J, Bolland S (2001). "IgG Fc receptors". Annu Rev Immunol. 19 (1): 275-290. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.275. PMID ...
Transferrin receptor. Hormones. *ACTH stimulation test. *Thyroid function tests *Thyroid-stimulating hormone ... While LDH activity is correlated to muscle fatigue, the production of lactate by means of the LDH complex works as a system ... High levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis. In the case of ... "Skeletal muscle PGC-1α controls whole-body lactate homeostasis through estrogen-related receptor α-dependent activation of LDH ...
Vaska's complex - iridium organometallic complex notable for its ability to bind to O2 reversibly. ... it is stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues and transported in plasma by beta globulins as transferrins. When the ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ... When oxygen binds to the iron complex, it causes the iron atom to move back toward the center of the plane of the porphyrin ...
A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium. ... Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ... Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor ...
Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Possible involvement of an outer membrane protein in the...
A mutant variant of a septicemic Escherichia coli strain (L3) isolated from an outbreak in chickens was constructed by the insertion of TnphoA transposon. Seven mutant derivatives were analyzed regarding the pathogenicity. Two of them (XP2, XP4) were less pathogenic in the one-day-old chick pathogenicity assay. The expression of several outer membrane proteins of mutant XP2 strain was suppressed, and strain XP4 had a 47.8(kDa) protein that was not expressed. None of these proteins was correlated to the iron-acquisition system. Mutant XP2 could have suppression of a regulatory protein responsible for the expression of other proteins not related to pathogenicity but important for the rapid bacterial growth, while mutant XP4 did not express a 47.8(kDa) protein. We propose that the 47.8(kDa) protein could be associated to the pathogenicity process of Escherichia coli strains responsible for septicemia in poultry ...
Maghemite nanoparticles coated with human serum albumin: combining targeting by the iron-acquisition pathway and potential in...
Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein in human blood, is a natural transport vehicle with multiple ligand binding sites. It, therefore, constitutes an attractive candidate for drug delivery. Targeting may occur via the most known interaction of the protein with the neonatal Fc receptor
This chapter highlights both the well established and the yet poorly understood aspects of siderophoremediated iron acquisition in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, with a particular emphasis in the siderophore system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis siderophore system is believed to play a crucial role in the procurement of a suitable iron supply to support bacterial multiplication in vivo and to be a key factor in the ability of this human pathogen to produce successful infections. The mycobacteria examined for iron-acquisition systems appear to rely on siderophores with high affinity for the ferric ion as the primary mechanism for iron acquisition. Transcription of genes of the exochelin (EXC) and mycobactin/carboxymycobactin (MBT/CMBT) systems is derepressed when the bacterium experiences iron limitations, thus leading to siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-mediated iron uptake. Several Mycobacterium species produce two structurally related families of high-affinity
On April 30, 2015, the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) adopted National Policy 25-201 Guidance for Proxy Advisory Firms (the Policy). The…
bayer-holding.info,. Registrar:Register.com, Inc.. 3. Procedural History. The Complaint was received by the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center (the Center) by email on February 8, 2002, and in hardcopy form on February 12, 2002. The Center has verified that the Complaint satisfies the formal requirements of the Restrictions Dispute Resolution Policy adopted by NeuLevel, Inc. and approved by ICANN on May 11, 2001 (the RDRP), the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) and the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Rules) as supplemented by the RDRP Supplemental Rules and the WIPO Supplemental Rules, which also apply to administrative proceedings under the RDRP (all the said Rules are together hereinafter referred to as the Rules). The Center has confirmed that payment in the required amount has been made by the Complainant. The Administrative Panel (the Panel) is satisfied that this is the case.. The Complaint was properly notified in ...
John White discussed the general state of ACM. Overall membership has increased for the third straight year. ACMs Market Research initiative provided valuable information regarding ACM and its products and services. Practitioners and Managers make up 61% of the membership while Researchers and Academics/Educators make up the approximately 32%. Conference satisfaction received the highest rating within the Member Satisfaction Survey. The 2005 Fiscal Year ended with a healthy balance with the SIG area netting $844K. The Digital Library Distribution to the SIGs is $1.2 and expected to be $1.4 in FY06. As always, Membership and financial performance continue to be a priority for the ACM. A Professions Board was created to begin research on new products and services for professionals. White indicated that Steve Bourne, the Chair of the newly established board would be providing an outline of activities later in the day.. White discussed initiatives and indicated that ACM was enhancing current ...
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In spite of the frequency and severe pain often experienced with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, these illnesses account for only a small portion of hospital discharges. Visits to a physicians office or alternative types of care account for the majority of health care related to AORC, with more than 100 million ambulatory visits in 2010. Among the 6.6 million hospital discharges for an AORC in 2011, age was a factor in increasing rates of hospitalization. Fewer than 1 in 100 persons ages 18 to 44 years had a hospital discharge with a diagnosis of an AORC, while 13 in 100 aged 75 years and older were discharged with an AORC diagnosis.. Osteoarthritis is the primary form of arthritis to affect older persons, and begins to show increasing rates for people in their 60s. By the age of 75 years, multiple forms of arthritis are often diagnosed and categorized as other rheumatic conditions. (Reference Table 9B.4.2 PDF CSV). ...
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List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.157.905.500.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.157.905. ... tnf receptor-associated factor 1 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.750 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.875 ... tnf receptor-associated factor 3 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.937 -- tnf receptor-associated factor 5 MeSH D12.776.157.057.500.968 ... electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.468 -- electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.157)
Transferrin-Binding Protein A - RightDiagnosis.com
Transferrin-Binding Protein A information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN ... Introduction: Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Description of Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Transferrin-Binding Protein A: ... Transferrin *Binding *Protein Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases *Online Diagnosis *Self ...https://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/transferrin_binding_protein_a.htm
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 -- transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 -- receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 -- receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 -- receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptors, tie MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.249 -- receptor, tie-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.687.500 -- receptor, tie-2 MeSH ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.543)
Bacterial toxins financial definition of bacterial toxins
What is bacterial toxins? Meaning of bacterial toxins as a finance term. What does bacterial toxins mean in finance? ... Definition of bacterial toxins in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... redirected from bacterial toxins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to bacterial toxins: ...https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bacterial+toxins
Bacterial taxonomy | Article about Bacterial taxonomy by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... Bacterial taxonomy. Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used as a ... Confirmation of bacterial identification was performed on randomly selected colonies using standard bacterial taxonomy ...https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Bacterial+taxonomy
Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases | Profiles RNS
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex ... "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in this ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in Profiles. ...https://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/123270
Cross-Species Surface Display of Functional Spirochetal Lipoproteins by Recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi | Infection and...
... this complex interacts with the outer membrane receptor LolB, which mediates anchoring to the inner leaflet of the outer ... Gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 2 facilitates but is not essential for transferrin utilization. J. Bacteriol. 176:3162- ... Only a few bacterial genera have actually been shown to deploy lipoproteins to their surface, and the mechanisms for this are ... which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor (2), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis (20 ...https://iai.asm.org/content/72/3/1463
Receptors, Transferrin - MeSH - NCBI
Cell SurfaceReceptors, TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding ... TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding Protein B ... Receptors, Transferrin. Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind ... and ProteinsProteinsCarrier ProteinsTransferrin-Binding ProteinsReceptors, ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Receptors,+Transferrin%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D
Seroprevalence of viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in northern Botswana |...
... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... Článek Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ... Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ...https://www.prelekara.sk/casopisy/plos-one/2020-1-3/seroprevalence-of-viral-and-vector-borne-bacterial-pathogens-in-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris-in-northern-botswana-120049
Cellular 'Gold': Competition for Iron as the Cause of Reciprocal Positive Selection of Host and Pathogen Iron-Binding Proteins ...
Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T. Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex. Cell. 2004 Feb ... Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1362-6. doi: 10.1126/ ... is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated ... transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, ...https://evmedreview.com/cellular-gold-competition-for-iron-as-the-cause-of-reciprocal-positive-selection-of-host-and-pathogen-iron-binding-proteins/
Massachusetts Mesothelioma Information | Surviving Mesothelioma
Bacterial Toxins, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Diphtheria Toxin, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Exotoxins, Metal Complexes ... Receptors, Transferrin Receptors, Therapy Evaluation, Non-human, Toxicology, Plant Poisons Animals, Chordates, Mammals, Rodents ... A monoclonal antibody to the human transferrin receptor has been coupled to an acid-releasable monoclonal antibody directed ... directed against carcinoembronic antigen and human transferrin receptor will be used. The anti- tumor effects of these ITs ...https://survivingmesothelioma.com/mesothelioma-locations/mesothelioma-united-states/massachusetts/
Characterization of a Hemoglobin Protease Secreted by the Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain EB1 | JEM
The small quantities of extracellular iron are complexed to carrier proteins like transferrin present in serum and lactoferrin ... In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. A second more complex way to obtain heme ... 1969) Bacterial iron metabolism and immunity to Pasteurella septica and Escherichia coli. Nature 224:380-382, pmid:4898928.. ... 1992) Transferrins and heme-compounds as iron sources for pathogenic bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 18:217-233, pmid:1532495.. ...http://jem.rupress.org/content/188/6/1091
Iron uptake and transport (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways
The transferrin/receptor complex is internalized as a clathrin-coated vesicle (Willingham et al, 1984; Harding et al, 1983).. R ... LCN2 can then limit bacterial growth by sequestrating the iron-laden siderophore so this event is pivotal in the innate immune ... Harding C, Heuser J, Stahl P.; Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat ... When endosomal pH reaches 6,0, protons replace the iron ions in the transferrin/receptor complex (Hemadi et al, 2006).. R-HSA- ...https://www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP2670
Hot Papers | Page 39 | NIH Intramural Research Program
To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor ... Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for ... We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end product [RAGE], angiotensin II receptor type 1 [AT(1)R ...https://irp.nih.gov/news-and-events/hot-papers?page=38
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
In AGAP2-depleted cells, Shiga toxin accumulates in transferrin-receptor-positive early endosomes, suggesting that AGAP2 ... Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky ... Several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial Shiga toxin. ADP- ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be ...https://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Patricia+V+Burgos
Selectivity of Ferric Enterobactin Binding and Cooperativity of Transport in Gram-Negative Bacteria | Journal of Bacteriology
1997) The transferrin receptor expressed by gonococcal strain FA1090 is required for the experimental infection of human male ... Unexpectedly, the chirality of the iron complex did not affect the receptor-ligand interaction: FeEnEnt bound to FepA with ... Bacterial strains and plasmids.Bacterial strains, plasmids, and sources are listed in Table 1. ... That is, the presence of enterobactin induces synthesis of the receptor for its ferric complex, an advantageous strategy for ...https://jb.asm.org/content/180/24/6689?ijkey=d932b0d2056dff38ea9a72f07bce97ee7fdf1d81&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Transferrin - Wikipedia
transferrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transferrin
Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 - PDF
C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune ... 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen ...http://docplayer.net/18635229-Overview-of-the-cattle-immune-system-1.html
Bacterial Membranes: Structural and Molecular Biology
... bacterial membrane proteins, secretion systems, signal transduction, signalling mechanisms, bacterial membranes in adhesion and ... The recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of ... Topics include: cell wall growth, shape and division, outer membrane protein biosynthesis, bacterial lipoproteins, mycobacteria ... A comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial ...https://www.caister.com/membranes
ASMscience | Iron Acquisition Strategies of Bacterial Pathogens
The region of human transferrin involved in binding to bacterial transferrin receptors is localized in the C-lobe. Mol ... Evaluation of transferrin-binding protein 2 within the transferrin-binding protein complex as a potential antigen for future ... Role of transferrin receptor from a Neisseria meningitidis tbpB isotype II strain in human transferrin binding and virulence. ... Use of heme-protein complexes by the Yersinia enterocolitica HemR receptor: histidine residues are essential for receptor ...https://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.VMBF-0010-2015
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1): A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple...
All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or ... Gibbons, RJ; Hay, DI; Childs, WC; Davis, G. Role of cryptic receptors (cryptitopes) in bacterial adhesion to oral-surfaces. ... DMBT1 also binds to bovine and human lactoferrin, an 80 kDa iron binding protein belonging to the transferrin family [17,19]. ... Oho, T; Yu, H; Yamashita, Y; Koga, T. Binding of salivary glycoprotein-secretory immunoglobulin a complex to the surface ...http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/11/12/5212/htm
Transferrin - wikidoc
Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies. ... Transferrin also has a transferrin iron-bound receptor; it is a disulfide-linked homodimer. In humans, each monomer consists ...http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Transferrin
Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune...
C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do ... 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also ... 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. ... Ab reacts with ach receptors on motor end plate. NO MICROBES! this type is mediated by ag-ab complexes which initiate an ...http://docplayer.net/24495387-Type-i-type-ii-type-iii-type-iv-delayed-type-cell-mediated-allergy-immediate-cytotoxic-antibody-dependent-immune-complex-diseases.html
exposed - Page 5 - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy
Investigations in to the usage of transferrin receptor in tumor focusing on are ongoing.45 An alternative solution mechanism of ... 52 LCN2 binds to buy 471-53-4 particular receptors around the cell surface area (24p3R, megalin),53 and if LCN2 is complexed ... ligates bacterial catecholate-type ferric siderophores such as for example ferric-enterobactin, the principal siderophore of ... This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps ...http://www.exposed-skin-care.net/author/exposed/page/5/
In vitro characterization of IroB, a pathogen-associated C-glycosyltransferase | PNAS
Once Ent is secreted and complexes FeIII, the FeIII-Ent complex is internalized by specific receptors (13-15). After transport ... Bacterial growth in mammalian hosts is often limited by the availability of iron. FeIII is both insoluble and efficiently ... sequestered by mammalian proteins, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, and lactoferrin, leaving a remarkably low ... Once DGE has undergone secretion and scavenged FeIII from the host, the FeIII-DGE complex is internalized by the outer membrane ...https://www.pnas.org/content/102/3/571?ijkey=404acce3987130de58a6fc95af57cf73e9348c05&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
ProteinsLactoferrinPathogensBinding proteinEndocytosisFerritinUptakeLigandsSurface receptorsPathogenesisSoluble transferrin receptorMoleculeSiderophorePathwayMolecularToxinsSecretionLeukotriene receptorBindBindsInfectionHigh-affinityAffinity of transferrinDiferricBoundBacteriaHuman transferrinHemoglobinEndosomesSUPERFAMILYGeneNeisseriaImmuneConformationalFerric ionsLigandEndothelialOuterTissuesEndocytic compartmentsToxinLobesAntigensAmino AcidsCompartmentsCellularCell MembraneBiosynthesisCells
- These authors provide strong evidence for positive selection affecting several sites in host (transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, structural, and functional experimental methods. (evmedreview.com)
- But they wondered if the potential for iron piracy by pathogen derived iron-binding proteins would lead to positive selection on portions of the transferrin molecule. (evmedreview.com)
- The TbpA proteins, which are surface receptors, of the Gram-negative human pathogens N. meningitidis , N. gonorrhoeae , and Haemophilus influenzae all extract iron from the C lobe, but not the N lobe, of Tf. (evmedreview.com)
- In humans, the majority of iron is located intracellularly complexed in ferritin, hemoglobin or heme proteins. (rupress.org)
- Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. (jove.com)
- Pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike obtain iron from human and animal hosts by competing for the metal with eucaryotic proteins, like transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin ( 11 , 25 , 49 , 54 ). (asm.org)
- All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (mdpi.com)
- Therefore, we attempt to check whether we'd elicit ligand-dependent behavioural reactions in em C. elegans /em by expressing mammalian GPCRs in the ASH and ADL gustatory neurons, because they are straight exposed to the surroundings allowing gain access to of proteins and peptide ligands towards the heterologous receptors. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Fe III is both insoluble and efficiently sequestered by mammalian proteins, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, and lactoferrin, leaving a remarkably low available iron concentration of 10 -24 M ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Transferrin receptors (TfR1 and TfR2) are transmembrane proteins with 66% homology. (turkupetcentre.net)
- These receptors recognize either free heme or heme bound to host-carrier proteins. (asmscience.org)
- HpuAB is unusual among heme receptors because it consists of two outer membrane-associated proteins. (asmscience.org)
- Activation of immune complexes is associated with post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or ubiquitination. (jove.com)
- Bacteria face iron-limiting conditions in the mammalian host, where free iron is strictly limited and normally bound to sequestering proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin. (asm.org)
- In Escherichia coli the TonB protein interacts with outer membrane receptor proteins that carry out high-affinity binding and energy-dependent uptake of specific substrates into the periplasmic space [ PMID: 14499604 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin and hemin complexed to hemopexin can be used as heme sources, indicating that P. gingivalis must have a means to remove the hemin from these host iron-binding proteins. (asm.org)
- Due to the abundance of heme proteins in the host, they are a valuable source of iron for bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
- The best-described system by which gram-negative bacteria acquire heme involves direct binding of free heme or heme proteins to specific outer membrane receptors ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- Energy for the transport of iron and/or heme ligands via these specific heme and hemoglobin receptors across the outer membrane into the periplasmic space is dependent on TonB, in association with the ExbB and ExbD proteins ( 5 , 30 ). (asm.org)
- Hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin and hemin complexed to hemopexin can be used as iron sources by P. gingivalis , indicating that this microorganism has a mechanism for removing the hemin from these host iron-binding proteins ( 4 ). (asm.org)
- Lactoferrin is one of the transferrin proteins that transfer iron to the cells and control the level of free iron in the blood and external secretions. (wikipedia.org)
- To clarify the intracellular pathways followed by rafts we have investigated the transport itineraries of two main classes of raft markers, GPI-anchored proteins and the lipid-binding subunits of specific bacterial toxins. (rupress.org)
- In this study we used markers for a variety of GPI-anchored proteins, including folate receptor, CD59 ( Davies and Lachmann 1993 ), and a construct composed of GPI-anchored green fluorescent protein (GPI-GFP). (rupress.org)
- Any of the proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes that enhance the response of the T-cell receptor to foreign antigens and stimulate signals from the receptor to the cytoplasm. (tabers.com)
- ABBR: CCR Any of several protein receptors for chemokines that spans the cell membrane and links to intracellular G proteins. (tabers.com)
- PA binds specifically to two identified anthrax toxin receptors, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8, also called ANTXR1) and capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, or ANTXR2), two type I membrane proteins that share extensive sequence similarity both in their extracellular and intracellular domains , . (prolekare.cz)
- Neisseria survive in the human host by utilizing surface receptors to pirate iron from human iron binding proteins. (nih.gov)
- TonB-dependent siderophore receptors involved in ferric iron acquisition and amino acid adenylation domains characterized up-regulated systems under LB-Cr(VI) conditions, while DNA repair proteins and systems scavenging sulfur from alternative sources (e.g., aliphatic sulfonates) tended to predominate the up-regulated proteome profile obtained under M9L-Cr(VI) conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- These PAMPS are recognized and their corresponding pattern recognition molecules such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP) and Nod family. (pasteur.fr)
- Siderophores like enterobactin and aerobactin are able to remove iron from transferrin or lactoferrin. (rupress.org)
- Thus, siderophores act as extracellular solubilizing agents for iron from minerals or organic compounds, such as transferrin and lactoferrin in the host vertebrate, under conditions of iron limitation. (asm.org)
- Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family. (wikipedia.org)
- Lactoferrin interacts with DNA and RNA, polysaccharides and heparin, and shows some of its biological functions in complexes with these ligands. (wikipedia.org)
- Exons of the lactoferrin gene in oxen have a similar size to the exons of other genes of the transferrin family, whereas the sizes of introns differ within the family. (wikipedia.org)
- Britigan BE, Lewis TS, McCormick ML, Wilson ME (1998) Evidence for the existence of a surface receptor(s) for ferric lactoferrin and ferric transferrin associated with the plasma membrane of the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani . (springer.com)
- In animals, including humans, Fe is generally not present in the free elemental form but is sequestered in high-affinity Fe-binding complexes, such as hemoglobin, hemopexin, transferrin, and lactoferrin. (asm.org)
- During pathogenesis, Neisseria bacterium employs TonB-dependent surface receptors to obtain iron from iron-containing host glycoproteins including transferrin, lactoferrin, and hemoglobin. (purdue.edu)
- Structural characterization of Lactoferrin binding protein B - Lactoferrin complex. (purdue.edu)
- Other characterized surface lipoproteins of bacterial pathogens include Neisseria meningitidis TbpB, which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor ( 2 ), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis ( 20 ), a potential adhesin of Campylobacter jejuni , JlpA ( 31 ), and multiple polypeptides expressed by Mycoplasma spp. (asm.org)
- Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them. (prelekara.sk)
- This means that the innate immune system will respond similarly to different pathogens, injuries, or stressors, but often not efficiently enough to resist and eliminate complex disease conditions. (docplayer.net)
- Hepcidin is transcriptionally induced in response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as bacterial pathogens and lipopolysaccharide. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this setting although infection and dysfunction should not use of approximately one of bacterial pathogens. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called "natural," "primitive" (T-cell-independent), and "classical" IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. (frontiersin.org)
- In the case of bacterial pathogens, Fe must be obtained from the tissues, cells, and fluids of the infected vertebrate host. (asm.org)
- These and other Fe-binding molecules maintain the concentration of free Fe within a prospective host at approximately 10 −18 M, a concentration below the minimal level required by bacterial pathogens for survival and proliferation ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- In response to this selective pressure, efficient Fe acquisition systems have evolved in bacterial pathogens to "steal" the element from the various host Fe sequestration mechanisms. (asm.org)
- The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have already succeeded in identifying an alternative drug treatment to antibiotics that may result in reduced multi-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. (nih.gov)
- Future studies on the functions of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia T4SS effector molecules and signaling pathways will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the complex interplay between obligatory intracellular pathogens and their hosts. (springer.com)
- A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B . (rightdiagnosis.com)
- Recently, an additional system for the acquisition of heme involving an extracellular heme binding protein that functions to capture and shuttle heme to a specific outer membrane receptor has been described. (asm.org)
- Hrs is recruited to the endosome in a complex with signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM)/Hrs binding protein, Hse1 in yeast. (rupress.org)
- Tf saturated with bound iron (diferric or holo-Tf) is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (evmedreview.com)
- When entering the cell via the main path (by transferrin endocytosis), its goal is not the (still elusive) chelated iron pool in the cytosol nor the lysosomes but the mitochondria, where heme is synthesized and iron-sulfur clusters are assembled (Kurz et al,2008, Hower et al 2009, Richardson et al 2010). (wikipathways.org)
- Morphologic characterization of the pathway of transferrin endocytosis and recycling in human KB cells. (wikipathways.org)
- When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell , e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
- In the second part of the thesis, we to provide insights into the dynamics of human transferrin (hTf) that transports ferric ions in blood stream with a high affinity and delivers them to cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. (sabanciuniv.edu)
- Here we show that PA triggers the ubiquitination of its receptors in a β-arrestin-dependent manner and that this step is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (prolekare.cz)
- Considering that PA 7mer is the receptor for EF and LF, one crucial point is that PA should not undergo endocytosis in its monomeric form, i.e. the enzymatic subunits would fail to be delivered to the cytoplasm. (prolekare.cz)
- We show that clathrin is, as predicted, involved in endocytosis but that the anthrax toxin follows a non-canonical clathrin-dependent route that depends of β-arrestins and the heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1. (prolekare.cz)
- Moreover we show that endocytosis is strongly actin dependent, in contrast to endocytosis of another bacterial toxin, diphtheria toxin. (prolekare.cz)
- gene transfer to respiratory epithelial cells via the receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. (springer.com)
- Zenke M, Steinlein P, Wagner E, Cotten M, Beug H, Birnstiel ML. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin-polycation conjugates: An efficient way to introduce DNA into hematopoietic cells. (springer.com)
- Clathrin-mediated vesicular transport, the most highly studied process to date, supports receptor-mediated endocytosis of cargo ligands, such as transferrin, low density lipoprotein, growth factors, antibody complexes and essential factors for cellular proliferation. (biologists.org)
- The participation of GPR107 in the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis is the subject of this report. (biologists.org)
- Transferrin can also bind Al 3+ , and it is possible that it can be internalized in cells and incorporated in ferritin . (turkupetcentre.net)
- The panel for testing includes: serum transferrin saturation (Serum iron x 100/TIBC) and ferritin. (renalandurologynews.com)
- For symptomatic patients with elevated ferritin and transferrin saturations and negative C282y and H63D mutations, genetic testing for HAMP, HJV, HFE and TfR2 mutations is recommended. (renalandurologynews.com)
- For compound heterozygotes or non C282Y mutations who have elevated transferrin saturation or ferritin, workup to exclude other liver or hematologic disease which may include liver biopsy. (renalandurologynews.com)
- For C282Y homozygotes with no clinical evidence of disease, yearly ferritin, transferrin saturation, and liver enzymes should be performed. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Identification of a ferrireductase required for efficient transferrin-dependent iron uptake in erythroid cells. (wikipathways.org)
- The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready for another round of iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
- An attractive way of inhibiting biofilm formation is to fool the bacterial regulatory system for iron uptake. (asm.org)
- A typical high-affinity iron uptake system consists of a low-molecular-mass Fe(III)-chelating compound, known as a siderophore, combined with its cognate membrane-located receptor ( 22 ). (asm.org)
- Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
- Expression of these bacterial Fe uptake systems is often regulated in response to the level of Fe in the microenvironment ( 32 ). (asm.org)
- This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis).Conversely, iron overload in the immunocompetent host exacerbated disease.Consistent with this, iron deprivation in infected resting macrophages was detrimental for intracellular mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
- This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis). (nih.gov)
- Gpr107 -null fibroblast cells exhibit reduced transferrin internalization, decreased uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) cargo and resistance to toxins. (biologists.org)
- It has been further proposed that GPI-CD1d binding occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum and that the complex was further transported to endosomes for displacement of GPI and loading of exogenous ligands reminiscent of the MHC class II-invariant chain pathway ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- An intracellular molecule that undergoes structural and functional changes in response to binding of cell membrane receptors by ligands. (tabers.com)
- TACE is a major shedding protease, responsible for the liberation of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor. (elifesciences.org)
- Since Braun's description of a lipoprotein (Lpp) in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli ( 10 ), the important roles of lipoproteins in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been increasingly appreciated. (asm.org)
- Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- Many members of the Pasteurellaceae family make excellent natural models for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and host-pathogen-interactions thus giving valuable insights into related human diseases. (caister.com)
- Taking full advantage of this opportunity, I rotated in labs working on various aspects of biological science research covering virology, cell culture, bacterial pathogenesis, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. (purdue.edu)
- Backert S, Meyer TF (2006) Type IV secretion systems and their effectors in bacterial pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Transferrin receptor 2: a new molecule in iron metabolism. (wikipathways.org)
- 2. The IgE molecule will bind to Fc receptor on mast cell and basophils which in turn causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability and vascular spasm. (docplayer.net)
- We have looked for similar activity in associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH), a JAMM domain-containing protein that associates with the SH3-domain of STAM, a protein, which regulates receptor sorting at the endosome. (rupress.org)
- Current topics in the lab include (1) small molecule and protein import across the bacterial outer membrane, (2) protein secretion by pathogenic bacteria, and (3) protein import across mitochondrial outer membranes. (nih.gov)
- A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. (wikipathways.org)
- The ligand-gated outer membrane porin FepA serves Escherichia coli as the receptor for the siderophore ferric enterobactin. (asm.org)
- Transport of iron into the cell cytosol is mediated by specific membrane receptor and transport systems which recognize the iron-siderophore complexes. (asm.org)
- The potential role of siderophore-mediated systems as virulence determinants in the specific host-bacteria interaction leading to disease is also analyzed with respect to the influence of these systems in the expression of other factors, such as toxins, in the bacterial virulence repertoire. (asm.org)
- Challis GL (2005) A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. (springer.com)
- To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this pathway, ligand-bound receptors on the cell surface are entrapped by deformation of plasma membrane domains into coated pits that invaginate, detach from the plasma membrane and undergo a complex, still poorly understood, sorting process ( Pucadyil and Schmid, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
- In mammals, exposure to LPS causes septic shock through a Toll-like receptor TLR4-dependent signaling pathway. (sdbonline.org)
- Molecular cloning of transferrin receptor 2. (wikipathways.org)
- Transferrin has a molecular weight of around 80 kDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
- Written by specialists in the field, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial membranes. (caister.com)
- The authors present and discuss recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of the molecular details of the cell envelope, its biogenesis and function. (caister.com)
- Transferrin is a glycoprotein composed of 700 amino acids, with molecular weight of 79.6 kDa. (turkupetcentre.net)
- Transferrin acquires rapidly the metal cations from low molecular weight chelators such as citrate . (turkupetcentre.net)
- Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. (jove.com)
- One of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. (asm.org)
- The ability to a molecular weight gain, and immunocompromised Oral bioavailability due to transferrin. (imagenenaccion.org)
- Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and induce antimicrobial immune responses ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease with molecular, morphological, and clinical differences that exist both between and within tumors ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In order for the kidney to be able to reabsorb body water flowing through its collecting ducts (CDs), the following molecular sequence must take place: The antidiuretic hormone , arginine vasopressin ( AVP ) must bind with the vasopressin-2 receptor ( V2R ) located in the basolateral membranes of the principal cells of the kidney CDs. (ndif.org)
- Determination of some bacteria toxins associated with contact lenses (CL) after different using periods (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 Days) with immuno-Tecra technique Bacterial toxin Usage periods of contact lenses (day) 0 1 Bacillus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins but, until now, did not know how. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this case the bacterial toxins , which cause the immune response, are more likely to be from gram-negative bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Shiga toxins represent a group of bacterial toxins that are involved in the most serious forms of food poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
- She fell victim to septic shock after bacterial toxins invaded her bloodstream. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The poisoning is caused by bacterial toxins and pesticides that are used randomly in the planting and growth of fruits and vegetables. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Bacterial toxins block endothelial wound repair. (umassmed.edu)
- Bacterial toxins endowed with enzymatic activity generally have targets, or require co-factors, that reside in the cytoplasm of the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
- The Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase PulA is transported to the outer surface through a complex type II secretion apparatus ( 42 ). (asm.org)
- A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system . (wikipedia.org)
- The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. (jove.com)
- Tiotropium is solely by gut wall at the receptors as the uK leukotriene receptor, skin rash. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- Reduction leukotriene receptor antagonist, and marine fishes. (imagenenaccion.org)
- Demeclocycline is normal school and does not generally high intake A 19-year-old chinese leukotriene receptor. (imagenenaccion.org)
- Many drugs, are very broad complex supraventricular and reduction in the framingham leukotriene receptor blockers. (jaysfromthecouch.com)
- They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released. (nih.gov)
- Barber and Elde expected that transferrin would be subject to purifying selection that maintains both the capacity to bind iron and the ability to effectively interact with the Tf-R on host cell surfaces. (evmedreview.com)
- Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. (wikipedia.org)
- It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
- Somatostatin receptors bind two isoforms of the tetradecapeptide, SST-14 and -28 [9, (exposed-skin-care.net)
- In the absence of TonB, these receptors bind their substrates but do not carry out active transport. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Receptors, primarily on white blood cells, that bind with epitopes on foreign antigens, stimulating an immune response. (tabers.com)
- Any of at least six receptors that bind dopamine in the brain. (tabers.com)
- CAND1 binds to unneddylated CUL1 and regulates the formation of SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. (wikipathways.org)
- Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the ?4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. (jove.com)
- It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a process called iron withholding. (wikipedia.org)
- CCR5 is usually a chemokine receptor that binds MIP-1 (CCL3), MIP-1 (CCL4) and RANTES, and directs chemotactic reactions in leucocytes. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- When transferrin receptor binds transferrin, the complex is internalized into endocytic vesicles. (turkupetcentre.net)
- Receptor binds diferric transferrin with very high affinity, and affinity to monoferric transferrin and transferrin without iron (apotransferrin) is lower. (turkupetcentre.net)
- CD4 receptors on T4 lymphocytes are the sites to which HIV binds, producing infection. (tabers.com)
- A receptor on phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages) that binds Fc fragments of immunoglobulins G and E. (tabers.com)
- PA binds to cells via one of two receptors, TEM8 and CMG2. (prolekare.cz)
- TfR binds diferric transferrin, and the receptor-transferren complex is internalized into an endosome , where the iron is transferred to the cytosol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is now well-accepted that this potent bacterial toxin plays an important role in producing necrotizing fasciitis (NF), the rapid infection of soft tissue referred to as flesh-eating" disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The low concentration of free iron in the mucous membranes and in tissues is one of the first lines of host defense against bacterial infection. (rupress.org)
- Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. (wikipathways.org)
- 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also cause acute glomerulonephitis this is mediated by T-cells. (docplayer.net)
- This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps treatment . (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Results ranging from heme transport being essential to virulence to being dispensable for virulence have been reported for different model systems of bacterial infection. (asmscience.org)
- During pathogen attack, plants rapidly respond to infection via the recruitment and activation of immune complexes. (jove.com)
- The observed inflammation and induction of high-affinity adaptive immune responses during pathogenic infection can be seen as a (preferably temporary) deviation of the bacterial-host relationship sharply away from its usual homeostatic set-point, with the corresponding decrease in function of the intestine that accompanies any such deviation. (frontiersin.org)
- Ectopic expression of these effectors enhances respective bacterial infection, whereas intracellular delivery of antibodies against these effectors or targeted knockdown of the effector with antisense peptide nucleic acid significantly impairs bacterial infection. (springer.com)
- The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high ( association constant is 10 20 M −1 at pH 7.4) but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality. (wikipedia.org)
- The affinity of transferrin for Fe 3+ is ∼400 times higher than for Ga 3+ , but exchange half-life is very slow. (turkupetcentre.net)
- Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
- When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein ). (wikipedia.org)
- Transferrin bound to its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Essentially all circulating iron in plasma is bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
- 80% of transferrin-bound iron is delivered to bone marrow and incorporated into new erythrocytes . (turkupetcentre.net)
- Reticuloendothelial cells in the liver collect iron mainly by phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes , releasing it into hepatocytes and into circulation, bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
- Gallium-transferrin complex can be internalized, while indium-bound transferrin is only bound to TfRs . (turkupetcentre.net)
- Inside endosomes the lower pH promotes the protonation of the carbonate anion coordinating the position of the ferric ion, induces conformational change in transferrin, and additionally membrane bound oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ . (turkupetcentre.net)
- After Fe 2+ (ferrous ion) is released, the transferrin receptor bound apotransferrin is recycled to the cell surface, and in the extracellular neutral pH apotransferrin is released from the complex. (turkupetcentre.net)
- Transmembrane signaling across the ligand-gated FhuA receptor: crystal structures of free and ferrichrome-bound states reveal allosteric changes. (ebi.ac.uk)
- In the first part of the thesis, we have employed Perturbation- Response Scanning (PRS) method unified with elastic network models to predict key residues that induce the dissociated state of 25 non-redundant protein-protein complexes over their bound states. (sabanciuniv.edu)
- Unexpectedly, actin was also found to be essential for efficient heptamerization of PA, but only when bound to one of its 2 receptors, TEM8, due to the active organization of TEM8 into actin-dependent domains. (prolekare.cz)
- During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by outer-membrane regulators of peptidoglycan synthases. (caister.com)
- General heme receptors have been identified in numerous bacteria. (asmscience.org)
- Most bacteria live as complex communities adhered to surfaces rather than as planktonic isolated cells. (asm.org)
- HmuR shares amino acid homology with TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors of gram-negative bacteria involved in the acquisition of iron from hemin and hemoglobin, including HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica , ShuA of Shigella dysenteriae , HpuB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis , HmbR of N. meningitidis , HgbA of Haemophilus ducreyi , and HgpB of H. influenzae . (asm.org)
- In this study we have determined that a newly identified TonB-dependent hemoglobin-hemin receptor (HmuR) is involved in hemoglobin binding and utilization in P. gingivalis A7436. (asm.org)
- Taken together, these results indicate that HmuR serves as the major TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor involved in the utilization of both hemin and hemoglobin in P. gingivalis . (asm.org)
- In Serratia marcescens , the secreted protein HasA extracts heme from either hemopexin-heme or hemoglobin and delivers it to the outer membrane receptor HasR ( 17 ). (asm.org)
- Genetic manipulations of B. avium confirmed that bhuR , which encodes a putative outer membrane heme receptor, mediates efficient acquisition of Fe from hemin and hemoproteins (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and catalase). (asm.org)
- GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
- PA 7mer -EF/LF and receptors-is then internalized by the cell and delivered to early endosomes, where PA 7mer undergoes a conformational change that leads to its membrane insertion and pore-formation (pPA 7mer ) . (prolekare.cz)
- TIP47 (tail-interacting protein of 47 kD) was characterized as a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), directing their transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (rupress.org)
- The transport of lysosomal enzymes from the TGN to endosomes depends mainly on the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), MPR46 or MPR300. (rupress.org)
- The hydrolases are delivered to lysosomes after pH-induced dissociation of the enzyme receptor complexes in endosomes, whereas the MPRs cycle back to the TGN ( Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
- This entry represents the plug domain superfamily, which has been shown to be an independently folding subunit of the TonB-dependent receptors [ PMID: 15111112 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The encoded protein was predicted to bear an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, a large extracellular domain and a C-terminal seven transmembrane domain that is characteristic of members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily ( Edgar, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
- The hemochromatosis gene product complexes with the transferrin receptor and lowers its affinity for ligand binding. (wikipathways.org)
- The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. (wikipedia.org)
- The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gene transfer into mammalian central nervous system using herpes virus vectors: Extended expression of bacterial lacZ in neurons using the neuron-specific enolase promoter. (springer.com)
- In time-course experiments, a complex pattern of gene expression was observed that can be separated into different temporal clusters. (sdbonline.org)
- Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. (cdc.gov)
- This movie shows how Neisseria are able to extract iron from transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. (nih.gov)
- Gladue, "Linezolid effects on bacterial toxin production and host immune response: review of the evidence," Current Therapeutic Research- Clinical and Experimental, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This result is what is normally expected of immune system receptors involved in co-evolutionary processes between host and pathogen, sometimes referred to as "arms races. (evmedreview.com)
- Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
- Via PRS, we show that dynamics within a selected local minimum can lend clues on the global, large scale conformational transition of hTf alone and in its complexes with the human and bacterial receptors. (sabanciuniv.edu)
- Structure of chorismate mutase-like domain of DAHPS from Bacillus subtilis complexed with novel inhibitor reveals conformational plasticity of active site. (purdue.edu)
- Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic pets to its ligand prospects to receptor desensitisation and behavioural version to following ligand publicity, providing further proof integration from the mammalian GPCRs in to the em C. elegans /em sensory signalling equipment. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Using em C. elegans /em to review em in vivo /em GPCR-ligand connections is an benefit because functional appearance of heterologous olfactory receptors in the AWA and AWB olfactory neurons provides previously been proven (Milani em et al /em ) and our unpublished observations. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- The nociceptive neurons, ASH and ADL, travel repulsive reactions, therefore receptor activation is usually reflected within an avoidance response on ligand publicity, which may be analysed using strong behavioural assays [7, (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Mouse CD1d has also been found to control the function of a subset of T lymphocytes expressing receptors for NK cells (NKT cells) in a ligand-independent fashion that could be, however, augmented by the presence of glycosylceramides ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- This is not a fixed structure but its function depends on the complex interplay between the different cell types such as the endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and the extracellular matrix of the brain and blood flow maintained in the microvessels or brain capillaries. (hindawi.com)
- BBB is physically located in endothelium of blood vessels (capillaries) and acts as a "physical barrier" due to formation of complex tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
- In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. (rupress.org)
- The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex glycolipid with important biological functions. (caister.com)
- TonB-dependent regulatory systems consist of six components: a specialised outer membrane-localized TonB-dependent receptor (TonB-dependent transducer) that interacts with its energizing TonB-ExbBD protein complex, a cytoplasmic membrane-localized anti-sigma factor and an extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-subfamily sigma factor [ PMID: 15993072 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other tissues and organs, including the brain, also produce transferrin. (wikipedia.org)
- Transferrin is mainly synthesized in the liver , but other tissues, including central nervous system (oligodendrocytes) and testes synthesize transferrin for local use. (turkupetcentre.net)
- We have previously shown that processing of PA leads to a relocalization of the toxin from the glycerolipid region of the plasma membrane to lipid rafts , where the receptors encounter the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that modifies a juxtamembranous lysine of the cytoplasmic tail of the receptors . (prolekare.cz)
- 2004) of the structure of the Tf/Tf-R complex suggests that both the N and C lobes of Tf contact Tf-R. Based on the results recounted above, one might predict that the C lobe uses a different face to interact with Tf-R versus TbpA, given the purifying selection predicted for the former and the positive selection demonstrated for the latter. (evmedreview.com)
- sle B) LOCAL DISEASE (arthus reaction) Arthus reaction: intracutan injection of antigens to a presensitized person may lead to local intradermal Ab - Ag complex formation and local vasculitis, redness, swelling. (docplayer.net)
- Any of the markers on T lymphocytes and other white blood cells that, along with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is responsible for the recognition of antigens. (tabers.com)
- Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
- some (such as the folate receptor) accumulate in transferrin-containing compartments, others (such as CD59 and GPI-linked green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulate in the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
- Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies . (wikidoc.org)
- GPI-GFP and a proportion of the total CTxB and STxB taken up into cells are endocytosed independently of clathrin-associated machinery and are delivered to the Golgi complex via indistinguishable mechanisms. (rupress.org)
- CD1b and -c molecules have been found to present mycobacterial cell wall-derived Ags to T cells ( 3 ), and CD1a has been implicated in the presentation of bacterial Ags ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The virus uses these receptors to gain entry into T cells, macrophages, and other CD4 + cells. (tabers.com)
- beta-2-microglobulin (beta2m) knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than wild-type mice, which is generally taken as a proof for the role of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-restricted CD8 T cells in protection against M. tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
- Inside the cells, the internalized complex in the endosome is acidified by a vacuolar [H. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Upon their delivery to the plasma membrane, protease activity is required to shed the bioactive extracellular domain to allow signal release and subsequent binding to receptors on signal-receiving cells. (elifesciences.org)