A complex of proteins that forms a receptor for TRANSFERRIN in BACTERIA. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the transferrin-binding complex to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of the genus MYCOPLASMA, originally isolated infrequently from the lower genital tract of humans, and possessing uncertain pathogenicity. The incognitus strain of M. fermentans has been identified in necrotizing lesions of multiple organs from AIDS and non-AIDS patients dying of an acute influenza-like disease.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Construction and characterization of Moraxella catarrhalis mutants defective in expression of transferrin receptors. (1/4)

We have previously reported the construction of an isogenic mutant defective in expression of OmpB1, the TbpB homologue, in Moraxella catarrhalis 7169. In this report, we have extended these studies by constructing and characterizing two new isogenic mutants in this clinical isolate. One mutant is defective in expression of TbpA, and the other mutant is defective in expression of both TbpA and TbpB. These isogenic mutants were confirmed by using PCR analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. In vitro growth studies, comparing all three mutants, demonstrated that the tbpA mutant and the tbpAB mutant were severely limited in their ability to grow with human holotransferrin as the sole source of iron. In contrast, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant was capable of utilizing iron from human transferrin, although not to the extent of the parental strain. While affinity chromatography with human holotransferrin showed that each Tbp was capable of binding independently to transferrin, solid-phase transferrin binding studies using whole cells demonstrated that the tbpA mutant exhibited binding characteristics similar to those seen with the wild-type bacteria. However, the ompB1 (tbpB) mutant exhibited a diminished capacity for binding transferrin, and no binding was detected with the double mutant. These data suggest that the M. catarrhalis TbpA is necessary for the acquisition of iron from transferrin. In contrast, TbpB is not essential but may serve as a facilitory protein that functions to optimize this process. Together these mutants are essential to provide a more thorough understanding of iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by M. catarrhalis.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the utilization of transferrin-bound iron. (2/4)

Staphylococcus aureus is known to be capable of utilizing transferrin-bound iron, via both siderophore- and transferrin-binding protein (named IsdA)-mediated iron-acquisition systems. This study was designed in order to determine which iron-acquisition system plays the essential or dominant role with respect to the acquisition of iron from human transferrin, in the growth of S. aureus. Holotransferrin (HT) and partially iron-saturated transferrin (PT), but not apotransferrin (AT), were found to stimulate the growth of S. aureus. S. aureus consumed most of the transferrin-bound iron during the exponential growth phase. Extracellular proteases were not, however, involved in the liberation of iron from transferrin. Transferrin-binding to the washed whole cells via IsdA was not observed during the culture. The expression of IsdA was observed only in the deferrated media with AT, but not in the media supplemented with PT or HT. In contrast, siderophores were definitely produced in the deferrated media with PT and HT, as well as in the media supplemented with AT. The siderophores proved to have the ability to remove iron directly from transferrin, but the washed whole cells expressing IsdA did not. In the bioassay, the growth of S. aureus on transferrin-bound iron was stimulated by the siderophores alone. These results demonstrate that the siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system plays a dominant and essential role in the uptake of iron from transferrin, whereas the IsdA-mediated iron-acquisition system may play only an ancillary role in the uptake of iron from transferrin.  (+info)

FbpA--a bacterial transferrin with more to offer. (3/4)

 (+info)

Use of an isogenic mutant constructed in Moraxella catarrhalis To identify a protective epitope of outer membrane protein B1 defined by monoclonal antibody 11C6. (4/4)

Moraxella catarrhalis-induced otitis media continues to be a significant cause of infection in young children, prompting increased efforts at identifying effective vaccine antigens. We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. As the human host presents a naturally iron-limited environment, proteins, like OMP B1, which are expressed in response to this nutritional stress are potential vaccine antigens. In this study, we have developed monoclonal antibody (MAb) 11C6, which reacts to a surface-exposed epitope of OMP B1 expressed by M. catarrhalis 7169. This antibody was used to clone ompB1, and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis. Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. In addition, ompB1 was used to construct an isogenic mutant in M. catarrhalis 7169. This mutant, termed 7169b12, was used as the control in bactericidal assays designed to determine if OMP B1 elicits protective antibodies. In the presence of MAb 11C6 and human complement, wild-type 7169 demonstrated a 99% decline in viability, whereas the ompB1 isogenic mutant was resistant to this bactericidal activity. Further analysis with MAb 11C6 revealed the presence of this OMP B1 epitope on 31% of the clinical isolates tested. These data suggest that OMP B1 is a potential vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus is known to be capable of utilizing transferrin-bound iron, via both siderophore-and transferrin-binding protein (named IsdA)-mediated iron-acquisition systems. This study was de...
A mutant variant of a septicemic Escherichia coli strain (L3) isolated from an outbreak in chickens was constructed by the insertion of TnphoA transposon. Seven mutant derivatives were analyzed regarding the pathogenicity. Two of them (XP2, XP4) were less pathogenic in the one-day-old chick pathogenicity assay. The expression of several outer membrane proteins of mutant XP2 strain was suppressed, and strain XP4 had a 47.8(kDa) protein that was not expressed. None of these proteins was correlated to the iron-acquisition system. Mutant XP2 could have suppression of a regulatory protein responsible for the expression of other proteins not related to pathogenicity but important for the rapid bacterial growth, while mutant XP4 did not express a 47.8(kDa) protein. We propose that the 47.8(kDa) protein could be associated to the pathogenicity process of Escherichia coli strains responsible for septicemia in poultry ...
Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein in human blood, is a natural transport vehicle with multiple ligand binding sites. It, therefore, constitutes an attractive candidate for drug delivery. Targeting may occur via the most known interaction of the protein with the neonatal Fc receptor
This chapter highlights both the well established and the yet poorly understood aspects of siderophoremediated iron acquisition in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, with a particular emphasis in the siderophore system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis siderophore system is believed to play a crucial role in the procurement of a suitable iron supply to support bacterial multiplication in vivo and to be a key factor in the ability of this human pathogen to produce successful infections. The mycobacteria examined for iron-acquisition systems appear to rely on siderophores with high affinity for the ferric ion as the primary mechanism for iron acquisition. Transcription of genes of the exochelin (EXC) and mycobactin/carboxymycobactin (MBT/CMBT) systems is derepressed when the bacterium experiences iron limitations, thus leading to siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-mediated iron uptake. Several Mycobacterium species produce two structurally related families of high-affinity
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1) E.A. Hod , S.L. Spitalnik; 7 June 2012; Stored red blood cell transfusions: Iron, inflammation, immunity, and infection; Transfus Clin Biol. 19 (2012) 84-89. 2) Eldad A. Hod, Steven L. Spitalnik; 15 APR 2011; Harmful effects of transfusion of older stored red blood cells: iron and inflammation; DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03096.x. 3) Niels Liona,b,⁎, David Crettaza, Olivier Rubina, Jean-Daniel Tissota 4 November 2009, Stored red blood cells: A changing universe waiting for its map(s); J Proteomics, 2010 Jan 3;73(3):374-85. 4) Eldad A. Hod, Gary M. Brittenham, Genia B. Billote, Richard O. Francis, Yelena Z. Ginzburg, Jeanne E. Hendrickson, Jeffrey Jhang, Joseph Schwartz, Shruti Sharma, Sujit Sheth, Anthony N. Sireci, Hannah L. Stephens, Brie A. Stotler, Boguslaw S. Wojczyk, James C. Zimring and Steven L. Spitalnik; October 20, 2011; Transfusion of human volunteers with older, stored red blood cells produces extravascular hemolysis and circulating non − transferrin-bound iron; Blood. 2011 ...
John White discussed the general state of ACM. Overall membership has increased for the third straight year. ACMs Market Research initiative provided valuable information regarding ACM and its products and services. Practitioners and Managers make up 61% of the membership while Researchers and Academics/Educators make up the approximately 32%. Conference satisfaction received the highest rating within the Member Satisfaction Survey. The 2005 Fiscal Year ended with a healthy balance with the SIG area netting $844K. The Digital Library Distribution to the SIGs is $1.2 and expected to be $1.4 in FY06. As always, Membership and financial performance continue to be a priority for the ACM. A Professions Board was created to begin research on new products and services for professionals. White indicated that Steve Bourne, the Chair of the newly established board would be providing an outline of activities later in the day.. White discussed initiatives and indicated that ACM was enhancing current ...
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In spite of the frequency and severe pain often experienced with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, these illnesses account for only a small portion of hospital discharges. Visits to a physicians office or alternative types of care account for the majority of health care related to AORC, with more than 100 million ambulatory visits in 2010. Among the 6.6 million hospital discharges for an AORC in 2011, age was a factor in increasing rates of hospitalization. Fewer than 1 in 100 persons ages 18 to 44 years had a hospital discharge with a diagnosis of an AORC, while 13 in 100 aged 75 years and older were discharged with an AORC diagnosis.. Osteoarthritis is the primary form of arthritis to affect older persons, and begins to show increasing rates for people in their 60s. By the age of 75 years, multiple forms of arthritis are often diagnosed and categorized as other rheumatic conditions. (Reference Table 9B.4.2 PDF CSV). ...
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Molecular mechanism of regulation of siderophore-mediated iron assimilation. Adhikari, P., Berish, S. A., Nowalk, A. J., Veraldi, K. L., Morse,…. Continue Reading →. ...
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The latest Porsche models are designed to operate on fuels with an ethanol content of up to 10%. Data determined for standard specification and in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) in accordance with the Euro 5 and Euro 6 (715/2007/EC and 692/2008/EC) measurement method. The figures do not refer to an individual vehicle nor do they constitute part of the offer. They are intended solely as a means of comparing different types of vehicle. You can obtain further information about individual vehicles from your Porsche Centre ...
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 - transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 - receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 - receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptor, igf type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.780.410 - receptor, igf type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.820 - receptors, ...
... receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria ... Also increased levels of lactoferrin and transferrin inhibit bacterial growth by binding iron, an essential nutrient for ... As with animals, plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex metabolic responses which lead to the ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ...
... receptors, antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.107 - antibodies, ... bacterial MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.107.288 - antistreptolysin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.125 - antibodies, bispecific ...
... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin. The affinity ... The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also facilitates absorption of iron ... Lactoferrin's primary role is to sequester free iron, and in doing so remove essential substrate required for bacterial growth ... Exons of the lactoferrin gene in oxen have a similar size to the exons of other genes of the transferrin family, whereas the ...
The complex phenotypes of several disorders are suspected to be caused by the involvement of moonlighting proteins. The protein ... Other proteins like bacterial spore coat, a slime mold cyst protein, and epidermis differentiation-specific protein, contain ... Moreover, in case of its iron import activities it can traffic into cells holo-transferrin as well as the related molecule ... Many proteins that moonlight are enzymes; others are receptors, ion channels or chaperones. The most common primary function of ...
... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.790 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.800 - receptor, macrophage colony- ... electron transport complex iii MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.977 - nitrate reductase (nad(p)h) MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.988 ... transferrin MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114 - antibodies MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.071 - antibodies, anti-idiotypic MeSH ... D12.776.377.715.548.114.107 - antibodies, archaeal MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.125 - antibodies, bacterial MeSH D12.776. ...
... also acts as a transferrin receptor. Transferrin-bound ferric iron is recognized by these transferrin receptors, triggering a ... Iron in such complexes can cause damage as described above. To prevent that kind of damage, all life forms that use iron bind ... Although this mechanism is an elegant response to short-term bacterial infection, it can cause problems when it goes on so long ... "Comparison of the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary ...
... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin.[21] The ... Lactoferrin receptorEdit. The lactoferrin receptor plays an important role in the internalization of lactoferrin; it also ... Lactoferrin is a protein found in the immune system, and is a common defense against bacterial infections, which it is able to ... protein complex. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • specific granule. • phagocytic vesicle lumen. • extracellular ...
Transferrin, on the other hand, has a pI of 5.9, so it cannot be easily separated by this method. A difference in pI of at ... Every intact antibody can bind to cell receptors or other proteins with its Fc region. MAbs approved by the FDA for cancer ... There may also be bacterial contamination and, as a result, endotoxins that are secreted by the bacteria. Depending on the ... Monoclonal antibodies are more expensive to manufacture than small molecules due to the complex processes involved and the ...
The presence of these complex microbial communities in the human body suggests that the immune system has been selected to ... Studies show that HMOs also function as immune-modulators by blocking receptors that allow pathogenic bacteria to attach to the ... Rodríguez JM (November 2014). "The origin of human milk bacteria: is there a bacterial entero-mammary pathway during late ... and transferrin. There is evidence of a relationship between the microbes that have co-evolved with humans as their host and ...
... tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors.[42] Complexes ... In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%).[171] Because ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of ... One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial ...
... estrogen receptor - estrogen receptor negative - estrogen receptor positive - estrogen receptor test - estrogen replacement ... bacterial toxin - barium enema - barium solution - barium swallow - Barrett's esophagus - basal cell - basal cell carcinoma - ... transferrin-CRM107 - transitional cell - transitional cell carcinoma - transperineal biopsy - transrectal biopsy - transrectal ... boronophenylalanine-fructose complex - bortezomib - Bowen's disease - BPH - brachial plexopathy - brachial plexus - ...
Streckfus C, Bigler L, Tucci M, Thigpen JT (2000). "A preliminary study of CA15-3, c-erbB-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, ... In 2010 Jou, et al., found that patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma had elevated levels transferrin in saliva ... Matsubara K, Irie T, Uekama K (February 1997). "Spectroscopic characterization of the inclusion complex of a luteinizing ... either by spitting or interrupting the bioconversion of dietary nitrate to nitrite in the mouth with anti-bacterial mouthwash, ...
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can develop where there is ascites present. This is a frequent development in children but ... Anaemia (iron resistant microcytic hypochromic type) maybe present due to transferrin loss. ... Mutations in multiple components of the nuclear pore complex cause nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest pii: 98688. doi: 10.1172/ ... "Concerted Action of ANP and Dopamine D1-Receptor to Regulate Sodium Homeostasis in Nephrotic Syndrome". BioMed Research ...
Transferrin receptor. Hormones. *ACTH stimulation test. *Thyroid function tests *Thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Amylases are used in breadmaking and to break down complex sugars, such as starch (found in flour), into simple sugars. Yeast ... and glycoside hydrolase family 97 of bacterial forms. ... Payen and Jean-François Persoz isolated an amylase complex from ...
... complexes. IgA. 2. Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... Ravetch J, Bolland S (2001). "IgG Fc receptors". Annu Rev Immunol. 19 (1): 275-290. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.275. PMID ...
A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium.[141] ... Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ... Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor ...
Transferrin receptor. Hormones. *ACTH stimulation test. *Thyroid function tests *Thyroid-stimulating hormone ... While LDH activity is correlated to muscle fatigue,[21] the production of lactate by means of the LDH complex works as a system ... High levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis.[34] In the case of ... "Skeletal muscle PGC-1α controls whole-body lactate homeostasis through estrogen-related receptor α-dependent activation of LDH ...
Vaska's complex - iridium organometallic complex notable for its ability to bind to O2 reversibly. ... it is stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues and transported in plasma by beta globulins as transferrins. When the ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ... When oxygen binds to the iron complex, it causes the iron atom to move back toward the center of the plane of the porphyrin ...
Transferrin-Binding Protein A information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN ... Introduction: Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Description of Transferrin-Binding Protein A. Transferrin-Binding Protein A: ... Transferrin *Binding *Protein Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases *Online Diagnosis *Self ...
Transferrin , Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex , Erythrocytes , Ferritins , Anemia/diagnosis ... However, evaluating the soluble receptors of transferrin we would be detecting a greater number of samples-30.8% with low iron ... Nevertheless, iron deficiency was detected in 30.8% oí the cases using soluble transferrin receptor, 14% with erythrocyte ... soluble receptorstransferrin, erythrocyte protoporphyrln and C reactive proteln were analysed. Forty-two per cent oí the ...
... bacterial transferrin receptor complex MeSH D12.776.543.750.850.249.500 - transferrin-binding protein a MeSH D12.776.543.750. ... receptor-cd3 complex, antigen, t-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824.825 - receptors, antigen, t-cell, alpha-beta MeSH ... receptor, erbb-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.437 - receptor, erbb-3 MeSH D12.776.543.750.060.468 - receptor, igf type 1 MeSH ... receptor, igf type 1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.780.410 - receptor, igf type 2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.750.400.820 - receptors, ...
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex. Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte. Moraxella (Branhamella) ... catarrhalis receptor for human transferrin because the characteristics of bacterial transferrin receptors are consistent with ... This has prompted recent studies to evaluate bacterial transferrin receptors of the pathogenicNeisseriaceae, and TbpB in ... we have demonstrated that OMP B1 binds human transferrin in vitro, similarly to the transferrin receptor TbpB described for ...
transferrin-binding proteins *Transferrin Receptors *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex + *vitamin D-binding protein * ... Mediator Complex *Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 *Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins *Nuclear Receptor Coactivators *Paxillin * ... Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases *TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein *GRB2 Adaptor Protein *GRB7 ... SMN protein complex *DEAD box protein 20 *survival of motor neuron 1 protein *survival of motor neuron 2 protein *Fragile X ...
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex ... "Bacterial Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
What is bacterial toxins? Meaning of bacterial toxins as a finance term. What does bacterial toxins mean in finance? ... Definition of bacterial toxins in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... redirected from bacterial toxins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to bacterial toxins: ...
Bacterial Secretion Systems G6.99.112.104 D5.500.890.500 G6.590.110.104 Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex D12.776.97.141 ... Receptor, ErbB-2 D23.101.840.642 D23.101.140.642 Receptor, ErbB-3 D23.101.840.721 D23.101.140.721 Receptor, ErbB-4 D23.101. ... Receptor, Adenosine A1 D12.776.543.750.810.700.100 Receptor, Adenosine A2A D12.776.543.750.810.700.200.100 Receptor, Adenosine ... Receptor, Notch2 D12.776.930.670.750 D12.776.930.770.750 Receptor, PAR-1 D12.776.543.750.705.675.892.790 Receptor, Serotonin, 5 ...
Bacterial Processes G6.99.112 G6.590.110 Bacterial Shedding G7.700.85 G7.75 Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex D12.776. ... Receptors, Transferrin D12.776.543.750.800 Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 14 D12.776.543.750.925.850 D12.776.543.750. ... Receptor Aggregation G4.299.780 G4.774 Receptor Cross-Talk G4.299.785 G4.794 Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases D12.776.543.750. ... 60 D12.776.543.750.630 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors D12.776.543.750.60.233 D12.776.543.750.630.233 Receptor, ...
Find out information about Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used ... Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex. *Bacterial transferrin receptor complex ... Bacterial taxonomy. Bacterial taxonomy. The classification, nomenclature, and identification of bacteria; sometimes used as a ... Confirmation of bacterial identification was performed on randomly selected colonies using standard bacterial taxonomy ...
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex ... "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in this ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in Profiles. ...
... this complex interacts with the outer membrane receptor LolB, which mediates anchoring to the inner leaflet of the outer ... Gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 2 facilitates but is not essential for transferrin utilization. J. Bacteriol. 176:3162- ... Only a few bacterial genera have actually been shown to deploy lipoproteins to their surface, and the mechanisms for this are ... which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor (2), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis (20 ...
The mAb TR-19 coprecipitates the radioiodinated transferrin as a complex with its receptor. Acute bacterial sinusitis is common ... However, two 5-HT receptor blockers--methysergide (2 mg/kg) and ketanserin (8 mg/kg)--increased this effect of clonidine ... a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptor) were also examined. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its ...
Cell SurfaceReceptors, TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding ... TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding Protein B ... Receptors, Transferrin. Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind ... and ProteinsProteinsCarrier ProteinsTransferrin-Binding ProteinsReceptors, ...
... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1 ... Článek Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ... Complex patterns of cell growth in the placenta in normal pregnancy and as adaptations to maternal diet restriction ...
Rabbit polyclonal Transferrin Receptor antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 86 ... The apotransferrin-receptor complex is then recycled to the cell surface with a return to neutral pH and the concomitant loss ... Singh KS et al. African-centric TP53 variant increases iron accumulation and bacterial pathogenesis but improves response to ... Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized ...
The small quantities of extracellular iron are complexed to carrier proteins like transferrin present in serum and lactoferrin ... In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. A second more complex way to obtain heme ... 1969) Bacterial iron metabolism and immunity to Pasteurella septica and Escherichia coli. Nature 224:380-382, pmid:4898928.. ... 1992) Transferrins and heme-compounds as iron sources for pathogenic bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol 18:217-233, pmid:1532495.. ...
Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T. Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex. Cell. 2004 Feb ... Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1362-6. doi: 10.1126/ ... is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated ... transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, ...
Bacterial Toxins, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Diphtheria Toxin, Immunology, Antigens Bacterial, Exotoxins, Metal Complexes ... Receptors, Transferrin Receptors, Therapy Evaluation, Non-human, Toxicology, Plant Poisons Animals, Chordates, Mammals, Rodents ... A monoclonal antibody to the human transferrin receptor has been coupled to an acid-releasable monoclonal antibody directed ... directed against carcinoembronic antigen and human transferrin receptor will be used. The anti- tumor effects of these ITs ...
Insights into the bacterial transferrin receptor: the structure of transferrin-binding protein B from Actinobacillus ... A model for the complex of TbpB bound to Tf is proposed. Mutation of a single surface-exposed Phe residue on TbpB within the ... The bacterial Tf receptor is comprised of a surface exposed lipoprotein, Tf-binding protein B (TbpB), and an integral outer- ... transferrin (Tf), in a process mediated by surface receptor proteins that directly bind host Tf, extract the iron, a ... ...
The transferrin/receptor complex is internalized as a clathrin-coated vesicle (Willingham et al, 1984; Harding et al, 1983).. R ... LCN2 can then limit bacterial growth by sequestrating the iron-laden siderophore so this event is pivotal in the innate immune ... Harding C, Heuser J, Stahl P.; Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat ... When endosomal pH reaches 6,0, protons replace the iron ions in the transferrin/receptor complex (Hemadi et al, 2006).. R-HSA- ...
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Transferrin Receptor Complex ... The bacterial septal ring protein RlpA is a lytic transglycosylase that contributes to rod shape and daughter cell separation ... Dynamic complex formation between HD-GYP, GGDEF and PilZ domain proteins regulates motility in Xanthomonas campestris. Mol ... "Bacterial Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
To address these questions, we solved crystal structures of the TbpA-transferrin complex and of the corresponding co-receptor ... Neisseria are obligate human pathogens causing bacterial meningitis, septicaemia and gonorrhoea. Neisseria require iron for ... We characterized the TbpB-transferrin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and the TbpA-TbpB-transferrin complex by electron ... and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end product [RAGE], angiotensin II receptor type 1 [AT(1)R ...
In AGAP2-depleted cells, Shiga toxin accumulates in transferrin-receptor-positive early endosomes, suggesting that AGAP2 ... Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky ... Several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial Shiga toxin. ADP- ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be ...
1997) The transferrin receptor expressed by gonococcal strain FA1090 is required for the experimental infection of human male ... Unexpectedly, the chirality of the iron complex did not affect the receptor-ligand interaction: FeEnEnt bound to FepA with ... Bacterial strains and plasmids.Bacterial strains, plasmids, and sources are listed in Table 1. ... That is, the presence of enterobactin induces synthesis of the receptor for its ferric complex, an advantageous strategy for ...
transferrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Cheng Y, Zak O, Aisen P, Harrison SC, Walz T (Feb 2004). "Structure of the human transferrin receptor-transferrin complex". ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune ... 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. ... One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen ...
... bacterial membrane proteins, secretion systems, signal transduction, signalling mechanisms, bacterial membranes in adhesion and ... The recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of ... Topics include: cell wall growth, shape and division, outer membrane protein biosynthesis, bacterial lipoproteins, mycobacteria ... A comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial ...
SNAREs are involved in autophagosome formation in response to bacterial infection Title: The STX6-VTI1B-VAMP3 complex ... protein 3 trafficking to perinuclear membranes and impaired the rate of VAMP3-mediated recycling of the transferrin receptor ... Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA). * Transcriptomine: regulation of the VAMP3 gene by nuclear receptor signaling ... Human herpesvirus 6 gM/gN complex interacts with v-SNARE in infected cells. Kawabata A, et al. J Gen Virol, 2014 Dec. PMID ...
The region of human transferrin involved in binding to bacterial transferrin receptors is localized in the C-lobe. Mol ... Evaluation of transferrin-binding protein 2 within the transferrin-binding protein complex as a potential antigen for future ... Role of transferrin receptor from a Neisseria meningitidis tbpB isotype II strain in human transferrin binding and virulence. ... Use of heme-protein complexes by the Yersinia enterocolitica HemR receptor: histidine residues are essential for receptor ...
  • We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. (asm.org)
  • One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. (asm.org)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are a family of proteins that share the F-box motifs , that are involved in protein-protein interactions, which play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP domain proteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, GTP-Binding Proteins control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Bacterial Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacterial Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • In humans, the majority of iron is located intracellularly complexed in ferritin, hemoglobin or heme proteins. (rupress.org)
  • These authors provide strong evidence for positive selection affecting several sites in host (transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, structural, and functional experimental methods. (evmedreview.com)
  • But they wondered if the potential for iron piracy by pathogen derived iron-binding proteins would lead to positive selection on portions of the transferrin molecule. (evmedreview.com)
  • The TbpA proteins, which are surface receptors, of the Gram-negative human pathogens N. meningitidis , N. gonorrhoeae , and Haemophilus influenzae all extract iron from the C lobe, but not the N lobe, of Tf. (evmedreview.com)
  • Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. (jove.com)
  • Pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike obtain iron from human and animal hosts by competing for the metal with eucaryotic proteins, like transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin ( 11 , 25 , 49 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin receptors (TfR1 and TfR2) are transmembrane proteins with 66% homology. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Therefore, we attempt to check whether we'd elicit ligand-dependent behavioural reactions in em C. elegans /em by expressing mammalian GPCRs in the ASH and ADL gustatory neurons, because they are straight exposed to the surroundings allowing gain access to of proteins and peptide ligands towards the heterologous receptors. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Bacteria face iron-limiting conditions in the mammalian host, where free iron is strictly limited and normally bound to sequestering proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin. (asm.org)
  • Fe III is both insoluble and efficiently sequestered by mammalian proteins, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, and lactoferrin, leaving a remarkably low available iron concentration of 10 -24 M ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These receptors recognize either free heme or heme bound to host-carrier proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • HpuAB is unusual among heme receptors because it consists of two outer membrane-associated proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Activation of immune complexes is associated with post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or ubiquitination. (jove.com)
  • In Escherichia coli the TonB protein interacts with outer membrane receptor proteins that carry out high-affinity binding and energy-dependent uptake of specific substrates into the periplasmic space [ PMID: 14499604 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lactoferrin is one of the transferrin proteins that transfer iron to the cells and control the level of free iron in the blood and external secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • My lab centers around determining the atomic resolution structure of membrane proteins and complexes that function to transport materials across lipid bilayers. (utoronto.ca)
  • Any of the proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes that enhance the response of the T-cell receptor to foreign antigens and stimulate signals from the receptor to the cytoplasm. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: CCR Any of several protein receptors for chemokines that spans the cell membrane and links to intracellular G proteins. (tabers.com)
  • To clarify the intracellular pathways followed by rafts we have investigated the transport itineraries of two main classes of raft markers, GPI-anchored proteins and the lipid-binding subunits of specific bacterial toxins. (rupress.org)
  • In this study we used markers for a variety of GPI-anchored proteins, including folate receptor, CD59 ( Davies and Lachmann 1993 ), and a construct composed of GPI-anchored green fluorescent protein (GPI-GFP). (rupress.org)
  • Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M) is a small membrane protein (11,800 Dalton) associated with the heavy chains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins and is, therefore, on the surface of all nucleated cells. (paperbomb.com)
  • PA binds specifically to two identified anthrax toxin receptors, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8, also called ANTXR1) and capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, or ANTXR2), two type I membrane proteins that share extensive sequence similarity both in their extracellular and intracellular domains [3] , [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Within the cell, rab11BP must undergo a conformational change in which the rab11-binding site becomes exposed, because when coexpressed with rab11 in transfected cells the two proteins formed abundant complexes in association with membranes. (pnas.org)
  • The precise mechanism of action of rab proteins has not yet been elucidated, although there is evidence that the active GTP-containing form of some rab proteins serves to stabilize SNARE complexes required for vesicle fusion ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Wild-type and mutant human rab11 cDNAs ( 16 ) were cloned into the bacterial expression vector pET-11d (Novagen), and the bacterially expressed rab11 proteins were purified from lysates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by fast protein liquid chromatography on a Superdex HR-75 gel-filtration matrix (Pharmacia). (pnas.org)
  • Neisseria survive in the human host by utilizing surface receptors to pirate iron from human iron binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Our goal is to generate rich sets of restraint data that can be used to model both individual proteins and ultralarge protein complexes and networks. (ucalgary.ca)
  • What proteins comprise the essential complexes for non-homologous end joining, and how are they coordinated to repair lesions in DNA induced by (among other things) ionizing radiation? (ucalgary.ca)
  • 4) Proteins involved in establishment of intracellular niche are TonB-dependent receptors (orange) and pilus genes (sienna). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Siderophores like enterobactin and aerobactin are able to remove iron from transferrin or lactoferrin. (rupress.org)
  • however, most of the iron in the biological fluids of vertebrates is found bound by transferrin, lactoferrin, and in red blood cells ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, siderophores act as extracellular solubilizing agents for iron from minerals or organic compounds, such as transferrin and lactoferrin in the host vertebrate, under conditions of iron limitation. (asm.org)
  • Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactoferrin interacts with DNA and RNA, polysaccharides and heparin, and shows some of its biological functions in complexes with these ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exons of the lactoferrin gene in oxen have a similar size to the exons of other genes of the transferrin family, whereas the sizes of introns differ within the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vertebrate host, the level of free extracellular iron is well below that required to support the growth of bacterial pathogens, largely owing to the iron-sequestering effects of iron-binding glycoproteins transferrin and lactoferrin. (utoronto.ca)
  • Successful bacterial pathogens have developed high-affinity iron uptake systems capable of acquiring iron from transferrin and lactoferrin. (utoronto.ca)
  • Britigan BE, Lewis TS, McCormick ML, Wilson ME (1998) Evidence for the existence of a surface receptor(s) for ferric lactoferrin and ferric transferrin associated with the plasma membrane of the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani . (springer.com)
  • During pathogenesis, Neisseria bacterium employs TonB-dependent surface receptors to obtain iron from iron-containing host glycoproteins including transferrin, lactoferrin, and hemoglobin. (purdue.edu)
  • Structural characterization of Lactoferrin binding protein B - Lactoferrin complex. (purdue.edu)
  • The majority of host iron is presented intracellularly as hemoglobin and extracellularly as human transferrin and lactoferrin. (tailieu.vn)
  • Other characterized surface lipoproteins of bacterial pathogens include Neisseria meningitidis TbpB, which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor ( 2 ), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis ( 20 ), a potential adhesin of Campylobacter jejuni , JlpA ( 31 ), and multiple polypeptides expressed by Mycoplasma spp. (asm.org)
  • Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them. (prelekara.sk)
  • This means that the innate immune system will respond similarly to different pathogens, injuries, or stressors, but often not efficiently enough to resist and eliminate complex disease conditions. (docplayer.net)
  • These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepcidin is transcriptionally induced in response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as bacterial pathogens and lipopolysaccharide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1, 4, 5] Cutaneous infections with Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila, other seawater-associated bacterial pathogens, closely resemble the clinical picture. (interleukin-receptor.com)
  • In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called "natural," "primitive" (T-cell-independent), and "classical" IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this setting although infection and dysfunction should not use of approximately one of bacterial pathogens. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Lipoproteins decorate the surface of many obligate host restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, playing essential roles in immune evasion and nutrient acquisition. (utoronto.ca)
  • The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have already succeeded in identifying an alternative drug treatment to antibiotics that may result in reduced multi-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Tf saturated with bound iron (diferric or holo-Tf) is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (evmedreview.com)
  • When entering the cell via the main path (by transferrin endocytosis), its goal is not the (still elusive) chelated iron pool in the cytosol nor the lysosomes but the mitochondria, where heme is synthesized and iron-sulfur clusters are assembled (Kurz et al,2008, Hower et al 2009, Richardson et al 2010). (wikipathways.org)
  • Morphologic characterization of the pathway of transferrin endocytosis and recycling in human KB cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell , e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second part of the thesis, we to provide insights into the dynamics of human transferrin (hTf) that transports ferric ions in blood stream with a high affinity and delivers them to cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Here we show that PA triggers the ubiquitination of its receptors in a β-arrestin-dependent manner and that this step is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Considering that PA 7mer is the receptor for EF and LF, one crucial point is that PA should not undergo endocytosis in its monomeric form, i.e. the enzymatic subunits would fail to be delivered to the cytoplasm. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that clathrin is, as predicted, involved in endocytosis but that the anthrax toxin follows a non-canonical clathrin-dependent route that depends of β-arrestins and the heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1. (prolekare.cz)
  • Moreover we show that endocytosis is strongly actin dependent, in contrast to endocytosis of another bacterial toxin, diphtheria toxin. (prolekare.cz)
  • gene transfer to respiratory epithelial cells via the receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. (springer.com)
  • Zenke M, Steinlein P, Wagner E, Cotten M, Beug H, Birnstiel ML. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin-polycation conjugates: An efficient way to introduce DNA into hematopoietic cells. (springer.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated vesicular transport, the most highly studied process to date, supports receptor-mediated endocytosis of cargo ligands, such as transferrin, low density lipoprotein, growth factors, antibody complexes and essential factors for cellular proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • The participation of GPR107 in the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis is the subject of this report. (biologists.org)
  • Nevertheless, iron deficiency was detected in 30.8% oí the cases using soluble transferrin receptor, 14% with erythrocyte protoporphyrln and 10% with serie ferrítin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum contains soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), which is a truncated monomer form of the transmembrane receptors, formed by proteolytic cleavage. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Identification of a ferrireductase required for efficient transferrin-dependent iron uptake in erythroid cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready for another round of iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • An attractive way of inhibiting biofilm formation is to fool the bacterial regulatory system for iron uptake. (asm.org)
  • A typical high-affinity iron uptake system consists of a low-molecular-mass Fe(III)-chelating compound, known as a siderophore, combined with its cognate membrane-located receptor ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the concept of regulation of iron uptake systems is becoming more complex with the recent findings of positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes, rather than only derepression mediated by the decrease of iron availability in the cell cytosol. (asm.org)
  • Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The primary focus of research in the lab is nutrient uptake mechanisms within Gram negative bacterial species. (utoronto.ca)
  • This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis).Conversely, iron overload in the immunocompetent host exacerbated disease.Consistent with this, iron deprivation in infected resting macrophages was detrimental for intracellular mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis). (nih.gov)
  • Gpr107 -null fibroblast cells exhibit reduced transferrin internalization, decreased uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) cargo and resistance to toxins. (biologists.org)
  • Transferrin can also bind Al 3+ , and it is possible that it can be internalized in cells and incorporated in ferritin . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • The panel for testing includes: serum transferrin saturation (Serum iron x 100/TIBC) and ferritin. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For symptomatic patients with elevated ferritin and transferrin saturations and negative C282y and H63D mutations, genetic testing for HAMP, HJV, HFE and TfR2 mutations is recommended. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For compound heterozygotes or non C282Y mutations who have elevated transferrin saturation or ferritin, workup to exclude other liver or hematologic disease which may include liver biopsy. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For C282Y homozygotes with no clinical evidence of disease, yearly ferritin, transferrin saturation, and liver enzymes should be performed. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Medical professionals may check serum transferrin level in iron deficiency and in iron overload disorders such as hemochromatosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was extracted from milk, contained iron and was structurally and chemically similar to serum transferrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes ( Tf1 , Tf2 ), a melanotransferrin gene ( MTf ), and a monolobal transferrin gene ( Omp ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transferrin receptor 2: a new molecule in iron metabolism. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2. The IgE molecule will bind to Fc receptor on mast cell and basophils which in turn causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability and vascular spasm. (docplayer.net)
  • An intracellular molecule that undergoes structural and functional changes in response to binding of cell membrane receptors by ligands. (tabers.com)
  • We have looked for similar activity in associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH), a JAMM domain-containing protein that associates with the SH3-domain of STAM, a protein, which regulates receptor sorting at the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Hrs is recruited to the endosome in a complex with signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM)/Hrs binding protein, Hse1 in yeast. (rupress.org)
  • Current topics in the lab include (1) small molecule and protein import across the bacterial outer membrane, (2) protein secretion by pathogenic bacteria, and (3) protein import across mitochondrial outer membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The highly selective deficits observed in Gpr107 -null cells indicate that GPR107 interacts directly or indirectly with a limited subset of surface receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Transferrin Receptor aa 1-100 conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin. (abcam.com)
  • [5] Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. (rupress.org)
  • The bacterial Tf receptor is comprised of a surface exposed lipoprotein, Tf-binding protein B (TbpB), and an integral outer-membrane protein, Tf-binding protein A (TbpA), both of which are essential for survival in the host. (rcsb.org)
  • The ligand-gated outer membrane porin FepA serves Escherichia coli as the receptor for the siderophore ferric enterobactin. (asm.org)
  • The experiments refuted the idea that chirality of the iron complex affects its recognition by FepA and demonstrated the necessity of an unsubstituted catecholate coordination center for binding to the outer membrane protein. (asm.org)
  • The shape of a bacterial cell is maintained by its peptidoglycan sacculus that completely surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. (caister.com)
  • During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by outer-membrane regulators of peptidoglycan synthases. (caister.com)
  • Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The authors found that activation of dendritic cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide leads to increased Forster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence of fluorescently labeled syntaxin 4 with VAMP3 specifically at the plasma membrane, indicating increased SNARE complex formation, whereas FRET with other tested SNAREs was unaltered. (nih.gov)
  • Inside endosomes the lower pH promotes the protonation of the carbonate anion coordinating the position of the ferric ion, induces conformational change in transferrin, and additionally membrane bound oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Some bacteria have also evolved mechanisms that appear to prevent or minimize siderophore freeloading, including maintaining variability in structure of siderophore-receptor pairs (diversifying selection) ( 21 , 22 ) and privatizing siderophores through high hydrophobicity or association with membrane-bound receptors ( 23 - 26 ). (asm.org)
  • TonB-dependent regulatory systems consist of six components: a specialised outer membrane-localized TonB-dependent receptor (TonB-dependent transducer) that interacts with its energizing TonB-ExbBD protein complex, a cytoplasmic membrane-localized anti-sigma factor and an extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-subfamily sigma factor [ PMID: 15993072 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Transport of iron into the cell cytosol is mediated by specific membrane receptor and transport systems which recognize the iron-siderophore complexes. (asm.org)
  • We use primarily X-ray crystallography in combination with other molecular approaches to gain a detailed understanding of how these membrane protein complexes function. (utoronto.ca)
  • In addition to the structural and biochemical characterization of these ion transport system components, research in my lab also examines the membrane protein complexes that facilitate the proper insertion and assembly of these membrane protein transport components including surface anchored lipoproteins. (utoronto.ca)
  • A complex containing protein, located on a cell membrane, capable of being stimulated by drugs in the extracellular fluid, and translating that stimulation into an intracellular response. (tabers.com)
  • PA 7mer -EF/LF and receptors-is then internalized by the cell and delivered to early endosomes, where PA 7mer undergoes a conformational change that leads to its membrane insertion and pore-formation (pPA 7mer ) [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • We have previously shown that processing of PA leads to a relocalization of the toxin from the glycerolipid region of the plasma membrane to lipid rafts [8] , where the receptors encounter the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that modifies a juxtamembranous lysine of the cytoplasmic tail of the receptors [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Rab11, in particular, has been shown to play a key role in plasma membrane receptor recycling, because expression of a form of this protein that cannot be activated by GTP binding inhibited transport of endocytosed transferrin receptors from sorting endosomes to a pericentriolar recycling compartment, from where receptors normally are returned to the cell surface ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • This movie shows how Neisseria are able to extract iron from transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. (nih.gov)
  • GPR107 is a type III integral membrane protein that was initially predicted to be a member of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Colocalization studies and proteomic analyses suggest that GPR107 associates with clathrin and the retromer protein VPS35 and that GPR107 might be responsible for the return of receptors to the plasma membrane from endocytic compartments. (biologists.org)
  • In this pathway, ligand-bound receptors on the cell surface are entrapped by deformation of plasma membrane domains into coated pits that invaginate, detach from the plasma membrane and undergo a complex, still poorly understood, sorting process ( Pucadyil and Schmid, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • Pili are complex outer-membrane, protein-based organelles that facilitate adhesion-the first step in meningococcal-host cell interactions. (tailieu.vn)
  • Receptor binds diferric transferrin with very high affinity, and affinity to monoferric transferrin and transferrin without iron (apotransferrin) is lower. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • TfR binds diferric transferrin, and the receptor-transferren complex is internalized into an endosome , where the iron is transferred to the cytosol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Determination of some bacteria toxins associated with contact lenses (CL) after different using periods (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 Days) with immuno-Tecra technique Bacterial toxin Usage periods of contact lenses (day) 0 1 Bacillus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this case the bacterial toxins , which cause the immune response, are more likely to be from gram-negative bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most bacteria live as complex communities adhered to surfaces rather than as planktonic isolated cells. (asm.org)
  • However, competition for siderophores is often much more complex, as evidenced by numerous studies and the continued existence of siderophore-producing bacteria. (asm.org)
  • General heme receptors have been identified in numerous bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • A key feature which enables pathogenic bacteria to survive within the vertebrate host is the production of siderophores, iron-sequestering compounds, and the synthesis of their cognate transport systems, which are crucial in overcoming the nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host and allow for bacterial multiplication ( 10 , 12 , 24 - 30 , 78 , 79 , 90 ). (asm.org)
  • The potential role of siderophore-mediated systems as virulence determinants in the specific host-bacteria interaction leading to disease is also analyzed with respect to the influence of these systems in the expression of other factors, such as toxins, in the bacterial virulence repertoire. (asm.org)
  • How do bacterial transferrin-binding receptors recognize this host protein and remove iron, so important for the growth of many pathogenic bacteria? (ucalgary.ca)
  • They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released. (nih.gov)
  • Barber and Elde expected that transferrin would be subject to purifying selection that maintains both the capacity to bind iron and the ability to effectively interact with the Tf-R on host cell surfaces. (evmedreview.com)
  • Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin receptors bind two isoforms of the tetradecapeptide, SST-14 and -28 [9,10]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Under iron-rich conditions, the Fe 2+ -Fur complexes bind to promoters containing a Fur box (Fur binding sequence) and repress transcription. (asm.org)
  • In the absence of TonB, these receptors bind their substrates but do not carry out active transport. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Receptors, primarily on white blood cells, that bind with epitopes on foreign antigens, stimulating an immune response. (tabers.com)
  • Any of at least six receptors that bind dopamine in the brain. (tabers.com)
  • Furthermore, although overexpression of rab11BP did not affect transferrin recycling, overexpression of a truncated form of the protein, rab11BP(1-504), that includes the rab11-binding site but lacks the WD40 domains inhibited recycling as strongly as does a dominant negative rab11 mutant protein that does not bind GTP. (pnas.org)
  • It has been further proposed that GPI-CD1d binding occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum and that the complex was further transported to endosomes for displacement of GPI and loading of exogenous ligands reminiscent of the MHC class II-invariant chain pathway ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
  • TIP47 (tail-interacting protein of 47 kD) was characterized as a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), directing their transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (rupress.org)
  • The transport of lysosomal enzymes from the TGN to endosomes depends mainly on the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), MPR46 or MPR300. (rupress.org)
  • The hydrolases are delivered to lysosomes after pH-induced dissociation of the enzyme receptor complexes in endosomes, whereas the MPRs cycle back to the TGN ( Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • Molecular cloning of transferrin receptor 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin has a molecular weight of around 80 kDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Written by specialists in the field, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial membranes. (caister.com)
  • The authors present and discuss recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of the molecular details of the cell envelope, its biogenesis and function. (caister.com)
  • Transferrin is a glycoprotein composed of 700 amino acids, with molecular weight of 79.6 kDa. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Transferrin acquires rapidly the metal cations from low molecular weight chelators such as citrate . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. (jove.com)
  • One of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. (asm.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and induce antimicrobial immune responses ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability to a molecular weight gain, and immunocompromised Oral bioavailability due to transferrin. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease with molecular, morphological, and clinical differences that exist both between and within tumors ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins but, until now, did not know how. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shiga toxins represent a group of bacterial toxins that are involved in the most serious forms of food poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She fell victim to septic shock after bacterial toxins invaded her bloodstream. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The poisoning is caused by bacterial toxins and pesticides that are used randomly in the planting and growth of fruits and vegetables. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial toxins block endothelial wound repair. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bacterial toxins endowed with enzymatic activity generally have targets, or require co-factors, that reside in the cytoplasm of the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • Since Braun's description of a lipoprotein (Lpp) in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli ( 10 ), the important roles of lipoproteins in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been increasingly appreciated. (asm.org)
  • Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Many members of the Pasteurellaceae family make excellent natural models for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and host-pathogen-interactions thus giving valuable insights into related human diseases. (caister.com)
  • Taking full advantage of this opportunity, I rotated in labs working on various aspects of biological science research covering virology, cell culture, bacterial pathogenesis, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. (purdue.edu)
  • A model for the complex of TbpB bound to Tf is proposed. (rcsb.org)
  • Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
  • When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin bound to its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially all circulating iron in plasma is bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • 80% of transferrin-bound iron is delivered to bone marrow and incorporated into new erythrocytes . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Reticuloendothelial cells in the liver collect iron mainly by phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes , releasing it into hepatocytes and into circulation, bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Gallium-transferrin complex can be internalized, while indium-bound transferrin is only bound to TfRs . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • After Fe 2+ (ferrous ion) is released, the transferrin receptor bound apotransferrin is recycled to the cell surface, and in the extracellular neutral pH apotransferrin is released from the complex. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Transmembrane signaling across the ligand-gated FhuA receptor: crystal structures of free and ferrichrome-bound states reveal allosteric changes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the first part of the thesis, we have employed Perturbation- Response Scanning (PRS) method unified with elastic network models to predict key residues that induce the dissociated state of 25 non-redundant protein-protein complexes over their bound states. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Unexpectedly, actin was also found to be essential for efficient heptamerization of PA, but only when bound to one of its 2 receptors, TEM8, due to the active organization of TEM8 into actin-dependent domains. (prolekare.cz)
  • To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Challis GL (2005) A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. (springer.com)
  • The Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase PulA is transported to the outer surface through a complex type II secretion apparatus ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. (jove.com)
  • Transferrin has very high affinity for ferric ion, but binding can only happen with a bridging anion, which in physiological conditions is carbonate. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • The observed inflammation and induction of high-affinity adaptive immune responses during pathogenic infection can be seen as a (preferably temporary) deviation of the bacterial-host relationship sharply away from its usual homeostatic set-point, with the corresponding decrease in function of the intestine that accompanies any such deviation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high ( association constant is 10 20 M −1 at pH 7.4) [7] but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe 3+ is ∼400 times higher than for Ga 3+ , but exchange half-life is very slow. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • TfR2 has lower affinity to diferric transferrin than TfR1, and it is only expressed in hepatocytes, enterocytes of the small intestine, and erythroid cells. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Gladue, "Linezolid effects on bacterial toxin production and host immune response: review of the evidence," Current Therapeutic Research- Clinical and Experimental, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This result is what is normally expected of immune system receptors involved in co-evolutionary processes between host and pathogen, sometimes referred to as "arms races. (evmedreview.com)
  • Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • During pathogen attack, plants rapidly respond to infection via the recruitment and activation of immune complexes. (jove.com)
  • It is now well-accepted that this potent bacterial toxin plays an important role in producing necrotizing fasciitis (NF), the rapid infection of soft tissue referred to as flesh-eating" disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The low concentration of free iron in the mucous membranes and in tissues is one of the first lines of host defense against bacterial infection. (rupress.org)
  • 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also cause acute glomerulonephitis this is mediated by T-cells. (docplayer.net)
  • This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps treatment [11]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Results ranging from heme transport being essential to virulence to being dispensable for virulence have been reported for different model systems of bacterial infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Therefore, in establishing an infection, microorganisms depend heavily on their ability to use the host-complexed iron. (asm.org)
  • CD4 receptors on T4 lymphocytes are the sites to which HIV binds, producing infection. (tabers.com)
  • With the aim to evaluate the best biochemical analysis of iron status in preschool children without anemia, a hundred and fortynine samples of boys and girls with an average age of 4 years from an urban marginal community and a rural área from Costa Rica hemoglobin, ferrítin, soluble receptors oí transferrin, erythrocyte protoporphyrln and C reactive proteln were analysed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. (asm.org)
  • Brickman TJ, Mcintosh MA (1992) Overexpression and purification of ferric enterobactin esterase from escherichia-coli-demonstration of enzymatic-hydrolysis of enterobactin and its iron complex. (springer.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. (cdc.gov)
  • It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, and cell death associated with various forms of shock, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to their recognized role in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we explored the role of CB(1) receptors in myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. (jove.com)
  • [12] The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin plays a key role in areas where erythropoiesis and active cell division occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TonB complex senses signals from outside the bacterial cell and transmits them via two membranes into the cytoplasm, leading to transcriptional activation of target genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Central co-ordination complex and are more closely correlated with mast-cell-associated igE. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • The cell-to-cell signaling and regulating effects of chemokines, e.g., on inflammation or hematopoiesis, are mediated through chemokine receptors, which can be blocked with specific antagonist drugs. (tabers.com)
  • CD1b and -c molecules have been found to present mycobacterial cell wall-derived Ags to T cells ( 3 ), and CD1a has been implicated in the presentation of bacterial Ags ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is not a fixed structure but its function depends on the complex interplay between the different cell types such as the endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and the extracellular matrix of the brain and blood flow maintained in the microvessels or brain capillaries. (hindawi.com)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
  • some (such as the folate receptor) accumulate in transferrin-containing compartments, others (such as CD59 and GPI-linked green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulate in the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp -like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any of the markers on T lymphocytes and other white blood cells that, along with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is responsible for the recognition of antigens. (tabers.com)
  • Donadio S, Staver MJ, McAlpine JB, Swanson SJ, Katz L (1991) Modular organization of genes required for complex polyketide biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • This report shows that deletion of Gpr107 leads to an embryonic lethal phenotype that is characterized by a reduction in cubilin transcript abundance and a decrease in the representation of multiple genes implicated in the cubilin-megalin endocytic receptor complex (megalin is also known as LRP2). (biologists.org)
  • Tiotropium is solely by gut wall at the receptors as the uK leukotriene receptor, skin rash. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Reduction leukotriene receptor antagonist, and marine fishes. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Demeclocycline is normal school and does not generally high intake A 19-year-old chinese leukotriene receptor. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • A bacterial species is a conceptual entity that is hard to define, despite its role as the basic taxonomic grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In general, bacterial taxonomy is built around the living type specimen: a species consists of the type strain and, whenever available, all other strains sufficiently similar to the type strain to be considered as included in the species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To begin to address this interesting question, the authors cloned and sequenced transferrin orthologs from 21 species of hominoids and monkeys, both Old and New World. (evmedreview.com)
  • Although E. cloacae complex strains are among the most common Enterobacter species causing nosocomial bloodstream infections in the last decade, little is known regarding their virulence-associated properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Via PRS, we show that dynamics within a selected local minimum can lend clues on the global, large scale conformational transition of hTf alone and in its complexes with the human and bacterial receptors. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Structure of chorismate mutase-like domain of DAHPS from Bacillus subtilis complexed with novel inhibitor reveals conformational plasticity of active site. (purdue.edu)
  • These may be based on a biological property (biovar), antigenic variation (serovar), pathogenicity (pathovar), or susceptibility to particular bacterial viruses (phagovar). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex glycolipid with important biological functions. (caister.com)
  • Normally 1/3 of the capacity of circulating transferrin is used by ferric ions. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. (wikipathways.org)
  • We characterized the ability of seven analogs of enterobactin to supply iron via FepA by quantitatively measuring the binding and transport of their 59 Fe complexes. (asm.org)
  • Among the compounds we tested, only ferric enantioenterobactin, the synthetic, left-handed isomer of natural enterobactin, and ferric TRENCAM, which substitutes a tertiary amine for the macrocyclic lactone ring of ferric enterobactin but maintains an unsubstituted catecholate iron complex, were recognized by FepA ( K d ≈ 20 nM). (asm.org)
  • The hemochromatosis gene product complexes with the transferrin receptor and lowers its affinity for ligand binding. (wikipathways.org)
  • Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic pets to its ligand prospects to receptor desensitisation and behavioural version to following ligand publicity, providing further proof integration from the mammalian GPCRs in to the em C. elegans /em sensory signalling equipment. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Using em C. elegans /em to review em in vivo /em GPCR-ligand connections is an benefit because functional appearance of heterologous olfactory receptors in the AWA and AWB olfactory neurons provides previously been proven (Milani em et al /em ) [5] and our unpublished observations. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The nociceptive neurons, ASH and ADL, travel repulsive reactions, [6] therefore receptor activation is usually reflected within an avoidance response on ligand publicity, which may be analysed using strong behavioural assays [7,8]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Mouse CD1d has also been found to control the function of a subset of T lymphocytes expressing receptors for NK cells (NKT cells) in a ligand-independent fashion that could be, however, augmented by the presence of glycosylceramides ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This entry represents the plug domain superfamily, which has been shown to be an independently folding subunit of the TonB-dependent receptors [ PMID: 15111112 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The encoded protein was predicted to bear an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, a large extracellular domain and a C-terminal seven transmembrane domain that is characteristic of members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily ( Edgar, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • Three examples of general heme receptors, which can recognize numerous heme-containing substrates, are HmuR of Yersinia pestis , HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica, and HmuR of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (asmscience.org)
  • CCR5 is usually a chemokine receptor that binds MIP-1 (CCL3), MIP-1 (CCL4) and RANTES, and directs chemotactic reactions in leucocytes. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This antibody was used to clone ompB1 , and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae , Haemophilus influenzae , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , and M. catarrhalis . (asm.org)
  • to about 5.5, causing transferrin to release its iron ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • BBB is physically located in endothelium of blood vessels (capillaries) and acts as a "physical barrier" due to formation of complex tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The cytokines generated by mesangial cells, endothelial cells, and podocytes that tridirectionally and interactively influence cognate receptors on receiver cells are not fully defined. (asnjournals.org)
  • the causative agents of gonorrhea and meningococcal meningitis, surface lipoproteins (SLPs) such as factor H-binding protein (fHbp) and transferrin binding protein B (TbpB) are required for virulence and are primary targets for broad-spectrum vaccine development since they elicit bactericidal antibodies. (utoronto.ca)
  • CAND1 binds to unneddylated CUL1 and regulates the formation of SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin contains two binding sites for ferric ion ( Fe 3+ ), one in both of its subunits. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • An unrooted phylogenetic tree of heme and hemoprotein receptors from Table 1 , excluding HbpA ( T. denticola ), Pap31 ( B. henselae ), HbpA ( B. quintana ), HxuA ( H. influenzae ), lipoprotein e ( H. influenzae ), and the gram-positive receptors, is shown. (asmscience.org)
  • The lipid A moiety of LOS, which has been classically termed endotoxin (as opposed to the bacterial exotoxins), is the portion that mediates the induction of inflammatory cytokines often seen in disease. (tailieu.vn)
  • Transferrin concentration in plasma is normally 2-4 g/L, and it is found in similar concentrations in extracellular fluids. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • This action of selectivity for example, cleaves extracellular bacterial resistance. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • We propose that AMSH is a deubiquitinating enzyme with functions at the endosome, which oppose the ubiquitin-dependent sorting of receptors to lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • The signal for endosomal sorting of many receptors is the covalent addition of ubiquitin mediated by a cognate E3 ligase. (rupress.org)
  • Deubiquitination itself is not mandatory for receptor sorting to the yeast vacuole, as ubiquitin can confer sorting after being fused in frame with a cargo protein ( Reggiori and Pelham, 2001 ), but it is required for maintenance of the free ubiquitin pool, upon which receptor trafficking depends. (rupress.org)
  • With physiological concentrations the cellular transferrin receptors are saturated. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • How do we use protein chemistry to capture complex organization and topography, and what is the best way to measure these context-sensitive chemistries from trace-level cellular extracts? (ucalgary.ca)