Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. (1/8457)

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

Synergistic activation of JNK/SAPK by interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor is independent of Rac and Cdc42. (2/8457)

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated strongly by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses, but only weakly by growth factors. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) strongly potentiates activation of JNK by interleukin 1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts and a pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cell line. This synergistic activation of JNK by IL-1 and PDGF was unaffected by bacterial toxins that inactivate Rho proteins and Ras. Since Rho proteins have been implicated in JNK activation, their possible involvement was investigated further using stably expressed, inducible N17 or V12 mutants in PAE cell lines. N17 Rac non-selectively reduced JNK activity by 30% in resting or stimulated cells (IL-1 alone, or with PDGF). N17 Cdc42 had no effect. V12 Rac weakly activated JNK and synergized with IL-1, but not with PDGF. V12 Cdc42 weakly activated JNK, but synergized with PDGF and not IL-1. Our results imply that Rho GTPases are not directly involved in mediating IL-1-induced JNK activation, or in the potentiation of this activation by PDGF.  (+info)

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (3/8457)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils. (4/8457)

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes.  (+info)

Identification of a cytolethal distending toxin gene locus and features of a virulence-associated region in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (5/8457)

A genetic locus for a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was identified in a polymorphic region of the chromosome of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a predominant oral pathogen. The locus was comprised of three open reading frames (ORFs) that had significant amino acid sequence similarity and more than 90% sequence identity to the cdtABC genes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Haemophilus ducreyi, respectively. Sonic extracts from recombinant E. coli, containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans ORFs, caused the distension and killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells characteristic of a CDT. Monoclonal antibodies made reactive with the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins of H. ducreyi recognized the corresponding gene products from the recombinant strain. CDT-like activities were no longer expressed by the recombinant strain when an OmegaKan-2 interposon was inserted into the cdtA and cdtB genes. Expression of the CDT-like activities in A. actinomycetemcomitans was strain specific. Naturally occurring expression-negative strains had large deletions within the region of the cdt locus. The cdtABC genes were flanked by an ORF (virulence plasmid protein), a partial ORF (integrase), and DNA sequences (bacteriophage integration site) characteristic of virulence-associated regions. These results provide evidence for a functional CDT in a human oral pathogen.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (6/8457)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (7/8457)

To evaluate the role of SigB in modulating the expression of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, we constructed a sigB mutant of RN6390, a prototypic S. aureus strain. The mutation in the sigB gene was confirmed by the absence of the SigB protein in the mutant on an immunoblot as well as the failure of the mutant to activate sigmaB-dependent promoters (e.g., the sarC promoter) of S. aureus. Phenotypic analysis indicated that both alpha-hemolysin level and fibrinogen-binding capacity were up-regulated in the mutant strain compared with the parental strain. The increase in fibrinogen-binding capacity correlated with enhanced expression of clumping factor and coagulase on immunoblots. The effect of the sigB mutation on the enhanced expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene (hla) was primarily transcriptional. Upon complementation with a plasmid containing the sigB gene, hla expression returned to near parental levels in the mutant. Detailed immunoblot analysis as well as a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cell extract of the sigB mutant with anti-SarA monoclonal antibody 1D1 revealed that the expression of SarA was higher in the mutant than in the parental control. Despite an elevated SarA level, the transcription of RNAII and RNAIII of the agr locus remained unaltered in the sigB mutant. Because of a lack of perturbation in agr, we hypothesize that inactivation of sigB leads to increased expression of SarA which, in turn, modulates target genes via an agr-independent but SarA-dependent pathway.  (+info)

Responses of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells to Shiga toxins 1 and 2 and pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (8/8457)

Endothelial damage is characteristic of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Because Stx-mediated endothelial cell damage at the site of infection may lead to the characteristic hemorrhagic colitis of STEC infection, we compared the effects of Stx1 and Stx2 on primary and transformed human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to those on macrovascular endothelial cells from human saphenous vein (HSVEC). Adhesion molecule, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Stx receptor expression, the effects of cytokine activation and Stx toxins on these responses, and Stx1 and Stx2 binding kinetics and bioactivity were measured. Adhesion molecule and IL-8 expression increased in activated HIMEC, but these responses were blunted in the presence of toxin, especially in the presence of Stx1. In contrast to HSVEC, unstimulated HIMEC constitutively expressed Stx receptor at high levels, bound large amounts of toxin, were highly sensitive to toxin, and were not further sensitized by cytokines. Although the binding capacities of HIMEC for Stx1 and Stx2 were comparable, the binding affinity of Stx1 to HIMEC was 50-fold greater than that of Stx2. Nonetheless, Stx2 was more toxic to HIMEC than an equivalent amount of Stx1. The decreased binding affinity and increased toxicity for HIMEC of Stx2 compared to those of Stx1 may be relevant to the preponderance of Stx2-producing STEC involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and its systemic complications. The differences between primary and transformed HIMEC in these responses were negligible. We conclude that transformed HIMEC lines could represent a simple physiologically relevant model to study the role of Stx in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis.  (+info)

Glioblastomas are largely unresponsive to all available treatments and there is therefore an urgent need for novel therapeutics. Here we have probed the antineoplastic effects of a bacterial protein toxin, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), in the syngenic GL261 glioma cell model. CNF1 produces a long-lasting activation of Rho GTPases, with consequent blockade of cytodieresis in proliferating cells and promotion of neuron health and plasticity. We have tested the antiproliferative effects of CNF1 on GL261 cells and human glioma cells obtained from surgical specimens. For the in vivo experiments, we injected GL261 cells into the adult mouse visual cortex, and five days later we administered either a single intracerebral dose of CNF1 or vehicle. To compare CNF1 with a canonical antitumoral drug, we infused temozolomide (TMZ) via minipumps for 1 week in an additional animal group. In culture, CNF1 was very effective in blocking proliferation of GL261 cells, leading them to multinucleation,
Bacterial Protein Toxins Hb ePUB Å Bacterial Protein PDF \ Designed for newcomers to the field of toxins this important volume is intended to show how these proteins work while providing an up to date review of the field Bacterial Protein Toxins describes all aspects of the biology of toxins including their synthesis and secretion from the bacterial cell their travels to and into the targ.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death. AU - Ha, Soon-Duck. AU - Ng, Dennis. AU - Lamothe, Julie. AU - Valvano, Miguel A. AU - Han, Jiahuai. AU - Kim, Sung Ouk. PY - 2007/9/7. Y1 - 2007/9/7. N2 - Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) induces rapid cell death of RAW246.7 macrophages. We recently found that a small population of these macrophages is spontaneously and temporally refractory to LeTx-induced cytotoxicity. Analysis of genome-wide transcripts of a resistant clone before and after regaining LeTx sensitivity revealed that a reduction of two closely related mitochondrial proteins, Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and Bnip3-like (Bnip3L), correlates with LeTx resistance. Down-regulation of Bnip3 and Bnip3L was also found in toxin-induced resistance whereby sublethal doses of LeTx induce resistance to subsequent exposure to cytolytic toxin doses. The role of Bnip3 and Bnip3L in LeTx-induced ...
[ Bacterial Protein Toxins ] - Home Etox18,4 Toxic Effects Of Fungi And Bacteria Damp Indoor Spaces And,Frontiers Bacterial Toxin Effector Membrane Targeting Outside
Get this from a library! Bacterial protein toxins. [J E Alouf; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Federation of European Microbiological Societies.;]
In this paper, we observed the effects of mutating each of the six anionic residues lining the interior of the anthrax toxin channel to serines. Before discussing the effects of these mutations on cation selectivity, we must first address the possibility that streaming potentials and/or polarization effects (dilution potentials) may have skewed our results. By polarization effects, we mean that as a consequence of osmotic water flow across the membrane from the trans to the cis solution caused by the higher KCl concentration in the cis compartment, the KCl concentration at the cis membrane-solution interface is reduced, and at the trans membrane-solution interface it is elevated. Consequently, the actual acis/atrans across the membrane is less than the bulk acis/atrans, thereby artificially reducing the magnitude of Erev. To check for polarization effects, we performed cation selectivity experiments (not depicted) with valinomycin (which is ideally selective for potassium) at both [KCl]trans = ...
Mass spectrometry has recently become a powerful technique for bacterial identification. Mass spectrometry approaches generally rely upon introduction of the bacteria into a matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer with mass spectrometric recognition of proteins specific to that organism that form a reliable fingerprint. With some bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, the health threat posed by these organisms is not the organism itself, but rather the protein toxins produced by the organisms. One such example is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a potent neurotoxin produced by C. botulinum. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and many of the serotypes can be further differentiated into toxin variants, which are up to 99.9% identical in some cases. Mass spectrometric proteomic techniques have been established to differentiate the serotype or toxin variant of BoNT produced by varied strains of C. botulinum. Detection of potent ...
Lethal factor1,2-ETHANEDIOLGLYCEROLN~2~-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-N-hydroxy-N~2~-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-D-alaninamideZINC ION
ABSTRACTCytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. These regulatory proteins oscillate between a cytosolic GDP-bound inactive form and a membrane-linked GTP-bound active form, orchestrating the actin cy
TY - CHAP. T1 - Regulation systems of toxin expression. AU - Locht, Camille. AU - Lereclus, Didier. AU - Rood, Julian Ian. AU - Fournier, Benedicte. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Chapter (Book). SN - 0120884453. SP - 64. EP - 82. BT - The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. A2 - Alouf, J. A2 - Popoff, M R. PB - Academic Press. CY - USA. ER - ...
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Proceedings of a workshop conference held under the auspices of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Seillac, France from 26-30 June 1983 ...
Here we present the first global functional analysis of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are uniquely important bacterial virulence factors, comprising the single largest class of bacterial protein toxins and being important for the pathogenesis in humans of many Gram positive …
Blood clots play an unexpected role in protecting the body from the deadly effects of bacteria by absorbing bacterial toxins, researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found. The research was published Dec. 2 in the journal PLoS ONE. Â Its a significant addition to the short list of defenses that animals use to protect themselves against toxin-induced sepsis, says Peter Armstrong, professor of molecular and cellular biology at UC Davis and senior author on the paper. Â Even with modern antibiotics, septic shock from bacterial infections afflicts about 300,000 people a year in the U.S., with a mortality rate of 30 to 50 percent. Septic shock is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which release a toxin called lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin. In small amounts, lipopolysaccharide triggers inflammation. When infections with these bacteria get out of hand, lipopolysaccharide courses through the bloodstream, causing catastrophic damage to organs and tissues. Â These toxins cause disease
Bacterial protein toxins became valuable molecular tools for the targeted modulation of cell functions in experimental pharmacology and attractive therapeutics because of their potent and specific mode of action in human cells. C2IN-C3lim, a recombinant fusion toxin (~50 kDa) of the Rho-inhibiting C …
A bacterial toxin promoting tissue healing has been discovered. The compound, found in Staphylococcus aureus, does not just damage cells, but also stimulates tissue regeneration ...
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n: anatoxin, toxoid} a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin ...
You get an infection, you are given penicillin -- and then you could get hemorrhagic diarrhea. This rare but extremely unpleasant side reaction can be
Scientists shed light on the neurological consequences of exposure to low-levels of nerve agents and suggest a drug that could treat some of the toxins effects.
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Newborns deprived of oxygen have their temperatures lowered to protect against brain damage, but its hard to decipher the babies immediate response to the intervention.. 0 Comments. ...
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It has been well established that allergies foods and toxins cause muscle weekness The basic principle of muscle testing is muscle weak or muscle strong now you can test the foods you use and the toxins in your enviroment by using this muscle strength weakness principle .,
Septicemia is a term formerly accepted by the medical profession to mean the rapid multiplication of bacteria and the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood.
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Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) rapidly kills MDCK II cells at 37°C, but not 4°C. The current study shows that, in MDCK II cells, ETX binds and forms an oligomeric complex equally well at 37°C and 4°C but only forms a pore at 37°C. However, the complex formed in MDCK cells treated with ETX at 4°C has the potential to form an active pore, since shifting those cells to 37°C results in rapid cytotoxicity. Those results suggested that the block in pore formation at 4°C involves temperature-related trapping of ETX in a prepore intermediate on the MDCK II cell plasma membrane surface. Evidence supporting this hypothesis was obtained when the ETX complex in MDCK II cells was shown to be more susceptible to pronase degradation when formed at 4°C vs. 37°C; this result is consistent with ETX complex formed at 4°C remaining present in an exposed prepore on the membrane surface, while the ETX prepore complex formed at 37°C is unaccessible to pronase because it has inserted into the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
Pulpy kidney disease is an important fatal enterotoxaemia of sheep and occasionally other ruminants. Although history, clinical signs, post mortem picture, histopathological findings and demonstration of glucosuria are helpful in diagnosing the disease, the demonstration of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin in the small intestine is a useful additional aid to diagnosis. Methods used to assay the toxin in the gut must be specific and sensitive, as the toxin is highly potent and small amounts can be significant in nonimmune animals, as little as 0.3 ng of activated toxin being sufficient to kill a mouse. The biological test is therefore a sensitive method for measuring toxin. However, unless small intestine contents are titrated in a number of mice it is not a quantitative method and is currently viewed with disfavour on humanitarian grounds. Although other tests have been used, for example the reversed phase passive haemagglutination, radial immunodiffusion and counter immunoelectrophoresis ...
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 (CNF2) produced by Escherichia coli strains isolated from intestinal and extraintestinal infections is a dermonecrotic toxin of 110 kDa. We cloned the CNF2 gene from a large plasmid carried by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a lamb with septicemia. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed a largely hydrophilic protein with two potential hydrophobic transmembrane domains. The N-terminal half of CNF2 showed striking homology (27% identity and 80% conserved residues) to the N-terminal portion of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Methylamine protection experiments and immunofluorescence studies suggested that CNF2 enters the cytosol of the target cell through an acidic compartment and induces the reorganization of actin into stress fibers. Since the formation of stress fibers in eukaryotic cells involves Rho proteins, we radiolabeled these small GTP-binding proteins from CNF2-treated and control cells with a Rho-specific ...
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, molecular model. This is one of several proteins produced by pathogenic E. coli bacteria in the intestines. Unlike the heat-stable enterotoxin, this one is inactivated at high temperatures. The toxin causes diarrhoea and can be fatal in severe cases. This protein consists of three subunits with a total of seven chains and a total of 329 amino acids. - Stock Image C025/1673
Clostridium difficile toxin B is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. C. difficile produces two major kinds of toxins that are very potent and lethal; an enterotoxin (Toxin A) and a cytotoxin (Toxin B, this protein). Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that has a molecular weight of 270 kDa and an isoelectric point, pl, of 4.1. Toxin B has four different structural domains: catalytic, cysteine protease, translocation, and receptor binding. The N-terminal glucosyltransferase catalytic domain includes amino acid residues 1-544 while the cysteine protease domain includes residues 545-801. Additionally, the translocation region incorporates amino acid residues from 802 to 1664 while the receptor binding region is part of the C-terminal region and includes amino acid residues from 1665 to 2366. The glycosylation activity of toxin B occurs in the N-terminal catalytic region (residues 1-544). This region glycosylates substrates independent of any cytotoxic activity. However, a small ...
OBJECTIVE: Neurotrophins and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are involved in neurite guidance during the development of spiral ganglion (SG) neurons. Several intracellular signaling molecules can be activated by ECMs and neurotrophins via their cognate receptors. In other systems these include the Rho small GTPases, which influence reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for axon growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)-mediated SG neurite outgrowth on laminin-1 (LN) is dependent on the activation of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SG explants from postnatal day 4 rats were cultured on LN with and without NT-3 and increasing concentrations of Clostridium difficile Toxin B, an inhibitor of Rho GTPases. After fixation and immunocytochemical labeling, neurite growth was evaluated. RESULTS: Treatment with C. difficile Toxin B without NT-3 led to a dose-dependent decrease in the length and number of processes on LN. In ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): C. perfringens epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a potential biological weapon included in the list of category B priority agents. The overall goal of this proposal is to identify and perform in vivo testing of new inhibitors of E TX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins developed at Innovative Biologics, Inc. It is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. Results from our SBIR Phase I project d emonstrated that beta-cyclodextrin derivatives designed to block the transmembrane channel formed by epsilon-toxin can inhibit its cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Based on the successful completion of this feasibility study, we propose to de sign, synthesize and screen a library of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives for inhibitors of epsilon-toxins activity and test selected lead compounds in mice. The specific aims of this Phase II study are: (1) Optimize the assay for testing ...
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Binary toxins are among the most potent bacterial protein toxins performing a cooperative mode of translocation and exhibit fatal enzymatic activities in eukaryotic cells. Anthrax and C2 toxin are the most prominent examples for the AB(7/8) type of toxins. The B subunits bind both host cell receptors and the enzymatic A polypeptides to trigger their internalization and translocation into the host cell cytosol. C2 toxin is composed of an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase (C2I) and C2II binding subunits. Anthrax toxin is composed of adenylate cyclase (EF) and MAPKK protease (LF) enzymatic components associated to protective antigen (PA) binding subunit. The binding and translocation components anthrax protective antigen (PA(63)) and C2II of C2 toxin share a sequence homology of about 35%, suggesting that they might substitute for each other. Here we show by conducting in vitro measurements that PA(63) binds C2I and that C2II can bind both EF and LF. Anthrax edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) have ...
Clostridium difficile Toxin B antibody [5156] for ELISA. Anti-Clostridium difficile Toxin B mAb (GTX41669) is tested in Clostridium difficile samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed
Invitrogen Anti-Clostridium difficile Toxin B Monoclonal (E74F), Catalog # MA1-7417. Tested in ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Bacteria samples. Supplied as 100 µg purified antibody (0.1 mg/mL).
The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite. ...
Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis. This genomic response is distinct from that seen with a different stressor, the heavy metal cadmium. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are (i) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and (ii) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity
Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of host-pathogen interaction. Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA...
Phenol-soluble modulins are secreted peptides with multiple functions in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and spreading. Recent studies by Otto and coworkers show that these hellhounds of the staphylococcal virulence-factor pandemonium are unleashed through an essential ABC transporter, which represents an exciting new target for stopping the spread of this important pathogen.. ...
Read Influence of Cys-130 S. aureus Alpha-toxin on Planar Lipid Bilayer and Erythrocyte Membranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Identification of Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin as a Candidate Environmental Trigger for Nascent Lesion Formation in MS (Timothy Vartanian, MD, PhD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enteric bacterial toxins. T2 - Mechanisms of action and linkage to intestinal secretion. AU - Sears, Cynthia L.. AU - Kaper, James B.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - A wide range of bacteria have been implicated as potential etiologies of diarrheal disease. Many of these organisms have been reported to produce one or more toxins postulated as important in the pathogenesis of the diarrhea resulting from infection with the organism. The primary goal of this review is to critically assess the linkage between the mechanism of action of toxins produced by human enteric pathogens and the stimulation of intestinal secretion. To accomplish this goal, the range of criteria used to demonstrate pathogenicity of an enteric bacterial toxin and potential mechanisms stimulating net intestinal secretion are reviewed. A detailed description of each enteric toxin is presented, and revised criteria are proposed for classification of enteric bacterial toxins. Throughout this review, emphasis has ...
From a structural perspective, the most compelling conclusion emerging from our findings is that the channels entire β-barrel stem region participates in the gating process. Absent a high resolution structure of the pore form of the anthrax channel in both the closed and open states, we cannot draw a detailed picture of the gating motions from our data. Nevertheless, we can gain some insight into the magnitude of the conformational changes that might occur during gating by considering the x-ray crystal structure of α-hemolysin, which likely shares structural features with the stem domain of the anthrax channel (Song et al., 1996; Benson et al., 1998; Nassi et al., 2002; Krantz et al., 2004; Nguyen, 2004).. The luminal diameter (Cα-Cα) of α-hemolysins β-barrel is ∼26 Å (accounting for sidechain volume, which is relevant to LF or EF translocation, yields a diameter of ∼19 Å [Krantz et al., 2004]), with residues of adjacent subunits being an average distance (Cβ-Cβ) of ∼11 Å from ...
Some pathogenic species of Clostridium employ the classic enzymatic AB binary protein toxins for poisoning cells. Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile, C. spiroforme, and C. botulinum all use similar binary toxins (iota toxin (Ia and Ib), CDT (CDTa and CDTb), CST (CSTa and CSTb), and C2 toxin (C2I and C2II), respectively). They consist of the enzymatic A component, an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase and the B component that binds to the host cell and forms a membrane-spanning pore that functions as the translocation channel for each enzymatic component. The B component translocates the A component into the host cell via the membrane in the acidic endosome. In contrast, the Bacillus anthracis species uses a different binary toxin, which consists of two enzymatic proteins: the lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors, and a protein translocation channel, PA. The PA heptameric pore structure was revealed to have extremely narrow φ-clamp passageway and a long membrane-spanning channel. ...
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Webb, Helen M. and Sixma, T.K. and Hol, W.G.J. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1994) Analysis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Important Residues Invoved in the Assembly of Escherichia-Coli Heart-Labile NALYSIS BY SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS OF IMPORTANT RESIDUES Enterotoxin. In: 6th European Workshop on Bacterial Protein Toxins, Stirling, Scotland. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
Principal Investigator:TOMITA Toshio, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
A BLAST search with the HI0659 protein sequence turns up homologs in only the same species. Some of these are annotated as members of an Xre-family toxin-antitoxin system (I think HI0660 is homologous to the toxin component, and HI0659 to the antitoxin component). HI0660 is also tagged as a member of the Gp49 superfamily (also phage proteins I think). Xre family repressors are known to perform a variety of regulatory functions unrelated to toxin-antitoxin systems (ref). The same paper suggests that the Tad toxin components might be mRNA-cleaving ribonucleases. Maybe thats what HI0660 does, and HI0659 is a repressor that prevents it from acting. If so, and if sxy mRNA was HI0660s target, then the mutant phenotypes would make sense. ...
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Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and their colleagues have identified the structure of the most lethal toxin produced by certain strains of Clostridium difficile bacteria, a potentially deadly infection associated with the use of antibiotics. The
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
It is difficult to correlate in vitro toxin concentration with in vivo exposure, however, the concentration of toxin used in both models are similar as 2.3 mg DON/kg of feed corresponds to 7.7 μM ( Sergent et al., 2006; Pinton et al., 2009). It is interesting to observe that in both models, there is a good correlation in the increase of expression of phosphorylated MAPK. The extent of MAPK activation, lower in samples obtained from the in vivo experiment than in explants, could be explained by the mode of exposure to the toxin, in the culture medium. or in ingested feed. A significant increase was observed only for ERK and p38. Following the same signaling arrangement, each individual MAPK pathway responds PF-02341066 in vivo to specific stimuli and then regulates their specific substrates ( Cui et al., 2007), which can explain the selective activation of MAPK. JNK and ERK are involved in regulation of both cell survival and death depending on cell types and stimulus, whereas p38 can promote ...
Fluid therapy concerns the administration of fluids to bring down (and keep down) the toxin levels of kidney failure. There are many ways to deliver fluids.
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1DJR: Structure of m-carboxyphenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside complexed to heat-labile enterotoxin at 1.3 A resolution: surprising variations in ligand-binding modes.
HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1 & Discussion 2HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1Select one area of health policy and describe the impact that policy formation places
Affiliation:兵庫県立大学,環境人間学部,教授, Research Field:食生活,食の安全, Keywords:プルプリン,ノロウイルス,緑茶,サルモネラ,マウス,Verotoxin,イムノクロマト法,Heat-labile toxin,ハムスター,クロロゲン酸, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:9
Bacterial toxins). ... Alpha-toxin has been shown to play a role in pathogenesis of ... Alpha-toxin is also one of the key virulence factors in S. aureus pneumonia. The level of alpha-toxin expressed by a particular ... The dosage of toxin can result in two different modes of activity. Low concentrations of toxin bind to specific, but ... This activity was inhibited when two different anti-alpha-toxin antibodies were introduced. In the same study, alpha toxin was ...
Many bacterial toxins nucleotide-binding modify by ADP-ribosylation proteins involved in essential cell functions, leading to ... cholera-like toxins, binary toxins and C3-like exoenzymes. C3-like exoenzymes unlike other ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins do not ... All the toxins of this family share a highly conserved glutamate, which is the catalytic residue critical for the NAD- ... Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme is a toxin that causes the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to Rho-like proteins ...
ISBN 978-0-323-05470-6. (Bacterial toxins). ... Staphylococcus aureus beta toxin is a toxin produced by ... The beta toxin exhibits maximum activity at 10 °C, at 37 °C (normal body temperature) seems to be inactive. Cifrian E, Guidry ... Gaskin DK, Bohach GA, Schlievert PM, Hovde CJ (February 1997). "Purification of Staphylococcus aureus beta-toxin: comparison of ... AJ, Bramley AJ, Norcross NL, Bastida-Corcuera FD, Marquardt WW (February 1996). "Effect of staphylococcal beta toxin on the ...
Bacterial toxins). ... is a member of the RTX-toxin superfamily. The Harpin-PSS (HrpZ ... It has been hypothesized that such channels could allow nutrient release and/or delivery of virulence factors during bacterial ...
Bacterial toxins). ... This protein is a member of the alpha pore forming toxins ... The protein has structural similarities to other toxins, including haemolysin E and B. cereus toxins HlbB and NheA. No other ... "The pesticidal Cry6Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is structurally similar to HlyE-family alpha pore-forming toxins". BMC ... "The pesticidal Cry6Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is structurally similar to HlyE-family alpha pore-forming toxins". BMC ...
... can be activated by components of the immune system, such as the complement system; bacterial toxins; activated ... Toxins and pathogens may cause necrosis; toxins such as snake venoms may inhibit enzymes and cause cell death. Necrotic wounds ... In the example of a snake bite, the use of anti-venom halts the spread of toxins whilst receiving antibiotics to impede ... This is typical of bacterial, or sometimes fungal, infections because of their ability to stimulate an inflammatory response. ...
Todar K (2012). "Bacterial Protein Toxins". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Madison, Wisconsin. Edwin C, Parsonnet J, ... In general, the toxin is not produced by bacteria growing in the blood; rather, it is produced at the local site of an ... Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) is a superantigen with a size of 22 kDa produced by 5 to 25% of Staphylococcus aureus ... These studies containing TSST-1 indicate that the TCR binding domain lies at the top of the back side of this toxin, though the ...
The most prominent natural toxin groups that exist in aquatic environments are mycotoxins, algal toxins, bacterial toxins, and ... Alpha toxin Anthrax toxin Dinotoxin Cyanotoxin Diphtheria toxin Exotoxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Shiga-like toxin K R ... Toxin A and toxin B are two toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. Toxin A and toxin B are glycosyltransferases that cause ... Although these are not viral toxins, researchers remain extremely interested in the role phages play bacterial toxins due to ...
Some bacteria produce toxins, which cause diseases. These are endotoxins, which come from broken bacterial cells, and exotoxins ... Chattopadhyay A, Bhatnagar NB, Bhatnagar R (2004). "Bacterial insecticidal toxins". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 30 (1): ... The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are ... Luong P, Dube DH (July 2021). "Dismantling the bacterial glycocalyx: Chemical tools to probe, perturb, and image bacterial ...
... is structurally related to a large family of bacterial toxins - RTX toxins. Differences between the toxins of different ... but these toxin molecules are not active. Besides attachment to bacterial proteins, aggregation also inactivates the toxin. ... The toxin is secreted by the Type I secretion system, which spans both membranes and periplasm space, allowing the toxin to be ... It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis ...
Bacteriocins, Peptides, Bacterial toxins). ... They are also used to repress unwanted bacterial growth that ...
In addition to some of these AB5 toxins being used to create vaccines to prevent bacterial infection, they are also being ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Under the categorize-by-A rule, it is a Ptx-family toxin. Shiga toxin, also known as Stx, is a toxin that is produced by the ...
... (also called Coley's toxin, Coley's vaccine, Coley vaccine, Coley's fluid or mixed bacterial vaccine) is a ... The FDA-approved BCG for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is a highly related strategy of Coley's Toxin. Bacterial ... Thus, fever is seen as a precondition for a therapy using Coley's Toxins to succeed. One of the agents in Coley's Toxin that is ... Physicians can go to special laboratories and produce Coley's toxins there using their own hands. Coley's toxins may still be ...
TcdA is one of the largest bacterial toxins known. With a molecular mass of 308 kDa, it is usually described as a potent ... Kuehne SA, Cartman ST, Heap JT, Kelly ML, Cockayne A, Minton NP (October 2010). "The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium ... Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) is a toxin generated by Clostridioides difficile, formerly known as Clostridium difficile ... It is similar to Clostridium difficile Toxin B. The toxins are the main virulence factors produced by the gram positive, ...
"Bacterial Pathogenesis: Bacterial Factors that Damage the Host - Producing Exotoxins - A-B Toxins". Archived from the original ... Zahaf N, Schmidt G (2017-07-18). "Bacterial Toxins for Cancer Therapy". Toxins (Basel). 9 (8): 236. doi:10.3390/toxins9080236. ... Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ...
1949). "Formation of a Bacterial Toxin (Streptolysin S) by Resting Cells". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 90 (5): 373-392. ... Schwartz, Lois L. (1964). "Lysosomal Disruption by Bacterial Toxins". Journal of Bacteriology. 87 (5): 1100-1104. doi:10.1128/ ... 1974). "Interactions between membranes and cytolytic bacterial toxins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on ... doi:10.1016/0304-4157(86)90018-3. -- (1988). "[30] Assay of hemolytic toxins". Microbial Toxins: Tools in Enzymology. Methods ...
Millar I, Gray D, Kay H (1998). "Bacterial toxins found in foods". In Watson DH (ed.). Natural Toxicants in Food. CRC Press. pp ... The Hbl and Nhe toxins are pore-forming toxins closely related to ClyA of E. coli. The proteins exhibit a conformation known as ... Emetic toxin can withstand 121 °C (250 °F) for 90 minutes. The diarrhetic syndromes observed in patients are thought to stem ... This suggests that the agent also functions as a toxin against the GW-01 strain. This is significant as it shows that in the ...
Pizza, Mariagrazia; Fontana, Maria Rita; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Rappuoli, Rino (1996). "Genetic Detoxification of Bacterial Toxins ... a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: Use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications". ... conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. Currently,[ ... an acellular pertussis vaccine containing a genetically detoxified pertussis toxin; the first conjugate vaccines against ...
World Pneumonia Day (Bacterial toxins). ... It is a pore-forming toxin of 53 kDa composed of 471 amino ...
158-. ISBN 978-0-306-44077-9. Hardegree, M. Carolyn; Tu, Anthony T. (5 August 1988). Handbook of Natural Toxins: Bacterial ... "Cholera Toxins: Immunogenicity of the Rabbit Ileal Loop Toxin and Related Antigens" (PDF). American Society for Microbiology. ... Dutta N. K., Panse N. V., Kulkarni D. R. (1959). "Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera". J. Bacteriol. 78 (4): 594-5 ... Dutta was associated with the World Health Organization, serving as a member of their Experts' Panel in Bacterial Diseases and ...
"Cyotlethal Distending Toxin", in D. Burns; et al. (eds.), Bacterial Protein Toxins, Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 257-270 ... Individual cytolethal distending toxins are named for the bacterial species that they are isolated from. As of 2011, most ... Jinadasa RN, Bloom SE, Weiss RS, Duhamel GE (July 2011). "Cytolethal distending toxin: a conserved bacterial genotoxin that ... Cytolethal distending toxins are classified as AB toxins, with an active ("A") subunit that directly damages DNA and a binding ...
... which are toxins "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial outer membrane. Subsequent ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide that are bacterial toxins. They are ... in the original sense of toxins that are inside the bacterial cell that are released when the cell disintegrates) that are not ... "TRP Channels as Sensors of Bacterial Endotoxins". Toxins. 10 (8): 326. doi:10.3390/toxins10080326. PMC 6115757. PMID 30103489. ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins). ... Beta toxin is the principal disease causing toxin in C. ... C. perfringens beta toxin shows 28% homology with S. aureus alpha toxin and similar homology to S. aureus gamma-toxin and ... Because C. perfringens beta toxin shares homology with S. aureus pore-forming alpha toxin, it was hypothesized that beta toxin ... "Molecular genetic analysis of beta-toxin of Clostridium perfringens reveals sequence homology with alpha-toxin, gamma-toxin, ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins). ... The E. coli toxin B protein (TC# 1.C.57.2.1) and the Chlamydial ... The distantly related ToxA toxin of Pasteurella multocida (TC# 1.C.57.3.1) is 1285 aas while the E. coli Cnf1 and 2 toxins(TC#s ... difficile Toxin B and C as well as Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL). Low pH presumably induces conformational/ ... Clostridium difficile toxin B Clostridium difficile colitis Clostridium difficile (bacteria) RTX toxin Transporter ...
European mistletoe Ricin Gill DM (1982). "Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts". Microbiological Reviews. 46 (1): 86-94 ... Biological toxin weapons, Lectins, Legume lectins, Plant toxins, Ribosome-inactivating proteins). ... The toxin is found within the seeds and its release is prevented by the seed coat. If the seed coat is injured or destroyed (by ... Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant, and ...
The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press. pp. 862-871. ISBN 978-0-08-045698-0. Robins-Browne, R ... Superantigens, bacterial adhesions, and the actions of Yops (which are bacterial proteins once thought to be "Yersinia outer ... Numerous bacterial small non-coding RNAs have been identified to play regulatory functions. Some can regulate the virulence ... Lee VT, Tam C, Schneewind O (2000). "LcrV, a substrate for Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion, is required for toxin ...
Gonzalez MR, Bischofberger M, Pernot L, van der Goot FG, Frêche B (February 2008). "Bacterial pore-forming toxins: the (w)hole ... Tilley SJ, Orlova EV, Gilbert RJ, Andrew PW, Saibil HR (April 2005). "Structural basis of pore formation by the bacterial toxin ... In Alouf, J. E. & Popoff, M. R. (Eds.) The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. 3rd ed., pp. 643-658, Oxford, ... 1.C.12 Thiol-activated Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin (CDC) Family (Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins). ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Bacterial toxins). ... Cry34/35Ab1 binary toxins bind to the insect's brush border ... The partner toxin, Cry35Ab1, is a prototypical member of its own group (Pfam PF05431). Its structure is similar to that of ... Palma L, Muñoz D, Berry C, Murillo J, Caballero P (December 2014). "Bacillus thuringiensis toxins: an overview of their ... biocidal activity". Toxins. 6 (12): 3296-325. doi:10.3390/toxins6123296. PMC 4280536. PMID 25514092. Kelker MS, Berry C, Evans ...
R. microsporus relies on its bacterial partner of the Burkholderia sp. for the pathogenic toxin. Previous efforts to control ... The classification of bacterial endosymbionts and their fungal partners occur across a diverse set of phyla. Ca. G. sporarum ... Fungal-bacterial endosymbiosis represents a diverse range of endosymbionts and hosts with respect to the initiation of the ... Thus, bacterial endosymbionts are typically incorporated into growing fungi either through phagocytosis during some point in ...
Buts L, Lah J, Dao-Thi MH, Wyns L, Loris R (December 2005). "Toxin-antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers". ... Brielle R, Pinel-Marie ML, Felden B (April 2016). "Linking bacterial type I toxins with their actions" (PDF). Current Opinion ... The SymE-SymR toxin-antitoxin system consists of a small symbiotic endonuclease toxin, SymE, and a non-coding RNA symbiotic RNA ... In contrast to other common toxin-antitoxin systems, the SymR antitoxin is more stable than the SymE toxin. Following DNA ...
Additionally, bacterial populations absorb nitrogen and phosphorus compounds as they pass by in the water stream and keep these ... both by the breakdown of toxins such as pesticides and the retention of silt by beaver dams. Beaver dams reduce erosion as well ...
Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... This initial study described the rapid isolation of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then ... The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into E. coli bacterial cells such as ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and to produce a phage ...
Branham retired from the NIH in 1958 at the age of seventy from the position of Chief of the Section on Bacterial Toxins, and ... She remained in the role for over 25 years until she was promoted to the Chief of Bacterial Toxins of the Division of ... She studied the toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae. The main focus of Branham's work at the NIH, however, was meningitis. ...
These bacterial infections]often cause well-described rashes, such as the bullseye rash of Lyme disease, or the spotted rash of ... toxin release, and infestation. Infestation can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe and may even cause death. Hosts can ... Non-bacterial pathogens transmitted by ticks are also common. Viruses transmitted by arthropods such as ticks are an emerging ...
... some food borne diseases are caused by the presence of toxins produced by microorganisms in food. There are five main types of ... Refrigeration does slow spoilage in food and reduce the risk of bacterial growth, however, it does not improve the quality of ...
He is known for his studies on hemolytic and antibacterial properties in synthetic analogs of bacterial toxins. He is a J. C. ... known to have suggested a protocol by which hemolytic and antibacterial properties of the synthetic analogs of bacterial toxins ...
For instance, biological decontamination involving the use of a single bacterial species, Flavobacterium aurantiacum has been ... Richard, John L. (2008-01-01). "Discovery of Aflatoxins and Significant Historical Features". Toxin Reviews. 27 (3-4): 171-201 ... Egyptian Journal of Natural Toxins. 2: 39-56. Chen, Tao; Heflich, Robert H; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan (2009). "Differential ... a characteristic mutation seen with this toxin. Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals exposed to aflatoxin, ...
Importantly, the insecticidal protein could be translated from the bacterial AU-rich mRNA, while for nuclear expression only ... "Expression of tetanus toxin fragment C in tobacco chloroplasts". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (4): 1174-1179. doi:10.1093/NAR/GKG221. ... crystal toxins genes, yielding 3-5% of the total leaf protein. ...
When the mosquito larvae ingest the bacteria, crystallized toxins are produced that destroy the digestive tract, resulting in ... The biological control agent Bacillus thuringiensis, also known as Bt, is a bacterial disease specific to Lepidopteran ... is an organophosphate which prevents mosquito larvae from developing resistance to bacterial larvicides. Due to the small ...
When assessing its safety, it is important to note that A. oryzae lacks the ability to produce toxins, unlike the closely ... The government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, and being devoid of bacterial ...
B. Burgdorferi does not produce toxins. Therefore, many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence of the ... Successful infection of the mammalian host depends on bacterial expression of OspC. Tick bites often go unnoticed because of ... Dotters-Katz SK, Kuller J, Heine RP (September 2013). "Arthropod-borne bacterial diseases in pregnancy". Obstetrical & ... Higgins R (August 2004). "Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonotic diseases: bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, ...
Zheng Y, Bek MK, Prince NZ, Peralta Marzal LN, Garssen J, Perez Pardo P, Kraneveld AD (2021). "The Role of Bacterial-Derived ... "Correlation between Serum Levels of Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by LC/MS/MS". Mass ...
The researchers also claimed that treatment with bacterial toxins or physical stress were conducive to the acquisition of ... such as the application of a bacterial toxin, submersion in a weak acid, or physical trauma. The technique gained prominence in ...
Bt toxins are termed insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) and are active within the intestine, thus must be digested by the ... Cloning of Bti bacterial genes into the Anabaena cyanobacteria for eradication of tropical diseases: The Bacillus thuringiensis ... One of the ways to overcome the survivability hurdle is to clone the genes encoding for the toxin into other organisms which ... "Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. ...
Stool tests may include CD toxin, ova, and parasites. 1 donor provides feces for more than 1 patient. Fresh donations should be ... Million, M; Lagier, JC; Yahav, D; Paul, M (2013). "Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. ... Upon resolution of diarrhea, C. diff toxin tests were found negative. Another systematic review of 317 patients age 2-95, ( ... Success in treatment depends on whether single or mixed strains are administered, dose, and specific bacterial species. ...
The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, thereby ... Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral ... The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies ... heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for ...
In 1951 a programme was launched which focussed on botulinum toxin. Later in the 1970s, interest in the latter ceased and there ... A meat-processing plant was located nearby with a view to supplying components of bacterial nutrient media. There was a high ... In 1974, the facility was re-named as the Scientific-Research Institute of Bacterial Vaccine Preparations.[citation needed] The ... Research was initiated at Sverdlovsk on bacterial pathogens including Bacillus anthracis. ...
... botulinum toxins, and Clostridium perfringens toxins. Post-war inspections by UNSCOM, however, were confounded by ... program scientists had investigated the BW potential of five bacterial strains, one fungal strain, five types of virus, and ... The program also purified biological toxins, such as botulinum toxin, ricin and aflatoxin. After 1995, it was learned that, in ... The Iraqi government had weaponized 6,000 liters of B. anthracis spores and 12,000 liters of botulinum toxin in aerial bombs, ...
The algal toxin microcystin is also a peptide and is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases. This toxin can contaminate water ... Buynak JD (September 2007). "Cutting and stitching: the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the assembly of the bacterial cell ... An Ancient Story for a Timeless Plant Toxin". Toxins. 11 (6): 324. doi:10.3390/toxins11060324. PMC 6628454. PMID 31174319. Sowa ... "Intracellular Transport and Cytotoxicity of the Protein Toxin Ricin". Toxins. 11 (6): 350. doi:10.3390/toxins11060350. PMC ...
One cause of hemolysis is the action of hemolysins, toxins that are produced by certain pathogenic bacteria or fungi. Another ... or by bacterial action in cultured blood specimens. Most causes of in vitro hemolysis are related to specimen collection. ...
NLRP3 can be activated and give rise to NLRP3 inflammasome by ATP, bacterial pore-forming toxins, alum and crystals. Alongside ... and include bacterial carbohydrates (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS, mannose), nucleic acids (such as bacterial or viral DNA ... The first PRR identified in plants or animals was the Xa21 protein, conferring resistance to the Gram-negative bacterial ... November 1999). "Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products". The Journal ...
In the next 24 hours, this layer allows the process of bacterial adhesion to occur, with both diatoms and bacteria (e.g. Vibrio ... As an alternative to organotin toxins, there has been renewed interest in copper as the active agent in ablative or self ... 2001), "Hydrophobicity in Bacterial Adhesion", Biofilm community interactions: chance or necessity? (PDF), BioLine, ISBN 978- ... The 1960s brought a breakthrough, with self-polishing paints that slowly hydrolyze, slowly releasing toxins. These paints ...
Pemphigus can also be caused by a bacterial infection: bullous impetigo is an infection caused by a staphylococcus bacterium ... that releases a toxin that cleaves the Dsg1 extracellular domain. Similar symptoms occur with Hailey-Hailey disease, though the ...
... and bacterial and viral infections. AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and ... "Hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated Shiga toxins promote endothelial-cell secretion and impair ADAMTS13 cleavage of unusually ...
She is Chair of the National Institutes of Health Review Group on Bacterial Pathogenesis. 2008 Elected Fellow of the American ... October 1, 1999). "Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes". ...
... bacterial conjugation - bacterial outer membrane protein - bacterial protein - bacteriorhodopsin - base (chemistry) - base pair ... toxin - trans-activator - transcription factor - transcription factor AP-1 - transducin - transformation - transforming growth ...
Citrinin is a toxin that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, but has been identified in over a dozen species of ... By means of enzymes (esterase, de-epoxidase), yeast (Trichosporon mycotoxinvorans), or bacterial strains (Eubacterium BBSH 797 ... Fusarium toxins are produced by over 50 species of Fusarium and have a history of infecting the grain of developing cereals ... The production of toxins depends on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic environments and these substances vary greatly in ...
Cario, E (2005). "Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2". Gut. 54 (8): 1182- ... On the one hand, it acts as a barrier, preventing the entry of harmful substances such as foreign antigens, toxins and ... microorganisms and their toxins. The intestinal epithelium has a complex anatomical structure which facilitates motility and ...
The symptoms of this disease are also commonly confused with Cercospora Leaf Blight of carrots as well as bacterial blight, and ... One phytotoxin in particular, Al toxin, has been shown to both reduce chlorophyll production in leaves as well as cause ... This is done using the phytotoxin zinniol, which is the first toxin produced when the Alternaria conidia germinate in water. ... so it is assumed that the toxin degrades the cellulose past the epidermal layer. Afterwards, disintegration of neighboring cell ...
This venom is derived from β-defensins, proteins that are present in mammals that create holes in viral and bacterial pathogens ... Whittington, Camilla M.; Belov, Katherine (April 2014). "Tracing Monotreme Venom Evolution in the Genomics Era". Toxins. 6 (4 ... Whittington, Camilla M.; Belov, Katherine (April 2014). "Tracing Monotreme Venom Evolution in the Genomics Era". Toxins. 6 (4 ...
Occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (‎microcystins)‎ in surface waters of rural Bangladesh - pilot study : report May 2004  ... Report of the WHO Working Group Meeting on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli (‎SLTEC)‎ with Emphasis on Zoonotic ... Report of WHO Consultation on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, with Special Emphasis on Zoonotic Aspects, Giessen, ... WHO Working Group on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli . Meeting (‎1994: Bergamo, Italy)‎; World Health Organization ...
Occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (‎microcystins)‎ in surface waters of rural Bangladesh - pilot study : report May 2004  ... Report of the WHO Working Group Meeting on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli (‎SLTEC)‎ with Emphasis on Zoonotic ... Report of WHO Consultation on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, with Special Emphasis on Zoonotic Aspects, Giessen, ... WHO Working Group on Shiga-Like Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli . Meeting (‎1994: Bergamo, Italy)‎; World Health Organization ...
... A new paper from the lab of Dr Michelle Linterman in our Lymphocyte ... Enterotoxin subunit B (EtxB) is a part of one of these toxins. On its own EtxB isnt harmful to cells but researchers have ... The research examines the potentially beneficial effects that a toxin, produced by bacteria found in the gut, has on the immune ... This research, which was funded by US-based organisation Trident Pharmaceuticals, revealed that breathing in part of this toxin ...
Last updated: July 23, 2019 ...
Scientists have discovered how one of the toxins released by the C. difficile bacterium spurs excessive inflammation in the gut ... Studying C. difficile toxin A, one of two toxins released by the bacterium, the researchers produced two key findings. ... Study reveals new details about how bacterial toxins cause life-threatening colitis. UCLA RESEARCH BRIEF ... Study reveals new details about how bacterial toxins cause life-threatening colitis. UCLA RESEARCH BRIEF ...
This details how the bacterial toxin tracheal cytotoxin found in the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid governs organ development, yet... ... This details how the bacterial toxin tracheal cytotoxin found in the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid governs organ development, yet in ... Another interesting thought comes to mind: Toxins are amazing things. I keep thinkning back to the use of neurotoxins in ... VERY interesting... I especially like the emphasis on bacterial symbiosis. Makes me wonder how many other bioluminescent ...
Bacterial Toxins Bacterial Vaccines Botulinum Toxins Cytotoxins Enterotoxins Escherichia Coli Proteins Humans Superantigens ... We highlight seven bacterial toxins produced by well-established or newly emergent pathogenic microbes. These toxins, which ... Title : Bacterial toxins: friends or foes? Personal Author(s) : Schmitt, C. K.;Meysick, K. C.;OBrien, A. D.; Published Date : ... Our intent is to illustrate the importance of the analysis of bacterial toxins to both basic and applied sciences. ...
The principal function of bacterial AB5 toxin B subunits is to. Genomics Proteomics and Bioinformatics , Uncategorized , The ... The principal function of bacterial AB5 toxin B subunits is to interact with glycan receptors on the areas of target cells and ...
CXCR2 ligand expression was examined in the CNS of mice suffering from EAE or exposed to bacterial toxins by quantitative RT- ... CXCL1 can be regulated by IL-6 and promotes granulocyte adhesion to brain capillaries during bacterial toxin exposure and ... or pertussis toxin (PTX), the latter being commonly used to induce EAE. IL-6 upregulated CXCL1 expression in brain endothelial ...
Multimodal molecular imaging and identification of bacterial toxins causing mushroom soft rot and cavity disease.. Dose B, ... Multimodal molecular imaging and identification of bacterial toxins causing mushroom soft rot and cavity disease. Chembiochem ... The bacterial mushroom pathogen Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola has been identified as the cause. Yet, little is known ... identify and visualize a complex of chemical mediators and toxins produced by the pathogen during the infection process, ...
... including anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, and many others. ... Collier will present the talk, "How Bacterial Toxins Cross Membranes: The Anthrax Toxin Example," on Thursday, May 21, from 3: ... He crystallized diphtheria toxin and toxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and initiated structure determination of these toxins. ... Many bacterial toxins are extraordinary enzymes that have the capacity to penetrate from the external medium to the cytosolic ...
Balkundi DR, Kumar A. Bacterial toxins in pediatric infectious diseases. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1995 May-Jun; 62(3): 281 ...
Bacterial toxins and virulence factors in disease / edited by Joel Moss ... [et al.] by Moss, Joel. ... Series: Handbook of natural toxins ; v. 8Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details: New York : M. Dekker, 1995 ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains / editors: James B. Kaper, Alison D. OBrien. by Kaper ... Ingested nitrate and nitrite, and cyanobacterial peptide toxins. by IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks ...
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the ... Therapeutic down-modulators of staphylococcal superantigen-induced inflammation and toxic shock. Teresa Krakauer Toxins 2010, 2 ... an anti-toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 monoclonal antibody. L T Pang, W W Kum, A W Chow Infection and Immunity 2000, 68 (6): 3261 ...
... systems are widespread genetic modules in bacterial genomes. They express toxic peptides whose overexpression leads to growth ... Such a toxin-driven release of the cytoplasmic proteins may modulate the host inflammatory response that, in turn, could ... In the strain naturally expressing the SprG1 toxin, cytoplasmic proteins are excreted into the medium, but this is not due to ... arrest or cell death, whereas antitoxins regulate the expression of toxins, acting as labile antisense RNAs. The Staphylococcus ...
Bacterial metabolic toxins: A new mechanism for lactose and food intolerance, and irritable bowel syndrome. Toxicology 278(3 ... Bacterial metabolic toxins: A new mechanism for lactose and food intolerance, and irritable bowel syndrome. Toxicology 278(3 ... Bacterial metabolic toxins in diabetes. Bacteria in the gut, and in other hypoxic environments, produce hydrogen and methane ... The aim of this new work is to test the hypothesis that small organic toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the gut cause/ ...
Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. Prompt ... Detection of Shiga toxin DNA (i.e., Shiga toxin genes). Positive for Shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1), Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx2), or ... Negative for Shiga toxin genes. Shiga toxin genes not detected by polymerase chain reaction, suggesting that a Shiga toxin-- ... Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is neutralized by antibodies against Shiga toxin, whereas Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is not neutralized by ...
Bacterial Strains. For this study, we used STEC strains from the culture collections at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and ... Yang X, Bai X, Zhang J, Sun H, Fu S, Fan R, et al. Escherichia coli strains producing a novel Shiga toxin 2 subtype circulate ... Ingelbeen B, Bruyand M, Mariani-Kurkjian P, Le Hello S, Danis K, Sommen C, et al. Emerging Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia ... OBrien AD, Tesh VL, Donohue-Rolfe A, Jackson MP, Olsnes S, Sandvig K, et al. Shiga toxin: biochemistry, genetics, mode of ...
THE CONTRIBUTION OF CYTOLETHAL DISTENDING TOXIN TO BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS - (Review Article) Smith, J.L., Bayles, D.O. 2006. ... The contribution of cytolethal distending toxin to bacterial pathogenesis. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 32:227-248. ... Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Biologist. Phone: (515) 337-7165 Fax: (515) 337-7149. Room 1509. 1920 DAYTON AVE AMES, ... DNA sequence and analysis of a 90.1 kb virulence plasmid in shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O145:NM 83-75 - (Peer ...
4. Interaction with bacterial toxins. When mycotoxins induce changes in the intestinal microbiota, this can lead to an increase ... Moreover, it is crucial for any anti-mycotoxin product to feature both anti-mycotoxin and anti-bacterial toxin properties and ... In-vitro studies demonstrate Mastersorb® Golds effectiveness against mycotoxins as well as bacterial toxins. Animal feed is ... As a result, there is an increase in the passage of antigens into the bloodstream (e.g., bacteria, viruses, and toxins). This ...
... gave the fungi a putative toxin immunity protein (PoNi) which likely helps them survive toxin-mediated attacks by bacterial ... Here, we add to these cases the acquisition of a putative bacterial toxin immunity gene, PoNi, by an ancient common ancestor of ... Gut Fungi Possess a Conserved Toxin Immunity Gene of Bacterial Origin. ecology view on bioRxiv ... The PoNi homologs in these fungal genera share extraordinarily high (,70%) amino acid sequence identity with their bacterial ...
Bacterial toxins in musculoskeletal infections.. Saeed, Kordo; Sendi, Parham; Arnold, William V; Bauer, Thomas W; Coraça-Huber ... Bacterial toxins are foundational to pathogenesis in MSKI, but poorly understood by the community of providers that care for ... further research to identify the roles of bacterial toxins in MSKIs, (ii) establish the understanding of the importance of ... The group concluded that further research is needed to maximize our understanding of the effect of toxins on MSKIs, including ( ...
... immunity to influenza skews immune responses toward coinfecting bacteria and discover novel modes to prevent bacterial ... Bacterial Toxins / administration & dosage * Enterotoxins / administration & dosage * Escherichia coli Proteins / ... Positive Contribution of Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines to the Resolution of Bacterial Superinfections J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun 15 ... Accordingly, complications from secondary bacterial infection are a leading cause of influenza-associated morbidity and ...
... In animals, manganese shows promise fighting a hemorrhagic E. coli toxin ... The toxin destroys the bodys smallest blood vessels, notes epidemiologist Dirk Werber of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. ... The mineral helps detoxify Shiga toxin, which is produced by a host of bacteria, including the type of E. coli that killed ... Vascular injury, which is the most dramatic consequence of infection with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, "is likely to be well ...
Structural basis of pore formation by the bacterial toxin pneumolysin Share Share Share ...
Bacterial proteins and Toxins (32) Cancer Biomarkers (859) Cardiovascular Biology (84) Cell Adhesion (2903) Cell Biology (13290 ...
The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it ... Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by ,i,Vibrio cholerae,/i, infection, detection of CT ... the latter has an important advantage in the detection of extracellular bacterial toxin. Recently, some new methodology of ... "Rapid simultaneous ultrasensitive immunodetection of five bacterial toxins," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 13, pp. 5596- ...
Bacterial Toxins and Treatments. Helen Coley Nauts learned that, in the early 1890s, her father, Dr. William B. Coley, had ... She tracked down 896 cases of microscopically confirmed cancers that had been treated with Coleys mixed bacterial toxins. She ... Recognizing its potential significance, she undertook her own investigations into Coleys mixed bacterial toxins. A housewife ... known as Coleys mixed bacterial toxins. Unfortunately, Dr. Coleys work was overshadowed by the advent of X-ray and radium ...
Toxins produced by anaerobes must be neutralized.. * The environment must be changed to prevent local bacterial proliferation. ...
  • A bacteria called Escherichia coli produces toxins that can potentially cause illness in the gut. (
  • Image depicts a scanning electron microscopy image of E.coli bacterial cells. (
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains / editors: James B. Kaper, Alison D. O'Brien. (
  • Shiga toxin--producing E. coli (STEC) cause approximately 100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States, according to the last estimate in 1999 ( 2 ). (
  • In this report, all E. coli that produce a Shiga toxin are referred to as STEC. (
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O80:H2 has emerged in Europe as a cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with bacteremia. (
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a group of enteric pathogens that cause foodborne disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) ( 1 ). (
  • The mineral helps detoxify Shiga toxin, which is produced by a host of bacteria, including the type of E. coli that killed scores and sickened more than 3,700 people in Europe last year. (
  • Vascular injury, which is the most dramatic consequence of infection with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli , "is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhea," he says. (
  • Common to all of these patients is a type of E. coli bacteria called Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O121, or STEC O121. (
  • While Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 most commonly produces this toxin, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, as well as Citrobacter spp. (
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause diarrhea, bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in persons of any age. (
  • The α-pore-forming toxin Cytolysin A (ClyA) is responsible for the hemolytic activity of various Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. (
  • The stool culture and shiga toxin producing E. coli were negative in the enteric bacterial panel. (
  • The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strain is estimated to cause 73,000 illnesses annually in the United States alone, with approximately 2,000 causes requiring hospitalization. (
  • And E. Coli is just one of many bacterial pathogens that collectively cost Americans more than $52 billion annually. (
  • There are hundreds of strains of E. coli , most thankfully harmless, but this strain produces a powerful toxin that can cause severe illness. (
  • The research examines the potentially beneficial effects that a toxin, produced by bacteria found in the gut, has on the immune system - the group of tissues and cells inside the body that work together to help to prevent infections. (
  • are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. (
  • Bacterial toxins in musculoskeletal infections. (
  • Helen Coley Nauts learned that, in the early 1890s, her father, Dr. William B. Coley, had observed that some cancer patients experienced spontaneous remission of their tumors in a considerable number of cases where they contracted acute bacterial infections. (
  • Saccharomyces Boulardii diminishes bacterial infections and offers healthbenefits in the therapy of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. (
  • Bacterial persister cells are dormant cells, tolerant to multiple antibiotics, that are involved in several chronic infections. (
  • Bacterial infections can cause conditions like tonsillitis and strep throat and are often treated with antibiotics. (
  • UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections in the United States. (
  • The West Indian Bay oil is used in treating bacterial infections. (
  • The antiseptic elements help heal oils and protect them from further infections and becoming septic, bacterial growth is also inhibited and this saves from so much pain. (
  • Particular foods are associated with certain bacterial infections. (
  • It can also cause an explosion in bacterial infections. (
  • Acute kidney failure can be caused by infections, kidney stones, toxins, and drugs to name a few. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which C. difficile's toxins trigger intestinal inflammation is an important step toward developing methods for treating or preventing infection by the bacterium. (
  • Yet, little is known about the molecular basis of the infection, the spatial distribution and the biological role of antifungal agents and toxins involved in this infectious disease. (
  • We combine genome mining, metabolic profiling, MALDI-Imaging and UV Raman spectroscopy, to detect, identify and visualize a complex of chemical mediators and toxins produced by the pathogen during the infection process, including toxoflavin, caryoynencin, and sinapigladioside. (
  • Accordingly, complications from secondary bacterial infection are a leading cause of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. (
  • We compared different anti-influenza vaccines for their protective potential in a model of viral infection with bacterial superinfection. (
  • Unadjuvanted vaccine controlled single viral infection, yet mice had considerable morbidity from viral disease and bacterial superinfection. (
  • Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. (
  • In the case of ciprofloxacin therapy in a Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, S. Tm) mouse infection model, this has been traced to tolerant bacterial cells surviving in lymph node monocytes (i.e., classical dendritic cells). (
  • Clostridioides difficile infection is spread by bacterial spores found within feces . (
  • These include infection from other organs or leakage of enzymes or other toxins into the abdomen. (
  • The body's immune system reacts to toxins released during an intestinal bacterial infection. (
  • These new findings underscore the importance of good dental hygiene as scientists seek ways to better control this common bacterial infection. (
  • A total of 532 stool and rectal swab samples from 70 sporadic outbreaks during May 2014 to August 2015 were examined for infection with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. (
  • For example, if a bacterial infection causes your sore throat, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to clear it up. (
  • The surrounding bone becomes damaged both by bacterial toxins and by the immune system's response to infection. (
  • This bacterium embeds itself in the gum and rapidly breeds, causing a bacterial infection. (
  • This way, energy is diverted to removing toxins and fighting the infection rather than digesting food. (
  • Processing of certain viral proteins and bacterial toxins by host serine proteases is a frequent and critical step in virulence. (
  • Bacterial extracellular solute-binding proteins [Interproscan]. (
  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. (
  • DEC-205 (CD205), a member of the macrophage mannose receptor protein family, is the prototypic endocytic receptor of dendritic cells, whose ligands include phosphorothioated cytosine-guanosine oligonucleotides, a motif often seen in bacterial or viral DNA. (
  • most cases are viral, and most bacterial cases are attributable to group A streptococci (GAS). (
  • therefore, no bacterial pathogens. (
  • In vivo, antibiotics are often surprisingly inefficient at eliminating bacterial pathogens. (
  • This chapter outlines methods to identify and study persisters resulting from interactions between bacterial pathogens and their hosts. (
  • CXCL1 was the most highly expressed ligand of the granulocyte receptor CXCR2 in the CNS of mice subjected to EAE or infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pertussis toxin (PTX), the latter being commonly used to induce EAE. (
  • Later efforts by many laboratories led to the realization that the ability to penetrate to the cytosol and modify intracellular targets is shared by a broad array of bacterial toxins, including anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, and many others. (
  • Pertussis toxin (PT), a major virulence factor secreted by B. pertussis , is an AB5-type protein complex topologically related to cholera toxin. (
  • His laboratory was the first to demonstrate how a protein toxin, in this case diphtheria, can penetrate mammalian cells and directly modify its protein target. (
  • Early in his career he discovered that diphtheria toxin inactivated mammalian elongation factor-2 by an NAD-dependent mechanism, later identified as ADP-ribosylation. (
  • As a faculty member at the Department of Microbiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Collier defined basic structure-function relationships in diphtheria toxin. (
  • Using novel photolabeling technology, he identified glutamic acid 148 of diphtheria toxin as a critical catalytic residue that was later found to be conserved throughout the ADP-ribosyltransferases. (
  • He crystallized diphtheria toxin and toxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and initiated structure determination of these toxins. (
  • His studies on diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin in recent years have revealed much about the molecular mechanisms by which the enzymic moieties of these toxins are delivered into cells. (
  • Diphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (
  • Position Statement 18-ID-03 titled Revision to the Case Definition for National Diphtheria Surveillance requests modifications to the diphtheria case definition for national surveillance to better reflect the epidemiology of diphtheria in the U.S., in order to focus efforts on identifying disease caused by toxin-producing bacteria and appropriately guide public health interventions. (
  • Toxin- producing C. diphtheriae cases from any anatomic site should be reported by state or local health departments to CDC as confirmed diphtheria cases. (
  • Cases of laboratory-confirmed, non-toxin-producing C . diphtheriae (respiratory or non-respiratory) should not be reported as diphtheria cases. (
  • however, clinicians should carefully consider any potential impact of antimicrobial treatment on lab results and the patient's vaccination status and recent travel to a country with endemic diphtheria in assessing the likelihood of toxin-producing C. diphtheriae . (
  • In the case of diagnosis of cholera, after or along with the detection of bacterium, verification of cholera toxin (CT) production is required because only the V. cholerae which can produce CT is responsible for cholera symptoms such as acute "rice water" diarrhea. (
  • However, when the gut microbiome is suppressed by antibiotics, C. difficile can take over: Its toxins can spur a severe autoimmune response that causes symptoms such as diarrhea, cramping, fever and nausea. (
  • The overuse of antibiotics in medical and nonmedical settings is causing the population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to grow, via genetic modifications that are being shared not only between bacterial generations, but between different bacteria species, as well. (
  • STEC strains produce Shiga toxins (Stx), a family composed of 2 main types of cytotoxins: Stx1 and Stx2 ( 2 ). (
  • We therefore investigated the prevalence of stx-encoding bacterial strains and typical virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA) in pathogenic bacteria isolated from diarrhoeal stool samples of patients taken during sporadic outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Cooperation of Shiga toxins with other virulence factors, such as aggregative adhesin and intimin (eae), could induce more severe disease in infected patients (3). (
  • O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC. (
  • The toxins produced by STEC were named based on their similarity in structure and function to Shiga toxins produced by Shigella dystenteriae type 1 ( 6 ). (
  • All STEC produce Shiga toxin . (
  • All STEC produce one or more of two similar toxins, Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2. (
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the immune system, leading to stimulation of cytokine release and inflammation. (
  • Inhibition of staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lymphocyte proliferation and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by MAb5, an anti-toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 monoclonal antibody. (
  • Effect of staphylococcal α -toxin on phagocytosis of staphylococci by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (
  • In contrast to TSS toxin and staphylococcal TSS, the associated with necrotizing fasciitis or myositis (1-4). (
  • On the other hand, it constitutes the primary physiological barrier against harmful agents such as viruses, microorganisms, and toxins. (
  • He explained that good barrier functions help protect the intestines from toxins and harmful microorganisms. (
  • Increased activity of the mucus membranes of the sinuses, nose, throat, eyes and ears, result in secretion of a sticky, thin to thick, gelatinous mucus which acts to eliminate excess toxins while removing microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. (
  • Disease outbreaks also appear to largely influence the evolution of this bacterial species in poultry farms over time. (
  • In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment significantly increased mortality of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), which was also the only species with detectable gut bacteria that lacked a Gram-negative component. (
  • Since the independent discovery of Bacillus thuringiensis in two lepidopteran species, Bombyx mori (L.) and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller), at the beginning of the 20th century [ 1 , 2 ], Lepidoptera have served as the leading insect model for elucidating the mode of action and specificity of B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins. (
  • A small subpopulation of non-replicating, multidrug-tolerant bacteria is present within clonal populations of many bacterial species. (
  • In an in vitro trial, antiseptic lozenges containing amylmetacresol and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol eliminated at least 99.9% of all colony-forming units of 7 bacterial species associated with pharyngitis, including A. haemolyticum. (
  • A high distribution of stx genes in farm or wild animals, wastewater, and land and aquatic environments suggests possible involvement of different bacterial species carrying these genes when stx-related diseases occur during outbreaks of water- and foodborne illness (5). (
  • The onset of symptoms within 6 hours of exposure to the bacterial source indicates a preformed toxin, probably produced by a species of Staphylococcus or Bacillus . (
  • The anti bacterial properties in it helps easy breathing by cleaning and refreshing the air. (
  • Bacterial toxins Salmonella bacteria is common in processed meats. (
  • Toxins are often taken to refer to natural poisons, like snake venom and bacterial products like botulinum toxin (interestingly cosmetic Botox is often given as an example of a high risk entity which can by safely (low hazard) injected into the face because it remains subdermally localized - if botox were to 'go' systemic then unacceptable toxicity might occur. (
  • The toxins are named for Dr. Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by a rare type of Shigella ( Shigella dysenteriae type 1) that produces Shiga toxin 1. (
  • Basically, this is an antivaccine lie that portrays vaccines as being laden with all manner of "toxins" because they have-gasp! (
  • Unfortunately, since then the toxins gambit has truly been the antivaccine lie that won't die, a veritable Whac-A-Mole of misinformation such that, as soon as skeptics and pro-science vaccine advocates whack down one "toxins"-related lie about vaccines, another one pops up to take its place who knows where. (
  • The bacterial mushroom pathogen Burkholderia gladioli pv. (
  • Both actions increase the gastrointestinal tract's overall exposure to the toxins. (
  • After exposure to cytotoxin or toxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the ultrastructure of resting and phagocytosing human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and of cells of P. aeruginosa strain 1348A was studied by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electronmicroscopy, and by light microscopy (LM) after histochemical staining of cytoplasmic granules. (
  • In contrast, after exposure to toxin A, PMNL phagocytosed actively, but their cytoplasmic pseudopodia were markedly irregular and their nuclei pyknotic. (
  • This basic-level webinar is designed to help clinical and veterinary laboratory professionals understand how to report select agent and toxin identifications and recognize and report exposure incidents. (
  • Recognize a release or exposure incident while handling a select agent or toxin. (
  • Demonstrate how to report a select agent or toxin release or occupational exposure incident. (
  • Identify biosafety practices to minimize the release or exposure to select agents or toxins while using the MALDI-TOF instrument. (
  • The intestinal mucosa provides a barrier that protects the body's tissues from the bacteria that live in the intestines and from toxins that pass through the digestive tract. (
  • Researchers speculate that a breakdown of this barrier allows contact between the intestinal tissue and the bacteria and toxins, which can trigger an immune reaction. (
  • This research, which was funded by US-based organisation Trident Pharmaceuticals, revealed that breathing in part of this toxin can lower the immune system's response in the lungs of mice. (
  • Collier, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, is a pioneer in elucidating the structures and modes of action of bacterial protein toxins. (
  • He has been a pioneer in elucidating the structures and modes of action of bacterial protein toxins. (
  • This represented the first demonstration that a protein toxin can penetrate the cytosol of mammalian cells and directly modify a target substrate. (
  • After joining Harvard, Collier turned his attention to the question of how protein toxins cross membranes. (
  • His studies on the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin have shown that this protein forms pores in the endosomal membrane, which mediate translocation of the enzymatic lethal and edema factors across the membrane. (
  • The HGT event, which is estimated to have occurred at least 66 (±10) million years ago in the gut of a Cretaceous mammal, gave the fungi a putative toxin immunity protein (PoNi) which likely helps them survive toxin-mediated attacks by bacterial competitors in the mammalian gut microbiome. (
  • NAD-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin. (
  • Studying C. difficile toxin A, one of two toxins released by the bacterium, the researchers produced two key findings. (
  • Here, we add to these cases the acquisition of a putative bacterial toxin immunity gene, PoNi, by an ancient common ancestor of four extant Neocallimastigomycota genera through HGT from an extracellular Ruminococcus bacterium. (
  • We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. (
  • P. gingivalis 's main toxins, the enzymes the bacterium need to exert its devilish tasks, are good targets for potential new medical interventions to counteract a variety of diseases," said Potempa. (
  • toxin B and the binary toxin of C. difficile. (
  • The principal function of bacterial AB5 toxin B subunits is to interact with glycan receptors on the areas of target cells and mediate the internalization of holotoxin. (
  • R. John Collier, Maude and Lillian Presley Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School, will visit the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech on May 21 and 22 to discuss his research on the function of bacterial toxins, including how this work can be used to develop countermeasures against anthrax. (
  • Most cases of food poisoning occur when people eat food or drink water containing bacteria, bacterial toxins (substances produced by bacteria), parasites, or viruses. (
  • Background: Tobacco smoking is a source of many toxins such as free radicals, mutagenic substances as well as cause for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly atherosclerosis. (
  • Many non-infectious (not caused by bacteria and their toxins, viruses, etc.) food poisoning affects the central nervous system and cause symptoms typical of nerve poisons. (
  • A harmful and often deadly substance made by bacteria, a bacterial toxin manipulates host cell functions and disrupts vital cell processes in a living organism. (
  • It cleanses the body of toxins and eliminates harmful microbes as well. (
  • Specialized filter media target harmful toxins such as ammonias and nitrates in order to keep your water and pets safe from contaminants. (
  • Toxin-antitoxin modules are small genetic elements, omnipresent in the genomes of bacteria, which code for an intracellular toxin and its neutralizing antitoxin. (
  • Multimodal molecular imaging and identification of bacterial toxins causing mushroom soft rot and cavity disease. (
  • Collier will reveal what is known at the molecular level about how anthrax toxin invades cells and how it ultimately leads to disease. (
  • Current work focuses on the role of ion channels in disease and bacterial signalling. (
  • In 1876, anthrax became the first disease to fulfill Koch's postulates (i.e., the first disease for which a microbial etiology was firmly established), and 5 years later, in 1881, the first bacterial disease for which immunization was available (2) . (
  • Orlando, Fla. (April 7, 2019) - Researchers are reporting new findings on how bacteria involved in gum disease can travel throughout the body, exuding toxins connected with Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and aspiration pneumonia. (
  • If toxin production is unopposed by antitoxin and severe disease occurs, early localized signs and symptoms give way to circulatory collapse, respiratory failure, stupor, coma, and death. (
  • Periodontal disease begins when the toxins found in plaque start to attack the soft or gingival tissue surrounding the teeth. (
  • Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar . (
  • One of the most common indicators of abnormal bacterial growth is the formation of biofilm. (
  • Biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and medicinal plants Biofilm is a natural form of bacterial growth that is ubiquitous in the environment. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Bacterial toxins in pediatric infectious diseases. (
  • Balkundi DR, Kumar A. Bacterial toxins in pediatric infectious diseases. (
  • My specific scientific interests include membrane potassium channels, cardiac arrhythmias, cell death, bacterial signalling, neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy. (
  • These bacterial endophytes have potential for controlling fungal diseases and animal toxins produced by fungi. (
  • The scientists found that toxin A - and surprisingly even fragments of the toxin - can organize DNA into ordered crystalline particles that amplify an immune response by binding to multiple TLR9 receptors, which are normally part of the body's early detection system for microbial DNA. (
  • Within the framework of the statutory remit of risk assessment in the field of food safety and consumer protection, the Department Biological Safety deals with health risks for humans which may arise more particularly from micro-organisms, the toxins formed by them and other microbial metabolites. (
  • Furthermore, PoNi genes are nested on native sections of chromosomal DNA in multiple fungal genomes and are also found in polyadenylated fungal transcriptomes, confirming that these genes are authentic fungal genomic regions rather than sequencing artifacts from bacterial contamination. (
  • Coincidentally, the tub of cookie dough sits next to a bag of edamame, purchased at Costco and recently recalled due to Listeria bacterial contamination. (
  • In addition to a rigorous food safety program, the supplier of our cookie dough uses heat-treated flour in the production of our cookie dough, therefore there is no bacterial contamination. (
  • The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. (
  • for example, immunoassay which detects the existence of toxin and DNA-based assay which detects the existence of toxin-coding DNA must be chosen. (
  • In addition, they revealed how the toxin molecule causes inflammation, which has been a long-standing mystery because such molecules are generally quickly digested in the gut. (
  • Moreover, undigested food, bacterial toxins , and germs can pass through the leaky gut wall and into the bloodstream, which triggers the immune system and leads to inflammation. (
  • While DNA-based assays may be more sensitive than immunoassays, the latter has an important advantage in the detection of extracellular bacterial toxin. (
  • This details how the bacterial toxin tracheal cytotoxin found in the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid governs organ development, yet in humans causes gonorrhea and whooping cough. (
  • Many bacterial toxins are extraordinary enzymes that have the capacity to penetrate from the external medium to the cytosolic compartment of mammalian cells. (
  • Exotoxin-toxins released. (
  • Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) toxin, tococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-J were identified in one produced by S. aureus , has been associated with most patient with peritonitis who recovered after 2 weeks in menstrual TSS cases (7). (
  • This study investigated the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria in stool samples of patients with diarrhoea associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • toxin B and the binary toxin were detected in one of the fresh stool specimens. (
  • could also carry different Shiga toxin (stx) genes and their variants (stx1 and/or stx2) (1,2). (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: relationship of bacterial enzyme production and pyocine types with clinical prognosis in 100 patients. (
  • Ingested nitrate and nitrite, and cyanobacterial peptide toxins. (
  • The bacterial causes of food poisoning tend to cause these symptoms as well as fever and headache. (
  • Moreover, animal models ples taken on day 3 after admission from patient 1 showed have shown that TSS toxin and other SAgs induce TSS- clearance of mitogenic activity but absence of neutralizing like symptoms in rabbits and rodents (17,18). (
  • Moreover, the contribution of enteric bacteria to host mortality suggests that perturbations caused by toxin feeding induce otherwise benign gut bacteria to exert pathogenic effects. (
  • FDA unveils plan to combat DEADLY bacterial outbreak in baby formula Reprinting this article: Non-commercial use OK, cite with clickable link. (
  • 2010. Bacterial metabolic 'toxins': A new mechanism for lactose and food intolerance, and irritable bowel syndrome . (
  • Collier will present the talk, "How Bacterial Toxins Cross Membranes: The Anthrax Toxin Example," on Thursday, May 21, from 3:30 to 5:30 p.m. at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute conference center, which is located on Washington Street on the Virginia Tech campus. (
  • How this occurs is not yet understood in great detail for any toxin, but considerable progress has been made recently in the case of anthrax toxin. (
  • His collaboration with John Young led to identification of the first known receptor for anthrax toxin. (
  • Using anthrax toxin as a model system, we show that in vivo inhibition of priming by pan-active serine protease inhibitors can be effective at suppressing virulence. (
  • All isolates were identified as toxin-producing C. diphtheriae . (
  • isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and In February 2018, a New Mexico man aged 42 years returned confirmed as toxin-producing) grew from the wound culture from the Philippines with an exudative lower leg wound (Figure). (
  • Epidemiology of Bacterial Meningitis in the Nine Years Since Meningococcal Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine Introduction, Niger, 2010-2018. (
  • And manganese can defend GPP130 from that attack, allowing cells to shuttle the toxin directly to lysosomes, where it's broken down into harmless components. (
  • In cells grown in a test tube and in mice, manganese pretreatment prevented death from the administration of pure Shiga toxin. (
  • These included Vanessa cardui (L.) , Manduca sexta (L.) , Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). (
  • Toxin-antitoxin modules play a significant role in the generation of such persister cells. (
  • In the past decade, mathematical modeling has become an important tool to study the regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules and their relation to the emergence of persister cells. (
  • The famous picture of bacteria shows individual cells that roam and excrete toxins and damage the host. (
  • This has been correlated to the presence of bacterial infiltration and inflammatory cells that may lead to bone loss around this area 19 . (
  • however, an outbreak of CFP was documented in 2001 among 38 the toxin does not affect all reef fish, and deep-sea fish residents of Navotas who ate barracuda caught in Manila such as tuna and wahoo are unaffected. (
  • B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. (
  • The toxin destroys the body's smallest blood vessels, notes epidemiologist Dirk Werber of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. (
  • b) Toxoid: A modified bacterial toxin that has been made nontoxic, but retains the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin. (