Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.4.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.
Pili are involved in the process of bacterial conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or "sex pili". Type IV pili ( ... The chemical structure of the outer membrane's lipopolysaccharide is often unique to specific bacterial sub-species and is ... Pili are similar in structure to fimbriae but are much longer and present on the bacterial cell in low numbers. ... The morphology of magnetosomes is species-specific.[citation needed] Perhaps the best known bacterial adaptation to stress is ...
ISBN 978-1-78064-255-0. Sex+Pilus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bacterial+Pilus at the ... Not all bacteria can make conjugative pili, but conjugation can occur between bacteria of different species.[citation needed] ... "pilus" to specifically refer to sex pili. The Tra (transfer) family includes all known sex pili (as of 2010). They are related ... Perhaps the most well-studied is the F-pilus of Escherichia coli, encoded by the F sex factor. A sex pilus is typically 6 to 7 ...
In the complex process of conjugation, plasmids may be transferred from one bacterium to another via sex pili encoded by some ... A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation ... Plasmids are transmitted from one bacterium to another (even of another species) mostly through conjugation. This host-to-host ... They are capable of conjugation and result in the expression of sex pili. Resistance (R) plasmids, which contain genes that ...
... another through bacterial conjugation and are a common means by which antibiotic resistance spreads between bacterial species, ... they can construct a sex pilus, which emerges from the donor bacterium and ensnares the recipient bacterium, draws it in, and ... "Prokaryotic Cell Structure: Pili". Archived from the original on 2016-12-07. Retrieved 2017-01-19. v t e. ... Conjugation allows two bacteria, not necessarily from the same species, to transfer genetic material one way. Since many R- ...
Also in some species each plant is one sex (dioicous) while other species produce both sexes on the same plant (monoicous). ... Bacterial transformation is a complex process encoded by numerous bacterial genes, and is a bacterial adaptation for DNA ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Mol. Microbiol. 82 (4): 807-17. doi: ... Many insects species have sexual dimorphism, while in others the sexes look nearly identical. Typically they have two sexes ...
Merz, A. J.; So, M.; Sheetz, M. P. (7 September 2000). "Pilus retraction powers bacterial twitching motility". Nature. 407 ( ... Neisseria species are fastidious, Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. ... Transmission can be reduced by using latex barriers (e.g. condoms or dental dams) during sex and by limiting sexual partners. ... To enter the host the bacteria uses the pili to adhere to and penetrate mucosal surfaces. The pili are a necessary virulence ...
To differentiate any bacterial growth from other species a small amount of a bacterial colony is tested for oxidase, catalase ... 2009). Pili and Flagella: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-48-6. Ullrich M, ed. ( ... It has also been reported to be transmitted through oral sex and cause urethritis in men. It infects its host cells by sticking ... It infects the cell by sticking to it mainly with long thin extensions called pili and the surface-exposed proteins Opa and Opc ...
The diversity in the host range of A. nasoniae and other species can be explained by the bacterial transmission routes; by ... The overall effect on wasp offspring is the induced killing of male haploid embryos; resulting in a skewed sex-ratio toward ... of the extra-chromosomal genome showed that there was a group of putative plasmids encoding several groups of Type IV pili ... Infection has also been detected in the wasp species Spalangia cameroni of the genus Spalangia and in the species Muscidifurax ...
... genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or sex pili ( ... Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum (monotrichous ... and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens. Pili (sing. pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger ... Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci (singular coccus, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed), or rod-shaped, ...
Sex appears to be a ubiquitous and ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life. Meiosis, a true sexual process, allows ... Transformation is a bacterial process for transferring DNA from one cell to another, and is apparently an adaptation for ... It is likely that modern mitochondria were once a species similar to Rickettsia, with the parasitic ability to enter a cell. ... In addition, plasmids can be exchanged through the use of a pilus in a process known as conjugation. The photosynthetic ...
... fungus Aspergillus nidulans involves activation of the same mating pathways characteristic of sex in outcrossing species, i.e. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Molecular Microbiology. 82 (4): 807-17 ... Among the 250 known species of aspergilli, about 33% have an identified sexual state. Among those Aspergillus species that ...
Conservation of Vibrio Cholerae Pacini 1854 as the Nomenclatural Type Species of the Bacterial Genus Vibrio, and Designation of ... The bacterium has a flagellum at one cell pole as well as pili. It tolerates alkaline media that kill most intestinal ... There are two models of genetic transformation, sex hypothesis and competent bacteria. Diagram of the bacterium, V. cholerae ... He subsequently confirmed that the bacterium was a new species, and described as "a little bent, like a comma." He reported his ...
Many species, such as chameleons and flounders may be able to change the color of their skin by adjusting the relative size of ... Erector pili muscles in mammals adjust the angle of hair shafts to change the degree of insulation provided by hair or fur. ... Desiree May Oh, MD, Tania J. Phillips, MD (2006). "Sex Hormones and Wound Healing". Wounds. Archived from the original on 2013- ... Subcutaneous fat also produces cathelicidin, which is a peptide that fights bacterial infections. The term "skin" may also ...
Some species thrive in extreme environments such as hot springs and hypersaline lakes and lagoons. All protozoa require a moist ... Although meiotic sex is widespread among present day eukaryotes, it has, until recently, been unclear whether or not eukaryotes ... In some protozoa, the pellicle hosts epibiotic bacteria that adhere to the surface by their fimbriae (attachment pili). Some ... Thus, the ecological role of protozoa in the transfer of bacterial and algal production to successive trophic levels is ...
... and two sister plasmids contain the vir operon encoding the type IV secretion system required for the formation of sex pili. ... Wang H, Tomasch J, Jarek M, Wagner-Dobler I: A dual-species co-cultivation system to study the interactions between ... Type strain of Dinoroseobacter shibae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... and Roseobacter a bacterial genus with similar traits. Shibae was named after Professor Tsuneo Shiba who discovered the marine ...
Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus ... A fimbria (plural fimbriae also known as a pilus, plural pili) is a short, thin, hair-like filament found on the surface of ... including 22 homologous chromosome pairs and a pair of sex chromosomes. The mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule ... The number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species; it has been estimated that humans contain somewhere ...
Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes ... and thus may not be optimal for other species. Even within one species, different strains have different transformation ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2012). "Chapter 1: DNA repair as the primary adaptive function of sex in bacteria and ... The transport of the exogenous DNA into the cells may require proteins that are involved in the assembly of type IV pili and ...
Redfield R, Schrag M, Dead A (1997). "The evolution of bacterial transformation: sex with poor relations". Genetics. 146 (1): ... Another complicating factor is the self-bias of the DNA uptake systems of species in the family Pasteurellaceae and the genus ... In almost all naturally competent bacteria components of extracellular filaments called type IV pili (a type of fimbria) bind ... Arguments to support genetic diversity as the primary evolutionary function of sex (including bacterial transformation) are ...
... or F-plasmid was discovered by Esther Lederberg and encodes information for the biosynthesis of sex pilus to aid in bacterial ... Liu, C 2010 Karyotyping in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) by Cross-Species Fosmid Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, CYTOGENETIC AND ... Conjugation involves using the sex pilus to form a bridge between two bacteria cells; the bridge allows the F+ cell to transfer ... The ligation mix is then packaged into phage particles and the DNA is transfected into the bacterial host. Bacterial clones ...
They are capable of conjugation and result in the expression of sex pili. ... 1969). Bacterial Episomes and Plasmids. CIBA Foundation Symposium. pp. 244-45. ISBN 978-0700014057. .. ... even of another species) mostly through conjugation.[2] This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is one mechanism of ... "sex" pilus necessary for their own transfer. The size of the plasmid varies from 1 to over 200 kbp,[3] and the number of ...
Furthermore, few species have been analyzed for HTT, making it difficult to establish patterns of HTT events between species. ... Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer (HGT) that depends on the expression of numerous bacterial ... Cells with the ability to aggregate have greater survival than mutants lacking pili that are unable to aggregate. The frequency ... Michod RE, Bernstein H, Nedelcu AM (May 2008). "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infection, Genetics and ...
Natural transformation is a common bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that employs numerous bacterial gene products. For a ... Many Vibrio species are also zoonotic. They cause disease in fish and shellfish, and are common causes of mortality among ... The DNA-uptake process of naturally competent V. cholerae involves an extended competence-induced pilus and a DNA-binding ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2018). Sex in microbial pathogens. Infection, Genetics and Evolution volume 57, pages 8-25 ...
The ups operon of Sulfolobus species is highly induced by UV irradiation. The pili encoded by this operon are employed in ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is ... Gross J; Bhattacharya D (2010). "Uniting sex and eukaryote origins in an emerging oxygenic world". Biol. Direct. 5: 53. doi: ... Another species, S. tokodaii, has been located in an acidic spa in Beppu Hot Springs, Kyushu, Japan. Sediments from ~90m below ...
Sex linked Sex reversal Sex switch Sex-controlled trait Sex-influenced trait Sex-lethal Sex-limited trait Sex-linked Sex-ratio ... Auxotroph Auxotrophic mutant Axoneme B form DNA Bacillus Back mutation Backcross Bacteria Bacterial conjugation Bacterial lawn ... cell F-duction F-pili F1 generation F2 generation Factorial Familial cancer Familial trait Family selection Fanconi anemia Fate ... Species Specific-locus test Spectral karyotype Sperm Spermatid Spermatocyte Spermatogenesis Spermatogonium Spermatozoon ...
... conjugative sex] কে এনকোড করে, যা তার প্রয়োজন। প্লাসমিডের আকার ১ থেকে 200k [ ... last1=Thomas,first1=Christopher M,last2=Summers,first2=David,title=Bacterial Plasmids,year=2008,doi=10.1002/9780470015902. ... replication origin of species] হিসেবে কাজ করবে। যেহেতু এটি নিজে নিজে প্রতিলিপি গঠন করতে পারে তাই এই এই দৃষ্টিকোণ থেকে ... conjugation]।এই যে বাহক থেকে বাহকে জেনেটিক উপাদানের এই প্রতিস্থাপন, একে বলা হয় [ ...
Transformation appears to be common among bacterial species, and at least 60 species are known to have the natural ability to ... Promiscuity: A member of one sex within the social group mates with any member of the opposite sex. This is associated with ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Mol. Microbiol. 82 (4): 807-17. doi: ... This means that mating occurs with only a single member of the opposite sex because males and females are very far apart. When ...
Ng SY, Chaban B, Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews. ... Lahr DJ, Parfrey LW, Mitchell EA, Katz LA, Lara E (July 2011). "The chastity of amoebae: re-evaluating evidence for sex in ... Bacterial flagella are thicker than archaella, and the bacterial filament has a large enough hollow "tube" inside that the ...
... and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids, 2012, ... and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids by Stuart K Calderwood ( ... Conjugative Pili of Plasmids in Escherichia Coli K-12 and Pseudomonas Species.- The Pathway of Plasmid Transformation in ... Sex Pheromones and Conjugative Transposons (A Review).- Sites and Systems for Conjugal DNA Transfer in Bacteria.- ... Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity, and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids. on your website. Its easy to get started - we will give ...
Sex Pili. In certain species of bacteria short hair like projections are present all around the surface of bacteria are known ... Generalized Structure of a Bacterial Cell ( *. Bacterial Cell Wall. A Bacterial cell on its ... Certain species of bacteria possess long flagella on the outer surface of bacterial cell which help in their locomotion in ... In some bacterial species like Purple bacteria, photosynthetic membranes are cut off from the Cell membrane of bacteria. These ...
... sex pili can form mating channels between bacteria of different bacterial species (especially those specified by broad host- ... Sex pili. Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings ... Some forms of pili are encoded by plasmids, for instance fertility factor F encodes F-pili (sex-pili) which are present at only ... P-type sex pili. Although not all bacteria have the ability to create sex pili, ...
In gram-negative bacteria, donor cells produce a specific plasmid-coded pilus, called the sex pilus, which attaches the donor ... a large number of different gram-negative bacterial species. Plasmids vary in size, from a few thousand to more than 100,000 ... To take up the DNA efficiently, bacterial cells must be in a competent state, which is defined by the capability of bacteria to ... DNA into a virus is inefficient and the bacteriophages are usually highly restricted in the range of bacterial species that ...
Pili are involved in the process of bacterial conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or "sex pili". Type IV pili ( ... The chemical structure of the outer membranes lipopolysaccharide is often unique to specific bacterial sub-species and is ... Pili are similar in structure to fimbriae but are much longer and present on the bacterial cell in low numbers. ... The morphology of magnetosomes is species-specific.[citation needed] Perhaps the best known bacterial adaptation to stress is ...
ISBN 978-1-78064-255-0. Sex+Pilus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bacterial+Pilus at the ... Not all bacteria can make conjugative pili, but conjugation can occur between bacteria of different species.[citation needed] ... "pilus" to specifically refer to sex pili. The Tra (transfer) family includes all known sex pili (as of 2010). They are related ... Perhaps the most well-studied is the F-pilus of Escherichia coli, encoded by the F sex factor. A sex pilus is typically 6 to 7 ...
It involves formation of a bridge, called the sex pilus, between two bacterial cells. After sex pilus formation, the donor cell ... They can serve a variety of functions and code for traits that may vary within a single species, since different individuals ... In order to initiate conjugation, a bacterial cell must contain the genes that code for the sex pilus, which are usually found ... This exchange increases the number of cells capable of forming the sex pilus, increasing the ability for bacterial cells to ...
Species. Score. Length. Source. F2LSG5. Sex pilus assembly protein TraV. BURGA. 282. UniRef50_F2LSG5. ... Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblBacteriai. AEA65761; AEA65761; bgla_3p0600. ... Sex pilus assembly protein TraVImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,F2LSG5,F2LSG5_BURGS Sex pilus assembly protein TraV OS=Burkholderia gladioli (strain BSR3) OX=999541 GN=bgla_3p0600 PE=4 SV= ...
Certain pili (called sex pili) are used to allow one bacterium to recognize and adhere to another in a process of sexual mating ... Under optimum conditions, the maximum population for some bacterial species at the end of the log phase can reach a density of ... In gram-negative bacteria, donor cells produce a specific plasmid-coded pilus, called the sex pilus, which attaches the donor ... Growth of bacterial populations. Growth of bacterial cultures is defined as an increase in the number of bacteria in a ...
... Bacteria, despite their apparent simplicity contain a well developed cell structure which is ... Pili are involved in the process of bacterial conjugation. Non-sex pili also aid bacteria in gripping surfaces. ... Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. Some bacteria ... Other bacterial surface structures. Fimbrae and Pili. Main article: Pilus Fimbrae are protein tubes that extend out from the ...
all bacteria can create sex pili but sex pili can form between many different bacterial species. Infection of the Cells. All ... Shigella cells will pass DNA through a sex pilus. The sex pilus joins the two cells together and pulls the cells very close ... DNA polymerase is synthesized then the DNA will move through the sex pilus from the donor cell to the receiver cell. Positive ... The picture to the right depicts when the two sex pili come together and the donor is giving the receiver DNA. ...
... allow attachment of bacteria to host cells Sex pili = involved in exchange of genetic material in some species Can inhibit ... pili The bacterial cell wall Bacterial cell wall is rigid, gives shape to cell Prevents osmotic rupture of cell Acts as a ... pili Escherichia coli - common pili and sex pilus ... Human Infectious Diseases Bacterial Classification, Morphology, and Structures Office Lecture 4-Bacterial classification, ...
Pili can also be used to transfer DNA between different prokaryotes of the same species. This bacterial sex is known as ... The second method of transmission is through bacterial conjugation (bacterial sex) where a modified pilus will be used for ... Pili. Bacterial Conjugation. Here we can see a plasmid being transferred along this pilus to another cell. This is how ... The precise make up of this varies hugely from species to species, and forms the basis of prokaryotic species identification. ...
The process of bacterial conjugation allow for the exchange of genes via the formation of "sex pili". ... Not all bacteria can make conjugative pili, but conjugation can occur between bacteria of different species. ... Bacterial Conjugation: A schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. Conjugation diagram 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus ... Some bacterial viruses or bacteriophages attach to receptors on pili at the start of their reproductive cycle. Pili are ...
bacterial species that produce their own nutrients through the process of photosynthesis, using CO2 from the environment ... When viruses infect new bacterial hosts, delivering viral genome and some bacterial genes ... is a layer of sugars and proteins on the outer surface of some bacterial cells that forms a sticky layer that can help the cell ... bacterial flagella consist of the protein flagellin in a hollow, helical conformation that anchors into the -- ...
Sex pili (conjugation tube): It is a specialized kind of pili that forms the attachment between male (donor) and the female ( ... Salmonella and Shigella species. Fimbriae (pili) are shorter, straighter and more numerous than bacterial flagella and are ... HomeBacteriologyBacterial Pili (Fimbriae): Characteristics, Types and Medical Importance. Bacterial Pili (Fimbriae): ... Some pili are also involved in biofilm formation, phage transduction, DNA uptake and a special form of bacterial cell movement ...
... that the PAPI-1-encoded pilus is a member of an evolutionarily related pilus family that is widespread among bacterial species ... exemplified by the F pilus encoded by the F sex factor of E. coli, are required for the initiation of cell-to-cell contact ... a type IV pilus secretin protein; PilO2, a pilus accessory protein; PilP2, a pilus assembly protein; PilQ2, a pilus retraction ... type IV pili are thin, long, flexible filaments emanating from the bacterial surface. In P. aeruginosa, the PilA pili (type IVa ...
... hollow tube called a sex pilus (plural: pili). The genetic material transferred may be either chromosomal or from a plasmid. ... such as a cluster of spherical bacterial cells would be called a staphylococcus and a cluster of rod-shaped bacterial cells ... it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species ... kills bacterial) and bacteriostatic (slows bacterial growth and reproduction). Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent ...
Evolution of the bacterial genome. Annual Review of Microbiology 32:519-560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Genetics of Erwinia species. Annual Review of Microbiology 34:645-676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cell-cell interactions in conjugating E. coli: role of F pili and fate of mating aggregates. Journal of Bacteriology 135:1053- ... Physical and genetical characterisation of a second sex factor, SCP2, for Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Molecular and General ...
In fact, bifidobacterial strains can exert inhibitory effects on the growth of other bacterial species (11). However, in our ... Inhibition of conjugation was previously described with agents that affect the formation of sex pili or allow plasmid curing of ... form a membrane-spanning protein complex and a surface-exposed sex pilus, which both serve to establish intimate physical ... and bacterial pellet. Since no inhibition was observed with the bacterial pellet, the decrease in the transfer was not due to a ...
A specialized pilus, the sex pilus, allows the transfer of plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another. ... LR: Bacteria, sex and systematics by L. R. Franklin - Philosophy of Science Philosophical discussions of species have focused ... genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or sex. ... genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or sex. ...
... A new study finds that women have more species of bacteria on their hands than do men. I dont know what this ... There is also a form of sexual, conjugal transfer of DNA between bacteria via proteinaceous bridges called sex pili.. These DNA ... When I hear that women have more bacterial species on their hands than do men, I am perplexed. What do the numbers mean? How ... It does bring into question the use of the term species as applied to bacteria.. It would be interesting to see detailed DNA ...
In conjugation, two bacterial cells connect by a long, tubular structure (a sex pilus), then form a cytoplasmic bridge between ... There are various conjugal plasmids carried by various bacterial species. Introduction • Bacterial conjugation was first ... especially from a donor bacterial species to different recipient species, is conjugation. Gram positive bacteria also have ... This takes place through a pilus. Conjugation occurs in and between many species of bacteria, including Gram-negative as well ...
... with the gene that codes for the sex pilus (a hollow protein tube that connects two bacteria to allow the passage of DNA). This ... Occurs when several separate species arise from a single ancestral species, such as the 14 species of Galapagos finches that ... A cell wall on the exterior of the plasma membrane which prevents the protoplast (the bacterial plasma membrane and everything ... A species faces a crisis so severe as to cause a shift in the allelic frequencies of the survivors of the crisis. ...
The required cell-to-cell contact between the donor and recipient can be achieved through sex pili, through agglutinins ( ... same species). There are pieces of DNA measuring 700-20,000 bp in length that "jump" from one region of the genome to another. ... introduced into a bacterial cell via a phage vector. In generalized transduction, virtually any bacterial gene can be ... Bacterial Genetics and Bacteriophages. ⇒ Bacteriophages. ⇒ Recombination. ⇒ Genetic Transfer. Transformation is a mechanism of ...
PILI (SEX); FIMBRIAE (ATTACHMENT). *CAPSULE/GLYCOCALYX. *COMPARISON: EUCARYOTES AND PROCARYOTES. *SPORULATION - Endospores, ... BACTERIAL (E. COLI) CELL COMPOSITION. NUMBER MOLECULES MOL WT % OF DIFFERENT PER CELL CELL ... Reproduce themselves faithfully and the species continues to occupy its niche in the environment ... Several mechanisms, one of which is pilus extension (attachment to the solid surface) and pilus retraction. (Type IV pili.) ...
They exchange the plasmid through bacterial sex, often through structures called pili. They create a little channel and they ... Is it a really fast one, like a Ferrari, or is it like a Skoda? And plasmids dont respect species distinctions, so bacteria ... Snesruds getting one of the ultimate honors for a microbiologist --- a new species named after him. The team has proposed ... can pass them to different species of bacteria --- as if a cat gave some of its genes to a dog, for instance. It also means ...
C) sex pili. D) plasmids. E) endospores. 3) The mutations that improve the survival and reproduction of organisms, and thus ... contribute to the evolution of species, arise rapidly in prokaryotes due to their A) rapid rates of cell division. B) anaerobic ... E) Bacterial endospores are fragile structures that are easily destroyed. 2) In bacteria, the small, circular pieces of DNA ... E) Bacterial endospores are fragile structures that are easily destroyed.. 2) In bacteria, the small, circular pieces of DNA ...
Proteus species are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli. Proteus organisms are implicated as serious ... causes of infections in humans, along with Escherichia, Klebsiella , Enterobacter , and Serratia species. ... Sex. Other factors that increase infection rates include female sex, duration of catheterization, underlying illness, faulty ... Bacterial production of urease has also been shown to increase the risk of pyelonephritis in experimental animals. Urease ...
C) sex pili.. D) plasmids.. E) endospores.. 3) The mutations that improve the survival and reproduction of organisms, and thus ... the evolution of species, arise rapidly in prokaryotes due to their. A) rapid rates of cell division.. B) anaerobic metabolism. ... E) Bacterial endospores are fragile structures that are easily destroyed.. 2) In bacteria, the small, circular pieces of DNA ... A) sex attractants produced by Japanese beetles.. B) light emitted by fireflies.. C) queen substance produced by honeybees.. D ...
  • human include 30 trillion body cells but such body roughly hosts 39 trillion Bacterial cells.Bacteria are the smallest of all unicellular organisms which cannot be seen with our naked and can be seen only under microscopes. (
  • Scientists roughly estimated that over 10 to the power of 30 varieties of species of bacteria may exist in nature at present. (
  • The largest species of bacteria which are roughly visible to human eye measures 0.7 mm is Epulopiscium fishelsoni and another bacterium which measures 0.5 mm is Thiomargarita namibiensis. (
  • Bacteria are usually live as single individual cells but in a variety of species of bacteria they tend to live in specific groups. (
  • Vibrio cholerae is a Cholera disease causing species of bacteria. (
  • pili ) is a hairlike protein structure on the surface of a cell , especially Gram-negative bacteria . (
  • Numerous different types of pili have been characterized, and various forms of these appendages are involved in diverse activities of bacteria. (
  • These include bacterial cell aggregation, adhesion to surfaces of host cells such as, in the case of gut bacteria, the linings of the intestine, adhesion to other microbial cells in biofilms , gene and protein injection into other cells, DNA uptake by naturally transformable bacteria, and virulence attributes of pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Type I pili are widely distributed on enteric bacteria and their structure and assembly is well characterized. (
  • Adhesion of bacterial cells has an important survival role in their survival as micro-colonies - called biofilms - on solid surfaces in the natural environment, and F-pili determine the final shapes of the structures seen in mature surface biofilms formed by Eschericha coli bacteria, as mutants affected in the plasmid specified F-pili form a biofilm of a different structure [7] . (
  • To take up the DNA efficiently, bacterial cells must be in a competent state, which is defined by the capability of bacteria to bind free fragments of DNA and is formed naturally only in a limited number of bacteria, such as Haemophilus , Neisseria , Streptococcus , and Bacillus . (
  • In gram-negative bacteria, donor cells produce a specific plasmid-coded pilus , called the sex pilus, which attaches the donor cell to the recipient cell. (
  • Conjugation allows the inheritance of large portions of genes and may be responsible for the existence of bacteria with traits of several different species. (
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (
  • plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria and archaea. (
  • As the primary antigenic determinants, virulence factors and impunity factors on the cell surface of a number of species of Gram negative and some Gram positive bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Neisseriaceae, there has been much interest in the study of pili as organelle of adhesion and as vaccine components. (
  • Conjugative pili allow for the transfer of DNA between bacteria, in the process of bacterial conjugation. (
  • Not all bacteria can make conjugative pili, but conjugation can occur between bacteria of different species. (
  • The external ends of the pili adhere to a solid substrate, either the surface to which the bacterium is attached or to other bacteria. (
  • This sex pilus will connect with another bacterium and allow DNA to pass between the bacteria. (
  • all bacteria can create sex pili but sex pili can form between many different bacterial species. (
  • Bacteria use adherence fimbriae (pili) to overcome the body's defense mechanism and cause disease. (
  • Bacteria possessing pili include Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some strains of Escherichia coli , Salmonella and Shigella species. (
  • It is a specialized kind of pili that forms the attachment between male (donor) and the female (recipient) bacteria during conjugation and acts as a conduit for the passage of DNA. (
  • Other bacterial species change their genetic repertoire minimally, principally those that have adapted to a particular environment and, in the case of pathogenic bacteria, to a specific host. (
  • even sexual reproduction has been exhibited in some species of bacteria. (
  • Many bacteria contain other extracellular structures such as flagella , fimbriae, and pili, which are used respectively for motility (movement), attachment, and conjugation (transmission of DNA between bacterial cells by contact other than fusion). (
  • Some bacteria also contain capsules or slime layers that facilitate bacterial attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation. (
  • Bacteria contain relatively few intracellular structures compared to eukaryotes , but do contain a tightly supercoiled chromosome , ribosomes , and several other species-specific structures. (
  • Recently, infection with a strain of potentially deadly bacteria (called methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA) has been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM). (
  • This debate was settled in the 1940's, when it was discovered that bacteria have sex. (
  • Bacteria - Capsules and slime layers: Many bacterial cells secrete some extracellular material in the form of a capsule or a slime layer. (
  • Another problem with water sex is it can push chemicals and bacteria. (
  • A new study finds that women have more species of bacteria on their hands than do men. (
  • I don't know what this means, but this brings up a question about the use of the term species in reference to bacteria. (
  • Problems arise in the definition of species, because of the promiscuous exchange of DNA between bacteria (and other organisms). (
  • There is also a form of sexual, conjugal transfer of DNA between bacteria via proteinaceous bridges called sex pili. (
  • The upshot of all of this genetic exchange is the blurring of species boundaries, particularly in bacteria. (
  • It does bring into question the use of the term species as applied to bacteria. (
  • It would be interesting to see detailed DNA sequencing of bacterial populations applied to simulations of gut bacteria. (
  • Some of the most important difference between Transformation and Conjugation are :- It is a process of genetic recombination in bacteria where DNA fragments are taken up by bacterial cells from external medium whereas It is also a process of genetic recombination in bacteria, where two cells conjugate and a segment of DNA transfers from one another. (
  • Transduction is a mechanism of DNA uptake by bacteria in which the donor DNA , consisting of fragments of the bacterial chromosome, is introduced into a bacterial cell via a phage vector. (
  • And plasmids don't respect species distinctions, so bacteria can pass them to different species of bacteria --- as if a cat gave some of its genes to a dog, for instance. (
  • Proteus species possess an extracytoplasmic outer membrane, a feature shared with other gram-negative bacteria. (
  • E coli , P mirabilis , and other gram-negative bacteria contain fimbriae (ie, pili), which are tiny projections on the surface of the bacterium. (
  • The sex pilus allows bacteria that are equipped with it to transfer their secondary chromosome, the plasmid, to a neighbouring bacterial cell. (
  • Beneficial mutations that develop in one bacterial cell can also be passed to related bacteria of different lineages through the process of horizontal transmission. (
  • There are three main forms of horizontal transmission used to spread genes between members of the same or different species: conjugation (bacteria-to-bacteria transfer), transduction (viral-mediated transfer), and transformation (free DNA transfer). (
  • Pili and fimbriae are proteinaceous, hair-like structures/appendages that extend from the cytoplasmic membrane of a variety of bacteria. (
  • Common features of all Gram-negative bacteria - Pili and Fimbriae. (
  • They can be found in some Gram-positive species of bacteria and all Gram-negative bacteria as well as archaea . (
  • Encoded by the F plasmid, the F pilus is found in 'male' Gram-negative bacteria (F+). (
  • Type IV pili are a type of Pili found in some Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., clostridia ) and the majority of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Although cholera patients are an interesting source of " in vivo "-grown V. cholerae , they may not be the ideal source for experimental purposes, because it is difficult to control the time points for harvesting bacteria from cholera patients, who are a diverse group (varying in age, sex, nutritional and immune status, diet, etc.), and who arrive at clinics in different stages of the illness. (
  • 3. Bacteria can be one of THREE Different SHAPES: the three common types of bacterial morphology - coccus, bacillus, spirillum. (
  • 3. PILI are Short, Hairlike Protein Structures found on the Surface of some species of bacteria. (
  • Pili help bacteria hold on to host cells, and are also used to transfer genetic material from one bacterium to another. (
  • Bacterial Genetics is the study of the transfer of genetic information in bacteria. (
  • Some bacterial genomes are comprised of multiple chromosomes and/or plasmids and many bacteria harbor multiple copies of their genome per cell. (
  • Although free-living bacteria exist in huge numbers, relatively few species cause disease. (
  • Bacterial conjugation has been extensively studied in Escherichia coli , but also occurs in other bacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis . (
  • Many of the antibiotic resistance genes are carried on plasmids, transposons or integrons that can act as vectors that transfer these genes to other members of the same bacterial species, as well as to bacteria in another genus or species. (
  • Conjugation was first described in 1946 by Lederberg and Tatum, based on studies showing that the intestinal bacteria E.coli uses a process resembling sex to exchange circular, extrachromosomal elements, now known as plasmids. (
  • Despite the fact that bacteria reproduce exclusively asexually, the sharing of genetic information within and between related species is now recognized to be quite common and to occur in at least three fundamentally different ways. (
  • The ability to take up DNA from the environment is called competence, and in many species of bacteria, it is encoded by chromosomal genes that become active under certain environmental conditions. (
  • Bacterial conjugation is one of the three major known modes of genetic exchange between bacteria, the other two being transduction and bacterial transformation. (
  • Bacterial transformation is defined as the heritable change in the properties of bacteria caused by the uptake of naked DNA. (
  • Botulism caused by a species of anaerobic bacteria. (
  • A pilus is a hair-like appendage many of which are present on the surface of many bacteria. (
  • Conjugation occurs in and between many species of bacteria, including Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria, and even occurs between bacteria and plants. (
  • Broad-host-range conjugative plasmids, such as RK2, can be transferred among many bacterial genera and even from bacteria to yeast. (
  • Some bacteria may also cause human, animal and plant health problems (bacterial pathogens). (
  • Pilus' is Latin for 'hair' (plural pili) and describes not so much hair-like bacterial appendages, but thin rod-like appendages that some bacteria have. (
  • Whether or not bacteria possess pili depends upon both species and strain and environmental waste resources in producing them, but will rapidly switch on their synthesis if environmental signals suggest they will be needed. (
  • For example, one function of pili is adhesion to surfaces - thus bacteria inside the human intestine may produce pili in order to adhere to the host's cells and only swarmer cells may produce them. (
  • Bacteria may possess no pili, one pilus, a few pili, or they may be clothed in hundreds of pili, giving them a hairy appearance (in which case the pili are sometimes called fimbriae, singular fimbria, meaning 'fringe' due to their appearance under the microscope). (
  • Not all bacteria have flagella, the bacterium in the picture above has no flagella and is non-motile but eventually it settles and makes contact with the surface (if it had flagella it may have actively swam toward the surface) and once its pili touch the surface they stick to it, because their ends are sticky. (
  • Inside the human body, quite a chemical war may be waged between the human host and potentially harmful bacteria as the body may attempt to chemically block the pili of the bacteria to prevent them adhering or it may allow them to adhere to cells which then gobble them up. (
  • Some bacteria use their pili to adhere and trigger the host cell to eat them but they then escape being destroyed and live inside the host cell! (
  • Linked in figure 1 is a high-resolution image of the evolutionary tree of life, from viruses through bacteria and archaea to protista, plants, animals and fungi, with a selection of representative species illustrated. (
  • Cell wall in gram-positive bacteria are characterized by a thick peptidoglycan layer, whereas in gram-negative bacterial cells, the cell walls are characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by an outer membrane. (
  • 8. (b): Transduction involves transfer of, genetic material of one bacterial cell goes to other bacterial cell by agency of bacteriophages or phages (viruses, infecting bacteria). (
  • Bacterial PlasmidsR Plasmid bacterial plasmid that carries genes for enzymes that destroy particular antibiotics result in antibiotic resistant bacteria. (
  • Due to these differences in the chemical nature of the bacterial cell wall, bacteria differ in staining property. (
  • We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp. (
  • Flagella, whip-like extensions propelling bacteria forward and pili, short extensions used to exchange genetic material between bacteria (also known as microbial sex), are also less frequent in marine environments. (
  • Escherichia coli (including E. coli 0157:H7 and non-0157 serotypes, all members of the Enterobacteriaceae family) are gram-negative bacteria that are rod-shaped, have the ability to survive in aerobic and anaerobic environments (termed a facultative anaerobe), and may or may not produce flagella and pili (thin hair-like projections) depending on their environmental needs. (
  • Among the many biological technologies to examine transient protein-protein interaction in vivo, one of the developed methods is genetic code expansion with non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) utilizing a pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNAPyl pair from Methanosarcina species: However, this method has never been applied to assign function-unknown proteins in pathogenic bacteria. (
  • They revealed that type IV pili on the surface of the bacteria were not sufficient for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells and that proteins secreted by E.coli were also necessary. (
  • It was thought that a filamentous structure on the surface of bacteria called 'type IV pilus' was important for bacterial attachment, but its detailed adhesion mechanism was not known. (
  • One of the corresponding authors, Shota Nakamura, says, "We demonstrated that type IV pili on the surface of the bacteria were not sufficient for ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells and that proteins secreted by E.coli were also necessary. (
  • that is, secreted proteins serve as molecular bridges that bind both type IV pili on the surface of the bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells in humans. (
  • In transduction, bacteria are attacked by viruses called bacteriophage that can integrate themselves into the bacterial genome. (
  • When they then integrate into a new host genome, they therefore ferry bacterial genes between the bacteria, some of which may confer antibiotic resistance. (
  • The envelope of the bacterial cell comprises of complex structures that vary among different major groups of bacteria. (
  • The bacterial cell envelope carries out many cellular processes such as protecting the bacterial cell against chemical and biological attacks in its environment while also aiding the colonization of surfaces by bacteria. (
  • [25] Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria . (
  • with bacterial infections antibiotics kill off the harmful bacteria. (
  • Various types of pili are involved in conjugation and in the adherence of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. (
  • Plasmids may provide bacteria with additional virulence-related capabilities (such as pilus formation, iron transport systems, toxin production, and antibiotic resistance). (
  • To some extent, we have already touched on the matter in our previous discussion of the sex factor F in bacteria. (
  • As you may recall, the filamentous bacteriophage only infected male bacteria - i.e. those with pili on their surfaces. (
  • I. Epidemiology and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids. (
  • Invasive Bacterial Pathogens of the Intestine: Shigella Virulence Plasmids and Potential Vaccine Approaches. (
  • Conjugation and Resistance Transfer in Streptococci and Other Gram Positive Species: Plasmids, Sex Pheromones and Conjugative Transposons (A Review). (
  • Conjugative Pili of Plasmids in Escherichia Coli K-12 and Pseudomonas Species. (
  • Some forms of pili are encoded by plasmids , for instance fertility factor F encodes F-pili (sex-pili) which are present at only 2 to 4 per cell. (
  • Many conjugative plasmids can be transferred between, and reproduce in, a large number of different gram-negative bacterial species. (
  • The first is obvious - when the bacterial cell divides via a process called binary fission - plasmids are often passed on to the daughter cell because the cytoplasm is divided equally between the cells. (
  • Plasmids are small DNA fragments known from almost all bacterial cells. (
  • Some plasmids seem to have the ability to move in and out of the bacterial chromosome. (
  • There are many different conjugal plasmids carried by members of most bacterial species. (
  • Importance of plasmids in bacterial genetics and in genetic engineering Human / microbe relationships Analysis of the virulence factors of microorganisms (include public health importance) Prevention and treatments strategies Requirements. (
  • [5] Bacterial genetics studies the mechanisms of their heritable information, their chromosomes , plasmids , transposons , and phages . (
  • Broad-host-range conjugative plasmids have been used in molecular biology to introduce recombinant genes into bacterial species that are refractory to routine transformation or transduction methods. (
  • [1] Plasmids are transmitted from one bacterium to another (even of another species) mostly through conjugation . (
  • however, some classes of plasmids encode the conjugative "sex" pilus necessary for their own transfer. (
  • transformation (absorption of naked DNA), transduction (transfer by a virus), and conjugation (transfer by independently replicating DNA molecules, called plasmids , which can be inserted into the bacterial DNA). (
  • We call such engineered F' plasmids ' BACs ' or Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (
  • Escherichia coli cell with bacterial fimbriae (pili). (
  • fimbriae ) is a short pilus. (
  • The terms pili and fimbriae are often used interchangeably. (
  • Bacterial fimbriae can contain lectin proteins generally at their tips. (
  • plural: fimbriae) can be used interchangeably, although some researchers reserve the term pilus for the appendage required for bacterial conjugation. (
  • Found mainly in Gram negative organisms, Fimbriae or pili ( singlular: pilus ) are hair like filaments (tiny hollow projections) that extend from the cell membrane into the external environment. (
  • Fimbriae (pili) are shorter, straighter and more numerous than bacterial flagella and are composed by subunits of protein called pilin. (
  • Common pili (short attachment pili also called fimbriae). (
  • Pili (singular: Pilus) are longer in length and thicker when compared to fimbriae. (
  • Fimbriae (or pili ) tend to be approx. (
  • Fimbriae (or pili ) help bacterial cells adhere to each other, to animal cells and to inanimate objects. (
  • Fimbriae and Pili are short, thin appendages. (
  • Fimbriae are usually many and help the cells adhere to surfaces while Pili are only one or two per cells and help join cells during conjugation for the transfer of DNA (sex pili) or are used for special types of movement like twitching in Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some strains of E.coli, or the gliding movement of myxobacteria. (
  • The bacterial chromosome can also be transferred during conjugation, although this happens less frequently than plasmid transfer. (
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome … Transduction has an advantage over conjugation in that transduction doesn't require physical contact between the cell donating and the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA. (
  • The bacterial chromosome is a long circle of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is attached to the membrane of the cell. (
  • After transfer, the DNA molecules can exist in two forms, either as DNA molecules separate from the bacterial chromosome (an episome), or can become part of the bacterial chromosome. (
  • The F factor can be found inserted (integrated) into the bacterial chromosome at many locations in a small fraction of bacterial cells. (
  • Thus, little is known about the role of the small chromosome in the biology of this organism or other Vibrio species. (
  • Most bacterial cells contain a single chromosome. (
  • The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes whose products direct this process. (
  • E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the bacterial chromosome. (
  • In certain F+ bacterial cells, the F element infrequently (about once in every 10,000 F+ cells) becomes associated with the main bacterial chromosome in such a way that a copy of the chromosome instead is transferred through the conjugation tube from donor to recipient cell. (
  • In the insertion process, the circular F element breaks at a particular point and becomes a linear segment of the bacterial chromosome. (
  • The integrated F element of Hfr cells is ordinarily replicated passively along with the bacterial chromosome and in this way is transmitted from one Hfr generation to the next. (
  • Genophore is the bacterial chromosome. (
  • The bacterial chromosome is a circular molecule of DNA that functions as a self-replicating genetic element (replicon). (
  • Heritable changes in the nucleotide sequence of the bacterial genome (chromosome). (
  • Recombination genes of pili code for variable (V) and constant (C) regions of the pili (similar to immunoglobulin diversity). (
  • In order to initiate conjugation, a bacterial cell must contain the genes that code for the sex pilus, which are usually found on a specific plasmid. (
  • Sex pilus genes are always found on the plasmid, and can be passed from one cell to another during conjugation. (
  • Here we show that PAPI-1 is transferred into recipient P. aeruginosa by a conjugative mechanism, via a type IV pilus, encoded in PAPI-1 by a 10-gene cluster which is closely related to the genes in the enterobacterial plasmid R64. (
  • For HGT-mediated acquisition of genes to occur, a recipient has to be in an environment where donor genetic material is available, such as different strains of the same species cohabitating a shared niche or growing in a large and diverse community of several hundred different microorganisms. (
  • However, the potential use of probiotics to limit the emergence of bacterial resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes has been briefly investigated. (
  • Transduction occurs when bacterial genes are carried from a donor cell to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage. (
  • Experimentally, DNA containing genes of interest, usually within a plasmid, can be introduced into the environment in order to transform bacterial cells. (
  • Bacterial genes are organized in by gene systems known as operons. (
  • About twenty genes on the F factor are required to produce a functional pilus, but the structure is mainly made up of one protein , pilin. (
  • [5] The two-fold cost of sex includes this cost and the fact that any organism can only pass on 50% of its own genes to its offspring. (
  • however, only transformation is governed by bacterial chromosomal genes. (
  • Next-generation sequencing techniques based upon the analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes permit in-depth study of vaginal microbial community structure to a level of detail not possible with standard culture-based microbiological techniques. (
  • This may involve shotgun metagenomic sequencing of all of the DNA in a biological samples (human and bacterial) but most commonly involves amplifying, sequencing and analysing specific regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, although other rRNA genes (18S for eukaryotic microbes) or genomic regions (for viruses) can be used. (
  • Occurs considerable faster than the mutation rate due to transfer of genes between bacterial populations via transformation, transduction and conjugation (all mediated via homologous recombination between a donor/exogenote and recippient/endogenote). (
  • In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species. (
  • Phase-variable expression of different versions of the same gene, as in the case of opa genes, or of genes that contribute to the structure of the same macromolecule, as occurs with lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis genes, results in reversible changes in the antigenic makeup of the bacterial surface. (
  • The pili encoded by F plasmid in Escherichia coli are involved in formation of cell aggregates as a prelude to gene transfer, called conjugation , from the F-plasmid containing cells to a recipient (see figure) [5] . (
  • Conjugation is a type of genetic recombination that requires one bacterium to have the F-plasmid in order to create a sex pilus. (
  • To initiate conjugation, a bacterium must possess a plasmid that enables formation of the sex pilus. (
  • Recall that a plasmid contains the extrachromosomal DNA (found outside the bacterial cells' chromosomes), whereas the nucleoid contains the chromosomal DNA. (
  • They exchange the plasmid through bacterial sex, often through structures called pili. (
  • Conjugation is the transfer of a plasmid or other self-transmissible DNA element and sometimes chromosomal DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell via direct contact usually mediated by a conjugation pilus or sex pilus. (
  • The process of bacterial conjugation is based on the principle that the plasmid or any other genetic material is transferred from the donor cell to the recipient cell through close physical contact. (
  • [4] The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its replication cycle, but because that description includes bacterial viruses, the notion of plasmid was refined over time to comprise genetic elements that reproduce autonomously. (
  • A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation protein (Rep), repeating units called iterons , DnaA boxes, and an adjacent AT-rich region. (
  • It is the presence or absence of the F factor (integrated or in plasmid form) that determines the sex. (
  • Bacterial DNA can pass from one cell to another through the processes of conjugation and transduction. (
  • However, widespread gene transfer by means of transduction is of limited significance because the packaging of bacterial DNA into a virus is inefficient and the bacteriophages are usually highly restricted in the range of bacterial species that they can infect. (
  • Generalized transduction :-  Generalized transduction is the process by which any bacterial gene may be transferred to another bacterium via a bacteriophage, and typically carries only bacterial DNA and no viral DNA. (
  • Draw a figure, create a concept map, or construct a table that distinguishes conjugation, transformation, and transduction … one bacterial cell is the donor of DNA and the other is the recipient. (
  • Transformation Conjugation is similar to transduction in that DNA is moved directly from one bacterial cell to another. (
  • In generalized transduction, virtually any bacterial gene can be transferred by a lytic bacteriophage. (
  • Prokaryotes , whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer , display processes such as bacterial conjugation , transformation and transduction , which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (
  • Explore bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction only at BYJU'S. (
  • Bacterial conjugation, transduction and transformation are their methods. (
  • In conjugation, transformation, and transduction within the same species, genetic recombination between donor and recipient DNA occurs because the sequences match, allowing crossing-over to occur. (
  • The lacZdeltaM15 was introduced into the strain by transduction, on a phage species called phi80. (
  • However, all types of pili are primarily composed of oligomeric pilin proteins which form the pilus rod structure. (
  • A wide variety of different types of pili have been discovered whose biological roles include being used as molecular machines to transfer proteins and DNA between different cells. (
  • The first detailed study of pili was done by Brinton and co-workers who demonstrated the existence of two distinct phases within one bacterial strain: pileated (p+) and non-pileated) A few names are given to different types of pili by their function. (
  • Generally, there are two main types of pili. (
  • Some bacterial viruses ( bacteriophages ) attach to receptors on sex pili at the start of their reproductive cycle. (
  • Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses. (
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have DNA or RNA as genetic material. (
  • Often adhesion occurs by means of appendages which protrude from the cell surface, such as the flagella, or by pili. (
  • flagella (whiplike locomotor organelles), pili (minute filamentous appendages), or a capsule (a layer of gelatinous material around the cell). (
  • Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a neighboring cell and integrates this DNA into its genome by homologous recombination. (
  • Evolution of the bacterial genome. (
  • During the process, transposase causes breaks in both the transposon itself and at sites adjacent to the target sequence in the bacterial genome. (
  • Because every individual within a population of bacterial cells is so closely related genetically, they are put at great risk in the event that an environmental stressor emerges that exploits a weakness in the bacterial genome. (
  • the genome is the total DNA of the bacterial organism. (
  • There is a functional annotation of the EHEC coli BGI genome made with our BG7 bacterial genome annotation pipeline running in AWS EC2. (
  • More recently, our understanding of their importance in bacterial genome evolution has broadened with the discovery of larger integron structures, termed superintegrons. (
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts ( organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis ), mitochondrial DNA , and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (
  • F-pili are involved in bacterial conjugation and connect the bacterium to another bacterium and enable a bridge between the cytoplasms of the cells which becomes the channel for one way transfer of a single-strand of DNA and certain protein molecules. (
  • 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings the two cells together. (
  • Comparison of a typical bacterial cell and a typical human cell (assuming both cells are spheres) : The cell envelope is composed of the cell membrane and the cell wall. (
  • Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in some eukaryotes, several antibiotics (notably the penicillins and cephalosporins) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall, only a cell membrane. (
  • Besides archaella, many archaea produce adhesive type 4 pili, which enable archaeal cells to adhere to different substrates. (
  • Bacterial cells are capable of conjugation, a form of sexual reproduction. (
  • The process involves the formation of a bridge between bacterial cells that facilitates the movement of genetic material from one cell to the other. (
  • It involves formation of a bridge, called the sex pilus, between two bacterial cells. (
  • This exchange increases the number of cells capable of forming the sex pilus, increasing the ability for bacterial cells to perform sexual reproduction and increase genetic variation. (
  • Shigella cells will pass DNA through a sex pilus. (
  • The sex pilus joins the two cells together and pulls the cells very close together for the DNA transfer in the cytoplasm. (
  • These replicate independently of the cell, and can be passed on to other bacterial cells. (
  • The second method of transmission is through bacterial conjugation (bacterial sex) where a modified pilus will be used for transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells. (
  • genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or sex. (
  • Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (
  • transfer of DNA between two bacterial cells, required cell-cell contact. (
  • The attachment of Proteus species to uroepithelial cells initiates several events in the mucosal endothelial cells, including secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. (
  • Therefore, each replication cycle doubles the number of cells in a bacterial population. (
  • Bacterial conjugation refers to the transfer of DNA between bacterial cells that requires cell-to-cell contact. (
  • To bring the donor and recipient cell into close proximity, the F pilus retracts into the donor cell by removing pilin protein monomers from the base of the pilus to draw the bacterial cells together. (
  • Although this process was not widely accepted, some studies have shown that genetic material can be transferred over a distance (where the donor and recipient cells are not directly in contact with each other) through the F-pili. (
  • The F-pilus is also thought to play an important role in the identification of the recipient as well as promoting contact between the two cells, the donor and recipient cell, as it retracts. (
  • As the pilus is constructed, a protein known as secretin is involved in the formation of oligomeric gated channel in the outer membrane of bacterial cells so that the pilus can pass through. (
  • 5. Bacterial cells do NOT have membrane bound organelles. (
  • The CYTOPLASM of Bacterial cells is made of a Viscous (Thick Liquid) solution of Ribosomes and DNA. (
  • Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer between two cells through the intervening medium. (
  • Cellular aggregation is thought to enhance species specific DNA transfer between Sulfolobus cells in order to provide increased repair of damaged DNA by means of homologous recombination . (
  • Conjugation Another way of transfer of bacterial DNA between different cells is conjugation.This requires a direct cell to cell contact. (
  • Transformation Cells take up free DNA directly from … transfer of DNA between two bacterial cells, required cell-cell contact. (
  • In the context of prokaryotic cells, a fimbria (or a pilus ) is a protein rod that is sometimes called a proteinaceous appendage . (
  • Pili can also be used to stick bacterial cells to one another, forming microcolonies. (
  • This pilus will retract, pulling the two bacterial cells close together and enabling one of them, the donor, to pass DNA to the recipient. (
  • A gram of soil typically contains about 40 million bacterial cells. (
  • A milliliter of fresh water usually holds about one million bacterial cells. (
  • Bacterial cells are different from plant and animal cells. (
  • i] Two seperate bacterial cells belonging to opposite strains come close to each other. (
  • ii] The conjugation bridge is formed between the two cells using the sex pili or F - pili. (
  • Sex pili are formed between bacterial cells, through which they exchange genetic material. (
  • Bacterial capsules play protective roles by limiting their ingestion by white blood cells (leukocytes). (
  • In addition to cellular shape, prokaryotic cells of the same species may group together in certain distinctive arrangements depending on the plane of cell division. (
  • Type IV Pili Can Mediate Bacterial Motility within Epithelial Cells. (
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions such as extracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (
  • Dozens of these structures can exist on the bacterial and archaeal surface. (
  • E) Bacterial endospores are fragile structures that are easily destroyed. (
  • Like conjugative pilus, type IV pili are tube-like structures that originate from the membrane. (
  • Knowledge of the cell wall and these external structures is important in diagnosis and pathogenicity and for understanding bacterial biology. (
  • It protects the internal structures of the bacterial cell. (
  • Transformation occurs when a bacterial cell receives genetic material from its surrounding environment. (
  • Expanded genetic material leads to stronger protein production by the bacterial cell. (
  • They are composed of several different protein components including FimH adhesin that is part of the short thin fibrillar pilus tip, and FimA which makes up the thicker 7 nm thick long rod of the pilus. (
  • The assembly of the Type I pilus occurs in the periplasm and involves the "chaperone/usher" protein folding and delivery system. (
  • A pilus is composed of subunits of the protein pilin. (
  • With regards to structure, the pilus is a polymer that consists of the protein pilin (VirB2) and is also structurally similar to the F-like pilus pED208 - They both measure an average of 87 Å in diameter with an internal lumen that is about 28 Å in diameter. (
  • Given that bacterial pili originate from the membrane, they also consist of phospholipids, and proteins, which form a protein-phospholipid complex. (
  • Structurally, these pili (type IV pili) are also polymers that consist of pilin protein. (
  • Here, PilN and PilO, which are pilus alignment subcomplex proteins associated with the inner membrane, also come in contact with secretin and channel the protein PilP which results in the formation of the periplasmic conduit so that the pilus can grow through. (
  • Notice that the pilus is depicted as being made up of many spheres, these are the subunits, each one is a molecule of protein called pilin (fimbrin). (
  • In some species competence is because of a protein competence factor on the surface of the recipient. (
  • The results revealed that the NMB1345 protein directly interacts with PilE, a major component of meningococcal pili, and further physicochemical and genetic analyses showed that the interaction between the NMB1345 protein and PilE was important for both functional pilus formation and meningococcal infectious ability in N. meningitidis. (
  • Structural model of the secreted protein CofJ (yellow) and CFA/III pilus complex. (
  • Interplay of a secreted protein with type IVb pilus for efficient enterotoxigenic Escherichia colicolonization, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). (
  • Movement produced by type IV pili is typically jerky, so it is called twitching motility, as opposed to other forms of bacterial motility such as that produced by flagella. (
  • Perhaps the most well-studied is the F-pilus of Escherichia coli, encoded by the F sex factor. (
  • Proteus organisms are implicated as serious causes of infections in humans, along with Escherichia, Klebsiella , Enterobacter , and Serratia species. (
  • Proteus species are most commonly found in the human intestinal tract as part of normal human intestinal flora, along with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species, of which E coli is the predominant resident. (
  • As with the closely related bacterium Escherichia coli , salmonellae are potential enteric pathogens and a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. (
  • Genetics of Erwinia species. (
  • Bacterial Genetics Photo by: 4designersart. (
  • Fang FC(1), Helinski DR. The classic comprehensive and authoritative textbook on bacterial molecular genetics. (
  • In order to read online Genetics And Genomics Of Bacterial Blight Resistance In Rice textbook, you need to create a FREE account. (
  • These latter characteristics are often selected as the inherited traits to be analyzed in studies of bacterial genetics. (
  • R Factors Present in Epidemic Strains on Shigella and Salmonella Species Found in Mexico. (
  • Different bacterial strains differ in the antigens on their surfaces. (
  • The evolution of bacterial strains toward multiresistance depends on the ecosystem in which they live. (
  • E. coli strains are found worldwide and live in significant numbers in human and other warm-blooded animals as part of the normal bacterial population of the large intestines . (
  • Many times in molecular biology we use bacterial strains that have particular genotypes involving F' factors. (
  • although one or two species do have more than one nucleoid. (
  • Bacterial DNA is circular and arrayed in a region of the cell known as the nucleoid , shown in Figure 3. (
  • Pili are small hairs that enable some pathogens to attach and adhere easily to cell surface particularly mucous membranes. (
  • Of the eleven species of ''Neisseria'' that colonize humans, only two are pathogens. (
  • It was found that this attachment mechanism might be a common feature in many enteropathogens such as Vibrio cholera and constitutes a novel therapeutic target against such bacterial pathogens. (
  • Nakamura also says, "It's possible that this attachment is a common feature in many type IV pili expressing enteropathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and constitutes a new therapeutic target against such bacterial pathogens. (
  • Also known referred to as sex pili in some books, conjugative pili are some of the most common bacterial pili. (
  • As mentioned, conjugative pili are primarily involved in the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell (male F+ ) to another (F-). This is why they are also referred to as sex pili. (
  • The following is the description of a generalized bacterial cell as seen under Electron Microscope. (
  • Cell wall of bacterial cell is protective in nature. (
  • Presence of Cell wall is considered to be a plant characteristic feature even though bacterial cell wall is not made with the chemical cellulose. (
  • 1- Donor cell produces pilus. (
  • Typical examples include: coccus (circle or spherical) bacillus (rod-like) coccobacillus (between a sphere and a rod) spiral (corkscrew-like) filamentous (elongated) Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cell membrane. (
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall, and for the determination of cell shape. (
  • If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a spheroplast. (
  • Beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. (
  • Like their secretion counterparts, the pilus injects material, DNA in this case, into another cell. (
  • Binary fission does not involve recombination, and is the term for bacterial cell division that results in two identical offspring from a single parental cell. (
  • A bacterial cell must possess a __________ gene on the __________ in order to initiate conjugation. (
  • After sex pilus formation, the donor cell will pass genetic information to the recipient cell via the sex pilus. (
  • Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (
  • DNA polymerase is synthesized then the DNA will move through the sex pilus from the donor cell to the receiver cell. (
  • The most prominent bacterial structural characteristic is the cell wall. (
  • Peptidoglycan _____is the material found in the bacterial cell wall that forms a molecular basis of the Gram stain. (
  • This virus will be able to initiate infection, and therefore introduce the original host's DNA into a new bacterial cell, but will not be able to replicate itself or lyse the new host cell. (
  • The required cell-to-cell contact between the donor and recipient can be achieved through sex pili, through agglutinins (substances that promote cell clumping), or via pheromones (chemicals that alter the behavior of other members of the same species). (
  • When these organisms invade the bloodstream, endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, apparently triggers a cascade of host inflammatory responses and leads to major detrimental effects. (
  • The main structure of the F factor that allows mating pair formation is the F pilus or sex pilus (a long thin fiber that extends from the bacterial cell surface). (
  • There are one to three pili expressed on an E. coli cell that carries the F factor, and one pilus will specifically interact with several molecules on the recipient cell surface (attachment). (
  • While the process is not properly understood, it's suggested that single strands of DNA can pass through the hollow lumen of the pilus to be transported to the recipient cell. (
  • 1. The Bacterial Cell Membrane is composed of a Lipid Bilayer similar to Eukaryotes. (
  • The bacterial cell is surrounded by a complex cell wall and often a thick capsule. (
  • Conjugation involves transfer of DNA via sexual pilus and requires cell -to-cell contact. (
  • Other species cannot enter the competent state but can be made permeable to DNA by treatment with agents that damage the cell envelope making an artificial trans-formation possible. (
  • one bacterial cell is the donor of DNA and the other is the recipient. (
  • Cell passes DNA to another cell by means of a conjugation tube (sex pilus). (
  • Above: a pilus projecting from the surface of a Gram negative bacterial cell. (
  • The diagram at the top of the page shows a pilus emerging through the cell envelope into the external medium. (
  • Notice the rings that form holes in the membranes through which the pilus projects - these represent complex and not well understood export and assembly systems (proteins) that transport the pilin subunits from inside the cell to the cell surface and assemble them into the pilus, which may grow as needed. (
  • The pili may then retract to bring the bacterium closer to the surface, enabling other parts to adhere, such as the outer envelope or slime capsule that surround the cell, and stabilising or strengthening the adhesion. (
  • substrate]] that signals the pilus to retract, dragging the cell forward. (
  • It is a process by which a single bacterial cell simply divides into two in half an hour time. (
  • The production of endospore is not always considered to be a means of asexual reproduction, but rather it is a mechanism of perennation, when the bacterial cell survives during an unfavourable condition. (
  • With the initiation of water, that is favourable condition, the wall is ruptured and the bacterial cell emerges out. (
  • Hence the bacterial cell structure lacks a nucleus . (
  • Ultrastructure of bacterial cell. (
  • sex pilus, - transfer from one bacterial cell to another- conjugation. (
  • What are the structural aspects of a bacterial organisms? (
  • These include conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can use, exhibiting mutualism (a type of symbiosis in which both organisms in two interacting species receive benefit), and recycling nutrients through bacterial decomposition of dead plants and animals . (
  • Specific chemicals located on the tips of pili enable organisms to attach to selected host tissue sites (eg, urinary tract endothelium). (
  • All pili in the latter sense are primarily composed of pilin proteins, which are oligomeric. (
  • Here, numerous copies of pilin (thousands of copies) are polymerized from subunits in the membrane to construct the filament (type IV pilus). (
  • Intra-articular application of radioactive gold in infectious nonspecific polyarthritis Bacterial type 2 secretion systems (T2SS), type 4 pili, and archaeal flagella assemble fibres from initially membrane-embedded pseudopilin and pilin subunits. (
  • The depth of variability created by the size of the pilin repertoire and the seemingly random manner by which cassettes are inserted make Neisseria pilus antigenic variation one of the most fascinating stories of genetic diversity in bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • Mechanisms of pilin antigenic variation and variation of pilus glycosylation. (
  • Depending on the type of pili, the building blocks (proteins) may be arranged in a helical manner (five-start helical filaments) or in pentamer layers on top of each other. (
  • The bacterial plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with peripheral and integral proteins while the archaeal membranes are composed of fatty acids that are ether-linked to phospholipids. (
  • Osaka University-led researchers clarified how pathogenic E.coli attached to the host intestinal epithelium using type IV pili and secreted proteins. (
  • Their research results will lead to the development of not only new vaccines for ETEC, but also anti-adhesion agents for preventing the binding of proteins implicated in bacterial attachment . (
  • Adherence is facilitated through pili and opa proteins. (
  • The traD enzyme, located at the base of the pilus, initiates membrane fusion. (
  • The Three Bacterial Sexual Processes Transformation … Firstly, take a look at the video. (
  • In such species, transformation can occur readily and is said to be natural. (
  • Although there are many kinds of operons in prokaryotes, the lac operon is the best understood and most widely used to teach bacterial gene regulation. (
  • Sex, one would think, is a good thing - as well as its obvious immediate attractions, it serves to mix up the gene pool and increase variety in the population, increasing the chances for survival in a changing world. (
  • Aaron Richardson and Jeffrey D. Palmer state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • In the case of some prokaryotes, such as E. coli, there exists a mechanism for genetic recombination known as the sex pillus, which provides a solution for this dilemma. (
  • Bacterial type IV pili are similar in structure to the component flagellins of archaella (archaeal flagella), and both are related to the Type II secretion system (T2SS). (
  • Clones of V. cholerae that emerge to cause epidemic and pandemic disease do so through acquisition of accessory genetic elements such as phages and chromosomal pathogenicity islands that encode key virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) ( 2 ) and the intestinal colonization factor, toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) ( 3 ). (
  • Recent studies shedding light on the virulence properties of G. vaginalis , however, have drawn the species back into the spotlight. (
  • Bacterial virulence is better understood than that of other infectious agents. (
  • Growth of fundamental knowledge about the organism and the host response to infection was slow for 80 years, but a remarkable surge of new information began in the 1970s, and, currently, as much is known of the molecular biology of the gono-coccus and the pathogenesis of gonorrhea as that of any bacterial pathogen. (
  • Dimorphism is found in both sex organs and in secondary sex characteristics, body size, physical strength and morphology, biological ornamentation, behavior and other bodily traits. (
  • Bacterial structure and morphology. (
  • Ways to prevent food poisoning is by killing the bacterial endospores. (
  • In some species this occurs only in certain growth conditions. (
  • however, other pieces of DNA are often co-transferred and this can result in dissemination of genetic traits throughout a bacterial population, such as antibiotic resistance. (
  • Method that analysis the specific traits of resistance against antibiotics of a bacterial strain in order to generate antibiotic resistance profiles for choosing the right antibiotics for medication or for bacterial typing or source tracking. (
  • Altering bacterial mode of growth can also confer resistance to antibiotic treatment. (
  • Bacterial biofilms also offer protection from antibiotic action. (
  • External to this wall may be capsules, flagella and pili. (
  • The endospore formation is observed in common bacterial species like Clostri Bacillus. (
  • N. gonorrhoeae'' are non-motile and possess type IV pili to adhere to surfaces. (
  • however, the C-terminal beta-strand-rich domains appear to be unrelated in bacterial and archaeal pilins. (
  • In this context the words ' pilus ' and ' fimbria ' are sometimes used interchangeably. (
  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that's easily cured with antibiotics. (
  • Gonorrhea, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus), is the second-most-prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. (
  • All of them infect your body in some way, whether it is a viral infection or a bacterial infection. (
  • Chlamydia is also a very common bacterial infection. (
  • It has similarities to a bacterial strain called EAEC 55989 , which was isolated in the Central African Republic and is known to cause serious diarrhea. (
  • In this study, we sequenced the genomes of a strain of G. vaginalis from a healthy woman, and one from a woman with bacterial vaginosis. (
  • It is not a species characteristic of a microbe (virus), and it may vary widely from strain to strain. (
  • Sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, are either bacterial or viral infections that can be contracted through any sexual activity: oral, anal and vaginal intercourse. (
  • Bacterial infections are treatable and curable. (
  • However, Proteus species are not the most common cause of nosocomial infections. (
  • In addition, Salmonella species have been implicated in a spectrum of other diseases, including enteric or typhoid fever (primarily Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi ), bacteremia , endovascular infections, focal infections (eg, osteomyelitis), and enterocolitis (typically Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella heidelberg ). (
  • This is because bacterial infections are responsible for the bulk of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. (
  • Viral infections don't tend to go away really, unlike bacterial infections. (
  • These infections most likely would occur as a result of unprotected sex. (
  • Most bacterial infections can be cured unlike viral or prion infections. (
  • In Gram-negative species, the peptidoglycan layer is thin (5-10 nm) and is overlaid by an outer membrane, anchored to lipoprotein molecules in the peptidoglycan layer. (
  • Proteus species are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli. (
  • Enterobacteriaceae (of which Proteus is a member) and Pseudomonas species are the microorganisms most commonly responsible for gram-negative bacteremia. (
  • 2. A bacterial Endospore is a dormant structure that is produced by some Gram-positive bacterial species that are exposed to harsh environmental conditions. (
  • Example: Mutants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that do not form pili are nonpathogen. (
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen that most commonly infects the lower genital tract, the cervix in women, and anterior urethra in men. (
  • This invention relates to a method for coating a medical device comprising the steps of applying to at least a portion of the surface of said medical device, an antimicrobial coating layer and a non-pathogenic bacterial coating layer, wherein the antimicrobial and non-pathogenic bacterial coating layers. (
  • The non-pathogenic bacterium used in the bacterial coating layer is resistant to the antimicrobial agent. (
  • These are characteristic of different species and depend on the age and condition of the culture. (
  • How are the researchers defining the 4,700 different bacterial species that they found? (
  • Pelzer ES, Allan JA, Theodoropoulos C, Ross T, Beagley KW, Knox CL (2012) Hormone-Dependent Bacterial Growth, Persistence and Biofilm Formation - A Pilot Study Investigating Human Follicular Fluid Collected during IVF Cycles. (
  • The process of conjugation can transfer DNA regions of hundreds to thousands of kilobases and has the broadest host range for DNA transfer among the methods for bacterial exchange. (
  • 1. Many bacterial species produce an Outer Covering called a CAPSULE. (
  • As a consequence of similar historical events, human chromosomes are littered with DNA remnants from other species. (
  • Many insects possess vertically-transmitted bacterial symbionts that provide them with amino acids and vitamins ( Moran 2006 ). (