In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III secretion system interacts with phagocytes to modulate systemic infection of zebrafish embryos. (1/446)

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The 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of Spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type III secretion needle complex in Shigella flexneri. (2/446)

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The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells. (3/446)

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Tolerance rather than immunity protects from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric preneoplasia. (4/446)

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Type IV secretion systems: versatility and diversity in function. (5/446)

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Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/446)

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Endofungal bacterium controls its host by an hrp type III secretion system. (7/446)

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Diarrhea induced by infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (8/446)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that naturally inhabits marine and estuarine environments. Infection with V. parahaemolyticus is often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, causing gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea. The presence of two type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), has been closely associated with the severity of diarrheal illness. TDH and TRH have various biological activities including hemolytic activity, cardiotoxicity, and enterotoxicity. T3SS1 is involved in cytotoxicity to host cells and orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and cell lysis. T3SS2 is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. The activities of inducing diarrhea of each of the virulence factors were summarized in this review.  (+info)

The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria ...
Bacterial secretion systems found in bacteria that have a MYCOLIC ACID-containing outer membrane such as MYCOBACTERIACEAE; Corynebacteriaceae; and NOCARDIACEAE. These are also known as ESX secretion systems because the first to be discovered is involved in secreting major virulence factors EsxA and EsxB. There are several subtypes of T7SSs including ESX-1, ESX-2, ESX-3, ESX-4, and ESX-5 secretion systems. The subtypes share some core components including an inner membrane channel-forming ATPase complex, a membrane-anchored mycosin, and a second channel that spans the outer mycolic acid-containing membrane ...
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport proteins from the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell across the cellular envelope into an adjacent target cell. The T6SS was first identified in 2006 in Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all Proteobacterial genomes, including pathogens of animals, plants, and humans, as well as soil, environmental or marine bacteria. While most of the early studies of Type VI secretion focused on its role in the pathogenesis of higher organisms, it is now known to function primarily in interbacterial antagonism. The T6SS is thought to resemble an inverted phage extending outward from the bacterial cell surface. It consists of 14 proteins that assemble into three sub-complexes: a phage tail-like tubule, a phage baseplate-like structure, and cell-envelope spanning membrane complex. These three ...
Type VII protein secretion (T7SS) is a specialised system for excreting extracellular proteins across bacterial cell membranes and has been associated with virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. The genetic diversity of the ess locus, which encodes the T7SS, and the functions of proteins encoded within it are poorly understood. We used whole genome sequence data from 153 isolates representative of the diversity of the species to investigate the genetic variability of T7SS across S. aureus. The ess loci were found to comprise of four distinct modules based on gene content and relative conservation. Modules 1 and 4, comprising of the 5 and 3 modules of the ess locus, contained the most conserved clusters of genes across the species. Module 1 contained genes encoding the secreted protein EsxA, and the EsaAB and EssAB components of the T7SS machinery, and Module 4 contained two functionally uncharacterized conserved membrane proteins. Across the species four variants of Module 2 were identified containing
Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as pilli and flagella, nutrient acquisition, virulence, and efflux of drugs and other toxins. Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway ...
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects a large variety of agricultural crops. Bacteria colonize leaf surfaces and enter plant mesophyll tissue through wounds or stomata. Once inside, P. syringae can alter plant cell signaling pathways and suppress plant defense responses enabling it to grow in the intercellular space in the mesophyll. P. syringae possesses at least two types of virulence factors that suppress plant defense responses: i) small phytotoxin molecules, and ii) effector proteins that are translocated through specialized secretion systems. Gram-negative bacteria possess at least six types of secretion systems. The P. syringae type II and type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS) are both involved in secreting proteins that are important for P. syringae pathogenesis. Functions of the other secretion systems have not been explored. This study investigates the role of the newly discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. syringae interaction with plants. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains. AU - Kneuper, Holger. AU - Cao, Zhen Ping. AU - Twomey, Kate B.. AU - Zoltner, Martin. AU - Jäger, Franziska. AU - Cargill, James S.. AU - Chalmers, James. AU - van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.. AU - van Dijl, Jan Maarten. AU - Ryan, Robert P.. AU - Hunter, William N.. AU - Palmer, Tracy. N1 - © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. PY - 2014/7/30. Y1 - 2014/7/30. N2 - The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but required for virulence. In this study we show that there are unexpected differences in the ...
Marie-Stéphanie Aschtgen, Mark Thomas, E. Cascales. Anchoring the type VI secretion system to the peptidoglycan: TssL, TagL, TagP... what else?. Virulence, Taylor & Francis, 2014, 1 (6), pp.535-540. ⟨10.4161/viru.1.6.13732⟩. ⟨hal-03274811⟩ ...
Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells, causing a broad spectrum of diseases including bacteremia, septicemia, typhoid fever, and bubonic plague in mammals, and localized lesions, systemic wilting, and blights in plants. In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a component of the secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas syringae with homologues in all type III systems, has a variable N-terminal and a conserved C-terminal domain (HrcQ(B)-C). Here, we report the crystal structure of HrcQ(B)-C and show that this domain retains the ability of the full-length protein to interact with other type III components. A 3D analysis of sequence conservation patterns reveals two clusters of residues potentially involved in protein-protein interactions. Based on the analogies between HrcQ(B) and its flagellum homologues, we propose ...
PROJECT SUMMARYThe transmission of macromolecules across biological membranes is a fundamental process in all cells. In theearliest studies of genetic exchange in bacteria dating back to the 1940s, the F plasmid (then termed `sexfactor) was shown to self-transfer and, through recombination, mediate the transfer of the entire E. colichromosome to recipient bacteria. In the ensuing ~75 years, studies established the broad medical importanceof F and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the shaping of bacterial genomes and as vectors fordissemination of antibiotic resistance and other fitness traits among bacterial populations. MGEs also encodeconjugative pili or other cell surface adhesins, which promote intercellular contacts necessary for DNA transferand establishment robust, antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. MGEs are transmitted intercellularly throughnanomachines termed type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). The T4SSs are present in most if not all bacterialspecies, where they have ...
The human colonic microbiota is a dense ecosystem comprised of numerous microbes, including bacteria, phage, fungi, archaea, and protozoa, that compete for nutrients and space. Studies are beginning to reveal the antagonistic mechanisms that gut bacteria use to compete with other members of this ecosystem. In the healthy human colon, the majority of the Gram-negative bacteria are of the order Bacteroidales. Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are numerically fewer but confer important properties to the host, such as colonization resistance. Several enteric pathogens use type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to antagonize symbiotic gut E. coli, facilitating colonization and disease progression. T6SS loci are also widely distributed in human gut Bacteroidales, which includes three predominant genera: Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Prevotella. There are three distinct genetic architectures of T6SS loci among the gut Bacteroidales, termed GA1, GA2, and GA3. GA1 and GA2 T6SS loci are contained on
Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that promote efficient interactions between partners of multi-enzymatic protein complexes; although they are well studied in eukaryotes, their role in prokaryotic systems is poorly understood. Bacterial membranes have functional membrane microdomains (FMM), a structure homologous to eukaryotic lipid rafts. Similar to their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial FMM harbor a scaffold protein termed flotillin that is thought to promote interactions between proteins spatially confined to the FMM. Here we used biochemical approaches to define the scaffold activity of the flotillin homolog FloA of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, using assembly of interacting protein partners of the type VII secretion system (T7SS) as a case study. Staphylococcus aureus cells that lacked FloA showed reduced T7SS function, and thus reduced secretion of T7SS-related effectors, probably due to the supporting scaffold activity of flotillin. We found that the presence of ...
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death globally. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resides primarily in so-called macrophages, a type of immune cell that normally serves to kill invading bacteria. The mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system is critical for ability of the bacterium to survive and grow in these cells. Moreover, ESX-1 is known to induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, as well as cell death to infected cells. Because these functions may have important roles during infection, this project aimed to gain insight into mechanistic basis for ESX-1-induced IL-1 ß secretion and cell death, respectively ...
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice. Here, we sought to identify the M. abscessus genes required for replication within amoebae. To this end, we constructed and screened a transposon (Tn) insertion library of an M. abscessus subspecies massiliense clinical isolate for attenuated clones. This approach identified five genes within the ESX-4 locus, which in M. abscessus encodes an ESX-4 type VII secretion system that exceptionally also includes the ESX conserved EccE component. To confirm the ...
Mechanistic insights into the role of the three genes induced by pulmonary surfactant in S. aureus virulence.The present study demonstrated that the essC, psiS, and hlgB gene expression levels were increased by treatment with surfactant. In this section, we discuss the relationships between our results and previous reports concerning the involvement of the three genes in pathogenesis.. The essC gene is a member of the ess cluster, a genomic region that contains the esxAB, esaABC, and essABC genes and is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (43). The ess genes encode components of the type VII secretion system, a recently identified Sec-independent secretion pathway of bacteria that is involved in virulence via the secretion of various toxins, including EsxA, EsxB, and EsaC (43-45). Interestingly, the amount of EsaC secreted into the blood increases when S. aureus infects host animals (43). Based on these ...
Expert authors critically review selected important topics in the field of bacterial pathogenesis. A valuable resource. Topics range from a review of the seven most important bacterial secretion systems to an overview of evasion strategies of mycobacteria. Essential reading.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as an important mediator of interbacterial interactions. A T6SS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets at least three effector proteins, \(\underline t\)ype VI \(\underline s\)ecretion \(\underline e\)xported 1-3 (Tse1-3), to recipient Gram-negative cells. The Tse2 protein is a cytoplasmic effector that acts as a potent inhibitor of target cell proliferation, thus providing a pronounced fitness advantage for P. aeruginosa donor cells. P. aeruginosa utilizes a dedicated immunity protein, \(\underline t\)ype VI \(\underline s\)ecretion \(\underline i\)mmunity 2 (Tsi2), to protect against endogenous and intercellularly-transferred Tse2. Here we show that Tse2 delivered by the T6SS efficiently induces quiescence, not death, within recipient cells. We demonstrate that despite direct interaction of Tsi2 and Tse2 in the cytoplasm, Tsi2 is dispensable for targeting the toxin to the secretory apparatus. To gain insights into the molecular basis of Tse2 ...
The assembly of the T3SS culminates in the formation of the needle filament [Fig. 2 (10)]. Beyond the base, export apparatus and cytosolic components, which are required for substrate secretion per se, correct formation of the needle filament requires the co-secretion of other early substrates, including the inner rod protein and the needle length regulator [Fig. 2 (10)] (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000; Kubori et al., 2000). In some systems, secretion of needle subunits is assisted by dedicated chaperones that prevent premature filament formation in the bacterial cytosol (Quinaud et al., 2005, 2007; Sun et al., 2008; Chatterjee et al., 2011; Sal-Man et al., 2013). It was shown that secretion of the needle filament subunit is required for export of the other proteins (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000). Marlovits et al. (2006) subsequently observed that variations in the expression ratio of the Salmonella inner rod protein PrgJ and the needle subunit PrgI resulted in changes in needle length and concluded that ...
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This invention relates to a surgical device and methods for accessing and retrieving a tissue mass from a body cavity through a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. The device consists of a handle comprising an inner rod, which is rotatably engaged within a tubular member, and a loop adapted to hold a surgical bag. The loop comprises first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein the first bowed leaf element is attached to the inner rod and the second bowed leaf element is attached to the tubular member. The device further has a rotatable articulation, such as a hinge, joining the first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein rotation of the inner rod causes the first bowed leaf element to rotate about the articulation, such that the surgical bag may be opened and closed by rotation of the inner rod.
Bacterial secretory signal peptide expression plasmid with the T7 promoter upstream to drive gene expression (Frame 1 - NcoI site aligned).
The closely related type III secretion system zinc metalloprotease effector proteins GtgA, GogA, and PipA are translocated into host cells during infection. They then cleave nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription factor subunits, dampening activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and thereby suppressing host immune responses. We demonstrate here that GtgA, GogA, and PipA cleave a subset of NF-κB subunits, including p65, RelB, and cRel but not NF-κB1 and NF-κB2, whereas the functionally similar type III secretion system effector NleC of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic cleaved all five NF-κB subunits. Mutational analysis of NF-κB subunits revealed that a single nonconserved residue in NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 that corresponds to the P1 residue Arg-41 in p65 prevents cleavage of these subunits by GtgA, GogA, and PipA, explaining the observed substrate specificity of these enzymes. Crystal structures of GtgA in its apo-form and in complex with ...
The sort VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. mutant has a reduced T6SS-dependent killing activity toward VipA/VipB sheath (TssB/TssC homologs) (20, 21, 27) is dependent on a direct interaction between ClpV and ...
Typically comprised of ~12 different scaffold components, prokaryotic type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) translocate a variety of substrates across the cell envelope. Due to the ability to translocate large DNA segments (i.e., mobile genetic elements), some T4SSs contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Other T4SSs translocate smaller DNA segments and/or proteins into eukaryotic cells (e.g., arthropod, plant and human) in order to benefit bacterial survival. At least eight major groups of T4SSs are described and each group consists of minor variations on a common structural theme. Within a given bacterial genome, combinations of different T4SS groups can be encoded, and sometimes multiple copies of the same T4SS group can be present. As an example, two functionally divergent T4SSs (vir and trw) are found in many species of Bartonella, bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas and cause a range of diseases including endocarditis. In species of
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in phytopathogenic bacteria were first described in the 80s. However, whereas numerous characterization studies have revealed the basic processes of assembly, structure and function in animal/human pathogenic systems, our knowledge about these processes in plant type III biosystems is considerably small in comparison. Nonetheless, in recent years we have witnessed important breakthroughs in our understanding on how phytopathogens employ, build and regulate their T3SS: new master transcriptional regulators have been discovered, the activity of already described regulators of the system have been thoroughly investigated, quorum sensing regulators and population dynamics have been found to determine the fine activation of the system, new plant-derived signals have been found to upregulate the phytopathogenic T3SS, and more. Moreover, a considerable weaponry of effectors targeting and tuning the plant responses have been identified and protein components of the core
Friday, 26 January 2018, 13:00Add to calendarESX type VII secretion key to mycobacterial host-pathogen interaction Roland Brosch, Institut Pasteur, Integrated Mycobacterial Pathogenomics Unit, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, FranceHost: Matthias WilmannsSeminar Room 48e, EMBL Hamburg ...
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins ...
Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, ...
T346Hunter :: DESCRIPTION T346Hunter is a web application for the identification of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively) in bacterial genomes. ::DEVELOPER T346Hunt
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Killing for DNA: The type VI secretion system of Vibrio cholerae fosters horizontal gene transfer 11.30 - 11.45 Leendert Hamoen, University of Amsterdam, ...
This volume discusses various basic and advanced methods and protocols that have been proven to be successful among certain bacterial species, or a family of species, in type III secretion systems (T3
Korotkov, K. V., T. L. Johnson, M. G. Jobling, J. Pruneda, E. Pardon, A. Héroux, S. Turley, J. Steyaert, R. K. Holmes, M. Sandkvist, et al., Structural and functional studies on the interaction of GspC and GspD in the type II secretion system., PLoS Pathog, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. e1002228, 2011 Sep. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingtype VII secretion protein EssC (TIGR03928; HMM-score: 129.6) ...
Whether its through a lab mishap or eating undercooked beef, becoming infected with pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli is brutal. When E. coli infects a person, it attaches to the intestinal wall and the infection begins. There is a particular set of proteins that E. coli makes that allow the bacterium to be incredibly successful at infection. These structures, called the Type III secretion system, look and act like tiny syringes. They essentially inject their own DNA and proteins into the hosts cells. Not only do E. coli use Type III secretion to wreak havoc on the host, but they also can release a chemical called Shiga toxin. This toxin can enter cells, disrupt host protein synthesis, and even burst the intestinal cells. A build up of this toxin is extremely detrimental to the host. Although E. coli infections are relatively uncommon, they are serious business and cant be taken lightly. Now, I dont want you to think all E. coli are bad guys. Most E. coli are an integral part of our ...
Many gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria have acquired a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) which enables them to inject so called ... ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Paleontologists still poorly understand the process that sorts the winners from the losers after a major extinction, Jablonski said. His statistical analysis ruled out one of the most straightforward of possible causes - that lineages that have suffered a major blow to their numbers during a mass extinction might be especially extinction-prone in the aftermath because they contain fewer species to buffer against the hard times. Instead, Jablonski found that many of the biggest post-extinction winners had passed through a diversity bottleneck as narrow as the Dead Clade Walking groups ...
The structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1-Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that specialized bacterial secretion systems are involved in the interactions between intracellular bacteria and macrophages. In this work, we characterize later-stage infection of macrophages by B. cenocepacia, showing replication within an acidified endosomal compartment suggestive of a phagolysosome. We examine differential gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) with both competitive enrichment and microarray analysis. We identified 766
The EsxA/B protein secretion pathway system (EPSP) (Anderson et al. 2011; Burts et al. 2005; Chen et al. 2012; Sundaramoorthy et al. 2008). EssC is an integral component of the bacterial Type VII secretion system (T7SS). The protein is predicted to consist of an intracellular repeat of forkhead-associated (FHA) domains at the N-terminus, two transmembrane helices and three P-loop containing ATPase-type domains, D1-3, forming the C-terminal intracellular segment. Zoltner et al. 2016 presented crystal structures of the N-terminal FHA domains (EssC-N) and a C-terminal fragment EssC-C from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, encompassing two of the ATPase-type modules, D2 and D3. Module D2 binds ATP with high affinity whereas D3 does not. The EssC-N and EssC-C constructs are monomeric in solution but the full-length recombinant protein, with molecular weight about 169 kDa, forms a multimer of approximately 1 MDa. The observation of protomer contacts in the crystal structure of EssC-C together with ...
The major research focus of my group is the transport of proteins by the twin arginine protein transport pathway. This pathway, which is found in the cytoplasmic membranes of most bacteria, and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts, is highly unusual because it transports pre-folded proteins. Protein substrates are targeted to the Tat machinery by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an S/T- R-R-x-F-L-K twin arginine motif. Our aims are to study the function and mechanism of the Tat protein transporter, and the contribution that it makes to the physiology of bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus uses an unusual Type VII secretion system to secrete possible virulence factors. In a collaboration with Professor Bill Hunter we have been structurally and biochemically characterising components and substrates of this system. Contact details ...
Infection with Citrobacter rodentium triggers robust tissue damage repair responses, manifested by secretion of IL-22, in the absence of which mice succumbed
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A retractable needle syringe includes a barrel defining a receiver. There is a plunger having an inner rod extending distally from the proximal end. The plunger includes a hollow sleeve that is disposed over and extend beyond an inner rod. The plunger includes a hollow cutter extending from the inner rod and a stopper disposed over the end of the sleeve. The plunger has a displaceable collar to prevent movement of the inner rod with respect to the sleeve, that is by distal force to the plunger by engagement with the proximal end of the barrel allowing the cutting surface to cut through the stopper. There is a hub with a stem, a proximal flange and an engagement. A clip having a proximal foot with an opening therethrough and a distal grip is disposed on the stem of the hub. The proximal foot of the clip is disposed at the distal surface of the flange and the grip at the engagement on the stem. There is a spring disposed about the stem compressed between the receiver and the clip to provide a bias, so
A suture driver for clamping a suture in the hollow passage and a recessed channel thereof and manipulating the suture to and from a surgical site. The driver includes an outer member tube having a closed and pointed distal end for percutaneous introduction into the body of a patient. The outer tube also includes a recessed channel positioned proximal the closed distal end of the hollow passage extending longitudinally therein and for receiving the suture therein. An inner rod is positioned in the passage of the outer tube and has a clamping surface at the distal end thereof for engaging a suture positioned in the recessed channel. The inner rod is slid through the recessed channel to clamp the suture in the hollow passage of the outer tube against another clamping surface at the distal end of the tube. A handle positioned at the proximal end of the outer tube and inner rod is manipulated to slide the inner rod through the recessed channel and clamp the suture in the hollow passage between the two
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) mediate horizontal gene transfer, thus contributing to genome plasticity, evolution of infectious pathogens, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits. A gene cluster of the Haemophilus influenzae genomic island ICEHin1056 has been identified as a T4SS involved in the propagation of genomic islands. This T4SS is novel and evolutionarily distant from the previously described systems. Mutation analysis showed that inactivation of key genes of this system resulted in a loss of phenotypic traits provided by a T4SS. Seven of 10 mutants with a mutation in this T4SS did not express the type IV secretion pilus. Correspondingly, disruption of the genes resulted in up to 100,000-fold reductions in conjugation frequencies compared to those of the parent strain. Moreover, the expression of this T4SS was found to be positively regulated by one of its components, the tfc24 gene. We concluded that this gene cluster represents a novel family of T4SSs
Time-lapse microscopy analysis has revealed that T6SS organelles in V. cholerae cells are very dynamic and likely secrete their T6SS spike/tube VgrG/Hcp complex in multiple directions over a period of minutes of observation (6). Such constitutive activity is likely to result in the attack of neighboring sister cells under conditions of growth on solid media or within biofilms. Therefore, it is not surprising that immunity proteins would evolve in T6SS+ species to resist the toxicity associated with the attack of sister cells.. In this study, we report three immunity genes and their corresponding effectors in V. cholerae. Inactivation of any of three immunity genes results in susceptibility to T6SS-dependent killing by T6SS+ strain V52. Deletion of any of the three cognate effectors in V52 abolishes killing of the mutant defective in the corresponding immunity protein. The identified effector-immunity proteins share no homology with other known T6SS effector-immunity pairs, indicating the ...
The type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Expression of the T3SS is controlled under a complicate regulatory network. In this study, we demonstrate that NrtR (PA4916) is involved in the T3SS expression and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in a mouse acute pneumonia model. Overexpression of the T3SS central activator ExsA or exogenous supplementation of cAMP restored the expression of T3SS in the ΔnrtR mutant, suggesting that NrtR might regulate T3SS through the cAMP-Vfr signaling pathway. Further experiments demonstrated that the decrease of cAMP content is not due to the expression change of adenylate cyclases or phosphodiesterase in the ΔnrtR mutant. As it has been shown that nadD2 is upregulated in the ΔnrtR mutant, we overexpressed nadD2 in wild type PAK, which reduced the intracellular cAMP level and the expression of the T3SS genes. Meanwhile, deletion of nadD2 in the ΔnrtR mutant restored the expression and secretion of the T3SS.
The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic ...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a common cause of severe hemorrhagic colitis. EHECs virulence is dependent upon a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by 41 genes. These genes are organized in several operons clustered in the locus of enterocyte effacement. Most of the locus of enterocyte effacement genes, including grlA and grlR, are positively regulated by Ler, and Ler expression is positively and negatively modulated by GrlA and GrlR, respectively. However, the molecular basis for the GrlA and GrlR activity is still elusive. We have determined the crystal structure of GrlR at 1.9 Å resolution. It consists of a typical β-barrel fold with eight β-strands containing an internal hydrophobic cavity and a plug-like loop on one side of the barrel. Strong hydrophobic interactions between the two β-barrels maintain the dimeric architecture of GrlR. Furthermore, a unique surface-exposed EDED (Glu-Asp-Glu-Asp) motif is identified to be critical for GrlA-GrlR interaction and for the ...
3. Vincent CD, Jeong KC, Sexton J, Buford E, Vogel JP. 2006. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion System. In Legionella: State of the Art 30 Years After Its Recognition. Ed. N. Cianciotto et al, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. Pages 184-191 ...
CP000828.PILC Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(390490..391710) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene=pilC FT /locus_tag=AM1_0417 FT /product=type II secretion system domain protein/ pilin FT biogenesis protein PilC FT /note=Member of bacterial type II secretion system protein FT F domain, PF00482. FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:AM1_0417 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABW25474 FT /db_xref=GOA:B0CAY4 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR001992 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR003004 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR018076 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR042094 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:B0CAY4 FT /protein_id=ABW25474.1 FT /translation=MPTYVVRARDSQGKSSQKRVNATSQKEARSNIQRQGLQILDIKES FT QGFSMNAELDLSFLQSITVKDKALFSRQFSALVNAGVALVRGLGVMSEQCKNPKLKKAL FT LDVNAAVQQGVSLSDAMRGHPAAFDQLYVAMIQAGETGGVLDEVLNRLATLLEDQARLK FT NQIRSALAYPVVVGFIAVSIFLGMVIFLIPVFDGIFSQLGGDLPAFTQFMVNLSEFLRT FT PIYGISAAIVVFGSTFALRQYYRTRAGRETIDRIMLKLPLFGDLIQKTAVARFCRTFGS FT LSRSGVPILYSLEIVRDTAGNQVVSNAIDEARREIQGGGMLSLALQKEKVFPLLATQMI ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The type IV secretion system virB/virD4 is a major virulence determinant for subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. VirB-dependent changes of HEC include massive cytoskeletal rearrangements, a proinflammatory activation by nuclear factor NF-kappa-B, inhibition of early and late events of apoptosis, leading to an increased cell survival, and, at high infection doses, a cytostatic or cytotoxic effect, which interfers with a potent virB-independent mitogenic activity. These changes of HEC require the T4S coupling protein virD4 and at least one of the effector proteins bepA-G. Together with virB11, may be implicated in providing the energy, via hydrolysis of ATP, for the assembly of secretion system and substrate transport ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
... and function of bacterial Type IV secretion systems". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 451-485. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ... Secretion systems. Main article: Secretion § Secretion in Gram negative bacteria. Bacteria use several systems to obtain ... A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella ... The secretion is inhibited by low pH.. *Secretin - is in the duodenum and signals the secretion of sodium bicarbonate in the ...
... and function of bacterial Type IV secretion systems". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 451-485. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ... Secretion systems. Main article: Secretion § Secretion in Gram negative bacteria. Bacteria use several systems to obtain ... A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella ... This secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20-900 kDa). The molecules ...
The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. These transfer proteins from the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ... Costa TR, Felisberto-Rodrigues C, Meir A, Prevost MS, Redzej A, Trokter M, Waksman G (June 2015). "Secretion systems in Gram- ... Main article: Bacterial taxonomy. Further information: Scientific classification, Systematics, Bacterial phyla, and Clinical ...
SecY protein Bacterial secretion system Johnson, A.E.; van Waes, M.A. (1999). "The translocon: a dynamic gateway at the ER ... Mueller CA, Broz P, Cornelis GR (June 2008). "The type III secretion system tip complex and translocon". Mol. Microbiol. 68 (5 ... Bacterial pathogens can also assemble other translocons in their host membranes, allowing them to export virulence factors into ... The channel allows peptides to move in either direction, so additional systems in the translocon are required to move the ...
... actively kill other bacterial using type IV secretion system and defend itself from amoeba using type VI secretion ... March 2015). "Bacterial killing via a type IV secretion system". Nature Communications. 6 (1): 6453. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6453 ... Xanthomonas possess almost all known secretion systems (types I to VI) that play different roles in the life and disease cycle ... punicae cause bacterial blight of pomogranate. Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is a disease ...
... uses its type IV secretion system to kill other Gram-negative bacterial species in a contact-dependent manner ... "Bacterial killing via a type IV secretion system". Nature Communications. 6: 6453. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6453S. doi:10.1038/ ... Xanthomonas citri also uses type VI secretion system in defense against the predatory amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Souza DP ... "Cryo-EM structure of the bacteria-killing type IV secretion system core complex from Xanthomonas citri". Nature Microbiology. 3 ...
"Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic Endomembrane System". Trends in Microbiology. 24 (7 ... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... Cette la parthénogénèse." (This modification in the relations of the nuclear and mitochondrial systems could be the result of ...
"Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic Endomembrane System". Trends in Microbiology. 24 (7 ... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... "Endomembrane System - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2019-03-24.. ...
Christie PJ, Whitaker N, González-Rivera C (August 2014). "Mechanism and structure of the bacterial type IV secretion systems ... the Type VI Secretion System. The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is found in many species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive ... This system was much different that the Type V secretion system identified in E. coli, and thus formed a new class of CDI: ... The first CDI system to be discovered was a Type V secretion system, encoded by the cdiBAI gene cluster found widespread ...
... and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 451-85. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro. ... The partitioning system of the Ti plasmid is similar to the ParA/ParB system used in other plasmids and bacterial chromosomes ... These are achieved by the Tra/Trb system and the VirB/VirD4 system respectively, which are members of the type IV secretion ... Quorum sensing systems respond to bacterial population densities by sensing a molecule, known as an autoinducer, that is ...
Alfano, James R.; Collmer, Alan (September 2004). "TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM EFFECTOR PROTEINS: Double Agents in Bacterial ... Espinosa, Avelina; Alfano, James R. (November 2004). "Disabling surveillance: bacterial type III secretion system effectors ... into host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS) whereupon they suppress PCD and other host defenses. Studies have ... However, in the hemibiotrophic life-style the pathogen later breaks down host cell walls through secretion of hydrolytic ...
"Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (2): 379-433. ... The type III secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria is used to transport virulence factors from the pathogen directly into ... Effector proteins secreted by the type III system do not possess a secretion signal, and are considered unique because of this ... LcrV is a multifunctional protein that has been shown to act at the level of secretion control by binding the Ysc inner-gate ...
The type V secretion system is described as non-fimbrious, meaning that the bacterial cells do not use long physical appendages ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... TAAs are part of the secretion pathway, to be more specific the type Vc secretion system. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins use a particular secretion pathway, named type V secretion system (T5SS). Gram-negative ...
"Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells by Bacterial Secretion Systems". Traffic. 7 (8): 929-939. ... The injection is mediated by specialized secretion systems, e.g. the type III secretion system (TTSS or T3SS). Fungal effectors ... Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion ... Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. ...
2005). "Type II secretion: a protein secretion system for all seasons". Trends Microbiol. 13 (12): 581-8. PMID 16216510.. ... Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". Cell. 124 ( ... Winstanley C, Hart CA (2001). "Type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands". J Med Microbiol. 50 (2): 116-26. PMID ... "Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition (dalam bahasa Inggris).. ...
... whose immune systems are underdeveloped, and elderly adults, whose immune systems are generally somewhat compromised. Presence ... 2-8% of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in children is associated with human astrovirus. These viral particles are usually ... In mink, symptoms include increased secretion from apocrine glands. Human astroviruses are associated with gastroenteritis in ... Mamastroviruses also cause diseases of the nervous system. These diseases most commonly occur in cattle, mink and humans. In ...
She was one of the co-discoverers of the bacterial Tat protein secretion system. The Tat system is highly unusual because it ... Palmer has initiated work on a second type of protein transporter- the Type VII secretion system (T7SS) in the human pathogen ... Tracy Palmer FRS FRSE is a Professor of Microbiology in the Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology at Newcastle University in Tyne ... system. In 2007 Palmer was recruited back to the University of Dundee to take up a new position in the College of Life Sciences ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system, while archaeal flagella appear to have ... ISBN 978-0-19-511183-5. Gophna U, Ron EZ, Graur D (July 2003). "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... In the genus Sulfolobus, the cycle has characteristics that are similar to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems. The ...
"Novel Organelles with Elements of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Secretion Systems Weaponize Parasites of Drosophila". Current ... The Leptopilina VLPs or mixed-strategy extracellular vesicles (MSEVs) contain some secretion systems. Their evolutionary ... VLPs allow the larvae to escape the immune system: the larva is not recognised as harmful by its host, or the immune cells ... In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays its eggs and when the parasitic ...
Novel Organelles with Elements of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Secretion Systems Weaponize Parasites of Drosophila. Current Biology ... Her research at NASA has involved studying immune system changes during spaceflight and the effects of radiation and altered ... gravity on living systems. Sharmila was also the Lecturer of Neurobiology in University of California, Santa Cruz in the year ...
"Engineering the type III secretion system in non-replicating bacterial minicells for antigen delivery". Nature Communications. ... Bacterial minicells are being developed as a drug delivery system. Minicells could be used to deliver genetic material to ... The first minicells reported were from a strain of Escherichia coli that had a mutation in the Min System that lead to mis- ... Briegel, A.; Li, X.; Bilwes, A. M.; Hughes, K. T.; Jensen, G. J.; Crane, B. R. (2012-03-06). "Bacterial chemoreceptor arrays ...
Guglielmini, J, Rocha E (February 2013). "Evolution of Conjugation and Type IV Secretion Systems". Molecular Biology and ... During bacterial replication, in the presence of a dimer the XerCD mechanism is introduced to divide the dimer into two ... FtsK is a 1329 amino acid protein involved in bacterial cell division and chromosome segregation. FtsK stands for "Filament ... Grainge I (December 2010). "FtsK--a bacterial cell division checkpoint?". Molecular Microbiology. 78 (5): 1055-7. doi:10.1111/j ...
"Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events". Gene 312: 151-63. PMID ... "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein secretion systems". J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2 (2): 125-44 ... 2008). "A role for the ESCRT system in cell division in archaea.". Science 12 (322): 5908. Bibcode:2008Sci...322.1710S. PMID ... Hahn, Jürgen; Pat Haug (1986). "Traces of Archaebacteria in ancient sediments". System Applied Microbiology 7 (Archaebacteria ' ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[101][102] while archaeal flagella appear ... "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events". Gene. 312: 151-63. PMID ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein secretion systems". J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2 (2): 125-44 ...
... which help Yersinia evade the immune system. More specifically, it interacts with the bacterial protein YopN via hydrophobic ... Also involved in Yop secretion are YopN and LcrG. TyeA is also required for translocation of YopE and YopH. TyeA interacts with ... Like YopN, TyeA is localized at the bacterial surface. The structure of TyeA is composed of two pairs of parallel alpha-helices ... This helps it to evade the host's immune system. Yersinia spp. do this by injecting the effector Yersinia outer proteins (Yops ...
... of the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SS is a mechanism by which many bacteria inject a cocktail of toxins, so- ... After his appointment as Professor in Louvain in 1984, he investigated bacterial pathogenesis and joined in 1991 the Christian ... He investigates the complex mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases. He received particular recognition[who?] for the co- ... the cunning of bacterial poisons by Alistair Lax. ...
"Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ... published the first account of the identification of a novel secretion system that they named the type VI secretion system, a ... teams that reported the discovery of the type VI secretion system as well as his work on the pathogenicity of the bacterial ... and its secretion systems. Since 1998, he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He started his research ...
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives ... September 1980). "Effect of high-fat, high-beef diet and of mode of cooking of beef in the diet on fecal bacterial enzymes and ... An increased secretion of bile acids produces an increase in bile flow. Bile acids facilitate digestion of dietary fats and ...
Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease 5th ed. New York: Garland Pub. 2001. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. OCLC ... Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity. Frontiers in Immunology. 2014-10-08, 5: 450. PMC ... CTLs respond with activation and granule secretion when serving as targets for T cell recognition. Blood. January 2011, 117 (3 ... Glycans in the immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2015, 57 (6): 1-13. PMC 4340844. PMID ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... Because it is similar to bacterial amino acid transporters and the mitochondrial import protein Tim17[38] (translocase on the i ... chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to the wrong ... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. PMC 4487195. PMID ...
The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... Typical features of acne include increased secretion of oily sebum by the skin, microcomedones, comedones, papules, nodules ( ... "The Leeds Revised Acne Grading System" (PDF). The Leeds Teaching Hospitals. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November ...
... peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.[61][84] Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence ... Tick bites often go unnoticed because of the small size of the tick in its nymphal stage, as well as tick secretions that ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... Richard Ostfeld (2012). Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a Complex System. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199928477. ...
immune system development. • regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction. • membrane depolarization during cardiac muscle ... regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ... Bergh JJ, Xu Y, Farach-Carson MC (Jan 2004). "Osteoprotegerin expression and secretion are regulated by calcium influx through ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[104][105] while archaeal flagella appear ... "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events". Gene. 312: 151-63. doi: ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein secretion systems". J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2 (2): 125-44 ...
Soehnlein O, Kenne E, Rotzius P, Eriksson EE, Lindbom L. Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in ... University of Virginia Health System. [2009-04-10].. *^ 13.0 13.1 Baron, Samuel (editor). Medical Microbiology (4th edition). ... Ernst J. D. and Stendahl O., (editors), Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Bacterial Pathogenicity, Cambridge University Press, 2006 ... Sompayrac, L. How the Immune System Works (3rd edition), Blackwell Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4051-6221-0 ...
Hydrogen sulfide is also a potent cellular toxin, blocking the cytochrome system and inhibiting cellular respiration. More ... swallowing can be difficult in many forms of injury especially if accompanied by secretions or if victim is nauseous. A number ... Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface ...
Nervous system: occasionally sensory neuropathy (10%) and rarely mononeuritis multiplex. *Heart, gastrointestinal tract, brain ... Typical signs and symptoms include nosebleeds, stuffy nose and crustiness of nasal secretions, and inflammation of the uveal ... Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of the autoimmunity seen in ... Bruce IN, Bell AL (April 1997). "A comparison of two nomenclature systems for primary systemic vasculitis". British Journal of ...
The presence of odontoblastic processes here allows the secretion of matrix components. Predentine can be 10-40μm in width, ... there are branching canalicular systems that connect to each other. These branches have been categorized by size, with major ... due to the differentiation of bacterial metabolites and toxins. Thus, tertiary dentin is deposited rapidly, with a sparse and ...
"Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events". Gene 312: 151-63. PMID ... "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein secretion systems". J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2 (2): 125-44 ... 1994). "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". J Mol Evol. (38(6)): 566-576.. ... Hahn Jürgen, Pat Haug (1986). "Traces of Archaebacteria in ancient sediments". System Applied Microbiology 7 (Archaebacteria ' ...
bacterial infection Blood and lymphatic system *Anemia. *Increased red blood cell sedimentation rate ... which inhibit serotonin secretion.[40] Isotretinoin also directly and indirectly increases the translation of the serotonin ... Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... Drugdex system, vol. 128. Greenwood Village (CO): Thomson Micromedex; 2006.[page needed] ...
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) occurs more often in lesbians, but it is unclear if BV is transmitted by sexual contact; it occurs in ... Any object that comes in contact with cervical secretions, vaginal mucosa, or menstrual blood, including fingers or penetrative ... is not recognized by the South African legal system as a hate crime despite the fact that the South African Constitution states ... or endure relationship difficulties with no support system.[212] Men's shaping of women's sexuality has proven to have an ...
呼吸系統病理學(J,460-519(英语:List of ICD-9 codes 460-519: diseases of the respiratory system)),呼吸系統疾病 ... 細菌性肺炎(英语:Bacterial pneumonia) *肺炎球菌感染(英语:Pneumococcal infection) ... Esposito S., Droghetti R., Bosis S., Claut L. Marchisio P., Principi N. Cytokine secretion
... s within the ampulla of Vater can obstruct the exocrine system of the pancreas, which in turn can result in ... Pseudoliths, sometimes referred to as sludge, are thick secretions that may be present within the gallbladder, either alone or ... Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in ... Roizen MF and Oz MC, Gut Feelings: Your Digestive System, pp. 175-206 in Roizen and Oz (2005) ...
regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of immunoglobulin secretion. • osteoclast differentiation. • regulation of tumor ... The theory of an anti-tumoral response of the immune system in vivo was recognized by the physician William B. Coley. In 1968, ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... regulation of protein secretion. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • inflammatory response. • activation of cysteine- ...
positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion. • defense response. • negative regulation of growth of symbiont on or near host ... "The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection". Nature Medicine. 12 (6 ... "Vitamin D and molecular actions on the immune system: modulation of innate and autoimmunity". Journal of Molecular Medicine ... Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection.[6] The ...
Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. There are many specialised cells of the GI tract. These include the ... "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here. For digestive systems of non-human animals, see Digestion. ... The pharynx is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system. It is the part ... Some parts of the digestive system are also part of the excretory system, including the large intestine.[2] ...
Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... mucous secretion, nerve stimulation, and smooth-muscle contraction. This results in rhinorrhea, itchiness, dyspnea, and ... Hypersensitivities are categorized according to the parts of the immune system that are attacked and the amount of time it ... Depending on the individual, the allergen, and the mode of introduction, the symptoms can be system-wide (classical anaphylaxis ...
Although it is not yet well understood, IgE may play an important role in the immune system's recognition of cancer,[18] in ... and the secretion of several types of type 2 cytokines like IL-3 and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) which both help the mast cells ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ... increased mucus secretion in allergic rhinitis, and increased vascular permeability, it is presumed, to allow other immune ...
Our illness is mostly caused by our immune system doing too great of a job in response to bacteria in our system. The strength ... Humans fear pheromones because we believe we have gone above the basic secretion of chemicals in our communication. However, ... Mitochondria and chloroplasts most likely have a bacterial ancestry and flagellae and cilia most likely were once spirochetes. ... Through this system we are adapting and creating. By being more open with communication and less restrictive we will be able to ...
It does not encode any type III, IV, or VI secretion system, which are commonly linked to pathogenesis. The annotated genome ... Tuftsin is responsible for the stimulation of phagocytosis, so its decrease in the presence of bacterial infection poses a ... The infection rapidly progresses toward multiple organ system failures and finally death. The mortality rate in individuals ... surrounded by bacterial septa. This suggests that C. canimorsus replicates intracellularly inside of macrophages. C. Canimorsus ...
A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system.[12] The main role of ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... Immune system[edit]. Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system. ...
protein secretion. If norepinephrine binds β-adrenergic receptors, it will result in more protein or enzyme secretion vs. fluid ... Cells: possibly as many as 8 million human and 500 million bacterial cells per mL. The presence of bacterial products (small ... The production of saliva is stimulated both by the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic.[12] ... Salivary secretion is also associated with nausea. Saliva is usually formed in the mouth through an act called gleeking, which ...
At this time, New York City did not have as effective a sanitation system as it does today,[when?] so cholera was able to ... Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua developed a cholera inoculation in 1885, the first to immunize humans against a bacterial ... This results in constitutive cAMP production, which in turn leads to the secretion of water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate ... Surveillance systems can provide early alerts to outbreaks, therefore leading to coordinated response and assist in preparation ...
"Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages". Clinical & Experimental ... "University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved 2009-04-10.. *^ a b Baron, Samuel (editor) (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th ... bacterial) proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing ... "University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved 2009-04-10.. *^ Lee DM, Friend DS, Gurish MF, Benoist C, Mathis D, Brenner MB ( ...
... leading to the secretion of renin and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which results in the vasoconstriction of ... Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is the infection of ascites fluid, is the most common precipitant of HRS in cirrhotic ... and a specialized albumin-bound membrane dialysis system termed molecular adsorbents recirculation system (MARS) or liver ... Sherlock S, Dooley J (2002). "Chapter 9". Diseases of the liver and biliary system. edition 11. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-632 ...
They are released by many different cell types and serve to guide cells of both innate immune system and adaptive immune system ... Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and ... portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are ... Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to ...
Klein J, Sato A (September 2000). "The HLA system. Second of two parts". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (11): 782-6. doi:10.1056/ ... The details of parasite immune modulation are not yet known, but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients also present with eczema, autoimmune manifestations, recurrent bacterial infections and ... Jerne N (1974). "Towards a network theory of the immune system". Ann Immunol. Paris. 125C (1-2): 373-89. PMID 4142565.. ...
Even tighter-fitting surgical masks will have some gaps that allow small particles to enter the wearer s respiratory system.. ... Are primarily intended to protect the patient, not the wearer, from the wearers saliva and respiratory secretions. May also ... The manufacturer performs and submits the results from several tests, including particle filtration efficiency, bacterial ... The manufacturer performs and submits the results from several tests, including particle filtration efficiency, bacterial ...
  • The general secretion (Sec) involves secretion of unfolded proteins that first remain inside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system is similar to Sec in the process of protein secretion, however, it sends proteins only in their folded (tertiary) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type III secretion systems (TTSS or secretons), essential determinants of the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with animal or plant hosts, serve to translocate bacterial proteins into eukaryotic host cells to manipulate them during infection. (pnas.org)
  • TTS is characterized by ( i ) host contact-mediated TTSS induction, ( ii ) energy requirement for protein secretion and translocation into host cells, ( iii ) secretion-regulated expression of genes encoding proteins secreted downstream in the pathway, and ( iv ) dedicated cytoplasmic chaperones for some secreted proteins. (pnas.org)
  • It differs from other secretion pathways in Gram-negative bacteria by the absence of ( i ) primary sequence conservation in regions of secreted proteins involved in targeting except within some species ( 2 ), ( ii ) a cleaved signal sequence in secreted polypeptides, and ( iii ) a periplasmic secretion intermediate ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Diagrams of known positions of major flagellar components ( A ) and established and hypothetical TTSS functional homologs ( B ). Functions of proteins conserved in both systems are marked by similar position, shading, and coloring whether they share sequence homologies or not. (pnas.org)
  • One of the most exciting developments in the field of bacterial pathogenesis in recent years is the discovery that many pathogens utilize complex nanomachines to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a supramolecular structure that mediates the passage of the secreted proteins across the bacterial envelope. (nih.gov)
  • A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens carry genes homologous to vas genes and potential effector proteins secreted by this pathway (i.e., hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG). (pnas.org)
  • WACKER has enhanced its patented ESETEC® Escherichia coli bacteria-based secretion system for manufacturing pharmaceutical proteins: by decoupling the production from the expression phase during manufacturing, proteins can now be secreted to the culture medium in a fully controlled manner. (wacker.com)
  • In enhancing our ESETEC® secretion system, we now offer record yields in the production of challenging proteins, and significantly faster production rates compared to other secretion systems, such as mammalian cell cultures," says Dr. Phillippe Cronet, who is in charge of developing biotechnological production processes at Wacker Biotech. (wacker.com)
  • The latest generation of the ESETEC® system now allows proteins to be expressed into the culture medium at a controlled rate. (wacker.com)
  • This maximizes the folding and secretion efficiency of difficult-to-produce pharmaceutical proteins, such as antibody fragments. (wacker.com)
  • Wacker Biotech GmbH and Wacker Biotech B.V. are full-service contract manufacturers of therapeutic proteins, LMPs and vaccines based on microbial systems. (wacker.com)
  • The ClpXP and RssB proteins are essential for bacterial virulence. (apsnet.org)
  • Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) transfer DNA and/or proteins into recipient cells. (asm.org)
  • Quantitative analyses of the localization of all the above Vir proteins in nopaline and octopine strains revealed multiple foci in single optical sections in over 80% and 70% of the bacterial cells, respectively. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Transfer of DNA and/or proteins to host cells through multiprotein type IV secretion system (T4SS) complexes that span the bacterial cell envelope is critical to bacterial pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are multiprotein complexes used by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for transfer of DNA and/or proteins to other bacteria ( 1 - 3 ), plants ( 4 ), mammalian cells ( 5 , 6 ), and yeast cells ( 7 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells, causing a broad spectrum of diseases including bacteremia, septicemia, typhoid fever, and bubonic plague in mammals, and localized lesions, systemic wilting, and blights in plants. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Initial CCV acidification is required to activate C . burnetii metabolism and the Type 4B Secretion System (T4BSS), which secretes effector proteins required for CCV maturation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multisubunit cell-envelope-spanning structures, ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation machines, which transfer proteins and nucleoprotein complexes across membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, T4SSs are also used for the delivery of bacterial effector proteins across the bacterial membrane and the plasmatic membrane of eukaryotic host cell, thus contributing directly to pathogenicity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. (wiley.com)
  • Macnab, 2004 ), the term 'Type III secretion system' is generally used in reference to the systems translocating effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a protein nanomachine that is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and is used to translocate effector proteins directly into neighbouring cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This versatility is underpinned by the ability of the T6SS to deliver a vast array of effector proteins, with many distinct activities and modes of interaction with the secretion machinery. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We are very interested in understanding what bacterial effector proteins do when they get into their hosts. (ualberta.ca)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also. (vt.edu)
  • The T6SS facilitates the secretion and injection of toxic effector proteins into host cells, providing a competitive advantage to bacteria encoding this machinery. (springer.com)
  • proteins , enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae ) from across the interior ( cytoplasm or cytosol ) of a bacterial cell to its exterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] They include 1) direct translocation of proteins across the plasma membrane likely through membrane transporters, 2) blebbing, 3) lysosomal secretion, and 4) release via exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria have evolved different systems for secreting proteins into the fluid around them or into other cells. (phys.org)
  • Many pathogenic bacteria use special secretion systems to deliver toxic proteins into host cells. (phys.org)
  • Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. (osti.gov)
  • Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. (osti.gov)
  • Bacterial secretion systems allow the transport of proteins, called effectors, as well as external machine components in the extracellular medium or directly into target cells. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of the secretome, i.e. the proteins released in the culture medium, of wild-type and mutant cells provides information on the secretion profile. (springer.com)
  • The Yersinia TTSS is comprised of about 25 Ysc (Yop secretion) proteins. (asm.org)
  • Nine of these proteins are conserved in the bacterial flagellar export apparatus and in the TTSSs found in a wide variety of gram-negative plant and animal pathogens (for a review, see reference 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Protein coding sequences from Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens strains were analysed using Effective DB to predict bacterial type III secreted proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • EspA forms a filamentous structure on the bacterial cell surface and is involved in translocation of proteins into the eukaryotic cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this paper, we show that SseB is a secreted protein that associates with the surface of the bacterial cell and might, therefore, also be required for delivery of SPI-2 effector proteins to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The FLAG Expression System is an established way to express, purify and detect recombinant fusion proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Detection of fusion proteins containing 3xFLAG is enhanced up to 200 times more than any other system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Strains possess an intact type III secretion system composed of 18 structural genes and accessory proteins, however a number of putative inc effector proteins widely distributed in chlamydiae are absent from C. pecorum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2) a cell‐surface‐based surveillance system that detects conserved pathogen molecules and (3) an intracellular surveillance system that detects effector proteins injected into host cells. (els.net)
  • The highly conserved RNA‐binding motif RNP‐1 of bacterial cold shock proteins is recognized as an elicitor signal in tobacco. (els.net)
  • My research has focused on the post-translational modification of bacterial proteins and into the development of genetic tools for the manipulation of hazardous pathogens. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • We detected 22 reading frames coding hypothetical proteins, 23 frames coding phagerelated proteins, and 11 frames coding proteins with known functions, including toxin antitoxin system YefM-YoeB, nucleic acids and polysaccharides metabolism proteins (exopolysaccharide production protein ExoZ, exodeoxyribonuclease VIII), and replication proteins (ParA). (bireme.br)
  • However, while the latter forms a ring structure to allow secretion of flagellin and is an integral part of the flagellum itself, type III subunits in the outer membrane translocate secreted proteins through a channel-like structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a highly conserved secretion system among Gram negative bacteria that translocates anti-host proteins directly into the infected cells to overcome the host immune system and establish a bacterial infection. (dissertations.se)
  • These proteins have a high degree of conservation across type six secretion systems, and have been experimentally determined to be required for T6SS function, but their exact purpose remains unclear [18] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a complex type III secretion apparatus to inject effector proteins into host cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The configuration of this secretion machinery, the activities of the proteins that are injected by it and the consequences of this process for infection are now being elucidated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The popularity of employing T4SS for host-pathogen interaction may be due in part to the fact that these virulence factors can accommodate the secretion of distinct sets of effector proteins, thereby enabling each pathogen to adapt to a different specific niche. (asmscience.org)
  • The type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium directs the translocation of proteins into host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Isolated structures were found to contain at least three proteins of this secretion system. (sciencemag.org)
  • This system directs the translocation of several bacterial proteins into the host cell ( 4 ), which activate host cell signaling pathways, leading to a variety of responses, such as reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, cytokine production, and the induction of programmed cell death in macrophages ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Some of the putative components of the secretion apparatus share sequence homology with proteins of the flagellar export machinery, suggesting an evolutionary relation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacterial fimbriae can contain lectin proteins generally at their tips. (citizendium.org)
  • This secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20-900 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • T4SSs are involved in horizontal DNA transfer to other bacteria and eukaryotic cells, in DNA uptake from or release into the extracellular milieu, in toxin secretion and in the injection of virulence factors into eukaryotic host target cells by several mammalian pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • These findings have had an important impact on our understanding of how these pathogens manipulate host cell functions to trigger bacterial uptake, facilitate intracellular growth and suppress defence mechanisms, thus facilitating bacterial colonization and disease development. (nih.gov)
  • The type III secretion system (T3SS) is considered one of the major virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. (apsnet.org)
  • Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Type F and P (type IVA) T4SSs resembling the archetypal VirB/VirD4 system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are considered to be the paradigm of type IV secretion, while type I (type IVB) T4SSs are found in intracellular bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Animal pathogens like Salmonella , Shigella , Yersinia and pathogenic Escherichia coli are attenuated and often rendered completely avirulent by a lack of their T3SS, demonstrating the importance of the system in pathogenicity (Hueck, 1998 ). (wiley.com)
  • Bacterial plant pathogens overcome the first layer either by invading through natural openings and wounds, and/or by secreting hydrolytic enzymes that break down surface layers. (els.net)
  • Hueck CJ (1998) Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. (els.net)
  • Much of our understanding of the plant innate immune system has been gained through investigation of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , which can be infected by pathogens with diverse tissue preferences, including P. syringae and R. solanacearum . (plantcell.org)
  • My research aims to identify and characterise novel virulence factors from human pathogens to further understand mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • I also have an interest in whole genome sequencing of bacterial pathogens as an approach to identifying novel virulence factors. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • There have been four secretion systems described in animal enteropathogens, such as Salmonella and Yersinia, with further sequence similarities in plant pathogens like Ralstonia and Erwinia [ PMID: 9618447 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • While this study focuses only on the secretion system of Legionella , a very similar machine is used by many bacteria-such as the pathogens that cause stomach cancer, Q fever, and whooping cough. (caltech.edu)
  • These effectors have different functions but frequently target conserved bacterial or eukaryotic cellular structures such as the cell wall, the membrane compartment, nucleic acids, or the actin cytoskeleton ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The infection process was type III secretion system dependent and required two type III effectors, Gala7 and AvrA, which were shown to be involved at different stages of infection. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Both effectors were involved in development of root tip symptoms, and Gala7 was the main determinant for bacterial invasion of cortical cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These systems propel a tip containing effectors to target cell. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • It represents a versatile bacterial weapon that can deliver effectors into distinct classes of target cells, playing key roles in inter-bacterial competition and bacterial interactions with eukaryotic cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS), which delivers effectors into eukaryotic cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Russell AB, Peterson SB, Mougous JD (2014) Type VI secretion system effectors: poisons with a purpose. (springer.com)
  • Pukatzki S, McAuley SB, Miyata ST (2009) The type VI secretion system: translocation of effectors and effector-domains. (springer.com)
  • The ability to cause infection is dependent on the presence of an approximately 70-kb plasmid encoding a type III secretion system (TTSS) that delivers Yop effectors into the cytosol of the target cell. (asm.org)
  • Direct and indirect recognition of bacterial effectors: (a) The bacterial pathogen R. solanacearum injects the effector protein PopP2 into the plant cell. (els.net)
  • Here, we used a GFP strand system to directly visualize bacterial effectors delivered into plant cells through the type III secretion system. (plantcell.org)
  • Multiple bacterial effectors tagged with the complementary strand 11 epitope retained their biological function in Arabidopsis and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ). (plantcell.org)
  • Despite the importance of bacterial effectors in the modulation of host-microbe interactions, direct TTSS effector delivery has not been visualized in whole organisms. (plantcell.org)
  • The Type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important virulence mechanism that allows pathogenic bacteria to translocate virulence effectors directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells to manipulate the host cells in favor of the pathogen. (dissertations.se)
  • Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. (genome.jp)
  • In addition to directly targeting eukaryotic cells, the T6SS can also target other bacteria coinfecting a mammalian host, highlighting the importance of the T6SS not only for bacterial survival in environmental ecosystems, but also in the context of infection and disease. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in Gram-positive bacteria, the protein can stay in the cell or is mostly transported out of the bacteria using other secretion systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Yersinia enterocolitica use the Sec system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes are Gram-positive bacteria that use the Sec system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are membrane-associated transporter complexes used by various bacteria to deliver substrate molecules to a wide range of target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Very few phytopathogenic bacteria colonize intact plant roots, even if the local soil provides a favorable environment for bacterial growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Like many other pathogenic bacteria, R. solanacearum possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity ( hrp ) genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Type III Secretion System (T3SS), which plays important roles in pathogenesis or symbiosis, is widely expressed in a variety of gram negative bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an effector delivery system used by Gram-negative bacteria to kill other bacteria or eukaryotic hosts to gain fitness. (frontiersin.org)
  • The bacterial flagellum is a remarkable molecular motor, whose primary function in bacteria is to facilitate motility through the rotation of a filament protruding from the bacterial cell. (nature.com)
  • The bacterial flagellum is a macromolecular motor that rotates and acts as a propeller in many bacteria. (nature.com)
  • Bacteria use several systems to obtain nutrients from other organisms in the environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. (vt.edu)
  • In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, secretion requires translocation across the outer as well as the inner membrane, and a diversity of molecular machines have been elaborated for this purpose. (vt.edu)
  • The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a secretory apparatus encoded by many Gram-negative bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Costa TR, Felisberto-Rodrigues C, Meir A, Prevost MS, Redzej A, Trokter M, Waksman G (2015) Secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria: structural and mechanistic insights. (springer.com)
  • Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is present in bacteria and archaea as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria have two membranes, thus making secretion topologically more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least six specialized secretion systems in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mass spectrometry analyses of the culture supernatant of bacteria grown in liquid culture under secreting conditions allows the identification of secretion system substrates. (springer.com)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, where secretion involves translocation across inner and outer membranes, there are now known six general classes of protein secretion systems, each of which shows considerable diversity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gram-positive bacteria share some of the same secretion systems as Gram-negative bacteria and also display one system specific to that group, the type VII system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several specialized secretion systems have evolved in Gram-negative bacteria to facilitate this process, while intracellular bacteria that lack an outer membrane such as cell-wall-less mollicutes and the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Rhodococcus equi can achieve this simply via general secretion pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the bacterial type III secretion system genes could not be assigned to a particular bacterial group, but several genes were affiliated with the genus Succinivibrio, and searches of bacterial genome sequences found that strains of S. dextrinosolvens were part of a small group of rumen bacteria that encode this type of secretion system. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human and animals, but can also be used as tools in cell biology to dissect cellular processes or used as therapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • Currently, in vivo study of bacterial interactions within oysters is limited by the inability to promote high-level uptake of bacteria by oysters. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Secretion of virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria involves transportation of the protein across two membranes to reach the cell exterior [ PMID: 9618447 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Several pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria invest in sophisticated type III secretion systems (T3SS) to incapacitate their eukaryotic hosts. (dissertations.se)
  • The Type VI Secretion System is the most recently discovered [7] of the six mechanisms for effector secretion elucidated in gram-negative bacteria, particularly notable for its significant structural homology with T4 bacteriophage [18] . (kenyon.edu)
  • In bacteria, it is necessary for the assembly of the T6SS [4] , and is theorized to be involved in the association of the secretion system with the internal membrane [18] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Host responses elicited by type IV secretion systems (T4SS) activity are important factors in determining whether the infection will be resolved or whether bacteria will be able to cause a persistent infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Evolutionarily related to the flagellar assembly machinery, this system is also present in other pathogenic bacteria, but its organization is unknown. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the type III apparatus of S. typhimurium , and presumably other bacteria, exists as a supramolecular structure in the bacterial envelope. (sciencemag.org)
  • The human gut is home to 100 trillion bacteria, which, for millions of years, have co-evolved along with our digestive and immune systems. (caltech.edu)
  • This harpoon system is in about one quarter of Gram-negative bacteria," Hammer said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intracellular bacterial infections are unique because the bacteria must avoid, circumvent, and even co-opt microbial "sensing" mechanisms in order to reside and replicate within a host cell. (hindawi.com)
  • These include bacterial cell aggregation, adhesion to surfaces of host cells such as, in the case of gut bacteria, the linings of the intestine, adhesion to other microbial cells in biofilms , gene and protein injection into other cells, DNA uptake by naturally transformable bacteria, and virulence attributes of pathogenic bacteria. (citizendium.org)
  • Adhesion of bacterial cells has an important survival role in their survival as micro-colonies - called biofilms - on solid surfaces in the natural environment, and F-pili determine the final shapes of the structures seen in mature surface biofilms formed by Eschericha coli bacteria, as mutants affected in the plasmid specified F-pili form a biofilm of a different structure [7] . (citizendium.org)
  • Importantly, NF- κB translocation is essential for the intracellular survival of Legionella , as the inhibition of this process resulted in the death of infected cells and prevented further bacterial replication when macrophages were infected at a low multiplicity of infection in a previous study. (asmscience.org)
  • With the rapid accumulation of bacterial genome sequences, our knowledge of the complexity of bacterial protein secretion systems has expanded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the genes encoding the VAS-related, type VI secretion system likely play an important conserved function in microbial pathogenesis and represent an additional class of targets for vaccine and antimicrobial drug-based therapies. (pnas.org)
  • Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a complex protein secretion system that plays pivotal roles in bacterial pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I am currently teaching the "Secretion Systems" and "Salmonella" lectures of the MMI 351 Bacterial Pathogenesis course. (ualberta.ca)
  • Researchers at the Cancer Biology and Infection laboratory showed that bacterial virulence factors, usually studied independently, cooperate to increase virulence. (cea.fr)
  • The type III secretion system is of great interest, as it is used to transport virulence factors from the pathogen directly into the host cell and is only triggered when the bacterium comes into close contact with the host. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One of these protein-delivery machines is the type III secretion system (T3SS). (nih.gov)
  • Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to activation of host NF-κB. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As the NF-κB response of HEK293T cells to effectorless Yersinia has been used both as a screening tool for chemical inhibitors of the T3SS and for bacterial forward genetic screens, a better understanding of this response is important for tool optimization and interpretation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • T3DB is the first systematic platform integrating well-annotated T3SS-related gene and protein information to facilitate T3SS and bacterial pathogenecity related research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • established a database ( http://3base.bham.ac.uk ) aiming to formulate a taxonomy for type-III secretion, and to facilitate T3SS identification in newly-sequenced bacterial genomes [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. the recruitment of part of the flagellum structure for the evolution of the new protein delivery function. (pasteur.fr)
  • A second major step in the evolution of NF-T3SSs occurred via recruitment of secretins to the NF-T3SS, an event that occurred at least three times from different systems. (pasteur.fr)
  • Abstract : Due to the endowed effective ability to deliver antigen to cytoplasm of APCs in vivo, T3SS based attenuated bacterial vectors attracted more and more attention for their potential interest in cancer vaccine development. (duhnnae.com)
  • In this work, we would like to strengthen P. aeruginosa T3SS based vaccine vectors and direct the development of these bacterial vectors toward clinical applications. (duhnnae.com)
  • Fritsch MJ, Trunk K, Diniz JA, Guo M, Trost M, Coulthurst SJ (2013) Proteomic identification of novel secreted antibacterial toxins of the Serratia marcescens type VI secretion system. (springer.com)
  • The gut microbiota of fish mono-colonized by commensal strain Aeromonas veroni i was displaced by V. cholerae expressing its Type VI Secretion System (T6SS), a syringe-like apparatus that deploys toxins into target cells. (aps.org)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than simply be secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that the type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been recognized as a frequently used molecular weapon, it is not at all surprising that it is found widely distributed throughout diverse bacterial species (around 25% of all gram-negatives) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The T6SS system was discovered in Vibrio cholerae due to its toxicity against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an organelle that is structurally and mechanistically analogous to an intracellular membrane-attached contractile phage tail. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with phylogenetic analyses comparing the distribution of the B. thai T6SSs with well-characterized bacterial and eukaryotic cell-targeting T6SSs, we found that T6SS-5 plays a critical role in the virulence of the organism in a murine melioidosis model, while a strain lacking the other four T6SSs remained as virulent as the wild-type. (prolekare.cz)
  • The T6SSs containing Hcp2 or Hcp3 exhibit an antibacterial activity [2;3], in contrary to the T6SS formed by Hcp1 [4] that acts on bacterial motility. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Detection of Hcp in culture supernatants is indicative of an active T6SS, but this secretion system is often tightly regulated or inactive under laboratory conditions and different bacterial strains display differing Hcp secretion phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • Herein, we describe an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colony blot methods to facilitate large-scale screening of isolates for Hcp secretion and, thus, T6SS activity. (springer.com)
  • Using this model, we demonstrate for the first time the antibacterial activity of Vibrio vulnificus Type 6 secretion systems in vivo, revealing an important role for the T6SS in V. vulnificus ecology. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The compounds delivered by the T6SS have not been characterized in most bacterial species. (kenyon.edu)
  • A particularly important system to bacterial interactions in the context of the T6SS is the Gac/Rsm pathway: a system that regulates roughly 500 genes, including the T6SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas syringae [18] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The poisonous weapon is called a Type VI secretion system (T6SS), and is common. (eurekalert.org)
  • These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. (genome.jp)
  • Mutations in vas homologs in other bacterial species have been reported to attenuate virulence in animals and cultured macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • The T4SS of A. tumefaciens is among the best-studied T4SS, and the majority of its components are highly conserved in different pathogenic bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • Although T3SSs have been identified in many bacterial species, quite limited number of T3SSs has been extensively investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together with the range of oligomeric states observed in the FliD crystal structures, these observations have led to a model where in different bacterial species, the cap complex has different oligomeric states (N), and in the corresponding filament, the number of protofilaments is 2N + 1 7 . (nature.com)
  • Pathogenic Yersinia species use a type III secretion system to inhibit phagocytosis by eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • The assay targets a 115-base-pair region within orf2 of the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system gene cluster and distinguishes B. pseudomallei from other microbial species. (asm.org)
  • Recently, a second parallel Sec system has been described in a number of gram-positive species. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, the species B. bifidum represents a good source of bacterial strains to be employed for the development of novel effective probiotic ( 12 ) or paraprobiotic ( 13 ) products. (asm.org)
  • Genetic analyses have established that these systems are both structurally and functionally conserved across bacterial species ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The most recently described GI type T4SSs play a key role in the horizontal transfer of a wide variety of genomic islands derived from a broad spectrum of bacterial strains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These B. glumae , B. gladioli , and B. plantarii strains have unique genes involved in toxoflavin or tropolone toxin production and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated bacterial immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain strains of the obligate nitrogen-fixing bacterial endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus have the necessary attributes for this role. (intechopen.com)
  • Root-specific camalexin biosynthesis controls the plant growth-promoting effects of multiple bacterial strains. (nature.com)
  • Genome sequencing of three C. pecorum strains, originating from animals with different disease manifestations, has identified differences in ORF663 and pseudogene content between strains and has identified genes and metabolic traits that may influence intracellular survival, pathogenicity and evasion of the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterial strains used, serovar Typhimurium C5 and its derivative waaN mutant and S. enterica serovar Dublin SD2229 and its derivative sipB mutant, have been described previously ( 12 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Diverse type III secretion phenotypes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains upon infection of murine macrophage-like and endothelial cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, needle structures were absent from S. typhimurium strains carrying mutations in invG , prgH , or prgK (Fig. 1 C) ( 7 ), which encode essential components of the invasion-associated type III secretion system ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The HrcQ(B) protein, a component of the secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas syringae with homologues in all type III systems, has a variable N-terminal and a conserved C-terminal domain (HrcQ(B)-C). Here, we report the crystal structure of HrcQ(B)-C and show that this domain retains the ability of the full-length protein to interact with other type III components. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • A virulence locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a protein secretion apparatus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Yersinia type III secretion apparatus assembles a needle-like structure comprised of the YscF protein on the bacterial cell surface prior to eukaryotic cell contact ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Mutations in fliK can be suppressed, with respect to filament assembly, by mutations in the export apparatus protein FlhB ( 24 , 51 ), which is located in the bacterial inner membrane. (asm.org)
  • Genes encoding the Ysc secretion apparatus and the secreted Yops are located on a 68-kb plasmid called pYVe8081 in Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • The Sec system utilises two different pathways for secretion: the SecA and signal recognition particle (SRP) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least four nonclassical (unconventional) protein secretion pathways have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. (hindawi.com)
  • Ralstonia solanacearum , a gram-negative soil-borne pathogen responsible for bacterial wilt, naturally invades plants through axils of secondary roots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A secreted protein tyrosine phosphatase with modular effector domains in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. (mdpi.com)
  • avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. (mdpi.com)
  • The human pathogen Salmonella typhimurium encodes two type III secretion systems, although only one of them, located at centisome 63 of its chromosome, appears to be expressed in vitro ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Beuzon CR, Banks G, Deiwick J, Hensel M, Holden DW (1999) pH-dependent secretion of SseB, a product of the SPI-2 type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium. (springer.com)
  • pH-dependent secretion of SseB, a product of the SPI-2 type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is required for bacterial replication inside macrophages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As the pH of the Salmonella-containing vacuole inside host cells has been shown to acidify to between pH 4.0 and 5.0, and as SPI-2 gene expression occurs inside host cells, low pH might be a physiological stimulus for SPI-2-mediated secretion in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. (asm.org)
  • Previously, mutations in lipid A biosynthesis genes resulted in conditional lethality, but recently mutations in msbB (renamed waaN ) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium which do not affect bacterial growth have been described ( 11 , 12 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In order to assess the role of lipid A in other Salmonella infection systems, Everest et al. (asm.org)
  • A salmonella protein antagonizes Rac-1 and Cdc42 to mediate host-cell recovery after bacterial invasion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia) can inject nutrients into protist cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MacIntyre DL , Miyata ST , Kitaoka M , Pukatzki S . The Vibrio cholerae Type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pukatzki S, Ma AT, Sturtevant D, Krastins B, Sarracino D, Nelson WC, Heidelberg JF, Mekalanos JJ (2006) Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. (springer.com)
  • Bernardy EE, Turnsek MA, Wilson SK, Tarr CL, Hammer BK (2016) Diversity of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae in natural transformation and contact-dependent bacterial killing indicative of Type VI secretion system activity. (springer.com)
  • A universal oyster infection model demonstrates that Vibrio vulnificus Type 6 secretion systems have antibacterial activity in vivo. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • One of the major aquatic bacterial genera responsible for human infections from seafood is Vibrio, especially from oysters. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The Wss/Esx (ESAT-6 system) pathway is sometimes called a type VII secretion system (T7SS) despite being an export pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flagellar assembly pathway takes at least one bacterial generation to complete from initiation of transcription ( 21 ), a long time for a bacterium entering a well defended host. (pnas.org)
  • This bacterial expression system takes advantage of the natural pathway of protein export and anchoring on the surface of the bacterium. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A Type VI secretion-related pathway in Bacteroidetes mediates interbacterial antagonism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections. (hindawi.com)
  • VE-cadherin cleavage by LasB protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa facilitates Type III Secretion System toxicity in endothelial cells. (cea.fr)
  • Barret M , Egan F , Fargier E , Morrissey JP , O'Gara F . Genomic analysis of the Type VI secretion systems in Pseudomonas spp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The role of type III secretion system and lens material on adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of ExsA and of ExsA-dependent promoters required for expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Orf1/SpcS chaperones ExoS for type three secretion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Some of these, such as type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and bacteriocins, provide specialized protection against eukaryotic or bacterial cells, respectively [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • T3SSs can secrete protein cargo outside the bacterial cell and also target many of them into the eukaryotic cell interior. (dissertations.se)
  • Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic cells , including human cells , have a highly evolved process of secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion systems are a particular kind of molecular weapon as they release or inject molecules and substrates that interact not only with hosts and predators but also with bacterial competitors. (pnas.org)
  • Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella are broadly compared at the level of their genetic structure, morphology, regulation, and function, integrating structural information, to provide an overview of how they might function at a molecular level. (pnas.org)
  • This bacterium is a model organism extensively studied by genetic, molecular, and biochemical techniques in order to develop strategies for the control of bacterial wilt. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It demonstrates how molecular evolution can convert one complex molecular machine into a second, equally complex machine by successive deletions, innovations, and recruitment from other molecular systems. (pasteur.fr)
  • Weber BS, Ly PM, Irwin JN, Pukatzki S, Feldman MF (2015) A multidrug resistance plasmid contains the molecular switch for type VI secretion in Acinetobacter baumannii. (springer.com)
  • When Legionella invades a human cell, it wraps itself in a protective vesicle and opens the molecular structure, known as a type IV secretion system. (caltech.edu)
  • These new structures are significantly advancing thefield, but also are raising important new questions relating to underlying mechanisms and signals governing i)assembly of envelope-spanning T4SS channels and conjugative pili, ii) early-stage substrate recruitment andprocessing reactions, and iii) establishment of direct contacts (mating junctions) with bacterial and eukaryoticcells. (usda.gov)
  • Conjugation of DNA through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) drives horizontal gene transfer. (pasteur.fr)
  • Comparative genomic analysis revealed a 45-kb chromosomal region that comprises 19 putative genes coding for a potential type IV secretion system (T4SS). (asm.org)
  • In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis ( B. thai ) in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Next we probed the role of the five systems in interbacterial interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our data show that T6SSs within a single organism can have distinct functions in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • however, the general roles of these systems in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions are not known [3] , [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Insights into Functional Diversity in Neurospora This proposal investigates the genetic bases of fungal thermophily, biomass-degradation, and fungal-bacterial interactions in Sordariales, an order of biomass-degrading fungi frequently encountered in compost and encompassing one of the few groups of thermophilic fungi. (doe.gov)
  • The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. (vt.edu)
  • Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems. (vt.edu)
  • Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating all of these interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterial interactions turned out to be nearly as calculable as chemical reactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • NCs are traversed by a 2- to 3-nm channel ( 10 ), which exists also within the entire bacterial flagellum ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Developing a drug that would disable even one core protein component of the secretion system, Ghosal says, would enable human cells to fight back against the bacterial infection. (caltech.edu)
  • Upon identification of the substrates, the secretion profile serves as a tool to test the functionality of secretion systems. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe the first characterization of the C. difficile accessory Sec system and the identification of its major substrates. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 has two contact-dependent type III secretion systems (TTSSs). (asm.org)
  • In the ensuing ~75 years, studies established the broad medical importanceof F and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the shaping of bacterial genomes and as vectors fordissemination of antibiotic resistance and other fitness traits among bacterial populations. (usda.gov)
  • Waiting to Respire UC Berkeley and JGI researchers joined forces and data sets to describe bacterial genomes for related ("sibling") lineages that diverged from the bacterial tree before Cyanobacteria and its contemporaries. (doe.gov)
  • NCs comprise a 10 × 60-nm external needle inserted within a 30-nm (in diameter) cylinder traversing both bacterial membranes and the peptidoglycan. (pnas.org)
  • 1998 ). The similarity resides on the so-called basal body (or base) spanning both bacterial membranes (Blocker et al . (wiley.com)
  • Not surprisingly, type I IFNs can have opposing effects during both intracellular and extracellular bacterial infections as well. (hindawi.com)
  • Some type IV secretion systems are thought to be instrumental in spreading antibiotic-resistance genes throughout the bacterial population. (caltech.edu)
  • Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • SseB has been considered a putative target of the secretion system on the basis of its similarity with EspA, a protein secreted by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Escherichia coli cell with bacterial fimbriae (pili). (citizendium.org)
  • Although most of the putative components of this system have been identified, little is known about their function or their organization in the bacterial envelope. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissues in humans that produce secretions include the gastrointestinal tract which secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid , the lung which secretes surfactants , and sebaceous glands which secrete sebum to lubricate the skin and hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that a yscP mutant exports an increased amount of the needle component YscF to the bacterial cell surface but is unable to efficiently secrete effector Yops. (asm.org)
  • Approximately 24-48 hours post infection, heterotypic fusion between the CCV and host endosomes/lysosomes leads to CCV expansion and bacterial replication in the mature CCV. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ulcers can be caused by the bacterial infection Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • F-pili are involved in bacterial conjugation and connect the bacterium to another bacterium and enable a bridge between the cytoplasms of the cells which becomes the channel for one way transfer of a single-strand of DNA and certain protein molecules. (citizendium.org)
  • I propose that bacterial pathogenicity is the result of multiple events in any given bacterium (vs. singular events) that occurred after the Fall and that no intentional pathogenic mechanisms exist. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. (osti.gov)
  • en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors Développement de limmunothérapie anti-tumorale médiée par vecteur bactérien vivant basé sur le syst - Download this document for free, or read online. (duhnnae.com)
  • At 37°C, the secretion system is assembled, forming a needle-like structure on the bacterial cell surface. (asm.org)
  • We developed computational tools to identify homologous components of the two systems and to discriminate between them. (pasteur.fr)
  • The Sec system constituting the Sec Y-E-G complex (see Type II secretion system (T2SS), below) is another conserved secretion system, homologous to the translocon in the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and the Sec 61 translocon complex of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, when type III secretion genes were first identified, it appeared that some of them were also related to flagellar genes (Fields et al . (wiley.com)
  • The concept of substrate specificity switching by TTSSs was first demonstrated in the flagellar system. (asm.org)
  • and the long flagellar filament, which is assembled onto the end of the hook and serves as a propeller during bacterial motility (for a review, see reference 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The protein subunits of the system are very similar to those of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis [ PMID: 9618447 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The similarity between type III secretion components and the flagellar export machinery prompted us to investigate whether the S. typhimurium cell envelope contains structures similar to those involved in flagellar assembly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Little over a decade since its discovery, extensive knowledge has been gained on the structural aspects of T6SSs, as well as their assembly-contraction dynamics within individual bacterial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Biological systems - including the simplest cells - exhibit a broad range of functions to thrive in their environment. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In particular, we model, analyse, design and build biological and biochemical systems in living cells and/or in cell extracts, both exploring and enhancing the engineering potential of biology. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • After ingestion, this bacterium invades host tissue by traversing M cells to gain access to underlying gastrointestinal system-associated lymphoid tissue called Peyer's patches. (asm.org)
  • Physiological differentiation during symbiosis leads to division of labor between smaller and larger cells in an uncultured bacterial tubeworm symbiont population and results in remarkable metabolic diversity and complexity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Similar to other invertebrates, scale insects may contain specialized cells called bacteriocytes, which harbor bacterial symbionts inherited by their progeny [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • According to the literature, the T4SSs, which have not been characterized before in bifidobacteria, can have important implications for bacterial cell-to-cell communication as well as cross talk with host cells, justifying the interest for further studies aimed at the investigation of this genetic region. (asm.org)
  • This system has also been associated with the assembly of invasomes, appendage-like structures that appear on the bacterial surface upon contact with host cells ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • These researchers have identified a novel mechanism of cooperation betw​​ ​ een the secretion system present in some pathogenic and protease released into the extracellular medium. (cea.fr)
  • Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. (osti.gov)
  • Type IV secretion systems: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and virulence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review provides a brief survey of eight classes of secretion systems, then describes Gene Ontology terms that are now available for annotating the secretion machineries, as well as missing terms that still need to be added. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional analysis demonstrated that YopP and YspH secretion was restored to yopP mutants by complementation in trans with a wild-type copy of the yopP gene. (asm.org)
  • The Ysa TTSS, which is encoded by a gene cluster in the chromosome of Y. enterocolitica , was recently described and was shown to be required for the secretion of a number of Ysps ( 17 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Detailed analysis of the rumen microbiomes of high methane yield sheep shows that gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion system genes are positively correlated with methane yield in sheep. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. (mdpi.com)
  • The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. (wiley.com)
  • Jones JD and Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. (els.net)
  • Mazmanian and Chow suspected that the effect of the bug's presence-whether it lives in quiet coexistence with its host or causes disease-may be determined by its ability to communicate with and, more importantly, to modify the immune system of its host. (caltech.edu)
  • Furthermore, type I IFNs are treatments for some viral infections and autoimmune diseases, stressing the importance of understanding their impact on the host immune system [ 3 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, the authors present the Protocol for Linking External Nodes (POLEN), a Cloud-based system that facilitates synthetic biology design workflows that operate asynchronously. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In addition to EPS I, R. solanacearum secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through the type II secretion system (T2SS). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • SseB begins to accumulate inside the bacterial cell when the culture enters early stationary phase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. (mdpi.com)
  • Most current antibiotics focus on destroying the cellular envelope that encompasses a bacterial cell, preventing it from replicating,' says Jensen. (caltech.edu)
  • Felix G, Duran JD, Volko S and Boller T (1999) Plants have a sensitive perception system for the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin. (els.net)
  • Gomez‐Gomez L, Felix G and Boller T (1999) A single locus determines sensitivity to bacterial flagellin in Arabidopsis thaliana. (els.net)
  • Silverman JM, Brunet YR, Cascales E, Mougous JD (2012) Structure and regulation of the type VI secretion system. (springer.com)
  • We explore functional parallels between these systems to gain mechanistic insights about TTSSs and flagella alike. (pnas.org)
  • The virulence of Y. enterocolitica is thought to involve the activities of two different contact-dependent type III secretion systems (TTSSs). (asm.org)
  • Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the inner membrane protein YscU suppress the yscP phenotype by reducing the level of YscF secretion and increasing the level of Yop secretion. (asm.org)
  • Boyer F , Fichant G , Berthod J , Vandenbrouck Y , Attree I . Dissecting the bacterial Type VI secretion system by a genome wide in silico analysis: what can be learned from available microbial genomic resources? (microbiologyresearch.org)