Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.BelgiumMarfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.BibliographyBibliography, National: A bibliography which lists all the books and other publications published, or distributed in significant quantity, in a particular country. Sometimes the term is used with respect to the new publications published within a specific period, and sometimes with respect to all those published within a lengthy period of many years. It is also used to indicate a bibliography of publications about a country (whether written by its nationals or not) and those written in the language of the country as well as those published in it. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.BookbindingPortraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.History of DentistryGenes, Microbial: The functional hereditary units of a microorganism.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides: Cellular proteins and peptides that are induced in response to cold stress. They are found in a broad variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III secretion system interacts with phagocytes to modulate systemic infection of zebrafish embryos. (1/446)

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The 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of Spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type III secretion needle complex in Shigella flexneri. (2/446)

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The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells. (3/446)

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Tolerance rather than immunity protects from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric preneoplasia. (4/446)

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Type IV secretion systems: versatility and diversity in function. (5/446)

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Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/446)

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Endofungal bacterium controls its host by an hrp type III secretion system. (7/446)

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Diarrhea induced by infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (8/446)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that naturally inhabits marine and estuarine environments. Infection with V. parahaemolyticus is often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, causing gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea. The presence of two type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), has been closely associated with the severity of diarrheal illness. TDH and TRH have various biological activities including hemolytic activity, cardiotoxicity, and enterotoxicity. T3SS1 is involved in cytotoxicity to host cells and orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and cell lysis. T3SS2 is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. The activities of inducing diarrhea of each of the virulence factors were summarized in this review.  (+info)

*Bacteria

The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. These transfer proteins from the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ... Partition systems are also encoded by most bacterial chromosomes. Plasmids that are maintained at a high copy number per cell ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ...

*Effector (biology)

"Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells by Bacterial Secretion Systems". Traffic. 7 (8): 929-939. ... The injection is mediated by specialized secretion systems, e.g. the type III secretion system (TTSS or T3SS). Fungal effectors ... Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion ... Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. ...

*Dorothy Hodgkin

Professor Susan Lea, "Bacterial secretion systems - using structure to build towards new therapeutic opportunities", 5 March ... Dr Claire Naylor, "Pathogenic Proteins: how bacterial agents cause disease", 4 March 2003. Dr Margaret Adams, "A Piece in the ... and long-range nuclear weapons systems, as well as an intrusive verification regime". She accepted the Lenin Peace Prize from ...

*Bacterial effector protein

... usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS ... Bacterial Effector Proteins and their domains/motifs (from Paul Dean's lab) T3DB - A database of Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS ... Alfano, J. R.; Collmer, A. (2004). "TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM EFFECTOR PROTEINS: Double Agents in Bacterial Disease and Plant ... An integrated database for bacterial type III secretion system". BMC Bioinformatics. 13: 66. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-66. PMC ...

*Digestion

... and function of bacterial Type IV secretion systems". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 451-485. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ... Human Physiology - Digestion NIH guide to digestive system The Digestive System How does the Digestive System Work? Metabolism ... A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella ... Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The secretion is inhibited by low pH. Secretin - is in the ...

*Evolution of flagella

The Non-Flagellar Type III Secretion System Evolved from the Bacterial Flagellum and Diversified into Host-Cell Adapted Systems ... the type three secretory system supports the hypothesis that the flagellum evolved from a simpler bacterial secretion system. ... This is presumed to be the common ancestor of the type-III secretory system and the flagellar system. Then, an ion pump was ... "Evolution of the Bacterial Flagellum: Cumulative evidence indicates that flagella developed as modular systems, with many ...

*Secretion

"Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ... The Sec system constituting the Sec Y-E-G complex (see Type II secretion system (T2SS), below) is another conserved secretion ... In short, Type IV secretion system (T4SS), is the general mechanism by which bacterial cells secrete or take up macromolecules ... Type I secretion is a chaperone dependent secretion system employing the Hly and Tol gene clusters. The process begins as a ...

*Archaea

The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system, while archaeal flagella appear to have ... ISBN 0-19-511183-4. Gophna U; Ron EZ; Graur D (July 2003). "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... In the genus Sulfolobus, the cycle has characteristics that are similar to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems. The ...

*YopR bacterial protein domain

The type III secretion system is of great interest, as the YopR protein domain plays an important role. The type III secretion ... Hueck CJ (June 1998). "Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. ... Proteins in this entry are type III secretion system effectors. They are named differently in different species and in Yersinia ... There have been four secretion systems described in animal enteropathogens, such as Salmonella and Yersinia, with further ...

*LcrV

"Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (2): 379-433. ... The type III secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria is used to transport virulence factors from the pathogen directly into ... Effector proteins secreted by the type III system do not possess a secretion signal, and are considered unique because of this ... LcrV is a multifunctional protein that has been shown to act at the level of secretion control by binding the Ysc inner-gate ...

*Pore

... a part of many Gram-negative bacterial secretion systems One of the openings communicating with the skin surface at the ... Pore may refer to: Sweat pore, an anatomical structure of the skin of humans (and other mammals) used for secretion of sweat ... Canal pore, an anatomical structure that is part of the lateral line sense system of some aquatic organisms Gonopore, a genital ... external discharge site of defensive glands in millipedes and some arachnids An opening across both inner and outer bacterial ...

*Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology

Ecophysiology currently has three research groups led by the following in parenthesis: Bacterial secretion systems (Andreas ... "Department of systems and synthetic microbiology". Retrieved April 25, 2014. "Dr. Tobias Erb ist neuer Direktor der Abteilung ... The Department of Systems and Synthetic Microbiology, headed by Victor Sourjik, aims to elucidate general principles of ... they aim to understand how molecular machines involved in motility and secretion function and how their activity is regulated. ...

*Guy R. Cornelis

... of the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SS is a mechanism by which many bacteria inject a cocktail of toxins, so- ... After his appointment as Professor in Louvain in 1984, he investigated bacterial pathogenesis and joined in 1991 the Christian ... He investigates the complex mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases. He received particular recognition[who?] for the co- ... the cunning of bacterial poisons by Alistair Lax. ...

*Type VI secretion system

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport ... Secretion Quorum Sensing Two-component regulatory system Coulthurst SJ (2013). "The Type VI secretion system - a widespread and ... Unlike substrates of other secretion systems (such as the general secretory pathway or secretion systems III and VI), those of ... it has been observed that the GacS/Rsm two-component system is involved in type VI secretion system regulation. This system ...

*Flagellum

Many components of bacterial flagella share sequence similarity to components of the type III secretion systems, but the ... Given the structural similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory systems, bacterial flagella may have ... which are assembled through the action of type II secretion systems (the nomenclature of pili and protein secretion systems is ... Gophna U, Ron EZ, Graur D (July 2003). "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal- ...

*Pseudomonas syringae

... syringae pathogenesis is dependent on effector proteins secreted into the plant cell by the bacterial type III secretion system ... P. syringae isolates carry a range of virulence factors called type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins. These ... Mansfield, John W. (2009). "From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via thehrpdelivery system: an overview of 25 ... "Genomewide identification of proteins secreted by the Hrp type III protein secretion system of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ...

*Type II secretion system

Each bacterial cell will contain a number of type II secretion systems and these are found embedded in the inner and outer ... The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery ... some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the ... Along with other secretory systems such as the chaperone/usher pathway and the type IV secretion system, secretion via the type ...

*Type three secretion system

"The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems ... Type three secretion system (often written Type III secretion system and abbreviated TTSS or T3SS, also called Injectisome) is ... This secretion system is distinguished from at least five other secretion systems found in Gram-negative bacteria. Many animal ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system. T3SSs are essential for the pathogenicity ...

*Endomembrane system

31 March 2016). "Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic Endomembrane System". Trends ... The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either ... The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. ... Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved ...

*Inflammasome

... process by these bacteria is unclear but is thought to require a type 3 or type 4 secretion system provided by bacterial ... NLRP1 has been shown to confer macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT), suggesting the role of bacterial toxins in ... Keller M, Rüegg A, Werner S, Beer HD (2008). "Active caspase-1 is a regulator of unconventional protein secretion". Cell. 132 ( ... Caspase-1 activates maturation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-18). AIM2 is activated by viral dsDNA, bacterial dsDNA ...

*Bacterial display

Autotransporters form part of the type V secretion system. They usually have 3 domains: leader sequence at the N-terminal; ... Bacterial display systems were first introduced by Freudl et al. and Charbit et al. in 1986, when they used bacterial surface ... Another advantage of generating vaccines using bacterial display systems is that the whole bacterial cell can be incorporated ... bacterial display systems are used to express known epitopes and the cells act as a vaccine delivery system. Under similar ...

*Trimeric autotransporter adhesin

The type V secretion system is described as non-fimbrious, meaning that the bacterial cells do not use long physical appendages ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... TAAs are part of the secretion pathway, to be more specific the type Vc secretion system. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins use a particular secretion pathway, named type V secretion system (T5SS). Gram-negative ...

*Bacterial outer membrane vesicles

... bacterial_outer_membrane-bound_nanovesicular_exocytosis_model_for_Type-III_secretion_system._Toxicology_International._Vol._10_ ... A novel bacterial outermembrane-bound nanovesicular model for Type-III secretion system. Toxicology International, vol. 10 (No ... In 'complacent' bacterial colonies, OMVs may be used to carry DNA to 'related' microbes for genetic transformations, and also ... Thus, bacterial OMVs, being strong immunomodulators, can be manipulated for their immunogenic contents and utilized as potent ...

*Arabidopsis thaliana

The bacterial effector avrRpt2 is delivered into A. thaliana via the Type III secretion system of P. syringae pv tomato strain ... Many model systems have been developed to better understand interactions between plants and bacterial, fungal, oomycete, viral ... They contain two receptors, FLS2 (bacterial flagellin receptor) and EF-Tu (bacterial EF-Tu protein), which use signal ... Zipfel, C; Kunze G; Chinchilla D; Caniard A; Jones JD; Boller T; Felix G (19 May 2006). "Perception of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu ...

*Sulfatide

... including the nervous system, the immune system, insulin secretion, blood clotting, viral infection, and bacterial infection. ... Sulfatide participates in many biological systems and functions, including the nervous system, the immune system, and in ... system and is found in high levels in the myelin sheath in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. ... regulates how much sulfatide is in the central nervous system and mediates the homeostasis of the system. It has been found ...

*Phage display

Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... A versatile screening system for selective isolation of genes by specific gene-product/ligand interaction". Eur. J. Biochem. ... inserted between the N-terminal secretion sequence and the N-terminus of pIII). However, when using the BamHI site located at ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and so produce a phage ...
The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria ...
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport proteins from the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell across the cellular envelope into an adjacent target cell. The T6SS was first identified in 2006 in Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all Proteobacterial genomes, including pathogens of animals, plants, and humans, as well as soil, environmental or marine bacteria. While most of the early studies of Type VI secretion focused on its role in the pathogenesis of higher organisms, it is now known to function primarily in interbacterial antagonism. The T6SS is thought to resemble an inverted phage extending outward from the bacterial cell surface. It consists of 14 proteins that assemble into three sub-complexes: a phage tail-like tubule, a phage baseplate-like structure, and cell-envelope spanning membrane complex. These three ...
Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as pilli and flagella, nutrient acquisition, virulence, and efflux of drugs and other toxins. Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway ...
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects a large variety of agricultural crops. Bacteria colonize leaf surfaces and enter plant mesophyll tissue through wounds or stomata. Once inside, P. syringae can alter plant cell signaling pathways and suppress plant defense responses enabling it to grow in the intercellular space in the mesophyll. P. syringae possesses at least two types of virulence factors that suppress plant defense responses: i) small phytotoxin molecules, and ii) effector proteins that are translocated through specialized secretion systems. Gram-negative bacteria possess at least six types of secretion systems. The P. syringae type II and type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS) are both involved in secreting proteins that are important for P. syringae pathogenesis. Functions of the other secretion systems have not been explored. This study investigates the role of the newly discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. syringae interaction with plants. The
Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells, causing a broad spectrum of diseases including bacteremia, septicemia, typhoid fever, and bubonic plague in mammals, and localized lesions, systemic wilting, and blights in plants. In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a component of the secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas syringae with homologues in all type III systems, has a variable N-terminal and a conserved C-terminal domain (HrcQ(B)-C). Here, we report the crystal structure of HrcQ(B)-C and show that this domain retains the ability of the full-length protein to interact with other type III components. A 3D analysis of sequence conservation patterns reveals two clusters of residues potentially involved in protein-protein interactions. Based on the analogies between HrcQ(B) and its flagellum homologues, we propose ...
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death globally. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resides primarily in so-called macrophages, a type of immune cell that normally serves to kill invading bacteria. The mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system is critical for ability of the bacterium to survive and grow in these cells. Moreover, ESX-1 is known to induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, as well as cell death to infected cells. Because these functions may have important roles during infection, this project aimed to gain insight into mechanistic basis for ESX-1-induced IL-1 ß secretion and cell death, respectively ...
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice. Here, we sought to identify the M. abscessus genes required for replication within amoebae. To this end, we constructed and screened a transposon (Tn) insertion library of an M. abscessus subspecies massiliense clinical isolate for attenuated clones. This approach identified five genes within the ESX-4 locus, which in M. abscessus encodes an ESX-4 type VII secretion system that exceptionally also includes the ESX conserved EccE component. To confirm the ...
Expert authors critically review selected important topics in the field of bacterial pathogenesis. A valuable resource. Topics range from a review of the seven most important bacterial secretion systems to an overview of evasion strategies of mycobacteria. Essential reading.
The assembly of the T3SS culminates in the formation of the needle filament [Fig. 2 (10)]. Beyond the base, export apparatus and cytosolic components, which are required for substrate secretion per se, correct formation of the needle filament requires the co-secretion of other early substrates, including the inner rod protein and the needle length regulator [Fig. 2 (10)] (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000; Kubori et al., 2000). In some systems, secretion of needle subunits is assisted by dedicated chaperones that prevent premature filament formation in the bacterial cytosol (Quinaud et al., 2005, 2007; Sun et al., 2008; Chatterjee et al., 2011; Sal-Man et al., 2013). It was shown that secretion of the needle filament subunit is required for export of the other proteins (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000). Marlovits et al. (2006) subsequently observed that variations in the expression ratio of the Salmonella inner rod protein PrgJ and the needle subunit PrgI resulted in changes in needle length and concluded that ...
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This invention relates to a surgical device and methods for accessing and retrieving a tissue mass from a body cavity through a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. The device consists of a handle comprising an inner rod, which is rotatably engaged within a tubular member, and a loop adapted to hold a surgical bag. The loop comprises first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein the first bowed leaf element is attached to the inner rod and the second bowed leaf element is attached to the tubular member. The device further has a rotatable articulation, such as a hinge, joining the first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein rotation of the inner rod causes the first bowed leaf element to rotate about the articulation, such that the surgical bag may be opened and closed by rotation of the inner rod.
Bacterial secretory signal peptide expression plasmid with the T7 promoter upstream to drive gene expression (Frame 1 - NcoI site aligned).
Typically comprised of ~12 different scaffold components, prokaryotic type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) translocate a variety of substrates across the cell envelope. Due to the ability to translocate large DNA segments (i.e., mobile genetic elements), some T4SSs contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Other T4SSs translocate smaller DNA segments and/or proteins into eukaryotic cells (e.g., arthropod, plant and human) in order to benefit bacterial survival. At least eight major groups of T4SSs are described and each group consists of minor variations on a common structural theme. Within a given bacterial genome, combinations of different T4SS groups can be encoded, and sometimes multiple copies of the same T4SS group can be present. As an example, two functionally divergent T4SSs (vir and trw) are found in many species of Bartonella, bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas and cause a range of diseases including endocarditis. In species of
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in phytopathogenic bacteria were first described in the 80s. However, whereas numerous characterization studies have revealed the basic processes of assembly, structure and function in animal/human pathogenic systems, our knowledge about these processes in plant type III biosystems is considerably small in comparison. Nonetheless, in recent years we have witnessed important breakthroughs in our understanding on how phytopathogens employ, build and regulate their T3SS: new master transcriptional regulators have been discovered, the activity of already described regulators of the system have been thoroughly investigated, quorum sensing regulators and population dynamics have been found to determine the fine activation of the system, new plant-derived signals have been found to upregulate the phytopathogenic T3SS, and more. Moreover, a considerable weaponry of effectors targeting and tuning the plant responses have been identified and protein components of the core
Friday, 26 January 2018, 13:00Add to calendarESX type VII secretion key to mycobacterial host-pathogen interaction Roland Brosch, Institut Pasteur, Integrated Mycobacterial Pathogenomics Unit, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, FranceHost: Matthias WilmannsSeminar Room 48e, EMBL Hamburg ...
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins ...
Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, ...
T346Hunter :: DESCRIPTION T346Hunter is a web application for the identification of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively) in bacterial genomes. ::DEVELOPER T346Hunt
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Killing for DNA: The type VI secretion system of Vibrio cholerae fosters horizontal gene transfer 11.30 - 11.45 Leendert Hamoen, University of Amsterdam, ...
Korotkov, K. V., T. L. Johnson, M. G. Jobling, J. Pruneda, E. Pardon, A. Héroux, S. Turley, J. Steyaert, R. K. Holmes, M. Sandkvist, et al., Structural and functional studies on the interaction of GspC and GspD in the type II secretion system., PLoS Pathog, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. e1002228, 2011 Sep. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingtype VII secretion protein EssC (TIGR03928; HMM-score: 129.6) ...
Whether its through a lab mishap or eating undercooked beef, becoming infected with pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli is brutal. When E. coli infects a person, it attaches to the intestinal wall and the infection begins. There is a particular set of proteins that E. coli makes that allow the bacterium to be incredibly successful at infection. These structures, called the Type III secretion system, look and act like tiny syringes. They essentially "inject" their own DNA and proteins into the hosts cells. Not only do E. coli use Type III secretion to wreak havoc on the host, but they also can release a chemical called Shiga toxin. This toxin can enter cells, disrupt host protein synthesis, and even burst the intestinal cells. A build up of this toxin is extremely detrimental to the host. Although E. coli infections are relatively uncommon, they are serious business and cant be taken lightly. Now, I dont want you to think all E. coli are bad guys. Most E. coli are an integral part of our ...
Many gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria have acquired a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) which enables them to inject so called ... ...
Paleontologists still poorly understand the process that sorts the winners from the losers after a major extinction, Jablonski said. His statistical analysis ruled out one of the most straightforward of possible causes - that lineages that have suffered a major blow to their numbers during a mass extinction might be especially extinction-prone in the aftermath because they contain fewer species to buffer against the hard times. Instead, Jablonski found that many of the biggest post-extinction winners had passed through a diversity bottleneck as narrow as the Dead Clade Walking groups ...
The structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1-Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that specialized bacterial secretion systems are involved in the interactions between intracellular bacteria and macrophages. In this work, we characterize later-stage infection of macrophages by B. cenocepacia, showing replication within an acidified endosomal compartment suggestive of a phagolysosome. We examine differential gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) with both competitive enrichment and microarray analysis. We identified 766
The major research focus of my group is the transport of proteins by the twin arginine protein transport pathway. This pathway, which is found in the cytoplasmic membranes of most bacteria, and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts, is highly unusual because it transports pre-folded proteins. Protein substrates are targeted to the Tat machinery by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an S/T- R-R-x-F-L-K twin arginine motif. Our aims are to study the function and mechanism of the Tat protein transporter, and the contribution that it makes to the physiology of bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus uses an unusual Type VII secretion system to secrete possible virulence factors. In a collaboration with Professor Bill Hunter we have been structurally and biochemically characterising components and substrates of this system. Contact details ...
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
A retractable needle syringe includes a barrel defining a receiver. There is a plunger having an inner rod extending distally from the proximal end. The plunger includes a hollow sleeve that is disposed over and extend beyond an inner rod. The plunger includes a hollow cutter extending from the inner rod and a stopper disposed over the end of the sleeve. The plunger has a displaceable collar to prevent movement of the inner rod with respect to the sleeve, that is by distal force to the plunger by engagement with the proximal end of the barrel allowing the cutting surface to cut through the stopper. There is a hub with a stem, a proximal flange and an engagement. A clip having a proximal foot with an opening therethrough and a distal grip is disposed on the stem of the hub. The proximal foot of the clip is disposed at the distal surface of the flange and the grip at the engagement on the stem. There is a spring disposed about the stem compressed between the receiver and the clip to provide a bias, so
A suture driver for clamping a suture in the hollow passage and a recessed channel thereof and manipulating the suture to and from a surgical site. The driver includes an outer member tube having a closed and pointed distal end for percutaneous introduction into the body of a patient. The outer tube also includes a recessed channel positioned proximal the closed distal end of the hollow passage extending longitudinally therein and for receiving the suture therein. An inner rod is positioned in the passage of the outer tube and has a clamping surface at the distal end thereof for engaging a suture positioned in the recessed channel. The inner rod is slid through the recessed channel to clamp the suture in the hollow passage of the outer tube against another clamping surface at the distal end of the tube. A handle positioned at the proximal end of the outer tube and inner rod is manipulated to slide the inner rod through the recessed channel and clamp the suture in the hollow passage between the two
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a common cause of severe hemorrhagic colitis. EHECs virulence is dependent upon a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by 41 genes. These genes are organized in several operons clustered in the locus of enterocyte effacement. Most of the locus of enterocyte effacement genes, including grlA and grlR, are positively regulated by Ler, and Ler expression is positively and negatively modulated by GrlA and GrlR, respectively. However, the molecular basis for the GrlA and GrlR activity is still elusive. We have determined the crystal structure of GrlR at 1.9 Å resolution. It consists of a typical β-barrel fold with eight β-strands containing an internal hydrophobic cavity and a plug-like loop on one side of the barrel. Strong hydrophobic interactions between the two β-barrels maintain the dimeric architecture of GrlR. Furthermore, a unique surface-exposed EDED (Glu-Asp-Glu-Asp) motif is identified to be critical for GrlA-GrlR interaction and for the ...
3. Vincent CD, Jeong KC, Sexton J, Buford E, Vogel JP. 2006. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion System. In Legionella: State of the Art 30 Years After Its Recognition. Ed. N. Cianciotto et al, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. Pages 184-191 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The type IV secretion system virB/virD4 is a major virulence determinant for subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. VirB-dependent changes of HEC include massive cytoskeletal rearrangements, a proinflammatory activation by nuclear factor NF-kappa-B, inhibition of early and late events of apoptosis, leading to an increased cell survival, and, at high infection doses, a cytostatic or cytotoxic effect, which interfers with a potent virB-independent mitogenic activity. These changes of HEC require the T4S coupling protein virD4 and at least one of the effector proteins bepA-G. Together with virB11, may be implicated in providing the energy, via hydrolysis of ATP, for the assembly of secretion system and substrate transport ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cellular aggregation is essential for granuloma formation and may assist establishment and early spread of M. tuberculosis infection. The M. tuberculosis ESX1 mutant, which has a non-functional type VII secretion system, induced significantly less production of the host macrophage-derived chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Upon infection of human macrophages ESX1-dependent fractalkine production mediated selective recruitment of CD11b+ monocytic cells and increased infection of neighbouring cells consistent with early local spread of infection. Fractalkine levels were raised in vivo at tuberculous disease sites in humans and were significantly associated with increased CD11b+ monocytic cellular recruitment and extent of granulomatous disease. These findings suggest a novel fractalkine-dependent ESX1-mediated mechanism in early tuberculous disease pathogenesis in humans. Modulation of M. tuberculosis-mediated fractalkine induction may represent a potential ...
Author Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most life-threatening pathogens of all time, having infected one-third of the present human population. There is an urgent need for both novel vaccines and diagnostic strategies. Here, we were able to identify the targets most dominantly recognized by latently infected individual that successfully contain infection. These targets are contained in three broadly genomic antigenic islands, all related to bacterial secretion systems and composed by several distinct ORFs. Thus, our results suggest that vaccination with one or few defined antigens will fail to replicate the response associated with natural immunity. Our analysis also pinpoints that the Th1 cells dominating the response are associated with novel and well-defined phenotypic markers, suggesting that the response is molded by unique MTB associated factors. This study demonstrates further that the approach combining peptide binding predictions with modern high throughput techniques is
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize type III secretion systems (TTSSs) for subverting the normal cellular functions of their target eukaryotic cells. The type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) functions like a syringe to inject proteins through an external needle and into a target cells membrane and cytosol. The TTSA basal body spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes, and the external needle is topped with a tip complex that controls the secretion and delivery of translocator and effector proteins. The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. At the tip of the needle, a tip complex is assembled by tip proteins into a ring-like structure which serves as a platform for the assembly of the translocon by translocator proteins. We use NMR spectroscopy to understand how the needle is assembled and how the tip complex is assembled on top of the needle. We determined the solution structures of the BsaL ...
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila causes an inflammatory pneumonia called Legionnaires Disease. For virulence, L. pneumophila requires a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system that translocates bacterial effectors to the host cytosol. L. pneumophilalacking the Dot/Icm system is recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), leading to a canonical NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response. In addition, L. pneumophila expressing a functional Dot/Icm system potently induces unique transcriptional targets, including proinflammatory genes such as Il23a and Csf2. Here we demonstrate that this Dot/Icm-dependent response, which we term the effector-triggered response (ETR), requires five translocated bacterial effectors that inhibit host protein synthesis. Upon infection of macrophages with virulent L. pneumophila, these five effectors caused a global decrease in host translation, thereby preventing synthesis of IκB, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor. Thus, macrophages infected
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) are complex bacterial structures that provide gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism whereby they grow a needle-like structure in order to inject bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of a host cell. Numerous experiments have been performed to understand the structural details of this nanomachine during the past decade. Despite the concerted efforts of molecular and structural biologists, several crucial aspects of the assembly of this structure, such as the regulation of the length of the needle itself, remain unclear. In this work, we used a combination of mathematical and computational techniques to better understand length control based on the timing of substrate switching, which is a possible mechanism for how bacteria ensure that the T3SS needles are neither too short nor too long. In particular, we predicted the form of the needle length distribution based on this mechanism, and found excellent agreement with available ...
Bacteria propel themselves through liquid environments using rotation of a propeller like organelle, the flagellum. Flagella are energized by the membrane ion gradient and enable bacteria to swim towards nutrients and away from harmful substances. This unique nanomachine shares structural and functional similarities to the needle-like injectisome complex that pathogenic bacteria employ to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. Bacterial flagella and injectisomes contain a specialized protein export system, termed type III secretion, that functions to deliver structural subunits and effector proteins to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. Type III secretion systems are made of multiple proteins, however, the function of individual subunits and the molecular mechanism of protein translocation is poorly understood.,br /,The first part of this thesis reports that the flagellar type III secretion system functions as a proton-driven protein exporter and demonstrates that many ...
Bacteria have mechanisms to export proteins for diverse purposes, including colonization of hosts and pathogenesis. A small number of archetypal bacterial secretion machines have been found in several groups of bacteria and mediate a fundamentally distinct secretion process. Perhaps erroneously, proteins called autotransporters have long been thought to be one of these protein secretion systems. Mounting evidence suggests that autotransporters might be substrates to be secreted, not an autonomous transporter system. We have discovered a new translocation and assembly module (TAM) that promotes efficient secretion of autotransporters in proteobacteria. Functional analysis of the TAM in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli showed that it consists of an Omp85-family protein, TamA, in the outer membrane and TamB in the inner membrane of diverse bacterial species. The discovery of the TAM provides a new target for the development of therapies to inhibit colonization by ...
Here are some interesting proteins worth making in the event that you are able to make large proteins.. green fluorescent protein (GFP). These are especially useful for testing whether or not synthesis worked. Also, other biological pigments.. chromoproteins, like hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and flavoproteins.. blood clotting factor for hemophiliacs (see "Molecular approaches for improved clotting factors for hemophilia"). Enzymatic conversion of blood types, removal of blood type antigens. Various photoreceptors, including ultraviolet photoreceptors.. gelatin. Whatever protein makes magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria (maybe MamK).. MagA - for producing magnetic nanoparticles. type three secretion system is an "injectisome". "Structures similar to Type3SS injectisomes have been proposed to rivet gram negative bacterial outer and inner membranes to help release outer membrane vesicles targeted to deliver bacterial secretions to eukaryotic host or other target cells in vivo.". kinesin ...
trachomatis Inc proteins. To know whether this result also applied to C. pneumo niae, selleck chem inhibitor we raised antibodies against 7 putative Inc proteins from C. pneumoniae as GST tagged fusion proteins. As a control we used antibodies against the C. pneumoniae Inc protein CPn0186. The anti fusion protein antibodies were used to localize the endogenous proteins in cells infected by C. pneumoniae for 96 hours. In contrast to the inclusion labeling observed with anti CPn0186 antibodies, none of the 7 sera stained the inclusion membrane. The detection of endogenous antigens was removed by pre absorption with corresponding GST fusion proteins but not heterologous Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries GST fusion proteins, demonstrating the specificity of the antibodies.. While they did not stain the inclusion membrane, the 7 sera labeled the bacteria, demonstrating that the corresponding proteins Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries are expressed at this stage of infection, and remain bac teria ...
One of the important mechanisms by which H. pylori infection leads to severe gastric disease is through the actions of the bacterial oncoprotein CagA [4], [10], [11], [54]. Translocation of CagA into gastric epithelial cells occurs through a T4SS-mediated process and requires multiple proteins encoded by the cag PAI [12], [14]-[17], [21]. Several H. pylori proteins required for CagA translocation are distantly related to components of T4SSs in other bacterial species and presumably have conserved functions [12], [21], [28], [43]. In the current study, we provide new insights into three components of the cag T4SS that lack homologs in other T4SSs - CagH, CagI, and CagL.. Prior to the current study, it was known that CagL can bind α5β1 integrin and can cause several alterations in host cells [21], [39], [42], [44], [45]. CagL was localized in various studies to several bacterial subcellular sites, including a soluble bacterial fraction [38], [43], the bacterial surface [42], and pili on the ...
Helicobacter pylori is the predominant colonizing prokaryote in the human gastric niche. H. pylori infection results in persistent chronic inflammation, and is...
Vol 9: Assembly of the Type Two Secretion System in Aeromonas hydrophila Involves Direct Interaction between the Periplasmic Domains of the Assembly Factor ExeB and the Secretin ExeD.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractThe type two secretion system is a large, trans-envelope apparatus that . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vol 9: Assembly of the Type Two Secretion System in Aeromonas hydrophila Involves Direct Interaction between the Periplasmic Domains of the Assembly Factor ExeB and the Secretin ExeD.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractThe type two secretion system is a large, trans-envelope apparatus that . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Author Summary Pathogens alter protein expression in an infected host, depending on metabolic or virulence requirements, but the effect of these changes on the immune response is unclear. We identified new class-II epitopes within Salmonella type-III secretion system effector proteins and generated a methodology to visualize endogenous T cells responding to these epitopes. Our study shows that Salmonella flagellin generates a mixed Th1 and Th17 response that contracts early and is enriched in mucosal tissues. In contrast, we found that Salmonella T3SS effectors generate a sustained Th1 response that requires a persisting infection and is enriched in systemic tissues. These data demonstrate that in vivo antigen regulation substantially alters the antigen specificity, helper differentiation, and anatomical location of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells.
A search for factors that are necessary for the pathogenicity of Gram-negative microbes has identified many gene clusters that are closely related among different bacterial species (1). Several of these genetic loci encode type III secretion machines for the translocation of polypeptides across the bacterial double membrane envelope (1). Some mammalian pathogens such as Yersinia, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, and Shigella use type III machines for the injection of virulence factors into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells (2-7). A similar strategy is thought to be used by several plant pathogens; however, a direct demonstration of their protein injection has not yet been achieved (7). Salmonella typhimurium and perhaps other Gram-negative bacteria harbor two gene clusters that each specifies a type III machine (2). Mutants that abolish the function of individual type III machines arrest pathogenicity at distinct steps during Salmonella infection, indicating that protein secretion is ...
The archaeal flagellum is a rotating prokaryotic motility apparatus used for swimming motility and adhesion; however, it is more closely related to the bacterial type IV pilus system than its bacterial namesake. Methanococcus ...
Sara V. Pais. PhD Student. Project: Characterization of novel type III secretion effectors of Chlamydia trachomatis. Phone: +351 21 294 8530 ...
L. C. Metzger, S. Stutzmann, T. Scrignari, C. Van der Henst and N. Matthey et al. Independent Regulation of Type VI Secretion in Vibrio cholerae by TfoX and TfoY, in Cell reports, vol. 15, num. 5, p. 951-958, 2016 ...
Professor Dr Yip Cheng Har said that doctors who detect high breast density in their female patients should tell them about the link between the high density and breast cancer. Doctors should also encourage these patients to go for regular mammography screening for breast cancer.
In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pilus assembly (T4PS) and type II secretion (T2SS) systems polymerize inner membrane proteins called major pilins or pseudopilins respectively, into thin filaments. Four minor pilins are required in both systems for efficient fibre assembly. Escherichia coli K-12 has a set of T4PS assembly genes that are silent under standard growth conditions. We studied the heterologous assembly of the E. coli type IV pilin PpdD by the Klebsiella oxytoca T2SS called the Pul system. PpdD pilus assembly in this context depended on the expression of the K. oxytoca minor pseudopilin genes pulHIJK or of the E. coli minor pilin genes ppdAB-ygdB-ppdC. The E. coli minor pilins restored assembly of the major pseudopilin PulG in a pulHIJK mutant, but not the secretion of the T2SS substrate pullulanase. Thus, minor pilins and minor pseudopilins are functionally interchangeable in initiating major pilin assembly, further extending the fundamental similarities between the two systems. The ...
The type VI secretion system (T6SS), a multisubunit needle-like apparatus, has recently been found to play a role in interspecies interactions. The Gram-negative bacteria harboring T6SS (donor) deliver the effectors into their neighboring cells (recipient) to kill them. Meanwhile, the cognate immunity proteins were employed to protect the donor cells against the toxic effectors. Tae4 (type VI amidase effector 4) and Tai4 (type VI amidase immunity 4) are newly identified T6SS effector-immunity pairs. Here, we report the crystal structures of Tae4 from Enterobacter cloacae and Tae4-Tai4 complexes from both E. cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium. Tae4 acts as a DL-endopeptidase and displays a typical N1pC/P60 domain. Unlike Tsi1 (type VI secretion immunity 1), Tai4 is an all-helical protein and forms a dimer in solution. The small angle x-ray scattering study combined with the analytical ultracentrifugation reveal that the Tae4-Tai4 complex is a compact heterotetramer that consists of a Tai4 dimer ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. DC3000 is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Pathogenicity is achieved via secretion of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm through a Type III Secretion System (T3SS). In Ps. DC3000 the T3SS (and associated effector proteins) are dependent on HrpL for their transcription. hrpL transcription is sigma54-dependent and requires two co-dependent enhancer binding proteins, HrpR and HrpS (HrpRS), for activation. HrpRS are regulated by two hrpL-dependent proteins, HrpV and HrpG, where HrpV negatively affects HrpRS activity and HrpG relieves this repression. Here the mechanism of HrpV and HrpGs action on HrpRS activity was tested in vivo and in vitro; and the molecular determinants of HrpV and HrpG functionality were characterised by in silico and mutational analysis. Whole-gene deletion mutants of hrpV and hrpG in Ps. DC3000 revealed complications associated with inserting marker cassettes in transcriptionally-antagonistic ...
Mucispirillum schaedleri is an abundant inhabitant of the intestinal mucus layer of rodents and other animals and has been suggested to be a pathobiont, a commensal that plays a role in disease. In order to gain insights into its lifestyle, we analyzed the genome and transcriptome of M. schaedleri ASF 457 and performed physiological experiments to test traits predicted by its genome. Although described as a mucus inhabitant, M. schaedleri has limited capacity for degrading host-derived mucosal glycans and other complex polysaccharides. Additionally, M. schaedleri reduces nitrate and expresses systems for scavenging oxygen and reactive oxygen species in vivo, which may account for its localization close to the mucosal tissue and expansion during inflammation. Also of note, M. schaedleri harbors a type VI secretion system and putative effector proteins and can modify gene expression in mucosal tissue, suggesting intimate interactions with its host and a possible role in inflammation. The M. ...
Mucispirillum schaedleri is an abundant inhabitant of the intestinal mucus layer of rodents and other animals and has been suggested to be a pathobiont, a commensal that plays a role in disease. In order to gain insights into its lifestyle, we analyzed the genome and transcriptome of M. schaedleri ASF 457 and performed physiological experiments to test traits predicted by its genome. Although described as a mucus inhabitant, M. schaedleri has limited capacity for degrading host-derived mucosal glycans and other complex polysaccharides. Additionally, M. schaedleri reduces nitrate and expresses systems for scavenging oxygen and reactive oxygen species in vivo, which may account for its localization close to the mucosal tissue and expansion during inflammation. Also of note, M. schaedleri harbors a type VI secretion system and putative effector proteins and can modify gene expression in mucosal tissue, suggesting intimate interactions with its host and a possible role in inflammation. The M. ...
HOUSTON--The authors of the life-on-Mars paper that rocked the world last summer (Science, 16 August 1996, p. 924) say they have found further evidence of past life in the famed meteorite: residue from bacterial secretions. The findings, reported here yesterday at the annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, were greeted with skepticism from other scientists at the meeting, suggesting that the debate over martian life isnt likely to end soon.. Geochemist Carlton Allen of Lockheed Martin Engineering and Sciences in Houston announced that his group has identified in meteorite ALH84001 the remains of possible "biofilms"--thin layers of carbon that might have been secreted by some tiny long-gone Martian bacteria. Biofilms are aggregates of bacteria attached to a surface and surrounded by a protective coat of mucus or slime, and they are commonplace on Earth; the best known, perhaps, is dental plaque.. Allen reported that the team--headed by David McKay of NASAs Johnson Space Center in ...
Buy TAIGA A320 Online - Bioeffective A 320 also known as Conifer Green Needle Complex. A natural biologically active compound extracted from green conifer needles. CGNC contains vitamins, minerals, fatty and resin acids, chlorophyll, polyprenols, phytoste
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A biopsy device includes an outer cannula, an inner rod, a sheath operably associated with the outer cannula, a handle assembly removably attachable to the sheath, and a release member for releasably attaching the handle assembly to the sheath. In one embodiment, a locking element associated with the sheath comprises a pair of notches located on either side of the sheath, and a locking element associated with the handle assembly comprises a pair of slots in communication with an opening within the handle assembly. The release member comprises a rotatable collar located in a channel on the handle assembly. When the release member is rotated from a first position to a second position, a portion thereof protrudes through the slots into the notches on the sheath, thereby locking the sheath in place.
The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. We work with three ATPases that belong to the type IV secretion system: TrwB, TrwD and TrwK. These three motors are inserted in the inner membrane of the cell and are involved in different functions: DNA transport, protein unfolding and protein transport through the secretion channel, respectively. The results obtained with TrwB have enabled us to propose a common mechanism that could be shared by all members of this family of ATPases, regardless of their role. Continuing with this project, we will carry out structural and biochemical ...
article{SchmidtBalsanelliFaoroEtAl2012, author = {Maria Schmidt and Eduardo Balsanelli and Hellison Faoro and Leonardo M Cruz and Roseli Wassem and Valter A de Baura and Vinicius Weiss and Marshall G Yates and Humberto M F Madeira and Lilian Pereira-Ferrari and Maria H P Fungaro and Francine M de Paula and Luiz F P Pereira and Luiz G E Vieira and Fabio L Olivares and Fabio O Pedrosa and Emanuel M de Souza and Rose A Monteiro}, title = {The type III secretion system is necessary for the development of a pathogenic and endophytic interaction between Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans and Poaceae}, journal = {BMC Microbiology}, publisher = {Springer Science $ Business Media}, year = {2012}, volume = {12}, number = {1}, pages = {98}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-12-98}, doi = {10.1186/1471-2180-12-98 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Web server == https://rostlab.org/services/pEffect/ == Introduction == The type III secretion system is one of the causes of a wide range of bacterial infections in human, animals and plants. This system comprises a hollow needle-like structure localized on the surface of bacterial cells that injects specific bacterial proteins, the so-called effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of a host cell. During infection, effectors convert host resources to their advantage and promote pathogenicity. We - Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost and Yana Bromberg - at [http://bromberglab.org BrombergLab] and [http://rostlab.org/cms/ RostLab] developed a novel method, pEffect that predicts bacterial type III effector proteins. In our method, we combine sequence-based homology searches and advanced machine learning to accurately predict effector proteins. We use information encoded in the entire protein sequence for our predictions. == Method design == pEffect is a method that combines sequence ...
The focus of our research is to understand the molecular and cellular events that enable microbial pathogens to evade host defense mechanisms. In particular, we are interested in how bacteria that replicate inside mammalian cells create specialized vacuoles that support pathogen replication. We have been using Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii as model pathogens to study this process. We have been characterizing a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the eukaryotic host cell cytosol. The goals of this research are to determine the mechanism by which these bacterial effector proteins regulate phagosome maturation, modulate host immunity, and subvert eukaryotic cell functions.. Specialized Terms: Molecular; Cellular; Microbial pathogens; Bacteria; Vesicular transport; Legionella pneumophila; Coxiella burnetii; Macrophages; Protozoan; ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Francisella tularensis PdpD protein: a pathogenicity island protein required for full virulence and associates with homologues of the type VI secretion system; RefSeq YP_898955.1
The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is a useful model for understanding the role of stress adaptation in leaf colonization. We investigated the mechanistic basis of differences in the osmotolerance of two P. syringae strains, B728a and DC3000. Consistent with its higher survival rates following inoculation onto leaves, B728a exhibited superior osmotolerance over DC3000 and higher rates of uptake of plant-derived osmoprotective compounds. A global transcriptome analysis of B728a and DC3000 following an osmotic upshift demonstrated markedly distinct responses between the strains; B728a showed primarily upregulation of genes, including components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and alginate biosynthetic pathways, whereas DC3000 showed no change or repression of orthologous genes, including downregulation of the T3SS. DC3000 uniquely exhibited improved growth upon deletion of the biosynthetic genes for the compatible solute N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide (NAGGN) in a minimal medium, due
Citation: Radwan, O., Carbajulca, D., Libault, M., Brechenmacher, L., Clough, S.J. 2008. Preliminary Analysis of Soybean Gene Expression Response to a Bradyrhizobium japonicum Type III Secretion System Mutant [abstract]. 4th International Conference on Legume Genomics and Genetics, December 7-12, 2008, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. 2008 CDROM. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Plant pathogens deliver proteinaceous effector molecules into their host via complex secretion systems, such as the type III secretion system (T3SS). Some of these T3SS effectors have been shown to function as suppressors of host defense responses. The role of the T3SS during plant interactions with symbionts is just beginning to be characterized. The symbiont, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, has a T3SS that is required for proper nodulation of soybean (2002 MPMI 15:1228-1235). Affymetrix gene chip analysis of soybean root-hair response to a T3SS mutant and wild-type B. japonicum versus mock inoculation at 6, 12, and 18 hours ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners. Moreover, it is unclear whether each Inc protein has a distinct function or if a subset of Inc proteins interacts with one another to perform their function. Here, we used IncD as a model to investigate Inc/Inc interaction in the context of Inc protein expression in C. trachomatis. We developed a co-infection model system to display different tagged Inc proteins on the surface of the same inclusion. We also designed
Klein JA, Dave BM, Raphenya AR, McArthur AG, Knodler LA.. Mol Microbiol. 2017 Mar;103(6):973-991.. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic tip complex translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, possesses two T3SSs, one belonging to the Inv/Mxi-Spa family. We used invasion-deficient S. Typhimurium mutants as surrogates for expression of translocator ...
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial pathogenesis, recognition and targeting of type III secreted proteins has up until now been poorly understood. Several hypotheses are discussed, including an mRNA-based signal, a chaperon-mediated process, or an N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we systematically analyzed the amino acid composition and secondary structure of N-termini of 100 experimentally verified effector proteins. Based on this, we developed a machine-learning approach for the prediction of TTSS effector proteins, taking into account N-terminal sequence features such as frequencies of amino acids, short peptides, or residues with certain physico-chemical properties. The ...
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial pathogenesis, recognition and targeting of type III secreted proteins has up until now been poorly understood. Several hypotheses are discussed, including an mRNA-based signal, a chaperon-mediated process, or an N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we systematically analyzed the amino acid composition and secondary structure of N-termini of 100 experimentally verified effector proteins. Based on this, we developed a machine-learning approach for the prediction of TTSS effector proteins, taking into account N-terminal sequence features such as frequencies of amino acids, short peptides, or residues with certain physico-chemical properties. The ...
The present invention provides a process for the production of proteins or protein-containing gene products by transformation of eukaryotic host cells with a recombinant DNA molecule containing the gene for the desired protein, culturing the cells and isolating the gene product after expression, wherein, as host cells, there is used a yeast strain which is deficient in proteases A and B.
Definition of type VI in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is type VI? Meaning of type VI as a legal term. What does type VI mean in law?
Nature. 2012 May 20;486(7402):276-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11079. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is a mutualistic N2-fixing endophyte of salt-tolerant Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth), a grass gowing in the Punjab of Pakistan. Endophytes are bacteria that live within the tissues of plants without causing them any harm; Azoarcus resides within the roots of its host. Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is also capable of endophytic N2 fixation in rice and sugarcane. The bacteria has not been detected in root-free soil, although it is able to be cultured. It does not however excrete significant amounts of nitrogenous compounds in culture. The genome sequence has shown that Azoarcus has very few mobile genetic elements, or phage-related genes, suggesting its adaptation to a fairly stable, low-stress environment. The sec-dependent, SRP-mediated and Tat systems for protein secretion are all present, in addition to a type I, the type IIb secretion systems and an autotransporter. However it is lacking both type III and type IV secretion systems, suggesting it can not export ...
Dr. Feng Shaos laboratory is interested in studying molecular mechanisms of bacterial infection and host innate immunity defense. Bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems such as type III/IV secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, serving as a key and universal virulence mechanism. The effectors usually harbor a unique and potent activity that modulates the function of key signaling molecules in the host, and this plays a critical role in bacterial survival and systemic infections. Using pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Legionella and Burkholderia as the model, we are working to discover and reveal some novel and common biochemical mechanisms utilized by bacterial effectors in modulating host signal transduction pathways. Our recent work has led to several interesting discoveries. 1) The OspF family of type III effectors, conserved in Shigella, Salmonella and the plant pathogen P. syringae, harbors a novel ...
The scientific journal PLOS Pathogens published the paper "Spatiotemporal Regulation of a Legionella pneumophila T4SS Substrate by the Metaeffector SidJ," which was co-written by Emerging Pathogens Institute member Kwang Cheol (K.C.) Jeong Ph.D. The study found and showed mode of action of one of Legionella toxins that is regulating other toxins function to survive in host cells.. "We denominated the toxins role as "metaeffector," Jeong said. "(The article) contains quite interesting findings in pathogenesis mechanisms.". Jeong serves as an assistant professor in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) Department of Animal Science and is part of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Jeong also runs The Jeong Lab which strives to provide solutions for animal and human health by understanding host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level.. ...
Hindle, Z, Chatfield, SN, Phillimore, J, Bentley, M, Johnson, J, Cosgrove, CA, Ghaem-Maghami, M, Sexton, A, Khan, M, Brennan, FR, Everest, P, Wu, T, Pickard, D, Holden, DW, Dougan, G, Griffin, GE, House, D, Santangelo, JD, Khan, SA, Shea, JE, Feldman, RG and Lewis, DJ (2002) Characterization of Salmonella enterica derivatives harboring defined aroC and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (ssaV) mutations by immunization of healthy volunteers. ...
Having looked at VJs latest screed (on a PC, not an iPad), I have to note approvingly that it has pictures of a butterfly, an artists impression of the multiverse (or the Jovian system four and a half billion years ago - its so hard to tell), a protein, a Scrabble board, a highly idealized picture of a flagellum, a highly idealized picture of a type III secretion system, a highly idealized to the point where its completely blank picture of Ron Numbers, a fossil trilobite, a highly idealized drawing of whale evolution (attributed to Johnathan M. and Uncommon Descent with no clue to where he stole it from), a beaver shot (SFW), a humpbacked whale breaching (possibly from the sheer joy of being a highly evolved product of evolution), a Least Weasel along with a semi-latched reprint from a Douglas Axe article attacking a real scientists paper, a panda that is either eating a piece of bamboo or possibly playing it like a flute (you laugh, but with God, all things are possible) and a fossil ...
Having looked at VJs latest screed (on a PC, not an iPad), I have to note approvingly that it has pictures of a butterfly, an artists impression of the multiverse (or the Jovian system four and a half billion years ago - its so hard to tell), a protein, a Scrabble board, a highly idealized picture of a flagellum, a highly idealized picture of a type III secretion system, a highly idealized to the point where its completely blank picture of Ron Numbers, a fossil trilobite, a highly idealized drawing of whale evolution (attributed to Johnathan M. and Uncommon Descent with no clue to where he stole it from), a beaver shot (SFW), a humpbacked whale breaching (possibly from the sheer joy of being a highly evolved product of evolution), a Least Weasel along with a semi-latched reprint from a Douglas Axe article attacking a real scientists paper, a panda that is either eating a piece of bamboo or possibly playing it like a flute (you laugh, but with God, all things are possible) and a fossil ...
ESAT-6 system 1 (ESX-1)-mediated secretion in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on proteins encoded by the cotranscribed espA-espC-espD gene cluster. While the roles of EspA and EspC with respect to the ESX-1 secretion system have been actively investigated, the function of EspD remains unknown. We show that EspD is secreted by M. tuberculosis, but unlike EspA and EsxA, its export does not e ...
Gujarat Petroleum has put off by a month plans to hand out information packets on its Krishna Godavari block KG-OSN-2001/3 to seven international majors interested in farming-in to the Deen Dayal...
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Här visas alla kurser som är skapade i LTH:s system för forskarutbildningskurser, och som har tillfällen skapade i Ladok, dvs kurser som är aktuella vald termin. För innevarande och kommande terminer skapas tillfällen löpande och efter att det finns ett tillfälle i Ladok (med status komplett) dyker kursen upp i listan. ...
Abstract. The broad host range pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied as a model system to understand horizontal gene flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells, and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation also is the major method for generating transgenic plants for research and biotechnology purposes. Agrobacterium species have the natural ability to conduct interkingdom genetic transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, including most plant species, yeast, fungi, and even animal cells. In nature, A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease resulting from expression in plants of auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis genes encoded by the transferred (T-) DNA. Gene transfer from A. tumefaciens to host cells requires virulence (vir) genes that reside on the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to T-DNA, several Virulence (Vir) effector proteins are also translocated to host cells through a bacterial type IV secretion ...
Used wax dental floss with cheek cells (orange) and bacteria (blue) on dental floss fibres (brown), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Cheek cells often get scraped from the inside of your mouth when flossing your teeth. Numerous bacteria are present as part of the normal mouth flora. Bacterial plaque consists of a film of bacteria embedded in a glycoprotein matrix. The matrix is formed from bacterial secretions and saliva. The microorganisms that form the plaque biofilm are almost entirely bacteria (mainly Streptococcus mutans and other anaerobes) with the composition varying by location in the mouth. Plaque is the main cause of tooth decay. The bacteria feed on sugars in food, producing acid as a waste product. This acid corrodes the teeths enamel coating, resulting in dental cavities. A build-up of dental plaque can also lead to inflamed and infected gums. Severe gum disease can lead to teeth falling out. Magnification: x500 when - Stock Image F017/3933
Salmonella : environment signaling and genetic regulation of a Type III secretion system in an effort to cause infection Salmonella is a continuing problem throughout the world, contributing to millions of infections every year. These infections are initiated when the bacteria are ingested and then penetrate the M cells of ileal Peyers patches found within the small intestine. Proteins encoded by a cluster of genes on the chromosome known as Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) play an integral role in the invasion process by injecting effector proteins via a type III secretion system directly into the host cells thereby forcing the uptake of the bacteria into the host cell. Salmonella invasion is tightly controlled by the bacterium, and the genes necessary for invasion are activated by specific environmental signals such as low oxygen concentration and high osmolarity, condition that are believed to exist within the small intestine. The hilA gene found within SPI-1 is a transcriptional ...
Entry of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella into host cells results in the formation of endosomal Brucella-containing vacuoles (eBCVs) that initially traffic along the endocytic pathway. eBCV acidification triggers the expression of a type IV secretion system that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells. This interferes with lysosomal fusion of eBCVs and supports their maturation to replicative Brucella-containing vacuoles (rBCVs). Bacteria replicate in rBCVs to large numbers, eventually occupying most of the cytoplasmic volume. As rBCV membranes tightly wrap each individual bacterium, they are constantly being expanded and remodeled during exponential bacterial growth. rBCVs are known to carry endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers, however, the relationship of the vacuole to the genuine ER has remained elusive. We have reconstructed the 3-dimensional ultrastructure of rBCVs and associated ER by correlative structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and focused ion ...
Meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis) causes meningitis and rapidly progressing fatal shock, but only in humans. To invade the brain, meningococcus uses its filamentous pili to hijack the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), inducing an allosteric β-arrestin-biased signaling cascade in endothelial cells lining the capillaries of the brain. This cascade allows bacterial colonies to tether to endothelial cells, despite the shear stress of blood flow, and also promotes opening of endothelial junctions, which allows bacteria to penetrate the brain. Virion et al. sought to understand how a G protein-coupled receptor is activated by bacterial type IV pili proteins to transduce a signaling cascade that normally needs a cognate ligand. They found that β2AR activation requires two asparagine-branched glycan chains with terminally exposed sialic acid residues. Meningococcus triggers receptor signaling by exerting mechanical forces on β2AR glycans with its retractable pili. Because human glycans are ...
Structural studies of biological macromolecular assemblies are providing an understanding of cellular function. In our laboratory, we utilize electron microscopy and image reconstruction to investigate questions about microbial virulence.. Work in the lab currently focuses on bacterial adhesion pili (fimbriae), type III secretion system needles, and virus replication. These projects address basic medical research questions directed at understanding bacterial adhesion to human host tissue and viral replication. Our data support development of novel therapeutics targeting these important health issues including, for example, development of a vaccine against travelers diarrhea.. ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen causing ocular and urogenital infections that are a significant clinical and public health concern. This bacterium uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to manipulate host cells, through the delivery of effector proteins into their cytosol, membranes, and nucleus. In this work, we aimed to find previously unidentified C. trachomatis T3S substrates. We first analyzed the genome of C. trachomatis L2/434 strain for genes encoding mostly uncharacterized proteins that did not appear to possess a signal of the general secretory pathway and which had not been previously experimentally shown to be T3S substrates. We selected several genes with these characteristics and analyzed T3S of the encoding proteins using Yersinia enterocolitica as a heterologous system. We identified 23 C. trachomatis proteins whose first 20 amino acids were sufficient to drive T3S of the mature form of β-lactamase TEM-1 by Y. enterocolitica. We found that 10 of these
Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a significant cause of bacillary dysentery. Shigella uses its type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into human intestinal cells to alter their functions to promote pathogen entry. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of a basal body, an extracellular needle, and a tip complex. As a part of the tip complex, invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) controls secretion by acting as an environmental sensor for triggering recruitment of the first "translocator" protein, IpaB, to the bacterial surface. This work extends this knowledge to show that subsequent contact with the host cell triggers T3SS induction and the formation of an IpaB/IpaC translocon pore within the membrane of the host cell. While IpaB is recruited to the TTSA needle tip IpaD senses bile salt in the Shigella environment, IpaC remains within the bacterial cytoplasm. Upon adding liposomes containing cholesterol and sphingolipids, IpaC is recruited to ...
Legionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated with Legionella species: Legionnaires disease is the more severe form of the infection, which may involve pneumonia, and Pontiac fever is a milder respiratory illness. The pathogenesis of L. pneumophila is derived from its growth within lung macrophages. One of the L. pneumophilas type IV secretion systems, the Dot/Icm secretion system, is of critical importance for its ability to replicate and to cause disease. The Dot/Icm substrates modulate multiple host cell processes and in particular, redirect trafficking of the L. pneumophila phagosome and mediate its conversion into an ER-derived organelle competent for intracellular bacterial replication. L. pneumophila also manipulates host cell death and survival pathways in a way that allows continued intracellular replication ...

KEGG PATHWAY: Bacterial secretion system + T30050KEGG PATHWAY: Bacterial secretion system + T30050

Bacterial secretion system + T30050 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ... Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative ... These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?T30050_03070+M00332

KEGG PATHWAY: Bacterial secretion system - Reference pathwayKEGG PATHWAY: Bacterial secretion system - Reference pathway

Bacterial secretion system - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , User data ... Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative ... These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?map03070+M00334

Bacterial type VI secretion system facilitates niche domination | PNASBacterial type VI secretion system facilitates niche domination | PNAS

Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. ... 2018) Bacterial symbionts use a type VI secretion system to eliminate competitors in their natural host. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... Bacterial symbionts use a type VI secretion system to eliminate competitors in their natural host - Sep 04, 2018 ... Bacterial type VI secretion system facilitates niche domination. Natália C. Drebes Dörr and Melanie Blokesch ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/8855

Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities | PNASType III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities | PNAS

Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities. Ariel Blocker, ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella are broadly compared at the level of their genetic structure, morphology, ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/6/3027?ijkey=3da8b100ea1cb3ff107e634a9eaa84168c7edda4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system.  - PubMed - NCBIA view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system. - PubMed - NCBI

A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system.. Ho BT1, Dong TG1, Mekalanos JJ2. ... The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an organelle that is structurally and mechanistically analogous to an ... Spatial geometry of anti-bacterial T6SS attacks. (A) Fully assembled T6SS tube (orange arrow) and sheath (purple rectangle) can ... highlighting the importance of the T6SS not only for bacterial survival in environmental ecosystems, but also in the context of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24332978?dopt=Abstract

Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells.  - PubMed - NCBIBacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells. - PubMed - NCBI

Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells.. Galán JE1, Lara-Tejero ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25002086?dopt=Abstract

Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system |...Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system |...

... type III secretion system; T4SS, type IV secretion system; VAS, virulence-associated secretion. ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/5/1528

A Bioinformatics Analysis of Bacterial Type-III Secretion System Genes and Proteins - eTheses RepositoryA Bioinformatics Analysis of Bacterial Type-III Secretion System Genes and Proteins - eTheses Repository

A Bioinformatics Analysis of Bacterial Type-III Secretion System Genes and Proteins. ... Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and ... In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems ... Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using ...
more infohttp://etheses.bham.ac.uk/1300/

Towards a Structural Comprehension of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems: Characterization of the TssJ-TssM Complex of an...Towards a Structural Comprehension of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems: Characterization of the TssJ-TssM Complex of an...

... all required for the activity of the secretion system. These core-components can be divided in two groups: soluble proteins ... These results provide important new insights to understand the biogenesis of these secretion apparati. ... are specialized secretion machines responsible for the transport of virulence factors. T6SS are versatile as they are able to ... Author Summary Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002386

Bacterial internalization is required to trigger NIK-dependent NF-κB activation in response to the bacterial type three...Bacterial internalization is required to trigger NIK-dependent NF-κB activation in response to the bacterial type three...

... internalization is required to trigger NIK-dependent NF-κB activation in response to the bacterial type three secretion system. ... Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to ... We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. We found ... cells to effectorless Yersinia has been used both as a screening tool for chemical inhibitors of the T3SS and for bacterial ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/28166267

Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems   - White Rose Research Online
		Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems - White Rose Research Online

Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of ... 5 more authors) (2004) Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems. Proceedings ... In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a ... Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems ...
more infohttp://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/573/

Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane...Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane...

Most of the bacterial type III secretion system genes could not be assigned to a particular bacterial group, but several genes ... CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of bacterial type III secretion system genes being associated with high methane emissions ... Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane ... Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane ...
more infohttps://jgi.doe.gov/publication/gene-and-transcript-abundances-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-from-the-rumen-microbiome-are-correlated-with-methane-yield-in-sheep/

T3DB: an integrated database for bacterial type III secretion system | BMC Bioinformatics | Full TextT3DB: an integrated database for bacterial type III secretion system | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text

Type III Secretion System (T3SS), which plays important roles in pathogenesis or symbiosis, is widely expressed in a variety of ... first systematic platform integrating well-annotated T3SS-related gene and protein information to facilitate T3SS and bacterial ... Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a complex protein secretion system that plays pivotal roles in bacterial pathogenesis. T3SS ... Type III Secretion System, Type 3 Secretion System, TTSS and T3SS, were respectively used as key words to search the ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-13-66

Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation | Creation of an efficient protein expression and secretion system in the gram-positive...Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation | Creation of an efficient protein expression and secretion system in the gram-positive...

Creation of an efficient protein expression and secretion system in the gram-positive bacterial vector, Streptococcus gordonii ... This bacterial expression system takes advantage of the natural pathway of protein export and anchoring on the surface of the ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/cn69m634q

Protein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene OntologyProtein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene Ontology

... including the processes of bacterial secretion. Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with ... Protein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene Ontology. ... A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems ... Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. This is particularly ...
more infohttps://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/18926

Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions | proLékaře.czBurkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions | proLékaře.cz

Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions Download PDF České ... 2009 Dissecting the bacterial type VI secretion system by a genome wide in silico analysis: what can be learned from available ... 2000 Bacterial type IV secretion: conjugation systems adapted to deliver effector molecules to host cells. Trends Microbiol 8 ... Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2010-8/burkholderia-type-vi-secretion-systems-have-distinct-roles-in-eukaryotic-and-bacterial-cell-interactions-45855

Membrane and Core Periplasmic Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence Type IV Secretion System Components Localize to Multiple...Membrane and Core Periplasmic Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence Type IV Secretion System Components Localize to Multiple...

Type IV secretion systems: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and virulence. Cell. Microbiol. 10:2377-2386. ... Bacterial type IV secretion systems in human disease. Mol. Microbiol. 73:141-151. ... Conjugative DNA transfer into human cells by the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella ... Biogenesis, architecture, and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59:451-485. ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/2/6/e00218-11

Frontiers | Recognition of Extracellular Bacteria by NLRs and Its Role in the Development of Adaptive Immunity | ImmunologyFrontiers | Recognition of Extracellular Bacteria by NLRs and Its Role in the Development of Adaptive Immunity | Immunology

These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on ... These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on ... but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by ... but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00344/full

Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane...Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane...

Most of the bacterial type III secretion system genes could not be assigned to a particular bacterial group, but several genes ... This is the first report of bacterial type III secretion system genes being associated with high methane emissions in ruminants ... rumen microbiomes of high methane yield sheep shows that gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion system ... and identifies these secretions systems as potential new targets for methane mitigation research. The effects of S. ...
more infohttps://0-bmcresnotes-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s13104-017-2671-0

Comparative genome analysis of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia provides insight into capacity to adapt to different environments...Comparative genome analysis of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia provides insight into capacity to adapt to different environments...

... systems. The complete genome sequence of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T and publicly available genomes of B. glumae BGR1 and B. ... mediated bacterial immune system. Although the genome of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T has many common features with those of B. ... Because the T6SS system can deliver bacterial proteins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, this secretion system is ... A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;15:9-21.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMed ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-015-1558-5

en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors...en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors...

en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors ... en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors ... en fr Development of anti-tumor immunotherapy mediated by type III secretion system-based live attenuated bacterial vectors ... Keywords : Anti-tumor immunotherapy Bacterial vaccine vector The type III secretion system Mots-clés : L-Immunothérapie ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jul6/150050736090-en-fr-Development-of-anti-tumor-immunotherapy-mediated-by-type-III-secretion-system-based-live-attenuated-bacterial-vectors-Developpement-de-limmunot.php

Frontiers | Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes | Plant ScienceFrontiers | Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes | Plant Science

Type IV and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems ... Type IV and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems ... This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems ... This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2015.00491/full

Secretion - WikipediaSecretion - Wikipedia

Secretion in gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... Type I secretion system (T1SS or TOSS)[edit]. Type I secretion is a chaperone dependent secretion system employing the Hly and ... Main article: Bacterial secretion system. Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is present in bacteria and archaea ... Type V secretion system (T5SS)[edit]. See also: Trimeric autotransporter adhesin § Type V secretion system (T5SS) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secrete

Biosciences and Biotechnology Institute of Grenoble - Pseudomonas to the assault of cell junctionsBiosciences and Biotechnology Institute of Grenoble - Pseudomonas to the assault of cell junctions

on the bacterial toxins secretion system. * 6 April 2018 Bacteria: More than one weapon in their bag ... These researchers have identified a novel mechanism of cooperation betw​​​een the secretion system present in some pathogenic ... VE-cadherin cleavage by LasB protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa facilitates Type III Secretion System toxicity in endothelial ... Researchers at the Cancer Biology and Infection laboratory showed that bacterial virulence factors, usually studied ...
more infohttp://www.cea.fr/drf/big/english/Pages/News/Scientific-results/L42_GGolovkine.aspx
  • These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins, and outer membrane vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • These researchers have identified a novel mechanism of cooperation betw​​ ​ een the secretion system present in some pathogenic and protease released into the extracellular medium. (cea.fr)
  • Tissues in humans that produce secretions include the gastrointestinal tract which secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid , the lung which secretes surfactants , and sebaceous glands which secrete sebum to lubricate the skin and hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T6SS system was discovered in Vibrio cholerae due to its toxicity against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Waiting to Respire UC Berkeley and JGI researchers joined forces and data sets to describe bacterial genomes for related ("sibling") lineages that diverged from the bacterial tree before Cyanobacteria and its contemporaries. (doe.gov)
  • Insights into Functional Diversity in Neurospora This proposal investigates the genetic bases of fungal thermophily, biomass-degradation, and fungal-bacterial interactions in Sordariales, an order of biomass-degrading fungi frequently encountered in compost and encompassing one of the few groups of thermophilic fungi. (doe.gov)
  • The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. (vt.edu)
  • Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems. (vt.edu)
  • Next we probed the role of the five systems in interbacterial interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • however, the general roles of these systems in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions are not known , . (prolekare.cz)
  • Recent studies have shown that the recognition of the microbiota that takes place in the gut is necessary for the development of a normal epithelium, by controlling the balance of proliferation and differentiation, as well as maintaining a properly functioning immune system ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Secretion systems are required for the release of several effectors through the bacterial membrane(s) into the extracellular space or directly into the cytoplasm of the host. (caister.com)
  • In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effectors have different functions but frequently target conserved bacterial or eukaryotic cellular structures such as the cell wall, the membrane compartment, nucleic acids, or the actin cytoskeleton ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • A previously suggested common nomenclature () was used to indicate the potential localization of the different components and facilitate comparison across different systems. (nih.gov)
  • Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • A Model System for Perennial Grasses The DOE supports research programs for developing methods for converting plant biomass into sustainable fuels for cars and jets. (doe.gov)
  • Second, the therapeutic performance of bacterial vector has been optimized by modulating injection frequency and interval and then be confirmed in murine tumor models. (duhnnae.com)
  • Fourth, the potential of bacterial vector for human immunotherapy has been further evaluated in one first level humanized mice HHD model. (duhnnae.com)
  • NCs are traversed by a 2- to 3-nm channel ( 10 ), which exists also within the entire bacterial flagellum ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity. (frontiersin.org)