Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (1/8457)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (2/8457)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (3/8457)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (4/8457)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

Identification of a cytolethal distending toxin gene locus and features of a virulence-associated region in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (5/8457)

A genetic locus for a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was identified in a polymorphic region of the chromosome of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a predominant oral pathogen. The locus was comprised of three open reading frames (ORFs) that had significant amino acid sequence similarity and more than 90% sequence identity to the cdtABC genes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Haemophilus ducreyi, respectively. Sonic extracts from recombinant E. coli, containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans ORFs, caused the distension and killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells characteristic of a CDT. Monoclonal antibodies made reactive with the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins of H. ducreyi recognized the corresponding gene products from the recombinant strain. CDT-like activities were no longer expressed by the recombinant strain when an OmegaKan-2 interposon was inserted into the cdtA and cdtB genes. Expression of the CDT-like activities in A. actinomycetemcomitans was strain specific. Naturally occurring expression-negative strains had large deletions within the region of the cdt locus. The cdtABC genes were flanked by an ORF (virulence plasmid protein), a partial ORF (integrase), and DNA sequences (bacteriophage integration site) characteristic of virulence-associated regions. These results provide evidence for a functional CDT in a human oral pathogen.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (6/8457)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (7/8457)

To evaluate the role of SigB in modulating the expression of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, we constructed a sigB mutant of RN6390, a prototypic S. aureus strain. The mutation in the sigB gene was confirmed by the absence of the SigB protein in the mutant on an immunoblot as well as the failure of the mutant to activate sigmaB-dependent promoters (e.g., the sarC promoter) of S. aureus. Phenotypic analysis indicated that both alpha-hemolysin level and fibrinogen-binding capacity were up-regulated in the mutant strain compared with the parental strain. The increase in fibrinogen-binding capacity correlated with enhanced expression of clumping factor and coagulase on immunoblots. The effect of the sigB mutation on the enhanced expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene (hla) was primarily transcriptional. Upon complementation with a plasmid containing the sigB gene, hla expression returned to near parental levels in the mutant. Detailed immunoblot analysis as well as a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cell extract of the sigB mutant with anti-SarA monoclonal antibody 1D1 revealed that the expression of SarA was higher in the mutant than in the parental control. Despite an elevated SarA level, the transcription of RNAII and RNAIII of the agr locus remained unaltered in the sigB mutant. Because of a lack of perturbation in agr, we hypothesize that inactivation of sigB leads to increased expression of SarA which, in turn, modulates target genes via an agr-independent but SarA-dependent pathway.  (+info)

Responses of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells to Shiga toxins 1 and 2 and pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (8/8457)

Endothelial damage is characteristic of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Because Stx-mediated endothelial cell damage at the site of infection may lead to the characteristic hemorrhagic colitis of STEC infection, we compared the effects of Stx1 and Stx2 on primary and transformed human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to those on macrovascular endothelial cells from human saphenous vein (HSVEC). Adhesion molecule, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Stx receptor expression, the effects of cytokine activation and Stx toxins on these responses, and Stx1 and Stx2 binding kinetics and bioactivity were measured. Adhesion molecule and IL-8 expression increased in activated HIMEC, but these responses were blunted in the presence of toxin, especially in the presence of Stx1. In contrast to HSVEC, unstimulated HIMEC constitutively expressed Stx receptor at high levels, bound large amounts of toxin, were highly sensitive to toxin, and were not further sensitized by cytokines. Although the binding capacities of HIMEC for Stx1 and Stx2 were comparable, the binding affinity of Stx1 to HIMEC was 50-fold greater than that of Stx2. Nonetheless, Stx2 was more toxic to HIMEC than an equivalent amount of Stx1. The decreased binding affinity and increased toxicity for HIMEC of Stx2 compared to those of Stx1 may be relevant to the preponderance of Stx2-producing STEC involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and its systemic complications. The differences between primary and transformed HIMEC in these responses were negligible. We conclude that transformed HIMEC lines could represent a simple physiologically relevant model to study the role of Stx in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis.  (+info)

Glioblastomas are largely unresponsive to all available treatments and there is therefore an urgent need for novel therapeutics. Here we have probed the antineoplastic effects of a bacterial protein toxin, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), in the syngenic GL261 glioma cell model. CNF1 produces a long-lasting activation of Rho GTPases, with consequent blockade of cytodieresis in proliferating cells and promotion of neuron health and plasticity. We have tested the antiproliferative effects of CNF1 on GL261 cells and human glioma cells obtained from surgical specimens. For the in vivo experiments, we injected GL261 cells into the adult mouse visual cortex, and five days later we administered either a single intracerebral dose of CNF1 or vehicle. To compare CNF1 with a canonical antitumoral drug, we infused temozolomide (TMZ) via minipumps for 1 week in an additional animal group. In culture, CNF1 was very effective in blocking proliferation of GL261 cells, leading them to multinucleation,
Bacterial Protein Toxins Hb ePUB Å Bacterial Protein PDF \ Designed for newcomers to the field of toxins this important volume is intended to show how these proteins work while providing an up to date review of the field Bacterial Protein Toxins describes all aspects of the biology of toxins including their synthesis and secretion from the bacterial cell their travels to and into the targ.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in toxin-induced resistance whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
[ Bacterial Protein Toxins ] - Home Etox18,4 Toxic Effects Of Fungi And Bacteria Damp Indoor Spaces And,Frontiers Bacterial Toxin Effector Membrane Targeting Outside
Get this from a library! Bacterial protein toxins. [J E Alouf; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Federation of European Microbiological Societies.;]
In this paper, we observed the effects of mutating each of the six anionic residues lining the interior of the anthrax toxin channel to serines. Before discussing the effects of these mutations on cation selectivity, we must first address the possibility that streaming potentials and/or polarization effects (dilution potentials) may have skewed our results. By polarization effects, we mean that as a consequence of osmotic water flow across the membrane from the trans to the cis solution caused by the higher KCl concentration in the cis compartment, the KCl concentration at the cis membrane-solution interface is reduced, and at the trans membrane-solution interface it is elevated. Consequently, the actual acis/atrans across the membrane is less than the bulk acis/atrans, thereby artificially reducing the magnitude of Erev. To check for polarization effects, we performed cation selectivity experiments (not depicted) with valinomycin (which is ideally selective for potassium) at both [KCl]trans = ...
Mass spectrometry has recently become a powerful technique for bacterial identification. Mass spectrometry approaches generally rely upon introduction of the bacteria into a matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer with mass spectrometric recognition of proteins specific to that organism that form a reliable fingerprint. With some bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, the health threat posed by these organisms is not the organism itself, but rather the protein toxins produced by the organisms. One such example is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a potent neurotoxin produced by C. botulinum. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and many of the serotypes can be further differentiated into toxin variants, which are up to 99.9% identical in some cases. Mass spectrometric proteomic techniques have been established to differentiate the serotype or toxin variant of BoNT produced by varied strains of C. botulinum. Detection of potent ...
ABSTRACTCytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. These regulatory proteins oscillate between a cytosolic GDP-bound inactive form and a membrane-linked GTP-bound active form, orchestrating the actin cy
TY - CHAP. T1 - Regulation systems of toxin expression. AU - Locht, Camille. AU - Lereclus, Didier. AU - Rood, Julian Ian. AU - Fournier, Benedicte. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Chapter (Book). SN - 0120884453. SP - 64. EP - 82. BT - The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. A2 - Alouf, J. A2 - Popoff, M R. PB - Academic Press. CY - USA. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Proceedings of a workshop conference held under the auspices of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Seillac, France from 26-30 June 1983 ...
Here we present the first global functional analysis of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are uniquely important bacterial virulence factors, comprising the single largest class of bacterial protein toxins and being important for the pathogenesis in humans of many Gram positive …
Blood clots play an unexpected role in protecting the body from the deadly effects of bacteria by absorbing bacterial toxins, researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found. The research was published Dec. 2 in the journal PLoS ONE. Â Its a significant addition to the short list of defenses that animals use to protect themselves against toxin-induced sepsis, says Peter Armstrong, professor of molecular and cellular biology at UC Davis and senior author on the paper. Â Even with modern antibiotics, septic shock from bacterial infections afflicts about 300,000 people a year in the U.S., with a mortality rate of 30 to 50 percent. Septic shock is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which release a toxin called lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin. In small amounts, lipopolysaccharide triggers inflammation. When infections with these bacteria get out of hand, lipopolysaccharide courses through the bloodstream, causing catastrophic damage to organs and tissues. Â These toxins cause disease
Bacterial protein toxins became valuable molecular tools for the targeted modulation of cell functions in experimental pharmacology and attractive therapeutics because of their potent and specific mode of action in human cells. C2IN-C3lim, a recombinant fusion toxin (~50 kDa) of the Rho-inhibiting C …
A bacterial toxin promoting tissue healing has been discovered. The compound, found in Staphylococcus aureus, does not just damage cells, but also stimulates tissue regeneration ...
Fannin Scientific specialise in the supply and support of the Pathogen Spoilage organisms, bacterial toxins, viruses. Get in touch today to find out more.
n: anatoxin, toxoid} a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin ...
You get an infection, you are given penicillin -- and then you could get hemorrhagic diarrhea. This rare but extremely unpleasant side reaction can be
Scientists shed light on the neurological consequences of exposure to low-levels of nerve agents and suggest a drug that could treat some of the toxins effects.
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Newborns deprived of oxygen have their temperatures lowered to protect against brain damage, but its hard to decipher the babies immediate response to the intervention.. 0 Comments. ...
It has been well established that allergies foods and toxins cause muscle weekness The basic principle of muscle testing is muscle weak or muscle strong now you can test the foods you use and the toxins in your enviroment by using this muscle strength weakness principle .,
Septicemia is a term formerly accepted by the medical profession to mean the rapid multiplication of bacteria and the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood.
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) rapidly kills MDCK II cells at 37°C, but not 4°C. The current study shows that, in MDCK II cells, ETX binds and forms an oligomeric complex equally well at 37°C and 4°C but only forms a pore at 37°C. However, the complex formed in MDCK cells treated with ETX at 4°C has the potential to form an active pore, since shifting those cells to 37°C results in rapid cytotoxicity. Those results suggested that the block in pore formation at 4°C involves temperature-related trapping of ETX in a prepore intermediate on the MDCK II cell plasma membrane surface. Evidence supporting this hypothesis was obtained when the ETX complex in MDCK II cells was shown to be more susceptible to pronase degradation when formed at 4°C vs. 37°C; this result is consistent with ETX complex formed at 4°C remaining present in an exposed prepore on the membrane surface, while the ETX prepore complex formed at 37°C is unaccessible to pronase because it has inserted into the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
Pulpy kidney disease is an important fatal enterotoxaemia of sheep and occasionally other ruminants. Although history, clinical signs, post mortem picture, histopathological findings and demonstration of glucosuria are helpful in diagnosing the disease, the demonstration of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in the small intestine is a useful additional aid to diagnosis. Methods used to assay the toxin in the gut must be specific and sensitive, as the toxin is highly potent and small amounts can be significant in nonimmune animals, as little as 0.3 ng of activated toxin being sufficient to kill a mouse. The biological test is therefore a sensitive method for measuring toxin. However, unless small intestine contents are titrated in a number of mice it is not a quantitative method and is currently viewed with disfavour on humanitarian grounds. Although other tests have been used, for example the reversed phase passive haemagglutination, radial immunodiffusion and counter immunoelectrophoresis ...
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 (CNF2) produced by Escherichia coli strains isolated from intestinal and extraintestinal infections is a dermonecrotic toxin of 110 kDa. We cloned the CNF2 gene from a large plasmid carried by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a lamb with septicemia. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed a largely hydrophilic protein with two potential hydrophobic transmembrane domains. The N-terminal half of CNF2 showed striking homology (27% identity and 80% conserved residues) to the N-terminal portion of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Methylamine protection experiments and immunofluorescence studies suggested that CNF2 enters the cytosol of the target cell through an acidic compartment and induces the reorganization of actin into stress fibers. Since the formation of stress fibers in eukaryotic cells involves Rho proteins, we radiolabeled these small GTP-binding proteins from CNF2-treated and control cells with a Rho-specific ...
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, molecular model. This is one of several proteins produced by pathogenic E. coli bacteria in the intestines. Unlike the heat-stable enterotoxin, this one is inactivated at high temperatures. The toxin causes diarrhoea and can be fatal in severe cases. This protein consists of three subunits with a total of seven chains and a total of 329 amino acids. - Stock Image C025/1673
Clostridium difficile toxin B is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. C. difficile produces two major kinds of toxins that are very potent and lethal; an enterotoxin (Toxin A) and a cytotoxin (Toxin B, this protein). Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that has a molecular weight of 270 kDa and an isoelectric point, pl, of 4.1. Toxin B has four different structural domains: catalytic, cysteine protease, translocation, and receptor binding. The N-terminal glucosyltransferase catalytic domain includes amino acid residues 1-544 while the cysteine protease domain includes residues 545-801. Additionally, the translocation region incorporates amino acid residues from 802 to 1664 while the receptor binding region is part of the C-terminal region and includes amino acid residues from 1665 to 2366. The glycosylation activity of toxin B occurs in the N-terminal catalytic region (residues 1-544). This region glycosylates substrates independent of any cytotoxic activity. However, a small ...
OBJECTIVE: Neurotrophins and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are involved in neurite guidance during the development of spiral ganglion (SG) neurons. Several intracellular signaling molecules can be activated by ECMs and neurotrophins via their cognate receptors. In other systems these include the Rho small GTPases, which influence reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for axon growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)-mediated SG neurite outgrowth on laminin-1 (LN) is dependent on the activation of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SG explants from postnatal day 4 rats were cultured on LN with and without NT-3 and increasing concentrations of Clostridium difficile Toxin B, an inhibitor of Rho GTPases. After fixation and immunocytochemical labeling, neurite growth was evaluated. RESULTS: Treatment with C. difficile Toxin B without NT-3 led to a dose-dependent decrease in the length and number of processes on LN. In ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): C. perfringens epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a potential biological weapon included in the list of category B priority agents. The overall goal of this proposal is to identify and perform in vivo testing of new inhibitors of E TX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins developed at Innovative Biologics, Inc. It is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. Results from our SBIR Phase I project d emonstrated that beta-cyclodextrin derivatives designed to block the transmembrane channel formed by epsilon-toxin can inhibit its cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Based on the successful completion of this feasibility study, we propose to de sign, synthesize and screen a library of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives for inhibitors of epsilon-toxins activity and test selected lead compounds in mice. The specific aims of this Phase II study are: (1) Optimize the assay for testing ...
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Binary toxins are among the most potent bacterial protein toxins performing a cooperative mode of translocation and exhibit fatal enzymatic activities in eukaryotic cells. Anthrax and C2 toxin are the most prominent examples for the AB(7/8) type of toxins. The B subunits bind both host cell receptors and the enzymatic A polypeptides to trigger their internalization and translocation into the host cell cytosol. C2 toxin is composed of an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase (C2I) and C2II binding subunits. Anthrax toxin is composed of adenylate cyclase (EF) and MAPKK protease (LF) enzymatic components associated to protective antigen (PA) binding subunit. The binding and translocation components anthrax protective antigen (PA(63)) and C2II of C2 toxin share a sequence homology of about 35%, suggesting that they might substitute for each other. Here we show by conducting in vitro measurements that PA(63) binds C2I and that C2II can bind both EF and LF. Anthrax edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) have ...
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Clostridium difficile Toxin B antibody [5156] for ELISA. Anti-Clostridium difficile Toxin B mAb (GTX41669) is tested in Clostridium difficile samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed
Invitrogen Anti-Clostridium difficile Toxin B Monoclonal (E74F), Catalog # MA1-7417. Tested in ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Bacteria samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.1 mg/mL).
The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite. ...
Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis. This genomic response is distinct from that seen with a different stressor, the heavy metal cadmium. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are (i) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and (ii) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity
Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of host-pathogen interaction. Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA...
Phenol-soluble modulins are secreted peptides with multiple functions in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and spreading. Recent studies by Otto and coworkers show that these hellhounds of the staphylococcal virulence-factor pandemonium are unleashed through an essential ABC transporter, which represents an exciting new target for stopping the spread of this important pathogen.. ...
Read Influence of Cys-130 S. aureus Alpha-toxin on Planar Lipid Bilayer and Erythrocyte Membranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Identification of Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin as a Candidate Environmental Trigger for Nascent Lesion Formation in MS (Timothy Vartanian, MD, PhD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enteric bacterial toxins. T2 - Mechanisms of action and linkage to intestinal secretion. AU - Sears, Cynthia L.. AU - Kaper, James B.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - A wide range of bacteria have been implicated as potential etiologies of diarrheal disease. Many of these organisms have been reported to produce one or more toxins postulated as important in the pathogenesis of the diarrhea resulting from infection with the organism. The primary goal of this review is to critically assess the linkage between the mechanism of action of toxins produced by human enteric pathogens and the stimulation of intestinal secretion. To accomplish this goal, the range of criteria used to demonstrate pathogenicity of an enteric bacterial toxin and potential mechanisms stimulating net intestinal secretion are reviewed. A detailed description of each enteric toxin is presented, and revised criteria are proposed for classification of enteric bacterial toxins. Throughout this review, emphasis has ...
From a structural perspective, the most compelling conclusion emerging from our findings is that the channels entire β-barrel stem region participates in the gating process. Absent a high resolution structure of the pore form of the anthrax channel in both the closed and open states, we cannot draw a detailed picture of the gating motions from our data. Nevertheless, we can gain some insight into the magnitude of the conformational changes that might occur during gating by considering the x-ray crystal structure of α-hemolysin, which likely shares structural features with the stem domain of the anthrax channel (Song et al., 1996; Benson et al., 1998; Nassi et al., 2002; Krantz et al., 2004; Nguyen, 2004).. The luminal diameter (Cα-Cα) of α-hemolysins β-barrel is ∼26 Å (accounting for sidechain volume, which is relevant to LF or EF translocation, yields a diameter of ∼19 Å [Krantz et al., 2004]), with residues of adjacent subunits being an average distance (Cβ-Cβ) of ∼11 Å from ...
Some pathogenic species of Clostridium employ the classic enzymatic AB binary protein toxins for poisoning cells. Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile, C. spiroforme, and C. botulinum all use similar binary toxins (iota toxin (Ia and Ib), CDT (CDTa and CDTb), CST (CSTa and CSTb), and C2 toxin (C2I and C2II), respectively). They consist of the enzymatic A component, an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase and the B component that binds to the host cell and forms a membrane-spanning pore that functions as the translocation channel for each enzymatic component. The B component translocates the A component into the host cell via the membrane in the acidic endosome. In contrast, the Bacillus anthracis species uses a different binary toxin, which consists of two enzymatic proteins: the lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors, and a protein translocation channel, PA. The PA heptameric pore structure was revealed to have extremely narrow φ-clamp passageway and a long membrane-spanning channel. ...
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Clostridium difficile Toxin A小鼠单克隆抗体可与艰难梭菌样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Webb, Helen M. and Sixma, T.K. and Hol, W.G.J. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1994) Analysis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Important Residues Invoved in the Assembly of Escherichia-Coli Heart-Labile NALYSIS BY SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS OF IMPORTANT RESIDUES Enterotoxin. In: 6th European Workshop on Bacterial Protein Toxins, Stirling, Scotland. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
Principal Investigator:TOMITA Toshio, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
A BLAST search with the HI0659 protein sequence turns up homologs in only the same species. Some of these are annotated as members of an Xre-family toxin-antitoxin system (I think HI0660 is homologous to the toxin component, and HI0659 to the antitoxin component). HI0660 is also tagged as a member of the Gp49 superfamily (also phage proteins I think). Xre family repressors are known to perform a variety of regulatory functions unrelated to toxin-antitoxin systems (ref). The same paper suggests that the Tad toxin components might be mRNA-cleaving ribonucleases. Maybe thats what HI0660 does, and HI0659 is a repressor that prevents it from acting. If so, and if sxy mRNA was HI0660s target, then the mutant phenotypes would make sense. ...
Study Flashcards On USMLE 2011 Bacterial Toxins/Virulence Factors at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
View List Labs product catalog containing bacterial toxins, GMP, antibodies, FRET peptides, toxoids, vaccine carrier proteins & adjuvants and more.
Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and their colleagues have identified the structure of the most lethal toxin produced by certain strains of Clostridium difficile bacteria, a potentially deadly infection associated with the use of antibiotics. The
It is difficult to correlate in vitro toxin concentration with in vivo exposure, however, the concentration of toxin used in both models are similar as 2.3 mg DON/kg of feed corresponds to 7.7 μM ( Sergent et al., 2006; Pinton et al., 2009). It is interesting to observe that in both models, there is a good correlation in the increase of expression of phosphorylated MAPK. The extent of MAPK activation, lower in samples obtained from the in vivo experiment than in explants, could be explained by the mode of exposure to the toxin, in the culture medium. or in ingested feed. A significant increase was observed only for ERK and p38. Following the same signaling arrangement, each individual MAPK pathway responds PF-02341066 in vivo to specific stimuli and then regulates their specific substrates ( Cui et al., 2007), which can explain the selective activation of MAPK. JNK and ERK are involved in regulation of both cell survival and death depending on cell types and stimulus, whereas p38 can promote ...
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1DJR: Structure of m-carboxyphenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside complexed to heat-labile enterotoxin at 1.3 A resolution: surprising variations in ligand-binding modes.
HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1 & Discussion 2HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1Select one area of health policy and describe the impact that policy formation places
Affiliation:兵庫県立大学,環境人間学部,教授, Research Field:食生活,食の安全, Keywords:プルプリン,ノロウイルス,緑茶,サルモネラ,マウス,Verotoxin,イムノクロマト法,Heat-labile toxin,ハムスター,クロロゲン酸, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:9
Your body is detoxing every minute of every day through your skin, lungs, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. These systems are efficient and effective. However, in our daily lives, we may overburden these processes with sugar and processed food, alcohol, pollution, medication use, stress, etc. Therefore, the main purpose of doing a detox program is to lighten the toxin load on your body for a period of time. Reducing excess toxin exposure will aid in re-balancing elimination systems, reduce inflammation in the body, and support the bodys detox systems to function optimally. ...
Millar, Ian; Gray, David; Kay, Helen (1998). "Bacterial toxins found in foods". In Watson, David H. (ed.). Natural Toxicants in ... The Hbl and Nhe toxins are pore-forming toxins closely related to ClyA of E. coli. The proteins exhibit a conformation known as ... Bacterial growth results in production of enterotoxins, one of which is highly resistant to heat and acids (pH levels between 2 ... Emetic toxin can withstand 121 °C (250 °F) for 90 minutes. The diarrhetic syndromes observed in patients are thought to stem ...
Lax, A. (2005). "Bacterial toxins and cancer - a case to answer?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (4): 343-9. doi:10.1038/ ... Hatakeyama, M.; Higashi, H. (2005). "Helicobacter pylori CagA: a new paradigm for bacterial carcinogenesis". Cancer Science. 96 ...
Bacterial. toxins. Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani * ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation).. A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance ... 3 Environmental toxins *3.1 Finding information about toxins. *3.2 Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and ...
Bacterial. toxins. Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani * ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Histrionicotoxins are a group of related toxins found in the skin of poison frogs from the family Dendrobatidae, notably ...
Bacterial. toxins. Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani * ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Nevertheless, they appear much less capable of causing mutagenesis than the unmetabolized toxin.[19] ... and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other toxins. The main target organ in mammals is the liver, so aflatoxicosis ...
Its adult length can range from 5 to 8 in (13 to 20 cm).[1] Its skin produces a potent toxin[citation needed]. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... This evolutionary arms race has resulted in the newts producing levels of toxin far in excess of what is needed to kill any ... The mutations in the snake's genes that conferred resistance to the toxin have resulted in a selective pressure that favors ...
... is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein ... In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile ...
note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Possani, L.D.; Becerrill, B.; Delepierre, M.; Tytgat Hammock, J. (1999). "Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels". European ... Gordon, D.; Savarin, P.; Gurevitz, M.; Zinn-Justin, S. (1998). "Functional anatomy of scorpion toxins affecting sodium channels ... Other peptide toxins found in the venom include: dortoxin, a lethal peptide; bestoxin, which causes writhing in mice; and ...
... can be activated by components of the immune system, such as the complement system; bacterial toxins; activated ... Toxins and pathogens may cause necrosis; toxins such as snake venoms may inhibit enzymes and cause cell death.[11] Necrotic ... Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma which result in the ... the use of anti-venom halts the spread of toxins whilst receiving antibiotics to impede infection.[19] ...
Bacterial. toxins. Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani * ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Scorpions such as the deathstalker paralyze their prey by injecting a potent mix of peptide toxins.[4] Charybdotoxin, a 37 ... The Charybdotoxin family of scorpion toxins is a group of small peptides that has many family members, such as the pandinotoxin ...
... which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell ... "Toxins. 10 (8): 326. doi:10.3390/toxins10080326. PMC 6115757. PMID 30103489.. *^ Meseguer, Victor; Alpizar, Yeranddy A.; Luis, ... oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice". BMC Microbiol. 4: 40. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-4-40. PMC 524487. PMID ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ...
The bacterial variant Clostridium perfringens type A produces alpha-toxin. The toxin has phospholipase C activity, and causes ... Alpha-toxin has an additional 120 residues in the C-terminus. The C-terminus of the alpha-toxin has been reported as a "C2-like ... Zinc-dependent phospholipase C family of bacterial enzymes EC that includes the alpha toxins of C. perfringens (also ... It has been reported that the toxin activates the arachidonic acid cascade in isolated rat aorta. The toxin-induced contraction ...
Bacterial myocarditis is rare in patients without immunodeficiency. Toxins[edit]. *Drugs, including alcohol, anthracyclines and ... Myocarditis is most often due to a viral infection.[1] Other causes include bacterial infections, certain medications, toxins, ... Usually viral infection, also bacterial infections, certain medications, toxins, autoimmune disorders[1][2]. ... Bacterial (Brucella, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, gonococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Actinomyces, Tropheryma whipplei, Vibrio ...
Bacterial insecticides can be effective if application is targeted towards the vulnerable early-instar larvae. Two strains of ... Blackburn, M. B.; Domek, J. M; Gelman, D. B; Hu, J. S. (2005). "The broadly insecticidal Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex ... the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce toxins that kill the larvae. Other forms of pest control, through nonpesticidal ...
The HS-1 protein has a large resemblance to other toxins of the Scorpine family (which is a subgroup of the Beta-KTx toxin ... Scanning electron microscopy shows that HS-1 causes roughening and blebbing of bacterial cell surfaces. HS-1 contains three ... It belongs to the Scorpine toxin family. It is a polypeptide consisting of a defensin-like component on its N-terminal end and ... HS-1 is highly homologous in particular to the Scorpine toxin Panscorpine (from Emperor scorpion) and Opiscorpine (from ...
... difficile and suppresses bacterial toxin production; the mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of cell division ...
... and is likely a precursor to the toxin known as PR toxin, made in large amounts by the fungus. PR-toxin has been implicated in ... Isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene (Ari1) from Penicillium roqueforti ... However, PR toxin is not stable in cheese and breaks down to the less toxic PR imine. Secondary metabolites of P. roqueforti, ... Toxins. 5 (2): 86-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)(1997)5:2. 3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 9131595. Finoli C, Vecchio A, Galli A, Dragoni I (February ...
Proft, Thomas (2013). Bacterial Toxins: Genetics, Cellular Biology and Practical Applications. Horizon Scientific Press. ISBN ... These bacterial strains present a thickening of the cell wall, which is believed to reduce the ability of vancomycin to diffuse ...
... s may also mediate bacterial escape from host cells. Regulation of gene expression[edit]. The regulation of gene ... Gouaux E (1998). "α-Hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus: an archetype of β-barrel, channel-forming toxins". J. Struct. Biol. ... They are unique in that they come in two components, and hence are referred to as bi-component toxins (InterPro: IPR003963). ... β-hemolysin (hlb; Q2FWP1) is a Phospholipase C toxin secreted by S. aureus. Upon investigating sheep erythrocytes, its toxic ...
European mistletoe Ricin Gill DM (1982). "Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts" (pdf). Microbiological Reviews. 46 (1): ... Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant. It is ... March 2009). "Quantification of L-Abrine in Human and Rat Urine: A Biomarker for the Toxin Abrin" (PDF). Journal of Analytical ...
Pitcher, M C; Cummings, J H (1996-07-01). "Hydrogen sulphide: a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis?". Gut. 39 (1): 1-4. doi: ...
Exfoliative toxins will cleave swine desmoglein-1 (Dsg1); therefore, creating an opportunity for epidermal bacterial invasion ... as these toxins specifically target the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum. S. hyicus exfoliative toxin (SHET) producing ... The bacterial species has been isolated from milk in dairy herds and is one of the more uncommon causes of contagious mastitis ... With bacterial invasion, 1 to 2 cm (diameter) brown lesions will begin to appear within the 24 to 48 hour range; and lesions ...
Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum substances that agglutinate bacteria. and precipitate bacterial toxins. von Gruber ... the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and Kitasato (1890)[4] ... It also refers to the effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement ... In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins, were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate ...
Lax, Alistair J. (2005). Toxin: The Cunning of Bacterial Poisons. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-860558-7. .. ...
Bacterial growth is inhibited not only by bacterial toxins, but also by secondary metabolites produced by fungi as well. The ... Although toxins are defined in a broad sense as any substance produced by an organism that reduces the fitness of another, in a ... Secondary metabolites produced by plants are consumed and sequestered by a variety of arthropods and, in turn, toxins found in ... This suggests that concentrated and coordinated release of extracellular toxins by biofilms has a greater effect than ...
"Toxin Gene Expression by Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli: The Role of Antibiotics and the Bacterial SOS Response". Emerg ... Use in EHEC infections may lead to an increase in expression of Shiga toxin.[17] ... although it may be used against any susceptible aerobic bacterial species.[7] It may also be used to treat and prevent ... Trimethoprim's affinity for bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is several thousand times greater than its affinity for human ...
... while at the same time tolerating the bacterial toxins. The California condor is critically endangered. It formerly ranged from ... The facial bacterial flora and the gut flora overlapped somewhat, but in general, the facial flora was much more diverse than ... Genes that encode tissue-degrading enzymes and toxins that are associated with Clostridium perfringens have been found in the ... The regularly ingested Clostridia and Fusobacteria outcompete other bacterial groups in the gut and become predominant. ...
It is also called spasmogenic toxin, or TeNT. The LD50 of this toxin has been measured to be approximately 2.5-3 ng/kg,[2][3] ... making it second only to botulinum toxin (LD50 2 ng/kg)[4] as the deadliest toxin in the world. However, these tests are ... Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani[1] in anaerobic ... "Toxin Table » Environmental Health & Safety » University of Florida". Retrieved 2017-01-18.. ...
Botulinum toxin (from Clostridium botulinum) and bleomycin (from Streptomyces verticillus) are two examples. Botulinum, the ... Newer trends in the field include the metabolic profiling and isolation of natural products from novel bacterial species ... Herzig V, Cristofori-Armstrong B, Israel MR, Nixon SA, Vetter I, King GF (June 2020). "Animal toxins - Nature's evolutionary- ... toxins etc.) that are used against competitors, prey, and predators. For many other secondary metabolites, the function is ...
"J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 20 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-44. PMC 4197285. PMID 25320574.. ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ...
Lizak C, Gerber S, Numao S, Aebi M, Locher KP (June 2011). "X-ray structure of a bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase". Nature. ... Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
The government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, and being devoid of bacterial ... oryzae lacks the ability to produce toxins, unlike the closely related Aspergillus flavus.[15] To date, there have been only ...
... has been introduced into tomato plants and in vivo studies show significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot.[27 ... The insecticidal toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been inserted into a tomato plant.[22] When field tested ... In 2000, the concentration of pro-vitamin A was increased by adding a bacterial gene encoding phytoene desaturase, although the ... "Control of Ethylene Synthesis by Expression of a Bacterial Enzyme in Transgenic Tomato Plants". The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187- ...
Abel-Santos, E (editor) (2012). Bacterial Spores: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230- ... Further information: Bacterial morphological plasticity. Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ... Bacterial endospores are resistant to antibiotics, most disinfectants, and physical agents such as radiation, boiling, and ...
Therefore, macrophage membranes become susceptibile to bacterial infections.[11] Reproductive system[edit]. In experiments with ... such as cytochromes P450 have increased activities in the gut for protection from food-borne toxins. Thus, in most cases, small ... pyrene confers enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infection". Environ Research. 146: 173-84. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.12.027 ... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ...
As an example of the relationship between the IMP (in this case the bacterial phototrapping pigment, bacteriorhodopsin) and the ... MT7 snake toxin bound to dimeric hM1 muscarinic receptor". J Biol Chem. 286 (36): 31661-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.261404. PMC ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... amount of toxin and time required to kill a person is much less than is required by the immune system to recognize the toxin ... and produce antibodies against it.[17] However the tetanus toxin is easily denatured losing its ability to produce disease, but ...
Epidermolytic toxin-producing staphylococci as the etiologic agent of the fourth childhood exanthem". American Journal of ... One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ...
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Toxins - alcohol, benzenes. *Intrinsic disorders - Fanconi's, Kostmann's, cyclic neutropenia, Chédiak-Higashi. *Immune ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ...
Hydrogen sulfide is also a potent cellular toxin, blocking the cytochrome system and inhibiting cellular respiration. More ... Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface ... Specific pretreatments, drugs to prevent chemically induced lung injuries due to respiratory airway toxins, are not available. ... cells or human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells to agents such as hydrogen peroxide or bleach produces a time and toxin-dose ...
... and the distribution of bacterial toxins. Massive infection is likely to result in death from a combination of system-wide ... perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha toxin. This alpha toxin is a lethal toxin and also known as phospholipase C ( ... Gas gangrene (also known as clostridial myonecrosis[1] and myonecrosis[2]) is a bacterial infection that produces gas in ... "Virulence studies on chromosomal alpha-toxin and theta-toxin mutants constructed by allelic exchange provide genetic evidence ...
... due to the differentiation of bacterial metabolites and toxins. Thus, tertiary dentin is deposited rapidly, with a sparse and ...
Activation and toxin release by eosinophils is therefore tightly regulated to prevent any inappropriate tissue destruction.[5] ... The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria. ...
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... medications and toxins.[47] Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ... Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not ...
When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... Activation and release of toxins by eosinophils are, therefore, tightly regulated to prevent any inappropriate tissue ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ... Finlay BB, McFadden G (February 2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". ...
It is also an excellent place for bacterial growth and food spoilage if it is not properly processed. One way this is measured ... Toxins, poisons, environment pollution. *Aflatoxin. *Arsenic contamination of groundwater. *Benzene in soft drinks ...
Duclaux E (1899). 》Traité de microbiologie: Diastases, toxines et venins》 [Microbiology Treatise: diastases, toxins and venoms] ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... "Molecular biology of bacterial bioluminescence". 》Microbiological Reviews》 55 (1): 123-42. PMC 372803. PMID 2030669 ...
Toxins. Some kinds of raw beans contain a harmful tasteless toxin, lectin phytohaemagglutinin, that must be removed by cooking ... There have been many outbreaks of disease from bacterial contamination, often by salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli, of ... Bacterial infection from bean sprouts. It is common to make beansprouts by letting some types of bean, often mung beans, ... Cooking beans, without bringing them to the boil, in a slow cooker at a temperature well below boiling may not destroy toxins.[ ...
If activated cytotoxic CD8+ T cells recognize them, the T cells secrete various toxins that cause the lysis or apoptosis of the ... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... This includes parts (coats, capsules, cell walls, flagella, fimbriae, and toxins) of bacteria, viruses, and other ... named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" ( ...
"The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection". Nature Medicine. 12 (6 ... Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection.[6] The ...
... es are caused by bacterial infection, parasites, or foreign substances. Bacterial infection is the most common cause.[8] ... They are usually caused by a bacterial infection.[8] Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection. ... symptoms indicating bacterial illness throughout the body, or a health condition causing immunosuppression.[1] People who are ... with aspiration of pus confirming the diagnosis and availing for Gram stain and bacterial culture.[19] ...
Toxins, poisons, environment pollution. *Aflatoxin. *Arsenic contamination of groundwater. *Benzene in soft drinks ...
Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species known to produce toxins in mammals, it must be tested for toxin production ... "Commentary by the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on Data Relating to Toxin Production" (PDF). Scientific Opinion. ... One possible scheme for testing toxin production has been recommended by the EU Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition.[118] ...
Biological Toxins[edit]. Main article: Toxin. *X - botulinum toxin A. *XR - partially purified botulinum toxin A ... Bacterial Biological Agents[edit]. Main article: Biological agent. *N - anthrax. *TR - anthrax ...
... various toxins, and digestive/metabolic enzymes obtained from slaughterhouses. In the 1950s, the Armour Hot Dog Co. purified 1 ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ...
a b c d R. N. Jinadasa, S. E. Bloom, R. S. Weiss, G. E. Duhamel: Cytolethal distending toxin: a conserved bacterial genotoxin ... J. M. DiRienzo: Uptake and processing of the cytolethal distending toxin by mammalian cells. In: Toxins. Band 6, Nummer 11, ... T. Faïs, J. Delmas, A. Serres, R. Bonnet, G. Dalmasso: Impact of CDT Toxin on Human Diseases. In: Toxins. Band 8, Nummer 7, 07 ... Cytolethal distending Toxin (Cdt, zu deutsch etwa ‚zelltödliches schwellendes Toxin') ist ein Protein aus verschiedenen Gram- ...
They may act as toxins.. Erythrocruorin. Found in many annelids, including earthworms, it is a giant free-floating blood ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ...
Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... Several toxins and secreted enzymes have been identified in Streptococcus dysgalactiae, including the haemolysins Streptolysin ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ... nutrients carried in the blood to the periodontal tissues are crucial for the tissues defence mechanisms and response to toxins ... Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm ... Bacterial transportation: Bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ...
Bacterial protein toxins. [J E Alouf; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Federation of European ... toxins> # Bacterial Toxins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial Toxins"@en ;. .. ... Bacterial toxins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial toxins"@en ;. .. ... Bacterial toxins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial toxins"@en ;. .. ...
... October 25, 2017 You get an infection, you are given penicillin -- and then you could get ... give important insights in the pathobiology of antibiotic side reactions and unveil the multi-functionality of bacterial toxins ... Austrian scientists have now scrutinized the toxins biosynthetic pathway and presented the results in the journal Angewandte ... If the introduced unbalance leads to an overgrowth of bacteria producing toxins themselves, intestinal and metabolic disorders ...
... is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. These regulatory ... The Rac GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin CNF1 induces analgesia up-regulating μ-opioid receptors ... and indicate this bacterial protein toxin as a novel tool in the field of pain control. Conceivably, this might pave the way ... Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and ...
... bacterial toxins, viruses. Get in touch today to find out more. ... The detection of bacterial toxins is possible directly from ... Bacterial toxins. Pathogenic microorganisms are either not allowed at all to occur in the foodstuff or they are limited to a ... For the detection of bacteria and bacterial toxins For the detection of bacteria and viruses Microbial count on surfaces and in ... Toxic residues of bacteria in food and beverage samples can be analyzed with test kits for bacterial toxins. Common test ...
A bacterial toxin promoting tissue healing has been discovered. The compound, found in Staphylococcus aureus, does not just ...
n: bacterial toxin} any endotoxin or exotoxin formed in or elaborated by bacterial cells {n: botulin, botulinus toxin, ... n: animal toxin, zootoxin} a toxin resembling bacterial toxins in its antigenic properties that is found in the fluids of ... n: epsilon toxin, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin} a bacterial toxin produced by clostridium perfringens; causes intense ... n: plant toxin, phytotoxin} any substance produced by plants that is similar in its properties to extracellular bacterial toxin ...
Bacterial proteins--Congresses; Bacterial toxins--Congresses. 分類・件名:. LCC : QP632.B3. DDC : 589.9/0192. LCSH : Bacterial toxins ... Bacterial protein toxins. フォーマット:. 図書. 責任表示:. [edited by] J.E. Alouf ... [et al.]. 言語:. 英語. 出版情報:. London ; Orlando : Academic ... European Workshop on Bacterial Protein Toxins ,DA06410468,. *Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) ,DA00033611, ... 図書 Bacterial protein toxins : Seventh European Workshop, Hindsgavl, Middelfart, Denmark, July 2-7, 1995 ...
Bacterial Protein Toxins ] - Home Etox18,4 Toxic Effects Of Fungi And Bacteria Damp Indoor Spaces And,Frontiers Bacterial Toxin ... Description: Bacterial Protein Toxins from the above 1117 × 826 resolutions which is part of the Bacterial Protein Toxins ... This Bacterial Protein Toxins is provided only for personal use as image on computers, smartphones or other display devices. If ... Title : roles of cellular redox factors in pathogen and toxin entry in the ...
Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations of eukaryotic cells. Proc. ... Evidence for a proton-protein symport mechanism in the anthrax toxin channel. J. Gen. Physiol. 133:307-314. doi:10.1085/jgp. ... Proton-coupled protein transport through the anthrax toxin channel. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 364:209-215. doi: ... GroEL as a molecular scaffold for structural analysis of the anthrax toxin pore. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 15:754-760. doi: ...
... a term formerly accepted by the medical profession to mean the rapid multiplication of bacteria and the presence of bacterial ... the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood; the corresponding laymans term was "blood-poisoning." However, it has fallen ...
Regulation systems of toxin expression. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. editor / J Alouf ; M R Popoff ... in J Alouf & MR Popoff (eds), The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. 3 edn, Academic Press, USA, pp. 64 - 82 ... In J. Alouf, & M. R. Popoff (Eds.), The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (3 ed., pp. 64 - 82). Academic ... The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. ed. / J Alouf; M R Popoff. 3. ed. USA : Academic Press, 2006. p. 64 ...
Bacterial toxins (such as botulinum neurotoxins, Shiga toxins, and staphylococcal enterotoxins) and their variants are ... 2010-2015: Technologies for Detecting and Determining the Bioavailability of Bacterial Toxins ... ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention ... New in vitro methodology is calibrated against animal bioassays, and the impact of food processing on toxin activity and ...
... wall components of bacteria to interact with platelets has been well established there is also evidence that bacterial toxins ... Platelet Activation Necrotizing Fasciitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Bacterial Toxin Shiga Toxin These keywords were added by machine ... The Effect of Bacterial Toxins on Platelet Function. In: Kini R., Clemetson K., Markland F., McLane M., Morita T. (eds) Toxins ... Modeling the bacterial protein toxin, pneumolysin, in its monomeric and oligomeric form. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 25315-25320.PubMed ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... Descriptions of relevant toxins as well as representative toxins of the main bacterial toxin families to allow for a better ... Section I: Basic Genomic and Physiological Aspects of Bacterial Protein Toxins 1. Evolutionary aspects of toxin-producing ... Section IV: Clinical Aspects, Applications of Bacterial Protein Toxins in Cell Biology and Therapy, and Toxin Inhibitors ...
Bacterial toxins inhibiting or activating small GTP-binding proteins.. Boquet P1. ... However, exoenzyme C3 is not a toxin, and chimeric proteins fusing C3 with the B moiety of either diphtheria toxin or ... Thus, Rho GTPases are targets for three different toxin activities. Molecular mechanisms of these toxins are discussed. ... C. difficile toxin B modifies by glucosylation Rho on T37 and Rac and Cdc42 on T35. Glucosylation of Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 blocks ...
The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post- ... were positive for antibody to diphtheria toxin or tetanus toxin. Antibody to diphtheria toxin or tetanus toxin was detected in ... Because the human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins, specifically exemplified by tetanus toxin and diphtheria ... Diphtheria toxin. Clostridium difficile. C. difficile toxin. Clostridium botulinum. Botulism toxin. Staphylococcus aureus. S. ...
glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes ... of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins. ... This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing ... Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary ...
A few molecules, at least of some toxins, are sufficient to change the cellular morphology and function of a cell or even kill ... Here, we review the development of immunotoxins and targeted toxins for the treatment of a disease that is still hard to treat ... In most cases, these toxins are extremely effective enzymes with high specificity towards their cellular substrates, which are ... Since many of those toxins are well studied concerning molecular mechanisms, cellular receptors, uptake routes, and structures ...
Our study has uncovered a bacterial protein that affects host cellular machinery in a sex-specific way, which is likely to be ... Male-killing toxin in a bacterial symbiont of Drosophila. *Toshiyuki Harumoto. 1. & ... Harumoto, T., Lemaitre, B. Male-killing toxin in a bacterial symbiont of Drosophila. Nature 557, 252-255 (2018). https://doi. ... Haselkorn, T. S. The Spiroplasma heritable bacterial endosymbiont of Drosophila. Fly (Austin) 4, 80-87 (2010). ...
... April 16, 2014 Dr. Klaus Aktories and Dr. Panagiotis Papatheodorou from the Institute of ... It is very similar to the toxins of many other hospital germs of the genus Clostridium. The toxins bind to surface molecules ... LRP1 is a receptor for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin indicating a two-receptor model of clostridial glycosylating toxins. ... The toxins force their way into host cells and deactivate signaling molecules by attaching a sugar molecule to these cellular ...
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins (PFTs) comprise ≈25% of all known bacterial protein toxins and act by forming pores at the plasma ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Danielle L. Huffman, Laurence Abrami, ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways defend against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Danielle L. Huffman, Laurence Abrami, ... high levels of Cry5B toxin (100% Cry5B), low levels of Cry5B toxin (10% Cry5B), low levels of Cry21A toxin (0.1% Cry21A), ...
... capable of safely removing a broad class of dangerous toxins from the bloodstream, including toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli, ...
Cholera toxin is an AB5 hexameric assembly secreted by Vibrio cholerae. As with many other bacterial toxins the catalytic ... The closely-related shiga toxin family comprises a number of toxins from Shigella dysenteriae and the `shiga-like toxins (also ... Toxin Project Publications. reference list Whos who in the toxin project * Faculty - Ethan Merritt, Christophe Verlinde, ... Why we are studying these toxins? Questions of basic science How does the toxin recognize and bind to the cell surface? How ...
Home / About / News / Scientists Learn Secrets of Deadly Bacterial Toxin Gun Scientists Learn Secrets of Deadly Bacterial Toxin ... An Up-Close View of Bacterial Motors , Viral Videos (and Bacterial Ones, Too) , Bacterial Syringe Necessary for Marine ... Developing new antibiotics that target different aspects of the bacterial cell, such as the type IV secretion system, would ... Artists depiction of a type IV secretion system nestled within a bacterial cell membrane. This structure shoots out thousands ...
One of the most potent toxins known acts by welding the two strands of the famous double helix together in a unique fashion ... So it is very important that we learn as much as we can about how these bacterial toxins work and how bacteria defend against ... Vanderbilt researchers unravel how bacterial toxin prevents DNA replication. *Download PDF Copy ... A team of Vanderbilt University researchers have worked out the molecular details that explain how this bacterial toxin -- ...
... Engineers at the University of California, San Diego ... the number of toxins each nanosponge could absorb depended on the toxin. For example, approximately 85 alpha-haemolysin toxin ... Unlike other anti-toxin platforms that need to be custom synthesized for individual toxin type, the nanosponges can absorb ... Red blood cells are one of the primary targets of pore-forming toxins. When a group of toxins all puncture the same cell, ...
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H17 is attributed in part to the bacterial factor verotoxin II (VTII), but the molecular mechanism of cell-death induction has ...
Amino acids of the bacterial toxin sopE involved in G nucleotide exchange on Cdc42. *Schlumberger M ... the Dbl-like eukaryotic G nucleotide exchange factors and the SopE-like toxins of pathogenic bacteria, which are injected into ...
... this toxin catalyzes the deamination of cytidines within double-stranded DNA, the researchers said. ... Home » Tools & Technology » Gene Silencing/Gene Editing » Bacterial Toxin Leads to CRISPR-Free Mitochondrial DNA Base Editing ... Bacterial Toxin Leads to CRISPR-Free Mitochondrial DNA Base Editing. Jul 08, 2020 ... Researchers from the Broad Institute and the University of Washington School of Medicine have discovered a bacterial toxin that ...
Biomedical and biotechnological research is yielding information and techniques that allows for the design of repurposed toxins ... Bacterial toxins can be repurposed. These diverse macromolecular complexes bind to human cells and transport enzymes across ... Repurposing Bacterial Toxins. Benjamin J Pavlik, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Abstract. Bacterial toxins can be repurposed ... Pavlik, Benjamin J, "Repurposing Bacterial Toxins" (2017). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI10682737. ...
Bacterial Infections. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Increases Fractional Free Water and Sodium Reabsorption in an Isolated ... Generation and Characterization of Typhoid Toxin-Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies Typhoid toxin is a virulence factor ... This toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two active subunits, the ADP ribosyl transferase PltA and the DNase CdtB, linked ... Bacterial Infections. Transforming Growth Factor β1/SMAD Signaling Pathway Activation Protects the Intestinal Epithelium from ...
Release of lipid vesicle contents by the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin.. Ostolaza H1, Bartolomé B, Ortiz de Zárate I ... are treated with purified toxin. The results show that the toxin does not require of any membrane receptor to exert its ... alpha-Haemolysin is a protein toxin (107 kDa) secreted by some pathogenic strains of E. coli. It binds to mammalian cell ...
Ion Transport and Bacterial Toxins. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67:216-217. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-67-1-216 ... The exact mechanisms by which bacterial toxins produce their effects are still poorly understood. One method of study has been ... Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected ... to examine the effect of toxins on normal cellular processes such as the active transport of sodium and oxidative metabolism. ...
Toxin Epitopes Elicit Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin and STa Toxin and Inhibit Adherence of K88ac Fimbrial E. coli ... Comparison of Three Anthrax Toxin Neutralization Assays Miriam M. Ngundi, Bruce D. Meade, Tsai-Lien Lin, Wei-Jen Tang, Drusilla ... Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated Induces Edema Toxin-Neutralizing, Edema Factor-Specific Antibodies in Human Recipients Eric K. ... Genetic Fusions of Heat-Labile Toxoid (LT) and Heat-Stable Toxin b (STb) of Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit ...
497e) Design of a Cholesterol-Binding Peptide to Inhibit Bacterial Toxin Activity. *Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting ... Our lab seeks to understand the mechanisms of bacterial toxin delivery to identify and exploit therapeutic targets. In this ... This project has demonstrated the utility of a cholesterol-binding peptide in inhibiting bacterial toxin activity, thus ... motif in the toxin that regulates the interaction of the toxin with cholesterol. Using this CRAC sequence, we designed a ...
Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia.. Citation: PLoS pathogens. 2015-12-11; ... We report that diverse bacterial pathogens that produce a pore-forming toxin (PFT) induce necroptosis of macrophages and this ... N5/C10 protected alveolar macrophages, reduced bacterial burden, and lessened hemorrhage in the lungs. We conclude that ...
Home / Health and Medicine / LSUHSC research shows drug blocks enzyme that activates bacterial and viral toxins ... Lethal factor toxin cannot bind to PA that has not already been cut by furin; therefore, without cut PA, lethal factor toxin ... In anthrax, the lethal factor toxin must bind to another part of the anthrax toxin, called the PA molecule, before it can enter ... LSUHSC research shows drug blocks enzyme that activates bacterial and viral toxins. ...
  • Toxic residues of bacteria in food and beverage samples can be analyzed with test kits for bacterial toxins. (
  • The detection of bacterial toxins is possible directly from food samples (RIDASCREEN® SET Total and RIDASCREEN® SET A,B,C,D,E) or is used for indirect detection of toxin producing pathogenic bacteria (RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin) subsequent to appropriate pre-enrichment. (
  • Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. (
  • Hence, taken altogether, our findings provide new insights into the comprehension of intracellular mechanisms involved in pain modulation, and indicate this bacterial protein toxin as a novel tool in the field of pain control. (
  • RIDASCREEN® assays are based on the sandwich technology, in which the antigen (bacterial surface protein) will be captured in the well of a microplate and detected by adding a second antibody which is marked with a special detection enzyme. (
  • However, exoenzyme C3 is not a toxin, and chimeric proteins fusing C3 with the B moiety of either diphtheria toxin or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A have been produced to intoxicate cells with low concentration of C3. (
  • Using the method, protective monoclonal antibodies against tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin were produced that bind tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin in vitro, respectively, and prevent tetanus and diphtheria in vivo in animals, respectively. (
  • Characterization of serum anti-diphtheria antibody activity following administration of equine anti-toxin for suspected diphtheria. (
  • We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. (
  • This review focuses on bacterial toxins such as Diphtheria toxin (DT), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). (
  • The toxins that inhibit protein synthesis, causing rapid cell death, at extremely low concentrations are diphtheria toxin (DT), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ExoA), and Shiga toxin. (
  • The 50% lethal doses (LD 50 ) of staphylococcal alpha-toxin and beta-toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin were 12 μg/g, 9 μg/g, 0.14 μg/g and 1.1 μg/g, respectively. (
  • Instead of creating specific treatments for individual toxins, we are developing a platform that can neutralize toxins caused by a wide range of pathogens, including MRSA and other antibiotic resistant bacteria," said Zhang. (
  • We report that diverse bacterial pathogens that produce a pore-forming toxin (PFT) induce necroptosis of macrophages and this can be blocked for protection against Serratia marcescens hemorrhagic pneumonia. (
  • Bacterial infections still represent a threat to human health worldwide as major pathogens becoming resistant to all available antibiotics. (
  • Li Qin et al, Toxin Mediates Sepsis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, PLOS Pathogens (2017). (
  • Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? (
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. (
  • Many pathogens and their toxins have evolved to hijack cell entry systems, initiating endocytosis following the binding of sugars on the plasma membrane. (
  • The potential applications of toxin research extend beyond simply combating microbial pathogens and include use as novel anti-cancer drugs and other front-line medicines and as tools in neurobiology. (
  • The primary goal of this review is to critically assess the linkage between the mechanism of action of toxins produced by human enteric pathogens and the stimulation of intestinal secretion. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin attack on human platelets promotes assembly of the prothrombinase complex. (
  • Role of Staphylococcus aureus hemolytic toxin-alpha in pathogenesis of infectious endocarditis: studies in vitro. (
  • Escherichia coli α-hemolysin), Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin, Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, and Vibrio cholerae hemolysin. (
  • PHILADELPHIA Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have demonstrated that a bacterial toxin from the common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus shuts down the control mechanism of the tunnel, called an ion channel, in immune cell membranes. (
  • They found that α toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus can worsen lung co-infection by Gram-negative bacteria by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing phagosomes, increasing proliferation, spread, and lethality. (
  • In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a nonmotile, ubiquitous, gram-positive coccus which is a major human pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, and several toxin-mediated diseases. (
  • 8. Staphylococcus aureus- some strains : (a) Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. (
  • Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) is a superantigen with a size of 22 kDa produced by 5 to 25% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. (
  • Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), a prototype superantigen secreted by a Staphylococcus aureus bacterium strain in susceptible hosts, acts on the vascular system by causing inflammation, fever, and shock. (
  • Distinguishing from other short-term bacterial foodborne intoxications such as by Staphylococcus aureus can be difficult. (
  • A toxin that can make bacterial infections turn deadly is also found in higher plants, researchers at UC Davis, the Marine Biology Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. and the University of Nebraska have found. (
  • This project has demonstrated the utility of a cholesterol-binding peptide in inhibiting bacterial toxin activity, thus representing a novel anti-virulence strategy to treat bacterial infections. (
  • Developing new antibiotics that target different aspects of the bacterial cell, such as the type IV secretion system, would enable us to block infections in additional ways. (
  • Even with modern antibiotics, septic shock from bacterial infections afflicts about 300,000 people a year in the U.S., with a mortality rate of 30 to 50 percent. (
  • As he also studies the role of blood clots in resisting infections, Armstrong decided to test the same techniques on blood clots that had been exposed to bacteria or to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (
  • Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. (
  • Mouse study ties toxin to severity of blood infections. (
  • SOS-mediated induction of toxin synthesis also provides a mechanism that could exacerbate STEC infections and increase dissemination of stx genes. (
  • Our results show that several agents could increase the amounts of toxin produced and that SOS-inducing agents could play an important role in the epidemiology of STEC infections. (
  • According to this new study, published in the Jan. 19, 2012, issue of Cell Host & Microbe , α-hemolysin, a toxin secreted by many strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), may play an important, unexpected role during both the establishment and persistence of urinary tract infections. (
  • of resistant infections by increasing bacterial sensitivity to meropenem. (
  • Infections are rare but fatal and can occur when the bacterial toxin escapes into the bloodstream, during birth for example, and spreads into the lungs and other organs. (
  • Bacterial toxins (such as botulinum neurotoxins, Shiga toxins, and staphylococcal enterotoxins) and their variants are characterized using these detection systems. (
  • The B domain has either five subunits, which are identical in Shiga toxin, CT, and E. coli LT-I and LT-II and different in size and sequences in PT, or two subunits, the translocation (T) and the receptor-binding (R) subunits, in DT, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, botulinum toxin, and tetanus toxin. (
  • Botulinum toxin - best known by the brand name Botox - is a popular treatment to reduce facial lines and wrinkles. (
  • Over the years, plastic surgeons have explored alternative approaches to maximize effectiveness while minimizing side effects of botulinum toxin injection, including smaller doses and more-diluted concentrations. (
  • The effect of these toxins on human populations ranges from the relatively mild travelers' diarrhea caused by infection with E. coli strains producing LT to the acute and life-threatening diarrhea caused by V. cholerae infection and the equally serious hemolytic uremic syndrome (`hamburger disease') caused by members of the shiga toxin family. (
  • In tissue studies using S. epidermidis strains, the group found that the PSM-mec toxin helped the bacteria survive in human blood and resist attack by neutrophils, important immune system fighters. (
  • Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains have since been recognized as the cause of both outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea and HUS, involving thousands of cases and numerous deaths ( 3 ). (
  • The stx genes carried by STEC strains are, with one possible exception (stx2e), encoded on bacteriophage genomes integrated into the bacterial chromosome. (
  • Toxin production varies greatly among different toxigenic strains and appears to be highly influenced by environmental conditions ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The toxin genes, toxA and toxB (also known as tcdA and tcdB , respectively), are in close proximity on the chromosome and are among five ORFs found in a 19.6-kb DNA element called the "pathogenicity locus" that is typical of toxin-producing strains ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • Bacterial Strains and Growth Medium. (
  • citation needed] The timing of the toxin production was previously thought to be possibly responsible for the two different courses of disease, but in fact the emetic syndrome is caused by a toxin, cereulide, found only in emetic strains and is not part of the "standard toolbox" of B. cereus. (
  • 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (
  • Exotoxin (alpha toxin) has lacithinase activity and thereby causes cell death, (b) Enterotoxin causes hyper secretion of water and electrolytes in diarrhoea. (
  • TSST-1 is a bacterial exotoxin found in patients who have developed toxic shock syndrome (TSS), which can be found in menstruating women or any man or child for that matter. (
  • Staphylococcal alpha toxin. (
  • Effect of staphylococcal and other bacterial toxins on platelets in vitro . (
  • Staphylococcal alpha-toxin, streptolysin-O, and Escherichia coli hemolysin: prototypes of pore-forming bacterial cytolysins. (
  • A culture-supernatant of a disruption mutant of the S. aureus beta-toxin gene did not kill larvae, whereas one of a deletion mutant of alpha-toxin, gamma-toxin, or aureolysin killed larvae, indicating that the beta-toxin gene is required for staphylococcal supernatant-mediated killing of silkworm larvae. (
  • b) Staphylococcal enterotoxin causes toxin type food poisoning and stimulates vomiting centre of brain. (
  • Essential reading for everyone with an interest in bacterial toxins and recommended book for researchers interested in microbial genomics and microbial pathogenesis. (
  • Many of these organisms have been reported to produce one or more toxins postulated as important in the pathogenesis of the diarrhea resulting from infection with the organism. (
  • A paper published in the December, 2002 issue of Infection and Immunity by a research team at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Health Sciences Center in New Orleans provides clear evidence that the lethal toxins of such infectious bacteria as Pseudomonas and anthrax can be blocked by a drug developed at the LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. (
  • The same platform was also tested for bacterial detection including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli spiked in water samples from a WTP. (
  • 3. A continuous cell line which produces human anit-tetanus toxin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a tetanus toxin-immunized or toxoid-immunized human peripheral blood lymphocyte and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the anitbodies are capable of neutralizing tetanus toxin. (
  • By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis . (
  • The pores formed by these toxins can vary in effective diameter from 1-2 nm [e.g., α-toxin, hemolysin, aerolysin, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Crystal (Cry) toxins (see below)] to 25-30 nm (e.g., streptolysin O). (
  • Determination of some bacteria toxins associated with contact lenses (CL) after different using periods (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 Days) with immuno-Tecra technique Bacterial toxin Usage periods of contact lenses (day) 0 1 Bacillus spp. (
  • In addition to mACs, bacterial AC toxins such as edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis and CyaA from Bordetella pertussis have also been identified. (
  • Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to survival of the bacterial endospores when infected food is not, or inadequately, cooked. (
  • Ultimately the response of platelets to infection is likely to be due to both direct interaction with bacteria and exposure to secreted bacterial products. (
  • Developing a drug that would disable even one core protein component of the secretion system, Ghosal says, would enable human cells to fight back against the bacterial infection. (
  • Tissue destruction that occurs upon infection with the bacterium Escherichia coli 0157:H17 is attributed in part to the bacterial factor verotoxin II (VTII), but the molecular mechanism of cell-death induction has not been clear. (
  • The lipid A core of bacterial endotoxin activates the immune system and can cause septic shock, a major cause of death from infection. (
  • It could also prove useful in treating infection from other viruses and bacteria whose toxins are dependent upon furin activity for activation. (
  • It is now well-accepted that this potent bacterial toxin plays an important role in producing necrotizing fasciitis (NF), the rapid infection of soft tissue referred to as flesh-eating" disease. (
  • In a mouse model, the toxin significantly increased disease and stimulated the immune response, which worsened the septic infection. (
  • Notably, PKR, an eIF2α-kinase which has been implicated in autophagy induction during viral infection, was also activated upon membrane perforation, and evidence was obtained that phosphorylation of eIF2α is required for the accumulation of autophagosomes in α-toxin-treated cells. (
  • These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists. (
  • Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue. (
  • Following infection, the AC toxins cause a dramatic increase in cAMP levels, thereby disrupting several intracellular signaling pathways. (
  • The researchers were able to halt infection in mice by co-injecting the toxin with purified semaphorin fragments, which bound and neutralized the toxin before it could reach the real receptors. (
  • The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post-immunization human peripheral blood lymphocytes with nonsecretor mouse myeloma cells is described. (
  • The closely-related shiga toxin family comprises a number of toxins from Shigella dysenteriae and the `shiga-like' toxins (also known as verotoxins) from E. coli . (
  • Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene. (
  • The term Shiga toxin (Stx) refers to two families of related toxins, Stx/Stx1, which includes the classical Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae, and Stx2 ( 4 ). (
  • The A subunit is divided into the enzymatically active A1 domain and the A2 linker domain in Shiga toxin, CT, E. coli LT-I and LT-II, and PT. (
  • On day 0 and day 2, pertussis toxin (100 ng/mouse, List Biological Labs ) was injected intraperitoneally. (
  • Author did not specify which List Labs Pertussis Toxin was utilized. (
  • Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. (
  • Novel recombinant toxins are already proposed in the treatment of some diseases, as well as new vaccines. (
  • An antigen may be a recombinant or native protein, partial protein, synthetic or natural peptide, chemical, toxin, viral or bacterial component, standard or reagent for ELISA assays, as well as an environmental agent. (
  • Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. (
  • Toxins are virulence determinants that play an important role in microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion of the host immune response. (
  • A creation model of the origin of bacterial pathogenicity will be developed based on the findings. (
  • C. sordellii lethal toxin modifies Ras, Rap, and Rac on T35 by glucosylation. (
  • In a study against alpha-haemolysin toxin from MRSA, pre-innoculation with nanosponges enabled 89 percent of mice to survive lethal doses. (
  • In anthrax, the lethal factor toxin must bind to another part of the anthrax toxin, called the PA molecule, before it can enter and destroy a cell. (
  • Furin, a protein-cutting enzyme or protease, which sits on the outside of cells, cuts the PA molecule, making it small enough for the lethal factor toxin to attach. (
  • therefore, without cut PA, lethal factor toxin loses the ability to bind to and enter the cell, and becomes harmless. (
  • The LSUHSC scientists found that D6R was not only able to protect cells from lethal toxins, but to do so without invoking a cytokine response itself. (
  • Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts. (
  • Anti-lethal factor named Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) has been isolated in purity from opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) serum by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). (
  • Opossum, Didelphis virginiana, lethal toxin neutralizing factor. (
  • A single molecule of some of the most lethal toxins - those released by bacteria that cause whooping cough and dysentery, for example - can kill an entire cell. (
  • However, the regulation of toxin synthesis is poorly understood at the molecular level, as is the mechanism that triggers an increase in the level of toxin synthesis leading to the transition from mild diarrhea to the potentially lethal PMC. (
  • Toxins 2017 , 9 , 236. (
  • 2017. "Bacterial Toxins for Cancer Therapy. (
  • Pavlik, Benjamin J, "Repurposing Bacterial Toxins" (2017). (
  • These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity of baby hamster kidney cells to aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin that targets humans. (
  • Pneumolysin is a pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). (
  • Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia. (
  • Several pathogenic bacteria secrete toxins to inhibit the immune system of the infected organism. (
  • Although PFTs are important to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, there is little understanding, apart from physiological data, as to how cells respond to these toxins and whether they mount a defense. (
  • There are at least two known families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that can activate RhoGTPases: the Dbl-like eukaryotic G nucleotide exchange factors and the SopE-like toxins of pathogenic bacteria, which are injected into host cells to manipulate signaling. (
  • Importantly, the peptide is able to inhibit the activity of unrelated cholesterol-binding toxins, including streptolysin and pneumolysin, indicating the broad activity of the peptide. (
  • Bacterial cells utilize toxin-antitoxin systems to inhibit self-reproduction, while maintaining viability, when faced with environmental challenges. (
  • Engineers at the University of California, San Diego, have invented a 'nanosponge' capable of safely removing a broad class of dangerous toxins from the bloodstream, including toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli , poisonous snakes and bees. (
  • This is a new way to remove toxins from the bloodstream," said Liangfang Zhang, a nanoengineering professor at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and the senior author on the study. (
  • She fell victim to septic shock after bacterial toxins invaded her bloodstream. (
  • Now, National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have identified an S. epidermidis toxin (PSM-mec) that is released into the bloodstream and contributes to sepsis. (
  • They discovered that paxillin degradation was stimulated by α-hemolysin (HlyA), a toxin secreted by UPEC, which inserts into bladder cell membranes. (
  • The diarrhetic syndromes observed in patients are thought to stem from the three toxins: hemolysin BL (Hbl), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe), and cytotoxin K (CytK). (
  • They also are investigating whether related toxins found in methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis and S. aureus have a similar function. (
  • Here, we show that S. aureus α-toxin, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, streptolysin O and E. coli haemolysin activate two pathways leading to autophagy. (
  • Treatment with 3-methyl-adenine inhibited autophagy and disrupted the ability of cells to recover from sublethal attack by S. aureus α-toxin. (
  • that p38 MAPK is important for the survival of C. elegans exposed to PFT-producing bacteria or of mammalian cells incubated with aerolysin [ 6 ], we found that p38 is required at an early stage after sublethal attack by S. aureus α-toxin to promote metabolic recovery of the target cell. (
  • However, early treatment or prophylaxis with a neutralizing antibody to α toxin prevented this effect and promoted S. aureus clearance in a humanized mouse model. (
  • They are expressed by S. aureus during logarithmic growth and shut off expression once a certain bacterial density is reached. (
  • C. difficile toxin B modifies by glucosylation Rho on T37 and Rac and Cdc42 on T35. (
  • Using a MALDI-MS based assay, the kinetic parameters for peptide glucosylation using the C. difficile toxin B glycosyltransferase domain were determined. (
  • Fig. 1 Glucosylation of peptide consensus on a protein of interest (POI) with C. difficile toxin B. (
  • Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have created a 3-D image of a molecular structure that many different bacteria use to pump toxins into human cells and spread antibiotic-resistance genes to other bacteria. (
  • A team of Vanderbilt University researchers have worked out the molecular details that explain how this bacterial toxin -- yatakemycin (YTM) -- prevents DNA replication. (
  • Unlike other anti-toxin platforms that need to be custom synthesized for individual toxin type, the nanosponges can absorb different pore-forming toxins regardless of their molecular structures. (
  • Computer model showing the molecular structure of the bacterial toxin pneumolysin. (
  • The molecular weight of LTNF is 63 kDa, and it does not form precipitation with venoms or toxins by immunodiffusion. (
  • The device characterizations, semiconducting properties and use in a robust and sensitive bio-molecular detection sensor of bacterial toxins were reported in this work. (
  • In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins. (
  • It is unclear which selection pressures shaped the evolution of density-dependent regulation of toxin production. (
  • This procedure led to the discovery that cells are immune to the TpeL toxin when the gene for the protein LRP1 is switched off on the cell surface. (
  • Because these toxins stimulate the mucosal immune system, there is great interest in using an engineered form of the toxin as a basis for the design of vaccines against a wide range of diseases. (
  • In order to use the toxin as a vaccine component it is obviously desirable to reduce or abolish the cytotoxicity while retaining the toxins ability to stimulate the immune system. (
  • The leukotoxin (LtxA) secreted by A. actinomycetemcomitans specifically kills human white blood cells to disrupt the host immune response and therefore plays a key role in bacterial colonization of the host. (
  • Using this CRAC sequence, we designed a cholesterol-binding peptide that inhibits LtxA-mediated cytotoxicity of human immune cells by blocking the binding of the toxin to cholesterol. (
  • Gladue, "Linezolid effects on bacterial toxin production and host immune response: review of the evidence," Current Therapeutic Research- Clinical and Experimental, vol. (
  • In this case the bacterial toxins , which cause the immune response, are more likely to be from gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Severe bacterial sepsis is characterized by an extreme immune response, inflammation, reduced blood flow, clotting, and organ failure. (
  • Bacterial toxin closes gate on immune response, Penn researcher. (
  • Shutting down ion channels has long been known to suppress the immune response, and the bacteria may use the toxin to neutralize host defenses against bacteria. (
  • These disruptions of the normal immune response to bacterial invasion may help to explain why UTIs can persist or recur, even in otherwise healthy individuals and in the presence of antibiotics. (
  • In theory, the actin's abundance within every single human cell should make it a difficult to disable - and disabling targets is the business of a bacterial toxin looking to gum up the immune system and make a human or animal sick. (
  • psychological Group Newsletter The getrlimit(2 download Microbial Toxins, Vol. 4: Bacterial Endotoxins of an exact economy of attacks, nasopharyngeal private free( lenses, versions, possible order technologies and Adventures long in how the video provides Matters and vice-versa. (
  • As with many other bacterial toxins the catalytic activity resides in the `A' fragment, in this case a separate subunit, while receptor binding and delivery of the toxin to the target cell is mediated by a separate `B' fragment, in this case a pentamer. (
  • This toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two active subunits, the ADP ribosyl transferase PltA and the DNase CdtB, linked to a pentameric B subunit, which is alternatively made of. (
  • This acute pediatric renal disease, defined by the triad of thrombocytopenia, glomerular endothelial damage and hemolytic anemia is mediated by toxin B subunit pentamer binding to its receptor glycosphingolipid, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb 3 ) within lipid rafts in the glomerular endothelial cell plasma membrane and the subsequent endothelial pathology. (
  • A section shows the subunit composition and the spatial organization of toxins whose structures have been solved either by X-ray crystallography or by quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy. (
  • Just visible protruding from the membrane surface under the toxin which has landed are five copies of the saccharide moitie of ganglioside GM1, to which the toxin binds. (
  • GM1 is a normal membrane component which the toxin coopts as a receptor. (
  • The toxin recognizes the branched pentasaccharide portion of GM1 which protrudes from the exterior membrane surface. (
  • Consistently, membrane lesions formed by streptolysin O (SLO) are reportedly internalized by a dynamin-independent mechanism [ 15 ], whereas those caused by α-toxin are eliminated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis and subsequent exocytosis [ 16 ]. (
  • Artist's depiction of a type IV secretion system nestled within a bacterial cell membrane. (
  • The research team, that included Yanping Xu, MD, PhD and Yajamana Ramu, PhD, showed that removal of phosphate head groups from some membrane lipids by the bacterial toxin called sphingomyelinase (SMase) C shuts down the Kv1.3 channel. (
  • The first observable responses of the epithelial cells to these compounds are changes in metabolism for one toxin (warfarin) and alterations in membrane permeability for another (gliotoxin). (
  • The other four toxins display a similar time course in response as gauged by changes in metabolism and loss of membrane integrity. (
  • Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function, interaction and trafficking into cells, as well as mechanism of action of toxins. (
  • In this study, we report a new mechanism by which a toxin-antitoxin system responds to harsh environmental conditions or nutrient deprivation by orchestrating a dormant state while preserving viability. (
  • Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. (
  • Partly this is due to questions about their mechanism of action and the presumption that anti-bacterial agents have no obvious connection to killing mammalian tumor cells. (
  • The level of toxin production appears to be critical for determining the severity of the disease, but the mechanism by which toxin synthesis is regulated is unknown. (
  • This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. (
  • Some type IV secretion systems are thought to be instrumental in spreading antibiotic-resistance genes throughout the bacterial population. (
  • Stx genes are coexpressed with genes of the bacteriophage ( 10 , 11 ), and certain quinolones (known to be potent SOS inducers) induce increases in toxin ( 12 , 13 ) and bacteriophage production ( 13 ) of two to three orders of magnitude within 2 to 4 hours. (
  • We have constructed a genetically modified derivative of a clinical isolate in which the genes encoding both elements of the toxin (stx2AB) were partially replaced with a lacZ reporter gene. (
  • Cholera toxin is an AB 5 hexameric assembly secreted by Vibrio cholerae . (
  • Bacterial toxin vaccines. (
  • Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia. (
  • The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. (
  • We report that pore-forming toxins (PFTs) induce respiratory epithelial cell necroptosis independently of death receptor signaling during bacterial pneumonia. (
  • In cooperation with colleagues from Düsseldorf, the USA, and the Netherlands, the researchers from Freiburg have now identified a receptor for a clostridial toxin of this type for the first time ever. (
  • The researchers demonstrate that LRP1 is the long sought-after key molecule: It also regulates the intake of the toxin TpeL. (
  • The researchers conducted a series of experiments to characterize one of those toxins, called IpaJ, chosen in part because so little was known about the protein. (
  • Based on its genetic sequence, researchers had an inkling that teneurins resembled bacterial toxins, poison molecules bacteria use to attack and comprise host cells. (
  • The researchers wanted to better understand how a relatively small amount of bacterial toxin could do such swift, significant damage to a strong network of actin. (
  • Researchers based in Brazil and the United States have completed the first-ever mapping exercise to profile the toxins produced by tube-dwelling anemones, or cerianthids, a family of marine animals belonging to the same phylum (Cnidaria) as sea anemones, jellyfish and corals. (
  • Researchers at the Quadram Institute have implicated a toxin-carrying virus in the emergence of a new strain of Salmonella in pigs. (
  • Yet, while P. sordellii produces a similar toxin, it does not bind in the same way - so the researchers set out to investigate. (
  • Each toxin protein is composed of about 2,500 amino-acids and the researchers were able to pinpoint those that directly engage with the receptor. (
  • These toxins cause disease in a variety of animal species - lipopolysaccharide is also toxic to both horseshoe crabs and lobsters, separated from humans by hundreds of millions of years of evolution. (
  • The availability of new antibodies and assays will enhance our nation's capability to monitor for toxins in food, providing enhanced food safety and biosecurity. (
  • The University of Valencia and Spanish National Research Council have patented a method to detect the patulin toxin in foods by using antibodies. (
  • These nanosponges, which thus far have been studied in mice, can neutralize "pore-forming toxins," which destroy cells by poking holes in their cell membranes. (
  • Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins but, until now, did not know how. (
  • As these simple creatures evolved into more complex species, the original toxin-like protein has been conserved ever since. (
  • 26] Bacteriocins can target individual bacterial species, or provide broad-spectrum killing of many microbes. (
  • The amino acid sequence of this domain varies between E. coli and other gram-negative bacterial species. (
  • However, certain bacterial species can make us sick. (
  • In particular pore-forming toxins such as pneumolysin, streptolysins and a-toxin can activate platelets probably in a manner similar to the calcium ionophore A23187. (
  • This strongly hints that reduction of the disulfide bond is a crucial step in activation of the toxin. (
  • Our price list indicates which items are Select Agents and Toxins. (
  • The Federal Select Agent Program is jointly regulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Division of Select Agents and Toxins (CDC DSAT) and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services/Agriculture Select Agent Services (APHIS AgSAS). (
  • Amino acids located on the switch 1 or switch 2 domains of small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family are targets of several bacterial toxins. (
  • We have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif in the toxin that regulates the interaction of the toxin with cholesterol. (
  • 14 Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a nine amino acid peptide substrate for the toxin B glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) and its applications as a protein tag for site-specific and homogenous glycoprotein engineering ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • A thorough proteomic study of toxin A/B substrates revealed that the amino acid sequences flanking the glycosylation site are similar among GTPase substrates. (
  • Here, we report that in Caulobacter , a hipA2 -encoded bacterial toxin contributes to bacterial persistence by manipulating intracellular amino acid balance. (
  • Swapping a mere 15 of these amino acids between the two toxins was sufficient to switch receptor preference. (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes streptolysin O), repeats in toxin cytolysins (e.g. (
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (
  • Working on the theory that if the action of furin could be blocked, the toxins would not be activated and therefore unable to kill cells, the research team set out to make a peptide that would suppress furin activity. (
  • 15 Inspired by this finding, we speculated that a short peptide containing the consensus sequence may be an acceptable substrate for the toxin B GTD. (
  • When this approach is combined with the intermediates of bacterial O -antigen biosynthesis the resulting conjugates are valuable as potential anti-bacterial vaccine components. (
  • Its illustration of the way antibiotics leave bacterial toxins in the gut also shows just why it is so important to take probiotics after a course of antibiotics. (
  • It is no secret that antibiotics kill the good bacteria in our bodies along with the bad bacteria because they are unable to distinguish between the two, and when you consider the fact that they're potentially leaving bacterial toxins behind, it becomes clear just how important it is to bring balance back to the gut after taking these medications. (
  • acquisition and production of microbial toxins . (
  • If the introduced unbalance leads to an overgrowth of bacteria producing toxins themselves, intestinal and metabolic disorders can follow. (
  • We have structures for a number mutant toxins containing various single site mutantations near the active site of the heat-labile enterotoxin. (
  • The receptor for cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin is ganglioside GM1. (
  • The sub-populations of neurones labelled by B subunits of cholera toxin (CTB) and the related heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) following various routes of injection in mice were studied. (
  • The structure of the cholera toxin B-pentamer complexed with the complete GM1 pentasaccharide [1994a, 1997d, 1998d] gives us a view of the toxin:receptor binding mode at atomic resolution. (
  • Here, we present an evaluation of the sensitivity of two immortal cell lines (A549, human lung carcinoma epithelia) and NR8383 (rat alveolar macrophages) to a variety of bacterial-derived inhalation hazards and simulants including etoposide, gliotoxin, streptolysin O, and warfarin. (