Bacterial Structures: The parts of bacteria.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).IndiaDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Pastoral Care: Counseling or comfort given by ministers, priests, rabbis, etc., to those in need of help with emotional problems or stressful situations.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Lecture NotesAudiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Schools: Educational institutions.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Silicon and phosphorus linkage with iron via oxygen in the amorphous matrix of Gallionella ferruginea stalks. (1/2)

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Promiscuous cross-seeding between bacterial amyloids promotes interspecies biofilms. (2/2)

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*Bacterial cell structure

Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... The chemical structure of the outer membrane's lipopolysaccharide is often unique to specific bacterial sub-species and is ... Pili are similar in structure to fimbriae but are much longer and present on the bacterial cell in low numbers. Pili are ... Endospores are bacterial survival structures that are highly resistant to many different types of chemical and environmental ...

*Gerald Domingue

Domingue GJ, Schlegel JU (December 1978). "Novel bacterial structures in human blood. II. Bacterial variants as etiologic ... He first became interested in the role of atypical bacterial forms after noting that a large number of patients with urinary ... They noted that the forms, which they called electron dense bodies were so small that they could pass through bacterial filters ... After applying these data to the human condition, Domingue reasoned that in some patients who suffer from chronic bacterial ...

*GlnA RNA motif

Westhof E (2010). "The amazing world of bacterial structured RNAs". Genome Biol. 11 (3): 108. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-108. PMC ... The glnA motif has an E-loop structure (also called a bulged-G module) within it. Weinberg Z, Wang JX, Bogue J, et al. (March ... The glnA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was predicted by bioinformatics. It is present in a variety of lineages of ... Ames TD, Breaker RR (January 2011). "Bacterial aptamers that selectively bind glutamine". RNA Biol. 8 (1): 82-9. doi:10.4161/ ...

*Dictyoglomi-1 RNA motif

Westhof E (2010). "The amazing world of bacterial structured RNAs". Genome Biol. 11: 108. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-108. PMC ... Weinberg Z, Perreault J, Meyer MM, Breaker RR (December 2009). "Exceptional structured noncoding RNAs revealed by bacterial ... Because of the few instances of Dictyoglomi-1 RNAs known, it is also unknown whether the RNA structure might extend further in ... Only four instances of the RNA were detected, and all are in the bacterial phylum Dictyoglomi, whose members have not been ...

*Pilus

Dozens of these structures can exist on the bacteria. Some bacterial viruses or bacteriophages attach to receptors on pili at ... Bacterial Pili: Structure, Synthesis, and Role in Disease. C.A.B. International. pp. 71-84. ISBN 978-1-78064-255-0. Sex Pilus ... Bacterial type IV pili are similar in structure to the component flagellins of archaeal flagella. Genetic transformation is the ... Bacterial Pili: Structure, Synthesis, and Role in Disease. C.A.B. International. pp. 1-16. ISBN 978-1-78064-255-0. Rinaudo, ...

*Lactobacillales

They consist of the organelles of a simple bacterial structure. LAB are amongst the most important groups of microorganisms ... The first contact between an infecting phage and its bacterial host is the attachment of the phage to the host cell. This ... Gram-positive LAB have a thick peptidoglycan layer, which must be traversed to inject the phage genome into the bacterial ... Analysis of the crystal structure of several RBPs indicates that these proteins share a common tertiary folding, and support ...

*Leslie Rowsell Moore

He also published on the presence of fungal and bacterial structures in the Precambrian Nonesuch Shale. He was also active in ... His PhD was on the structure, stratigraphy and economic geology of the Bristol and Somerset Coalfields. He realised early on ... of his time at Sheffield University he concentrated on micropalaeobiology and the search for evidence of fungal and bacterial ...

*Flagellum

Archaeal flagella have a unique structure which lacks a central channel. Similar to bacterial type IV pilins, the archaeal ... Given the structural similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory systems, bacterial flagella may have ... Bacterial flagella are thicker than archaella, and the bacterial filament has a large enough hollow "tube" inside that the ... They provide two of several kinds of bacterial motility. Archaeal flagella (archaella) are superficially similar to bacterial ...

*Carbohydrate Structure Database

The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. Each structure is assigned to ... Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed ... "Statistical analysis of the Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Data Base (BCSDB): Characteristics and diversity of bacterial ... Toukach F.V.; Knirel Y.A. (2005). "New database of bacterial carbohydrate structures". Glycoconjugate Journal. 22 (4-6): 216- ...

*Neighbor joining

"Sequence-Based Analysis of Bacterial Population Structures". In D. Ashley Robinson; Daniel Falush; Edward J. Feil. Bacterial ...

*Gram stain

Bacterial cell structure John G. Holt; Noel R. Krieg; Peter H.A. Sneath; James T. Staley; Stanley T. Williams (1994). Bergey's ... There are four basic steps of the Gram stain: Applying a primary stain (crystal violet) to a heat-fixed smear of a bacterial ... The CV+ ion interacts with negatively charged components of bacterial cells and stains the cells purple. Iodide (I− or I− 3) ... Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial ...

*Type three secretion system

Its structure shows many similarities with bacterial flagella (long, rigid, extracellular structures used for motility). Some ... Structures similar to Type3SS injectisomes have been proposed to rivet gram negative bacterial outer and inner membranes to ... It needs to have a minimal length so that other extracellular bacterial structures (adhesins and the lipopolysaccharide layer, ... The first structure of a needle-complex monomer was NMR structure of BsaL from "Burkholderia pseudomallei" and later the ...

*Luciferase

Fisher AJ, Thompson TB, Thoden JB, Baldwin TO, Rayment I (Sep 1996). "The 1.5-A resolution crystal structure of bacterial ... Baldwin TO, Christopher JA, Raushel FM, Sinclair JF, Ziegler MM, Fisher AJ, Rayment I (Dec 1995). "Structure of bacterial ... The structure of the dinoflagellate luciferase catalytic domain has been solved. The core part of the domain is a 10 stranded ... The helical bundle domain has a three helix bundle structure that holds four important histidines that are thought to play a ...

*Lucy Shapiro

Streich, Elizabeth (September 24, 2012). "Horwitz Prize Awarded for the Discovery of Bacterial Cell Structure". Columbia ... Shapiro was the first researcher to show that bacterial DNA replication occurs in a spatially organized way and that cell ... for "her pioneering discovery that the bacterial cell is controlled by an integrated genetic circuit functioning in time and ... Shapiro wanted to go beyond test-tube studies of extracted cell contents, and examine the three-dimensional structure and ...

*Cell wall

While the overall structure of archaeal pseudopeptidoglycan superficially resembles that of bacterial peptidoglycan, there are ... Extracellular matrix Bacterial cell structure Plant cell Rutledge, Ryan D.; Wright, David W. (2013). "Biomineralization: ... Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (also called ... Structure in this type of wall is complex and not fully investigated. A third type of wall among the Archaea consists of ...

*Pilin

... refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the ... "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318: 1625-1628. doi:10.1126/science ... The pilus structure sequesters the helices in the center of the fiber lining a central pore, while antiparallel beta sheets ... Although not all bacteria have pili or fimbriae, bacterial pathogens often use their fimbriae to attach to host cells. In Gram- ...

*Zetaproteobacteria

Pischedda, L.; Militon, C. C.; Gilbert, F.; Cuny, P. (2011). "Characterization of specificity of bacterial community structure ... "Impact of Oil on Bacterial Community Structure in Bioturbated Sediments". PLoS ONE. 8 (6): e65347. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... Moyer, C. L.; Dobbs, F. C.; Karl, D. M. (1995). "Phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community from a microbial mat at an ... Davis, R. E.; Stakes, D. S.; Wheat, C. G.; Moyer, C. L. (2009). "Bacterial Variability within an Iron-Silica-Manganese-rich ...

*Isopeptide bond

"Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625-1628. Bibcode: ... Yet in case of RING finger domain containing that use coordination bonds with Zinc ions to stabilize their structures, they act ... It plays an important role in holding the structure of the enzyme in the optimal conformation for catalysis. However, there are ... In the case of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, tend to have a structured pathway of continuously passing along the ...

*Isopeptag

Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure. Science 318, 1625-1628.. ... and to develop new protein structures. Zakeri, Bijan; Howarth, Mark (7 April 2010). "Spontaneous Intermolecular Amide Bond ... isopeptag to its binding partner can be used to permanently link proteins together in the complex environment of a bacterial ...

*Transfer RNA

"Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding". Science. 332 (6032): 981-984. Bibcode: ... The structure of tRNA can be decomposed into its primary structure, its secondary structure (usually visualized as the ... cloverleaf structure), and its tertiary structure (all tRNAs have a similar L-shaped 3D structure that allows them to fit into ... In 1965, Robert W. Holley of Cornell University reported the primary structure and suggested three secondary structures. tRNA ...

*Metagenomics

"Bacterial community structures are unique and resilient in full-scale bioenergy systems". Proceedings of the National Academy ... of the reads could be aligned to 194 public human gut bacterial genomes and 7.6-21.2% to bacterial genomes available in GenBank ... Comparisons of population structure and phylogenetic diversity can be made on the basis of 16S and other phylogenetic marker ... In many bacterial communities, natural or engineered (such as bioreactors), there is significant division of labor in ...

*S-layer

Since the first evidence of a macromolecular array on a bacterial cell wall fragment in the 1950s S-layer structure has been ... doi:10.1016/S0376-7388(00)80050-2. Pavkov-Keller T, Howorka S, Keller W (2011). "The structure of bacterial S-layer proteins". ... This structure is built via self-assembly and encloses the whole cell surface. Thus, the S-layer protein can represent up to 15 ... Arbing MA, Chan S, Shin A, Phan T, Ahn CJ, Rohlin L, Gunsalus RP (2012). "Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic ...

*Type II secretion system

Craig L, Pique ME, Tainer JA (2004). "Type IV pilus structure and bacterial pathogenicity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2: 363 ... Each bacterial cell will contain a number of type II secretion systems and these are found embedded in the inner and outer ... In the type II secretion system GspD creates a pore in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell through which proteins can be ... The GSPs are common among a number of different bacterial species and when they come together they form a complex that is ...

*Tubulin

Schlieper D, Oliva MA, Andreu JM, Löwe J (June 2005). "Structure of bacterial tubulin BtubA/B: evidence for horizontal gene ... Aylett CH, Wang Q, Michie KA, Amos LA, Löwe J (November 2010). "Filament structure of bacterial tubulin homologue TubZ". ... TubZ functions in segregating low copy-number plasmids during bacterial cell division. The protein forms a structure unusual ... Löwe J, Amos LA (January 1998). "Crystal structure of the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ". Nature. 391 (6663): 203-6. ...

*Hershey-Chase experiment

ISBN 0-465-09138-5. Berk V, Cate JH; Cate (June 2007). "Insights into protein biosynthesis from structures of bacterial ... "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid", the double helix structure of DNA, and ... Knowledge of the structure of DNA led scientists to examine the nature of genetic coding and, in turn, understand the process ... This discovery led to a more detailed investigation of DNA to determine its composition as well as its 3D structure. Using X- ...

*Beaver dam

These structures modify the natural environment in such a way that the overall ecosystem builds upon the change, making beavers ... These bacterial populations face serious shortages of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, and will absorb these nutrients as ... The main component of this material is cellulose, a polymer of β-glucose monomers (This creates a more crystalline structure ... and will reduce or eliminate damage to human structures. Flood control is achieved in other ways as well. The surface of any ...
Although the putative biological consequences of cross-seeding have not been investigated in detail, there are several studies suggesting a molecular cross-talk between misfolded proteins in vivo. Perhaps the most emblematic study of cross-seeding in animal models is the one involving Aβ and tau proteins. The simultaneous brain accumulation of these proteins is the main hallmark of AD. Studies in animal models using various transgenic mice revealed that Aβ is able to accelerate the aggregation of tau; however, it seems that tau aggregates do not have the same effect over Aβ [19], [20]. These findings suggest a possibly unidirectional cross-seeding. However, it is also possible that this outcome may be mediated by indirect processes, for example, Aβ aggregates may activate certain kinases responsible for tau phosphorylation, leading to higher misfolding and aggregation of this protein [21].. Another interaction that has been studied in some detail is between α-synuclein and the misfolded ...
In natural environments, bacteria are often found as sessile communities known as biofilms (8, 10). To date, the bacterial structures of adherence (25, 40-42, 56) and the physiological processes involved in bacterial surface colonization (15, 40, 41) are better understood than the genetic responses of bacteria adhering to a surface. By using a library oflacZ fusions and a reliable screen for identifying genes whose expression changes in biofilm versus planktonic cells, the transcription of 38% of the E. coli genes was shown to be modified during the colonization process. Several genes with altered expression in biofilms were identified. Different cellular functions were induced in attached bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine, colanic acid production (theE. coli class I exopolysaccharide), tripeptidase T, and synthesis of a nickel high-affinity transport system. On the other hand, the syntheses of flagella and of a putative protein of 92 amino acids ...
In natural environments, bacteria are often found as sessile communities known as biofilms (8, 10). To date, the bacterial structures of adherence (25, 40-42, 56) and the physiological processes involved in bacterial surface colonization (15, 40, 41) are better understood than the genetic responses of bacteria adhering to a surface. By using a library oflacZ fusions and a reliable screen for identifying genes whose expression changes in biofilm versus planktonic cells, the transcription of 38% of the E. coli genes was shown to be modified during the colonization process. Several genes with altered expression in biofilms were identified. Different cellular functions were induced in attached bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine, colanic acid production (theE. coli class I exopolysaccharide), tripeptidase T, and synthesis of a nickel high-affinity transport system. On the other hand, the syntheses of flagella and of a putative protein of 92 amino acids ...
This course comprises three main topics. Biopolymers - Covering aspects of the structures properties, and applications of major classes of biopolymeric material such as DNA, RNA and proteins, as well as a wide range of naturally occurring biopolymers derived from renewable resources, such as polyesters. Glycobiology - This section will introduce the role of carbohydrates in biological systems. Starting from basic concepts and terminology specific for carbohydrate chemistry, the following areas will be illuminated: properties and structures of common polysaccharides (e.g. amylose, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, peptidoglycans, pectins, dextrans, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans), chemical and enzymatic synthesis and degradation, complex carbohydrates (case studies: human and bacterial structures), glycoconjugates (case studies: glycoproteins, glycolipids), carbohydrates in medicine (case studies: lead structure, vaccine, inhibitor), carbohydrate recognition (case studies: lectins) in e.g. ...
Flagella are bacterial structures that allow directed movement, called motility. Motility enables bacteria to move towards favorable environments and away from unfavorable ones and is sometimes important in the characterization and identification of bacteria. Arrangement of flagella varies among species. A flagellum may occur singly at one end, or there may be more than one flagella at one or both ends (polar). Flagella may occur in tufts, or they can be arranged all around the cell (peritrichous). Not all motile bacteria have flagella and many bacteria are non-motile. There are different ways to examine motility or motility organelles. You should begin with the motility part of the SIMS test and if that is positive, do a wet mount to confirm motility and/or do a fagella stain to see if you can see flagella ...
Every cell in your body does this at a low level. But pressurised cancer cells do it at 100 times that level! So do the bacterial structures cluster around the coronary arteries and the kidneys that cause coronary heart disease. As do the viral structures in the pancreas causing diabetes ...
Subject: Lambda Lunch update To: [email protected] Lambda Lunch update, 1/29/08: 1/29/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Emily Troemel (Fred Ausubel lab, MGH) "Host/pathogen interactions in C. elegans" 1/29/08, 2:15 PM, 37/2041: Heather W. Pinkett, (Caltech) "Structural Studies of an ABC Transporter from Haemophilus influenzae, HIF" 1/31/08*: Bob Schleif (Hopkins) "Pursuing a Proteins Innermost Secrets: AraC" (Sankar Adhya) 2/7/08*: Christophe Penno (Cashel lab) "Control of the virulence of Shigella flexneri by transcriptional slippage" 2/8/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Jennifer Philips (Perrimon + Rubin labs, Harvard Med) "Genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila identifies host factors that modulate Mycobacterial infection" 2/8/08, 9 AM - 12 PM, Natcher (Building 45) Room E1/E2: Imaging Bacterial Structures: A Symposium in Honor of Martin Kessel. Register at http://www.csmicro.org/html/CSM_Winter08_Symposium.htm 3/7/08: 12:00 PM, 32TII/Conf. room: Petra Levin (Wash ...
A University of Queensland-led international study has discovered a new type of bacterial structure which has previously only been seen in more complex cells. Research team leader UQ School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences microbiologist Emeritus Professor John Fuerst said the study had found pore-like structures in a bacterium called Gemmata obscuriglobus.
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) are complex bacterial structures that provide gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism whereby they grow a needle-like structure in order to inject bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of a host cell. Numerous experiments have been performed to understand the structural details of this nanomachine during the past decade. Despite the concerted efforts of molecular and structural biologists, several crucial aspects of the assembly of this structure, such as the regulation of the length of the needle itself, remain unclear. In this work, we used a combination of mathematical and computational techniques to better understand length control based on the timing of substrate switching, which is a possible mechanism for how bacteria ensure that the T3SS needles are neither too short nor too long. In particular, we predicted the form of the needle length distribution based on this mechanism, and found excellent agreement with available ...
Blumenthal A., Ehlers S., Lauber J., Buer J., Lange C., Goldmann T., Heine H., Brandt E., Reiling N.. Microarray--assisted gene--expression screens of human macrophages revealed WNT5A, a homolog of Wingless, a key regulator of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic segmentation and patterning, to be consistently up-regulated following stimulation with different mycobacterial species and conserved bacterial structures. The expression of WNT5A required Toll-like receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activation, which identifies a novel induction pathway for a Wingless homolog. We show that human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells express the WNT5A receptor Frizzled-5 (FZD5). Both WNT5A and FZD5 also were detected in granulomatous lesions in the lungs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients. Functional studies showed that WNT5A and FZD5 regulate the microbially induced interleukin-12 response of antigen-presenting cells and interferon-gamma production by mycobacterial antigen-stimulated T cells. Our ...
Todars Online Textbook of Bacteriology chapters on bacteriology, microbes in the environment, cycles of elements, bacterial structure, bacterial nutrition, bacterial growth, bacterial metabolism, bacteria and archaea, normal flora, bacterial pathogens, bacterial toxins, endotoxin, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, staphylococci and MRSA, streptococcus, pneumonia, anthrax, E. coli, cholera, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, gonorrhea, meningococcal meningitis, botulism and tetanus hib meningitis, Listeria, whooping cough, B. cereus food poisoning, tuberculosis, diphtheria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, Vibrio vulnificus, Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria.
This course covers basic microbiology and immunology and is primarily directed at pre-nursing, pre-allied health, and non-science majors. It provides an introduction to historical concepts of the nature of microorganisms, microbial diversity, the importance of microorganisms and acellular agents in the biosphere, and their roles in human and animal diseases. Major topics include bacterial structure as well as growth, physiology, genetics, and biochemistry of microorganisms. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health.. This course covers basics of culture and identification of bacteria and microbial ecology. This course is primarily directed at pre-nursing and other pre-allied health majors and covers basics of microbiology. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health.. Read More. ...
Civil Servant: So, yeah, trying to explain modelling and, you know, elasticities and all of that, I mean, I find it difficult to get my head around that, so, you know, not surprising that thats quite a difficult thing to explain to the public, media, you know, committee, especially when people dont necessarily want to believe it either, you know? […] but I guess its like all of these things that, you know, were not very good, were not very literate with uncertainties and, you know, like we always say about risk, you know, people find it really hard to get their head round … ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
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Iron bacteria: Gallionella ferruginea Leptothrix cholodnii Leptothrix discophora Leptothrix ochracea Leptothrix ochracea-type Leptothrix sp.A (intermediate between L. ochracea and L. cholodnii) Siderocapsa cf. treubii Siderocystis sp. Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoria sp. Spirulina sp. SEE wild bacteria and other micro-organisms up close on a guided slide show of the seemy underworld of the Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens ...

2015 Department of Chemistry PhD Research Fellowship in Structural Biology, Norway | Oley.az2015 Department of Chemistry PhD Research Fellowship in Structural Biology, Norway | Oley.az

The PhD project will be in the field of structural biology on a project entitled "Bacterial toxins - Structure, function and ... Study Subject(s): The PhD project will be in the field of structural biology on a project entitled "Bacterial toxins - ... Scholarship Description: The PhD project will be in the field of structural biology on a project entitled "Bacterial toxins - ... Structure, function and molecular interactions ".. Course Level: Fellowship is available for pursuing PhD research program at ...
more infohttp://oley.az/?p=6960

Medical Microbiology MSc at University of Surrey on FindAMasters.comMedical Microbiology MSc at University of Surrey on FindAMasters.com

The fee structure for short courses is different to that for registered students and details may be obtained upon enquiry to ... Bacterial, Protozoal and Fungal Infections Part 1: Diseases. *Bacterial, Protozoal and Fungal Diseases Part 2: Treatment ... Programme structure. This programme is studied part-time over two academic years. It consists of eight taught modules and a ...
more infohttps://www.findamasters.com/masters-degrees/course/medical-microbiology-msc/?i355d5216c15452

Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelbergs Medical Microbiology, Twenty-Fifth Edition (LANGE Basic Science), 9780071624961 compare textbook...Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology, Twenty-Fifth Edition (LANGE Basic Science), 9780071624961 compare textbook...

The science of microbiology, Cell structure, Classification of bacteria, The growth and survival and death of microorganisms, ... unusual bacterial pathogens, Mycobacteria, Spirochetes & other spiral microorganisms, Mycoplasmas & cell wall-defective ... Cultivation of microorganisms, Microbial metabolism, Microbial genetics, Immunology, Pathogenesis of bacterial infection, ...
more infohttp://www.saveontextbooks.net/textbooks/isbn/9780071624961

Jawetz, Melnick & Adelbergs Medical Microbiology | Stefan Riedel, Stephen Morse, Timothy Mietzner, Steve Miller | downloadJawetz, Melnick & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology | Stefan Riedel, Stephen Morse, Timothy Mietzner, Steve Miller | download

This diagram of the fluid mosaic model of bacterial membrane structure shown the integral proteins (green and red) floating in ... The Plasma Membrane A. Structure The plasma membrane, also called the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, is visible in electron ... Bacterial viruses, known as bacterial phages, are described in Chapter 7. PRIONS A number of remarkable discoveries in the past ... The exact three-dimensional structure of PrPSc is unknown; however, it has a higher proportion of β-sheet structures in place ...
more infohttps://en.b-ok.org/book/5240193/b94ea4

Bacterial Structures, Monerans (Prokaryotes) Microscope Slides | Carolina.comBacterial Structures, Monerans (Prokaryotes) Microscope Slides | Carolina.com

Bacterial Structures, Monerans (Prokaryotes) Microscope Slides. 5 Items Bacterial Structures, Monerans (Prokaryotes) Microscope ... Bacterial Flagella Slide, Polar Amphitrichous, w.m. Item #294198 $12.85Qty Discount Available ... Bacterial Spores, w.m. Microscope Slide Item #294228 $7.65Qty Discount Available ... Bacterial Flagella Slide, Peritrichous, w.m. Item #294204 $12.15Qty Discount Available ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/prokaryote-slides/bacterial-structures-monerans-prokaryotes-microscope-slides/FAM_294186.pr

Small Things Considered: A Masterpiece of Bacterial StructureSmall Things Considered: A Masterpiece of Bacterial Structure

... the loss of this outstanding structural microbiologist who made stellar contributions to varied topics such as the structure of ... the S-layer, the interaction of microbial surfaces with metals and antibiotics, bacterial cell division, Gram stain and... ... A Masterpiece of Bacterial Structure. by Elio. Thin-section composite showing cell spacer plugs (A) and an end plug (B). P, ... bacterial cell division, Gram stain and its variability, and many more. He was a very fine person, befitting his early training ...
more infohttps://schaechter.asmblog.org/schaechter/2007/10/a-masterpiece-o.html

Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment (Journal...Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment (Journal...

The bacterial community structuremore » of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, ... Title: Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment ... Accepted Manuscript: Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant ... and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254557-soil-respiration-bacterial-structure-function-after-years-reciprocal-soil-transplant-experiment

Bacterial protein structures reveal phylum dependent divergence.  - PubMed - NCBIBacterial protein structures reveal phylum dependent divergence. - PubMed - NCBI

Bacterial protein structures reveal phylum dependent divergence.. Shortridge MD1, Triplet T, Revesz P, Griep MA, Powers R. ... that the two Firmicutes structures have highly overlapping structures and (B) that the four Proteobacteria structures are very ... Structure changes measured using a structure similarity ratio (θFSS), where the average FSS between members of the two phyla ( ... Protein structure phylogenies of 4 COGs out of 48 had a strong split pattern with the exception of one outlier structure. The ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315656

Bacterial Chromosome Structure | Springer for Research & DevelopmentBacterial Chromosome Structure | Springer for Research & Development

By analogy with protein structure one can potentially describe: (a) a one-dimensional representation... ... The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. ... The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. By analogy with protein structure one ... Pettijohn D (1988) Histone-like proteins and bacterial chromosome structure. J Biol Chem 263: 12793-12796PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-84150-7_9

Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in Rhizosphere Soil of Grain Legumes | SpringerLinkCharacterization of Bacterial Community Structure in Rhizosphere Soil of Grain Legumes | SpringerLink

Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in ... McCaig, AE, Glover, LA, Prosser, JI 1999Molecular analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity in unimproved and ... Molecular techniques were used to characterize bacterial community structure, diversity (16S rDNA), and activity (16S rRNA) in ... Plant-dependent rhizosphere effects were evident from significant differences in the bacterial community structure of the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00248-004-0041-7

Bacterial Chaperone Structure DisentangledBacterial Chaperone Structure Disentangled

... News Jun 11, 2018 , Original Story from the Institute for Molecular Sciences ... Bacterial molecular chaperone ClpB and its yeast homologue Hsp104 have an ability to disentangle and reactivate the aggregated ... ClpB forms a hexameric ring structure and its protomer consists of two ATPase cores, AAA1 and AAA2, and two additional domains ... However, the molecular-level mechanisms, such as how ATP binding and hydrolysis change the ClpB structure and how the changes ...
more infohttps://www.technologynetworks.com/neuroscience/news/bacterial-chaperone-structure-disentangled-304932

Recombination and the population structures of bacterial pathogens.  - PubMed - NCBIRecombination and the population structures of bacterial pathogens. - PubMed - NCBI

The population structures of bacterial species are complex and often controversial. To a large extent, this is due to ... Recombination and the population structures of bacterial pathogens.. Feil EJ1, Spratt BG. ... The existence of clones within bacterial populations, and of linkage disequilibrium between alleles at different loci, is often ... These studies indicate that in many bacterial species, including Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11544367?dopt=Abstract

Divergence of Quaternary Structures Among Bacterial Flagellar Filaments | ScienceDivergence of Quaternary Structures Among Bacterial Flagellar Filaments | Science

Divergence of Quaternary Structures Among Bacterial Flagellar Filaments. By Vitold E. Galkin, Xiong Yu, Jakub Bielnicki, John ... Divergence of Quaternary Structures Among Bacterial Flagellar Filaments. By Vitold E. Galkin, Xiong Yu, Jakub Bielnicki, John ... Divergence of Quaternary Structures Among Bacterial Flagellar Filaments Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The driving force in the change of quaternary structure between Salmonella and Campylobacter may have been the evasion of TLR5. ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/320/5874/382

Bacterial cell structureBacterial cell structure

... despite their apparent simplicity contain a well developed cell structure which is responsible for many of their unique ... 6 Intracellular bacterial cell structures *6.1 The bacterial chromosome and plasmids. *6.2 Ribosomes and other multiprotein ... Intracellular bacterial cell structures. In comparison to eukaryotes, the intracellular features of the bacterial cell are ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Bacterial_cell_structure.html

Analysis of bacterial community structure in bulk soil by in situ hybridization | SpringerLinkAnalysis of bacterial community structure in bulk soil by in situ hybridization | SpringerLink

... oligonucleotide probes was used to analyze bacterial community structure in ethanol- or paraformaldehyde-fixed bulk soil after ... Analysis of bacterial community structure in bulk soil by in situ hybridization. ... oligonucleotide probes was used to analyze bacterial community structure in ethanol- or paraformaldehyde-fixed bulk soil after ... The yield could not be increased by enzymatic and/or chemical pretreatments known to enhance the permeability of bacterial ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs002030050486

New Antibiotics a Step Closer with Discovery of Bacterial Protein Structure | Infection Control TodayNew Antibiotics a Step Closer with Discovery of Bacterial Protein Structure | Infection Control Today

Scientists have uncovered the structure of the protein complex that assembles the tiny hair-like strands that cover the outside ... New Antibiotics a Step Closer with Discovery of Bacterial Protein Structure. Jun 02, 2011 ... The structure of the FimD protein means scientists can see the process of pili assembly, from individual protein subunits to ... The structure of FimD provides insights into pilus biogenesis because it unravels the entire mechanism of subunit ...
more infohttps://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/antibiotics-antimicrobials/new-antibiotics-step-closer-discovery-bacterial-protein-structure

Frontiers | Mucus Sugar Content Shapes the Bacterial Community Structure in Thermally Stressed Acropora muricata | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Mucus Sugar Content Shapes the Bacterial Community Structure in Thermally Stressed Acropora muricata | Microbiology

Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs ... induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in ... and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower ... and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00371/full

New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure | UCL News - UCL - Londons Global UniversityNew antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure | UCL News - UCL - London's Global University

Scientists have uncovered the structure of the protein complex that assembles the tiny hair-like strands that cover the outside ... New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure. New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of ... The structure of the FimD protein means scientists can see the process of pili assembly, from individual protein subunits to ... The structure of FimD provides insights into pilus biogenesis because it unravels the entire mechanism of subunit ...
more infohttps://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/2011/jun/new-antibiotics-step-closer-discovery-bacterial-protein-structure

Revealing the Structure of Bacterial MachinesRevealing the Structure of Bacterial Machines

Were now just starting to understand how these bacterial machines are built and work in nature. Our long-term vision is to ... Its exciting that we can make the first contact with these nano-structures and understand how they are self-organized and ... Carboxysomes, which are polyhedral structures on a nanoscale and are comprised of a few different kinds of enzymes and proteins ... Our findings provide new clues about the relationship between the structure and functionality of native carboxysomes," ...
more infohttps://www.labroots.com/trending/microbiology/6190/revealing-structure-bacterial-machines

Bacterial cell structure - WikipediaBacterial cell structure - Wikipedia

Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... The chemical structure of the outer membranes lipopolysaccharide is often unique to specific bacterial sub-species and is ... Pili are similar in structure to fimbriae but are much longer and present on the bacterial cell in low numbers. Pili are ... Endospores are bacterial survival structures that are highly resistant to many different types of chemical and environmental ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_cell_structure

Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNATertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA

The bacterial tRNASec assumes the L-shaped structure, from which the long extra arm protrudes. Although the D-arm conformation ... aeolicustRNASec in the present complex structure, the conformational flexibility of SerRS is likely to allow the CCA terminal ... Similar interactions exist in the reported tRNASer and SerRS complex structure from the bacteriumThermus thermophilus. Although ... Å crystal structure of the tRNASec from the bacteriumAquifex aeolicus, in complex with the heterologous SerRS from the ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/nucar/201341130/00006178-201341130-00028

New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comNew antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Home Infections New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure ... Image: Structure of the FimD protein complex. UCL context. The UCL Research Department of Structural and Molecular Biology aims ... The structure of the FimD protein means scientists can see the process of pili assembly, from individual protein subunits to ... The structure of FimD provides insights into pilus biogenesis because it unravels the entire mechanism of subunit ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/infections/17668-new-antibiotics-a-step-closer-with-discovery-of-bacterial-protein-structure.html

Penicillin Trunk Injection Affects Bacterial Community Structure in Citrus Trees | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPenicillin Trunk Injection Affects Bacterial Community Structure in Citrus Trees | Springer for Research & Development

Network analysis showed that penicillin produced major changes in root bacterial community structure by affecting interspecific ... Zhang L, Xu Z (2008) Assessing bacterial diversity in soil. J. Soils Sediments 8:379-388CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Zhang M, Powell CA, Benyon LS, Zhou H, Duan Y (2013) Deciphering the bacterial microbiome of citrus plants in response to ... Zhang M, Powell CA, Guo Y, Benyon L, Duan Y (2013) Characterization of the microbial community structure in Candidatus ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00248-018-1302-1

Japanese Research Team Elucidates Structure of Bacterial ...Japanese Research Team Elucidates Structure of Bacterial ...

The three-dimensional structure of a complex of MotA and the flagellar motor structure in a bacterial cell. Many motile ... Japanese Research Team Elucidates Structure of Bacterial Flagellar Motor Protein Nagoya University-led Japanese researchers ... The three-dimensional structure of the MotA complex has been determined from a large number of electron microscope images in ... Nagoya, Japan - Many bacterial species use spiral propellers (flagella) attached to motors to move through a liquid environment ...
more infohttp://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/10013/cid/1/research/nagoya_university/japanese_research_team_elucidates_structure_of_bacterial_flagellar_motor_protein.html

Structures of Bacterial Flagellar Motors from Two FliF-FliG Gene Fusion Mutants | Journal of BacteriologyStructures of Bacterial Flagellar Motors from Two FliF-FliG Gene Fusion Mutants | Journal of Bacteriology

1999) Structure of the C-terminal domain of FliG, a component of the rotor in the bacterial flagellar motor. Nature 400:472-475 ... Structures of Bacterial Flagellar Motors from Two FliF-FliG Gene Fusion Mutants. Dennis Thomas, David Gene Morgan, David J. ... 1994) Isolation, characterization, and structure of bacterial flagellar motors containing the switch complex. J. Mol. Biol. 235 ... Structures of Bacterial Flagellar Motors from Two FliF-FliG Gene Fusion Mutants ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/183/21/6404
  • Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertebrate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes a region of bacterial flagellin that is involved in subunit-subunit assembly in Salmonella and many other pathogenic bacteria, and this short region has diverged in Campylobacter and related bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori , which are not recognized by TLR5. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria within the Deinococcus-Thermus group may also exhibit Gram positive staining behaviour but contain some cell wall structures typical of Gram negative organisms. (bionity.com)
  • Scientists have uncovered the structure of the protein complex that assembles the tiny hair-like strands that cover the outside of bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Published in Nature, scientists at the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (a joint institute between University College London (UCL) and Birkbeck) have revealed the structure of a complex protein called FimD that acts as an assembly platform for the pili of cystitis bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The structure of FimD provides insights into pilus biogenesis because it unravels the entire mechanism of subunit polymerization and transport across the outer wall of the bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • With the help of related structures on disease-causing bacteria the r. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With the help of related structures on disease-causing bacteria, the researchers show that the protein's shape and form suggest possible ways for the bacteria to shuttle electrons along the nanowire. (bio-medicine.org)
  • How to get electrons from the inside of bacteria to the outside is important for many different things, such as bacterial fuel cells, how carbon cycles through the environment and how to make new nanomaterials for applications like biocomputers," said Reardon. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A group of related bacteria makes these bendy, stretchy structures out of a protein called pilin, and an even smaller group uses these structures like electrical wires. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bacteria produce electrons while respiring and use the wires to run electrons out of their little bacterial bodies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He enjoys international recognition as an authority on the basic biology and medical significance of atypical bacterial organisms and is considered a pioneer and an expert on the role of these unusual bacteria in the persistence and expression of kidney and urological infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • They noted that the forms, which they called electron dense bodies were so small that they could pass through bacterial filters that normally withheld ordinary bacteria with cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • After applying these data to the human condition, Domingue reasoned that in some patients who suffer from chronic bacterial infections, the disease process could be related to the fact that bacteria are able to differentiate into the resistant electron dense bodies that he observed in tissue cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The papers detail how L-form bacteria inside an experimental human embryonic kidney tissue culture system are able to persist in cells and explains how they are able to revert into the cell wall-containing parent bacterial form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of clones within bacterial populations, and of linkage disequilibrium between alleles at different loci, is often cited as evidence for low rates of recombination. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that, if cheats reduce colony size, thus self-limiting their global population, microcolony-based group structures may be an important (potentially evolved) mechanism to suppress cheats in bacterial populations. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. (mdpi.com)
  • Such physiologically structured populations typically consist of subpopulations of cells in different metabolic and regulatory states. (ovid.com)
  • We regret the loss of this outstanding structural microbiologist who made stellar contributions to varied topics such as the structure of the S-layer, the interaction of microbial surfaces with metals and antibiotics, bacterial cell division, Gram stain and its variability, and many more. (asmblog.org)
  • The structures and sequences of proteins within each COG were compared against each other to establish their relatedness. (nih.gov)
  • However, the analogy with protein structure should not be carried too far, because the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome appears to be dynamic in its organization and its structural fluctuations may go beyond the kinds of statistical perturbations expected in proteins. (springer.com)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When proteins are exposed to stresses like a heat shock, they lose their native structure and form toxic insoluble aggregations. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Bacterial molecular chaperone ClpB and its yeast homologue Hsp104 have an ability to disentangle and reactivate the aggregated proteins. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Carboxysomes, which are polyhedral structures on a nanoscale and are comprised of a few different kinds of enzymes and proteins. (labroots.com)
  • Using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the investigators then got a look at how the proteins were organized in the structure, and could describe the morphology of these bacterial machines. (labroots.com)
  • Zooming in on the Geobacter-Gonorrhea composite shows how the aromatic residues (teal balloon-like structures) bulge from the surface of pilin proteins (variously colored helical structures) within the fiber. (pnnl.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of penicillin injection (0, 1000, and 6000 mg L −1 ) on rhizospheric and endophytic bacterial communities of grapefruit trees in field and greenhouse experiments through culture-independent high-throughput sequencing. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial communities can exert significant influence on the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic (As). (frontiersin.org)
  • The main variables structuring these communities were sample origins (fjord or mesocosms) and the community size fraction (small or large size fraction). (biogeosciences.net)
  • Bliska J, Cozzarelli N (1987) Use of site-specific recombination as a probe of DNA structure and metabolism in vivo. (springer.com)
  • In ethanol-fixed samples 37 ± 7%, and in paraformaldehyde 41 ± 8% of the 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI)-stained cells were detected with the bacterial probe Eub338. (springer.com)
  • Royal Society University Research Fellow Dr. Luning Liu of the Royal Society worked with scientists at the Institute of Integrative Biology at the University to learn more about the native structure and probe the mechanical stiffness of carboxysomes utilizing advanced microscopes and biochemical methods. (labroots.com)
  • They found that it can form a structure of four MotA molecules (called a tetramer), which differs in shape from the previously predicted complex. (researchsea.com)
  • It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral's mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26 to 31¼C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29¼C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31¼C. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the goal of this research was to investigate patterns in bacterial community composition across gradients in sediment texture and chemistry in an aquifer with elevated groundwater As concentrations in Araihazar, Bangladesh. (frontiersin.org)
  • The engine of the bacterial flagellum is a proton-powered, rotary motor (for a review of the field, see reference 14 ). (asm.org)
  • In electron micrographs, the basal body (the cell-proximal portion of the flagellum) consists of a set of coaxial rings named for their locations relative to the partitions of the bacterial cell (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the three-dimensional structure of ClpB/Hsp104 has been determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopic single-particle analysis, information about the dynamics of individual molecules were required to understand the mechanism. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The number of subunits in the ring and the polymorphism of the ring structures were further confirmed by native mass spectrometry and negative-staining electron microscopy analysis, respectively. (technologynetworks.com)
  • ClpB forms a hexameric ring structure and its protomer consists of two ATPase cores, AAA1 and AAA2, and two additional domains, N-domain and M-domain. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The driving force in the change of quaternary structure between Salmonella and Campylobacter may have been the evasion of TLR5. (sciencemag.org)
  • A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. (frontiersin.org)
  • We predict that its structure will change with the movement of ions through the stator channel and in association with the stator-motor interaction. (researchsea.com)
  • In the present study, we determined the 3.1 Å crystal structure of the tRNASec from the bacteriumAquifex aeolicus, in complex with the heterologous SerRS from the archaeonMethanopyrus kandleri. (ovid.com)
  • Similar interactions exist in the reported tRNASer and SerRS complex structure from the bacteriumThermus thermophilus. (ovid.com)
  • aeolicustRNASec in the present complex structure, the conformational flexibility of SerRS is likely to allow the CCA terminal region of tRNASec to enter the SerRS catalytic site. (ovid.com)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the MotA complex has been determined from a large number of electron microscope images in this report. (researchsea.com)
  • Bjornsti M-A, Hobot JA, Kelus AS, Villiger W, Kellenberger E (1986) New electron microscopic data on the structure of the nucleoid and their functional consequences. (springer.com)
  • A team of Japanese researchers led by Homma's laboratory of Nagoya University have now purified the stator protein MotA from a bacterium found in hot springs (Aquifex aeolicus) and analyzed its three-dimensional structure using electron microscopy mainly in cooperation with Namba's laboratory of Osaka University. (researchsea.com)
  • It's exciting that we can make the first 'contact' with these nano-structures and understand how they are self-organized and shaped using state-of-the-art techniques available at the University. (labroots.com)
  • We're now just starting to understand how these bacterial machines are built and work in nature. (labroots.com)
  • The next step, Mueller said, is to purify the whole fiber from Geobacter microbes and determine the complete structure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this computer reconstruction done at EMSL, multiple Geobacter pilin structures are overlaid on Gonorrhea's fiber. (pnnl.gov)