In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III secretion system interacts with phagocytes to modulate systemic infection of zebrafish embryos. (1/446)

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The 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of Spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type III secretion needle complex in Shigella flexneri. (2/446)

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The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells. (3/446)

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Tolerance rather than immunity protects from Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric preneoplasia. (4/446)

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Type IV secretion systems: versatility and diversity in function. (5/446)

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Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (6/446)

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Endofungal bacterium controls its host by an hrp type III secretion system. (7/446)

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Diarrhea induced by infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (8/446)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that naturally inhabits marine and estuarine environments. Infection with V. parahaemolyticus is often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, causing gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea. The presence of two type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), has been closely associated with the severity of diarrheal illness. TDH and TRH have various biological activities including hemolytic activity, cardiotoxicity, and enterotoxicity. T3SS1 is involved in cytotoxicity to host cells and orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and cell lysis. T3SS2 is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. The activities of inducing diarrhea of each of the virulence factors were summarized in this review.  (+info)

The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria ...
Bacterial secretion systems found in bacteria that have a MYCOLIC ACID-containing outer membrane such as MYCOBACTERIACEAE; Corynebacteriaceae; and NOCARDIACEAE. These are also known as ESX secretion systems because the first to be discovered is involved in secreting major virulence factors EsxA and EsxB. There are several subtypes of T7SSs including ESX-1, ESX-2, ESX-3, ESX-4, and ESX-5 secretion systems. The subtypes share some core components including an inner membrane channel-forming ATPase complex, a membrane-anchored mycosin, and a second channel that spans the outer mycolic acid-containing membrane ...
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport proteins from the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell across the cellular envelope into an adjacent target cell. The T6SS was first identified in 2006 in Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all Proteobacterial genomes, including pathogens of animals, plants, and humans, as well as soil, environmental or marine bacteria. While most of the early studies of Type VI secretion focused on its role in the pathogenesis of higher organisms, it is now known to function primarily in interbacterial antagonism. The T6SS is thought to resemble an inverted phage extending outward from the bacterial cell surface. It consists of 14 proteins that assemble into three sub-complexes: a phage tail-like tubule, a phage baseplate-like structure, and cell-envelope spanning membrane complex. These three ...
Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as pilli and flagella, nutrient acquisition, virulence, and efflux of drugs and other toxins. Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway ...
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects a large variety of agricultural crops. Bacteria colonize leaf surfaces and enter plant mesophyll tissue through wounds or stomata. Once inside, P. syringae can alter plant cell signaling pathways and suppress plant defense responses enabling it to grow in the intercellular space in the mesophyll. P. syringae possesses at least two types of virulence factors that suppress plant defense responses: i) small phytotoxin molecules, and ii) effector proteins that are translocated through specialized secretion systems. Gram-negative bacteria possess at least six types of secretion systems. The P. syringae type II and type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS) are both involved in secreting proteins that are important for P. syringae pathogenesis. Functions of the other secretion systems have not been explored. This study investigates the role of the newly discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. syringae interaction with plants. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains. AU - Kneuper, Holger. AU - Cao, Zhen Ping. AU - Twomey, Kate B.. AU - Zoltner, Martin. AU - Jäger, Franziska. AU - Cargill, James S.. AU - Chalmers, James. AU - van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.. AU - van Dijl, Jan Maarten. AU - Ryan, Robert P.. AU - Hunter, William N.. AU - Palmer, Tracy. N1 - © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. PY - 2014/7/30. Y1 - 2014/7/30. N2 - The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but required for virulence. In this study we show that there are unexpected differences in the ...
Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells, causing a broad spectrum of diseases including bacteremia, septicemia, typhoid fever, and bubonic plague in mammals, and localized lesions, systemic wilting, and blights in plants. In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a component of the secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas syringae with homologues in all type III systems, has a variable N-terminal and a conserved C-terminal domain (HrcQ(B)-C). Here, we report the crystal structure of HrcQ(B)-C and show that this domain retains the ability of the full-length protein to interact with other type III components. A 3D analysis of sequence conservation patterns reveals two clusters of residues potentially involved in protein-protein interactions. Based on the analogies between HrcQ(B) and its flagellum homologues, we propose ...
The human colonic microbiota is a dense ecosystem comprised of numerous microbes, including bacteria, phage, fungi, archaea, and protozoa, that compete for nutrients and space. Studies are beginning to reveal the antagonistic mechanisms that gut bacteria use to compete with other members of this ecosystem. In the healthy human colon, the majority of the Gram-negative bacteria are of the order Bacteroidales. Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are numerically fewer but confer important properties to the host, such as colonization resistance. Several enteric pathogens use type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to antagonize symbiotic gut E. coli, facilitating colonization and disease progression. T6SS loci are also widely distributed in human gut Bacteroidales, which includes three predominant genera: Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Prevotella. There are three distinct genetic architectures of T6SS loci among the gut Bacteroidales, termed GA1, GA2, and GA3. GA1 and GA2 T6SS loci are contained on
Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that promote efficient interactions between partners of multi-enzymatic protein complexes; although they are well studied in eukaryotes, their role in prokaryotic systems is poorly understood. Bacterial membranes have functional membrane microdomains (FMM), a structure homologous to eukaryotic lipid rafts. Similar to their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial FMM harbor a scaffold protein termed flotillin that is thought to promote interactions between proteins spatially confined to the FMM. Here we used biochemical approaches to define the scaffold activity of the flotillin homolog FloA of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, using assembly of interacting protein partners of the type VII secretion system (T7SS) as a case study. Staphylococcus aureus cells that lacked FloA showed reduced T7SS function, and thus reduced secretion of T7SS-related effectors, probably due to the supporting scaffold activity of flotillin. We found that the presence of ...
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death globally. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resides primarily in so-called macrophages, a type of immune cell that normally serves to kill invading bacteria. The mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system is critical for ability of the bacterium to survive and grow in these cells. Moreover, ESX-1 is known to induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, as well as cell death to infected cells. Because these functions may have important roles during infection, this project aimed to gain insight into mechanistic basis for ESX-1-induced IL-1 ß secretion and cell death, respectively ...
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice. Here, we sought to identify the M. abscessus genes required for replication within amoebae. To this end, we constructed and screened a transposon (Tn) insertion library of an M. abscessus subspecies massiliense clinical isolate for attenuated clones. This approach identified five genes within the ESX-4 locus, which in M. abscessus encodes an ESX-4 type VII secretion system that exceptionally also includes the ESX conserved EccE component. To confirm the ...
Mechanistic insights into the role of the three genes induced by pulmonary surfactant in S. aureus virulence.The present study demonstrated that the essC, psiS, and hlgB gene expression levels were increased by treatment with surfactant. In this section, we discuss the relationships between our results and previous reports concerning the involvement of the three genes in pathogenesis.. The essC gene is a member of the ess cluster, a genomic region that contains the esxAB, esaABC, and essABC genes and is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (43). The ess genes encode components of the type VII secretion system, a recently identified Sec-independent secretion pathway of bacteria that is involved in virulence via the secretion of various toxins, including EsxA, EsxB, and EsaC (43-45). Interestingly, the amount of EsaC secreted into the blood increases when S. aureus infects host animals (43). Based on these ...
Expert authors critically review selected important topics in the field of bacterial pathogenesis. A valuable resource. Topics range from a review of the seven most important bacterial secretion systems to an overview of evasion strategies of mycobacteria. Essential reading.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as an important mediator of interbacterial interactions. A T6SS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets at least three effector proteins, \(\underline t\)ype VI \(\underline s\)ecretion \(\underline e\)xported 1-3 (Tse1-3), to recipient Gram-negative cells. The Tse2 protein is a cytoplasmic effector that acts as a potent inhibitor of target cell proliferation, thus providing a pronounced fitness advantage for P. aeruginosa donor cells. P. aeruginosa utilizes a dedicated immunity protein, \(\underline t\)ype VI \(\underline s\)ecretion \(\underline i\)mmunity 2 (Tsi2), to protect against endogenous and intercellularly-transferred Tse2. Here we show that Tse2 delivered by the T6SS efficiently induces quiescence, not death, within recipient cells. We demonstrate that despite direct interaction of Tsi2 and Tse2 in the cytoplasm, Tsi2 is dispensable for targeting the toxin to the secretory apparatus. To gain insights into the molecular basis of Tse2 ...
The assembly of the T3SS culminates in the formation of the needle filament [Fig. 2 (10)]. Beyond the base, export apparatus and cytosolic components, which are required for substrate secretion per se, correct formation of the needle filament requires the co-secretion of other early substrates, including the inner rod protein and the needle length regulator [Fig. 2 (10)] (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000; Kubori et al., 2000). In some systems, secretion of needle subunits is assisted by dedicated chaperones that prevent premature filament formation in the bacterial cytosol (Quinaud et al., 2005, 2007; Sun et al., 2008; Chatterjee et al., 2011; Sal-Man et al., 2013). It was shown that secretion of the needle filament subunit is required for export of the other proteins (Kimbrough & Miller, 2000). Marlovits et al. (2006) subsequently observed that variations in the expression ratio of the Salmonella inner rod protein PrgJ and the needle subunit PrgI resulted in changes in needle length and concluded that ...
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This invention relates to a surgical device and methods for accessing and retrieving a tissue mass from a body cavity through a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. The device consists of a handle comprising an inner rod, which is rotatably engaged within a tubular member, and a loop adapted to hold a surgical bag. The loop comprises first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein the first bowed leaf element is attached to the inner rod and the second bowed leaf element is attached to the tubular member. The device further has a rotatable articulation, such as a hinge, joining the first and second bowed leaf elements, wherein rotation of the inner rod causes the first bowed leaf element to rotate about the articulation, such that the surgical bag may be opened and closed by rotation of the inner rod.
Bacterial secretory signal peptide expression plasmid with the T7 promoter upstream to drive gene expression (Frame 1 - NcoI site aligned).
The closely related type III secretion system zinc metalloprotease effector proteins GtgA, GogA, and PipA are translocated into host cells during infection. They then cleave nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription factor subunits, dampening activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and thereby suppressing host immune responses. We demonstrate here that GtgA, GogA, and PipA cleave a subset of NF-κB subunits, including p65, RelB, and cRel but not NF-κB1 and NF-κB2, whereas the functionally similar type III secretion system effector NleC of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic cleaved all five NF-κB subunits. Mutational analysis of NF-κB subunits revealed that a single nonconserved residue in NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 that corresponds to the P1 residue Arg-41 in p65 prevents cleavage of these subunits by GtgA, GogA, and PipA, explaining the observed substrate specificity of these enzymes. Crystal structures of GtgA in its apo-form and in complex with ...
Typically comprised of ~12 different scaffold components, prokaryotic type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) translocate a variety of substrates across the cell envelope. Due to the ability to translocate large DNA segments (i.e., mobile genetic elements), some T4SSs contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Other T4SSs translocate smaller DNA segments and/or proteins into eukaryotic cells (e.g., arthropod, plant and human) in order to benefit bacterial survival. At least eight major groups of T4SSs are described and each group consists of minor variations on a common structural theme. Within a given bacterial genome, combinations of different T4SS groups can be encoded, and sometimes multiple copies of the same T4SS group can be present. As an example, two functionally divergent T4SSs (vir and trw) are found in many species of Bartonella, bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas and cause a range of diseases including endocarditis. In species of
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in phytopathogenic bacteria were first described in the 80s. However, whereas numerous characterization studies have revealed the basic processes of assembly, structure and function in animal/human pathogenic systems, our knowledge about these processes in plant type III biosystems is considerably small in comparison. Nonetheless, in recent years we have witnessed important breakthroughs in our understanding on how phytopathogens employ, build and regulate their T3SS: new master transcriptional regulators have been discovered, the activity of already described regulators of the system have been thoroughly investigated, quorum sensing regulators and population dynamics have been found to determine the fine activation of the system, new plant-derived signals have been found to upregulate the phytopathogenic T3SS, and more. Moreover, a considerable weaponry of effectors targeting and tuning the plant responses have been identified and protein components of the core
Friday, 26 January 2018, 13:00Add to calendarESX type VII secretion key to mycobacterial host-pathogen interaction Roland Brosch, Institut Pasteur, Integrated Mycobacterial Pathogenomics Unit, 25 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, FranceHost: Matthias WilmannsSeminar Room 48e, EMBL Hamburg ...
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins ...
Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, ...
T346Hunter :: DESCRIPTION T346Hunter is a web application for the identification of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively) in bacterial genomes. ::DEVELOPER T346Hunt
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Killing for DNA: The type VI secretion system of Vibrio cholerae fosters horizontal gene transfer 11.30 - 11.45 Leendert Hamoen, University of Amsterdam, ...
This volume discusses various basic and advanced methods and protocols that have been proven to be successful among certain bacterial species, or a family of species, in type III secretion systems (T3
Korotkov, K. V., T. L. Johnson, M. G. Jobling, J. Pruneda, E. Pardon, A. Héroux, S. Turley, J. Steyaert, R. K. Holmes, M. Sandkvist, et al., Structural and functional studies on the interaction of GspC and GspD in the type II secretion system., PLoS Pathog, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. e1002228, 2011 Sep. ...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingtype VII secretion protein EssC (TIGR03928; HMM-score: 129.6) ...
Whether its through a lab mishap or eating undercooked beef, becoming infected with pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli is brutal. When E. coli infects a person, it attaches to the intestinal wall and the infection begins. There is a particular set of proteins that E. coli makes that allow the bacterium to be incredibly successful at infection. These structures, called the Type III secretion system, look and act like tiny syringes. They essentially inject their own DNA and proteins into the hosts cells. Not only do E. coli use Type III secretion to wreak havoc on the host, but they also can release a chemical called Shiga toxin. This toxin can enter cells, disrupt host protein synthesis, and even burst the intestinal cells. A build up of this toxin is extremely detrimental to the host. Although E. coli infections are relatively uncommon, they are serious business and cant be taken lightly. Now, I dont want you to think all E. coli are bad guys. Most E. coli are an integral part of our ...
Many gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria have acquired a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) which enables them to inject so called ... ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Paleontologists still poorly understand the process that sorts the winners from the losers after a major extinction, Jablonski said. His statistical analysis ruled out one of the most straightforward of possible causes - that lineages that have suffered a major blow to their numbers during a mass extinction might be especially extinction-prone in the aftermath because they contain fewer species to buffer against the hard times. Instead, Jablonski found that many of the biggest post-extinction winners had passed through a diversity bottleneck as narrow as the Dead Clade Walking groups ...
The structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1-Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that specialized bacterial secretion systems are involved in the interactions between intracellular bacteria and macrophages. In this work, we characterize later-stage infection of macrophages by B. cenocepacia, showing replication within an acidified endosomal compartment suggestive of a phagolysosome. We examine differential gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) with both competitive enrichment and microarray analysis. We identified 766
The major research focus of my group is the transport of proteins by the twin arginine protein transport pathway. This pathway, which is found in the cytoplasmic membranes of most bacteria, and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts, is highly unusual because it transports pre-folded proteins. Protein substrates are targeted to the Tat machinery by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an S/T- R-R-x-F-L-K twin arginine motif. Our aims are to study the function and mechanism of the Tat protein transporter, and the contribution that it makes to the physiology of bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus uses an unusual Type VII secretion system to secrete possible virulence factors. In a collaboration with Professor Bill Hunter we have been structurally and biochemically characterising components and substrates of this system. Contact details ...
Infection with Citrobacter rodentium triggers robust tissue damage repair responses, manifested by secretion of IL-22, in the absence of which mice succumbed
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A retractable needle syringe includes a barrel defining a receiver. There is a plunger having an inner rod extending distally from the proximal end. The plunger includes a hollow sleeve that is disposed over and extend beyond an inner rod. The plunger includes a hollow cutter extending from the inner rod and a stopper disposed over the end of the sleeve. The plunger has a displaceable collar to prevent movement of the inner rod with respect to the sleeve, that is by distal force to the plunger by engagement with the proximal end of the barrel allowing the cutting surface to cut through the stopper. There is a hub with a stem, a proximal flange and an engagement. A clip having a proximal foot with an opening therethrough and a distal grip is disposed on the stem of the hub. The proximal foot of the clip is disposed at the distal surface of the flange and the grip at the engagement on the stem. There is a spring disposed about the stem compressed between the receiver and the clip to provide a bias, so
A suture driver for clamping a suture in the hollow passage and a recessed channel thereof and manipulating the suture to and from a surgical site. The driver includes an outer member tube having a closed and pointed distal end for percutaneous introduction into the body of a patient. The outer tube also includes a recessed channel positioned proximal the closed distal end of the hollow passage extending longitudinally therein and for receiving the suture therein. An inner rod is positioned in the passage of the outer tube and has a clamping surface at the distal end thereof for engaging a suture positioned in the recessed channel. The inner rod is slid through the recessed channel to clamp the suture in the hollow passage of the outer tube against another clamping surface at the distal end of the tube. A handle positioned at the proximal end of the outer tube and inner rod is manipulated to slide the inner rod through the recessed channel and clamp the suture in the hollow passage between the two
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) mediate horizontal gene transfer, thus contributing to genome plasticity, evolution of infectious pathogens, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits. A gene cluster of the Haemophilus influenzae genomic island ICEHin1056 has been identified as a T4SS involved in the propagation of genomic islands. This T4SS is novel and evolutionarily distant from the previously described systems. Mutation analysis showed that inactivation of key genes of this system resulted in a loss of phenotypic traits provided by a T4SS. Seven of 10 mutants with a mutation in this T4SS did not express the type IV secretion pilus. Correspondingly, disruption of the genes resulted in up to 100,000-fold reductions in conjugation frequencies compared to those of the parent strain. Moreover, the expression of this T4SS was found to be positively regulated by one of its components, the tfc24 gene. We concluded that this gene cluster represents a novel family of T4SSs
Time-lapse microscopy analysis has revealed that T6SS organelles in V. cholerae cells are very dynamic and likely secrete their T6SS spike/tube VgrG/Hcp complex in multiple directions over a period of minutes of observation (6). Such constitutive activity is likely to result in the attack of neighboring sister cells under conditions of growth on solid media or within biofilms. Therefore, it is not surprising that immunity proteins would evolve in T6SS+ species to resist the toxicity associated with the attack of sister cells.. In this study, we report three immunity genes and their corresponding effectors in V. cholerae. Inactivation of any of three immunity genes results in susceptibility to T6SS-dependent killing by T6SS+ strain V52. Deletion of any of the three cognate effectors in V52 abolishes killing of the mutant defective in the corresponding immunity protein. The identified effector-immunity proteins share no homology with other known T6SS effector-immunity pairs, indicating the ...
The type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Expression of the T3SS is controlled under a complicate regulatory network. In this study, we demonstrate that NrtR (PA4916) is involved in the T3SS expression and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in a mouse acute pneumonia model. Overexpression of the T3SS central activator ExsA or exogenous supplementation of cAMP restored the expression of T3SS in the ΔnrtR mutant, suggesting that NrtR might regulate T3SS through the cAMP-Vfr signaling pathway. Further experiments demonstrated that the decrease of cAMP content is not due to the expression change of adenylate cyclases or phosphodiesterase in the ΔnrtR mutant. As it has been shown that nadD2 is upregulated in the ΔnrtR mutant, we overexpressed nadD2 in wild type PAK, which reduced the intracellular cAMP level and the expression of the T3SS genes. Meanwhile, deletion of nadD2 in the ΔnrtR mutant restored the expression and secretion of the T3SS.
The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic ...
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a common cause of severe hemorrhagic colitis. EHECs virulence is dependent upon a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by 41 genes. These genes are organized in several operons clustered in the locus of enterocyte effacement. Most of the locus of enterocyte effacement genes, including grlA and grlR, are positively regulated by Ler, and Ler expression is positively and negatively modulated by GrlA and GrlR, respectively. However, the molecular basis for the GrlA and GrlR activity is still elusive. We have determined the crystal structure of GrlR at 1.9 Å resolution. It consists of a typical β-barrel fold with eight β-strands containing an internal hydrophobic cavity and a plug-like loop on one side of the barrel. Strong hydrophobic interactions between the two β-barrels maintain the dimeric architecture of GrlR. Furthermore, a unique surface-exposed EDED (Glu-Asp-Glu-Asp) motif is identified to be critical for GrlA-GrlR interaction and for the ...
3. Vincent CD, Jeong KC, Sexton J, Buford E, Vogel JP. 2006. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion System. In Legionella: State of the Art 30 Years After Its Recognition. Ed. N. Cianciotto et al, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. Pages 184-191 ...
CP000828.PILC Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept complement(390490..391710) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /gene=pilC FT /locus_tag=AM1_0417 FT /product=type II secretion system domain protein/ pilin FT biogenesis protein PilC FT /note=Member of bacterial type II secretion system protein FT F domain, PF00482. FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:AM1_0417 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABW25474 FT /db_xref=GOA:B0CAY4 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR001992 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR003004 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR018076 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR042094 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:B0CAY4 FT /protein_id=ABW25474.1 FT /translation=MPTYVVRARDSQGKSSQKRVNATSQKEARSNIQRQGLQILDIKES FT QGFSMNAELDLSFLQSITVKDKALFSRQFSALVNAGVALVRGLGVMSEQCKNPKLKKAL FT LDVNAAVQQGVSLSDAMRGHPAAFDQLYVAMIQAGETGGVLDEVLNRLATLLEDQARLK FT NQIRSALAYPVVVGFIAVSIFLGMVIFLIPVFDGIFSQLGGDLPAFTQFMVNLSEFLRT FT PIYGISAAIVVFGSTFALRQYYRTRAGRETIDRIMLKLPLFGDLIQKTAVARFCRTFGS FT LSRSGVPILYSLEIVRDTAGNQVVSNAIDEARREIQGGGMLSLALQKEKVFPLLATQMI ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The type IV secretion system virB/virD4 is a major virulence determinant for subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. VirB-dependent changes of HEC include massive cytoskeletal rearrangements, a proinflammatory activation by nuclear factor NF-kappa-B, inhibition of early and late events of apoptosis, leading to an increased cell survival, and, at high infection doses, a cytostatic or cytotoxic effect, which interfers with a potent virB-independent mitogenic activity. These changes of HEC require the T4S coupling protein virD4 and at least one of the effector proteins bepA-G. Together with virB11, may be implicated in providing the energy, via hydrolysis of ATP, for the assembly of secretion system and substrate transport ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
Genes in the 5-kb flanking regions if available, or non-core components encoded by the T6SS gene cluster if any. In the Note column,if available, (e) denotes effector while (i) for immunity ...
... and function of bacterial Type IV secretion systems". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 451-485. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ... Human Physiology - Digestion NIH guide to digestive system The Digestive System How does the Digestive System Work?. ... A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella ... Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The secretion is inhibited by low pH. Secretin - is in the ...
SecY protein Bacterial secretion system Johnson, A.E.; van Waes, M.A. (1999). "The translocon: a dynamic gateway at the ER ... Mueller CA, Broz P, Cornelis GR (June 2008). "The type III secretion system tip complex and translocon". Mol. Microbiol. 68 (5 ... Bacterial pathogens can also assemble other translocons in their host membranes, allowing them to export virulence factors into ... The channel allows peptides to move in either direction, so additional systems in the translocon are required to move the ...
... actively kill other bacterial using type IV secretion system and defend itself from amoeba using type VI secretion ... March 2015). "Bacterial killing via a type IV secretion system". Nature Communications. 6 (1): 6453. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6453 ... Xanthomonas possess almost all known secretion systems (types I to VI) that play different roles in the life and disease cycle ... punicae cause bacterial blight of pomogranate. Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is a disease ...
... uses its type IV secretion system to kill other Gram-negative bacterial species in a contact-dependent manner ... "Bacterial killing via a type IV secretion system". Nature Communications. 6: 6453. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6453S. doi:10.1038/ ... Xanthomonas citri also uses type VI secretion system in defense against the predatory amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Souza DP ... "Cryo-EM structure of the bacteria-killing type IV secretion system core complex from Xanthomonas citri". Nature Microbiology. 3 ...
Christie PJ, Whitaker N, González-Rivera C (August 2014). "Mechanism and structure of the bacterial type IV secretion systems ... the Type VI Secretion System. The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is found in many species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive ... This system was much different that the Type V secretion system identified in E. coli, and thus formed a new class of CDI: ... The first CDI system to be discovered was a Type V secretion system, encoded by the cdiBAI gene cluster found widespread ...
... and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 451-85. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro. ... The partitioning system of the Ti plasmid is similar to the ParA/ParB system used in other plasmids and bacterial chromosomes ... These are achieved by the Tra/Trb system and the VirB/VirD4 system respectively, which are members of the type IV secretion ... Quorum sensing systems respond to bacterial population densities by sensing a molecule, known as an autoinducer, that is ...
"Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic Endomembrane System". Trends in Microbiology. 24 (7 ... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... Endomembrane system and nuclear membrane were hypothesized to have derived from the protomitochondria. The presence of a ... Modern eukaryotic cells use the endomembrane system to transport products and wastes in, within, and out of cells. The membrane ...
Alfano, James R.; Collmer, Alan (September 2004). "TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM EFFECTOR PROTEINS: Double Agents in Bacterial ... Espinosa, Avelina; Alfano, James R. (November 2004). "Disabling surveillance: bacterial type III secretion system effectors ... into host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS) whereupon they suppress PCD and other host defenses. Studies have ... However, in the hemibiotrophic life-style the pathogen later breaks down host cell walls through secretion of hydrolytic ...
The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. These transfer proteins from the ... Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are ... Costa TR, Felisberto-Rodrigues C, Meir A, Prevost MS, Redzej A, Trokter M, Waksman G (June 2015). "Secretion systems in Gram- ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ...
"Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (2): 379-433. ... The type III secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria is used to transport virulence factors from the pathogen directly into ... Effector proteins secreted by the type III system do not possess a secretion signal, and are considered unique because of this ... LcrV is a multifunctional protein that has been shown to act at the level of secretion control by binding the Ysc inner-gate ...
The type V secretion system is described as non-fimbrious, meaning that the bacterial cells do not use long physical appendages ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... TAAs are part of the secretion pathway, to be more specific the type Vc secretion system. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins use a particular secretion pathway, named type V secretion system (T5SS). Gram-negative ...
"Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells by Bacterial Secretion Systems". Traffic. 7 (8): 929-939. ... The injection is mediated by specialized secretion systems, e.g. the type III secretion system (TTSS or T3SS). Fungal effectors ... Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper. Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion ... Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. ...
... whose immune systems are underdeveloped, and elderly adults, whose immune systems are generally somewhat compromised. Presence ... 2-8% of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in children is associated with human astrovirus. These viral particles are usually ... In mink, symptoms include increased secretion from apocrine glands. Human astroviruses are associated with gastroenteritis in ... Mamastroviruses also cause diseases of the nervous system. These diseases most commonly occur in cattle, mink and humans. In ...
She was one of the co-discoverers of the bacterial Tat protein secretion system. The Tat system is highly unusual because it ... Palmer has initiated work on a second type of protein transporter- the Type VII secretion system (T7SS) in the human pathogen ... Tracy Palmer FRS FRSE is a Professor of Microbiology in the Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology at Newcastle University in Tyne ... system. In 2007 Palmer was recruited back to the University of Dundee to take up a new position in the College of Life Sciences ...
The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system, while archaeal flagella appear to have ... ISBN 978-0-19-511183-5. Gophna U, Ron EZ, Graur D (July 2003). "Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... In the genus Sulfolobus, the cycle has characteristics that are similar to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems. The ...
"Novel Organelles with Elements of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Secretion Systems Weaponize Parasites of Drosophila". Current ... The Leptopilina VLPs or mixed-strategy extracellular vesicles (MSEVs) contain some secretion systems. Their evolutionary ... VLPs allow the larvae to escape the immune system: the larva is not recognised as harmful by its host, or the immune cells ... In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays its eggs and when the parasitic ...
Novel Organelles with Elements of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Secretion Systems Weaponize Parasites of Drosophila. Current Biology ... Her research at NASA has involved studying immune system changes during spaceflight and the effects of radiation and altered ... gravity on living systems. Sharmila was also the Lecturer of Neurobiology in University of California, Santa Cruz in the year ...
"Engineering the type III secretion system in non-replicating bacterial minicells for antigen delivery". Nature Communications. ... Bacterial minicells are being developed as a drug delivery system. Minicells could be used to deliver genetic material to ... The first minicells reported were from a strain of Escherichia coli that had a mutation in the Min System that lead to mis- ... Briegel, A.; Li, X.; Bilwes, A. M.; Hughes, K. T.; Jensen, G. J.; Crane, B. R. (2012-03-06). "Bacterial chemoreceptor arrays ...
Guglielmini, J, Rocha E (February 2013). "Evolution of Conjugation and Type IV Secretion Systems". Molecular Biology and ... During bacterial replication, in the presence of a dimer the XerCD mechanism is introduced to divide the dimer into two ... FtsK is a 1329 amino acid protein involved in bacterial cell division and chromosome segregation. FtsK stands for "Filament ... Grainge I (December 2010). "FtsK--a bacterial cell division checkpoint?". Molecular Microbiology. 78 (5): 1055-7. doi:10.1111/j ...
... and function of bacterial Type IV secretion systems". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 451-485. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603. ... Secretion systems. Main article: Secretion § Secretion in Gram negative bacteria. Bacteria use several systems to obtain ... A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella ... This secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20-900 kDa). The molecules ...
... which help Yersinia evade the immune system. More specifically, it interacts with the bacterial protein YopN via hydrophobic ... Also involved in Yop secretion are YopN and LcrG. TyeA is also required for translocation of YopE and YopH. TyeA interacts with ... Like YopN, TyeA is localized at the bacterial surface. The structure of TyeA is composed of two pairs of parallel alpha-helices ... This helps it to evade the host's immune system. Yersinia spp. do this by injecting the effector Yersinia outer proteins (Yops ...
... of the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SS is a mechanism by which many bacteria inject a cocktail of toxins, so- ... After his appointment as Professor in Louvain in 1984, he investigated bacterial pathogenesis and joined in 1991 the Christian ... He investigates the complex mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases. He received particular recognition[who?] for the co- ... the cunning of bacterial poisons by Alistair Lax. ...
"Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ... published the first account of the identification of a novel secretion system that they named the type VI secretion system, a ... teams that reported the discovery of the type VI secretion system as well as his work on the pathogenicity of the bacterial ... and its secretion systems. Since 1998, he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He started his research ...
Silhavy is a bacterial geneticist who has made fundamental contributions to several different research fields. He is best known ... for his work on protein secretion, membrane biogenesis, and signal transduction. Using Escherichia coli as a model system, his ... Current work in his lab is focused on the mechanisms of outer membrane biogenesis and the regulatory systems that sense and ... and to identify and characterize a two-component regulatory system. ...
... toxic effectors of type V secretion systems, some toxic effectors of type VI secretion systems and MafB toxins. Colicins ... Zhang, Dapeng; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L (2011). "A novel immunity system for bacterial nucleic acid degrading toxins ... including effectors of type V and VI secretion systems) or the release of soluble toxins (including colicins) in the ... Indeed, in PT systems, a gene encoding a protective immunity protein is always located immediately downstream of the toxin gene ...
This bacteria utilizes a type III secretion system to inject a cocktail of viral effector proteins into host cells. One of the ... tomato promote bacterial speck disease in tomato by targeting the jasmonate signaling pathway". The Plant Journal. 36 (4): 485- ... Pseudomonas syringae causes bacterial speck disease in tomatoes by hijacking the plant's jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. ... By activating the JA wound response pathway, P. syringae could divert resources from its host's immune system and infect more ...
The Non-Flagellar Type III Secretion System Evolved from the Bacterial Flagellum and Diversified into Host-Cell Adapted Systems ... the type three secretory system supports the hypothesis that the flagellum evolved from a simpler bacterial secretion system. ... Type IV pili are assembled through the Type II secretion system. So far, no species of bacteria is known to use its Type IV ... This is presumed to be the common ancestor of the type-III secretory system and the flagellar system. Then, an ion pump was ...
These systems may be described as type I secretion, type II secretion, etc. In most gram-positive bacteria, certain proteins ... Systems for secreting proteins across the bacterial outer membrane may be quite complex and play key roles in pathogenesis. ... The PGF-CTERM/archaeosortase A system in archaea is related to S-layer production. The GlyGly-CTERM/rhombosortase system, found ... Several analogous systems are found that likewise feature a signature motif on the extracytoplasmic face, a C-terminal ...
The bacteria then only release target therapeutic molecules to the tumor through either lysis or the bacterial secretion system ... Multiple types of secretion systems can be used and other strategies as well. The system is inducible by external signals. ... One such system is the Lux operon of Aliivibrio fischeri, which codes for the enzyme that is the source of bacterial ... "applying the engineering paradigm of systems design to biological systems in order to produce predictable and robust systems ...
Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. ... 2018) Bacterial symbionts use a type VI secretion system to eliminate competitors in their natural host. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... Bacterial symbionts use a type VI secretion system to eliminate competitors in their natural host - Sep 04, 2018 ... Bacterial type VI secretion system facilitates niche domination. Natália C. Drebes Dörr and Melanie Blokesch ...
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are membrane-associated transporter complexes used by various bacteria to deliver substrate ... Type IV secretion systems and their effectors in bacterial pathogenesis Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006 Apr;9(2):207-17. doi: 10.1016 ... Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are membrane-associated transporter complexes used by various bacteria to deliver substrate ... in toxin secretion and in the injection of virulence factors into eukaryotic host target cells by several mammalian pathogens. ...
Bacterial secretion system + T30050 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ... Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative ... These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted ...
Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities. Ariel Blocker, ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella are broadly compared at the level of their genetic structure, morphology, ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities ... Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: Insights into their function from structural similarities ...
Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells.. Galán JE1, Lara-Tejero ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ... Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells ...
A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system.. Ho BT1, Dong TG1, Mekalanos JJ2. ... The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an organelle that is structurally and mechanistically analogous to an ... Spatial geometry of anti-bacterial T6SS attacks. (A) Fully assembled T6SS tube (orange arrow) and sheath (purple rectangle) can ... highlighting the importance of the T6SS not only for bacterial survival in environmental ecosystems, but also in the context of ...
Bacterial secretion system - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , User data ... Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative ... These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted ...
Type II (T2SS) secretion system depends on the Sec or Tat system for initial secretion inside the bacterial cell. From the ... Type IV secretion system (T4SS or TFSS) is related to bacterial conjugation system, by which different bacteria can exchange ... Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. ... Type V secretion systems (T5SS) are different from other secretion systems in that they secrete themselves and only involves ...
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an organelle that is structurally and mechanistically analogous to an ... A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Jan 15;15(1):9-21. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2013.11 ... The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an organelle that is structurally and mechanistically analogous to an ... highlighting the importance of the T6SS not only for bacterial survival in environmental ecosystems, but also in the context of ...
... type III secretion system; T4SS, type IV secretion system; VAS, virulence-associated secretion. ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system. ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ... Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system ...
... all required for the activity of the secretion system. These core-components can be divided in two groups: soluble proteins ... These results provide important new insights to understand the biogenesis of these secretion apparati. ... are specialized secretion machines responsible for the transport of virulence factors. T6SS are versatile as they are able to ... Author Summary Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) ...
Secretion systems are a particular kind of molecular weapon as they release or inject molecules and substrates that interact ... not only with hosts and predators but also with bacterial competitors. Given that the type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been ... The T6SS system was discovered in Vibrio cholerae due to its toxicity against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum (2). ... it is not at all surprising that it is found widely distributed throughout diverse bacterial species (around 25% of all gram- ...
In this study, we designed computational tools to distinguish flagella and NF-T3SSs from other bacterial protein sequences. We ... NF-T3SSs are complex protein machineries with ,15 components that connect bacterial cell envelopes to eukaryotic cell membranes ... The extracellular components of flagella are secreted by their own Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The non-flagellar T3SS (NF- ...
... internalization is required to trigger NIK-dependent NF-κB activation in response to the bacterial type three secretion system. ... Infection of human cells with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis expressing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS) leads to ... We show that the Yersinia T3SS activates distinct NF-κB pathways dependent upon bacterial subcellular localization. We found ... cells to effectorless Yersinia has been used both as a screening tool for chemical inhibitors of the T3SS and for bacterial ...
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is considered one of the major virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. This report ...
A Bioinformatics Analysis of Bacterial Type-III Secretion System Genes and Proteins. ... Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and ... In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems ... Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using ...
Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of ... 5 more authors) (2004) Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems. Proceedings ... In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a ... Structure of HrcQ(B)-C, a conserved component of the bacterial type III secretion systems ...
Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions Download PDF České ... 2009 Dissecting the bacterial type VI secretion system by a genome wide in silico analysis: what can be learned from available ... 2000 Bacterial type IV secretion: conjugation systems adapted to deliver effector molecules to host cells. Trends Microbiol 8 ... Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions ...
Creation of an efficient protein expression and secretion system in the gram-positive bacterial vector, Streptococcus gordonii ... This bacterial expression system takes advantage of the natural pathway of protein export and anchoring on the surface of the ...
Type IV secretion systems: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and virulence. Cell. Microbiol. 10:2377-2386. ... Bacterial type IV secretion systems in human disease. Mol. Microbiol. 73:141-151. ... Conjugative DNA transfer into human cells by the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella ... Biogenesis, architecture, and function of bacterial type IV secretion systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59:451-485. ...
Dissection of Bacterial Wilt on Medicago truncatula Revealed Two Type III Secretion System Effectors Acting on Root Infection ... Dissection of Bacterial Wilt on Medicago truncatula Revealed Two Type III Secretion System Effectors Acting on Root Infection ... Dissection of Bacterial Wilt on Medicago truncatula Revealed Two Type III Secretion System Effectors Acting on Root Infection ... Dissection of Bacterial Wilt on Medicago truncatula Revealed Two Type III Secretion System Effectors Acting on Root Infection ...
Most of the bacterial type III secretion system genes could not be assigned to a particular bacterial group, but several genes ... CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of bacterial type III secretion system genes being associated with high methane emissions ... Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane ... Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane ...
Type III Secretion System (T3SS), which plays important roles in pathogenesis or symbiosis, is widely expressed in a variety of ... first systematic platform integrating well-annotated T3SS-related gene and protein information to facilitate T3SS and bacterial ... Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a complex protein secretion system that plays pivotal roles in bacterial pathogenesis. T3SS ... Type III Secretion System, Type 3 Secretion System, TTSS and T3SS, were respectively used as key words to search the ...
Moreover, T4SSs are also used for the delivery of bacterial effector proteins across the bacterial membrane and the plasmatic ... Type F and P (type IVA) T4SSs resembling the archetypal VirB/VirD4 system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are considered to be the ... paradigm of type IV secretion, while type I (type IVB) T4SSs are found in intracellular bacterial pathogens, Legionella ... ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation machines, which transfer proteins and nucleoprotein complexes across membranes. ...
Conjugation of DNA through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) drives horizontal gene transfer. Yet little is known on the ... Key components of the eight classes of type IV secretion systems involved in bacterial conjugation or protein secretion. ... Conjugation of DNA through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) drives horizontal gene transfer. Yet little is known on the ... 3D cryo-electron reconstruction of BmrA, a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter in an inward-facing conformation and in a ...
The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems ... Aizawa SI (2001) Bacterial flagella and type III secretion systems. FEMS Microbiol Lett 202: 157-164.. *Wiley Online Library , ... Hueck CJ (1998) Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 379 ... Blocker A, Komoriya K & Aizawa S-I (2003) Type III secretion systems and bacterial flagella: insights into their function from ...
Type IV and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems ... Type IV and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems ... This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems ... This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems ...
These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on ... These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on ... but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by ... but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by ...
... are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the ... The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems ... Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives ... Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. ...
  • Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in Gram-positive bacteria, the protein can stay in the cell or is mostly transported out of the bacteria using other secretion systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system is similar to Sec in the process of protein secretion, however, it sends proteins only in their folded (tertiary) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer membrane protein (OMP)[specify]. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than simply be secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Yersinia enterocolitica use the Sec system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes are Gram-positive bacteria that use the Sec system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria use several systems to obtain nutrients from other organisms in the environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wss/Esx (ESAT-6 system) pathway is sometimes called a type VII secretion system (T7SS) despite being an export pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia) can inject nutrients into protist cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bacterial phytopathogens enter the apoplast of plants via wounds, stomata, or hydathodes, they rapidly induce a set of pathogen genes encoding a specialized structure, the Type III secretion apparatus. (plantcell.org)
  • Secretion and translocation of bacterial pathogen effectors into host cells via dedicated secretion machineries like type III secretion systems (T3SSs) or type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) is a key feature employed by pathogens to attack host cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • We infect the Caenorhabditis elegans model host with different human bacterial and fungal pathogens to understand host-pathogen interactions. (duke.edu)
  • Weddle E, Agaisse H. Principles of intracellular bacterial pathogen spread from cell to cell. (virginia.edu)
  • Almost all of the samples taken from the environment were able to kill other bacteria - a phenomenon called "bacterial dueling" - but just 14 percent of the bacterial pathogen strains isolated from humans had that capability. (gatech.edu)
  • For the effector translocator systems, the listed proteins are effectors that play a role in the infection processes of the bacterial pathogen. (sjtu.edu.cn)
  • A pre-requisite for bacterial pathogenesis is the successful interaction of a pathogen with a host. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Multiple human pathogens, including E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and B. pertussis utilize Type I secretion systems to export virulence factors and toxins. (pitt.edu)
  • 4) The biochemical function of bacterial virulence factors including protein secretion organelles that can deliver proteins to target cell in millisecond time frames. (peerj.com)
  • As a postdoctoral fellow in the Laboratory of Structural Microbiology at the Rockefeller University, he focused his research on the bacterial type III secretion system and identified novel inhibitors targeting virulence factors for drug development. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we study the mechanisms by which bacterial virulence factors required for virulence in both nematodes and mammals target conserved innate immune pathways. (duke.edu)
  • utilize a specialized protein secretion system to deliver a battery of effector proteins into host cells. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, the production and translocation of the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector AexU in human colonic epithelial cells were not affected when the ahyRI genes were deleted. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Innovative fluorescence and imaging approaches have blossomed during recent years, and became instrumental in revealing the dynamics of effector secretion and function in interfering with host cellular processes, particularly signaling events, gene expression regulation, membrane trafficking, and autophagy. (pasteur.fr)
  • The rapid technological advancement of imaging technologies indicates that these techniques will continue to be at the center of numerous future breakthroughs delineating the dynamic processes of bacterial effector actions. (pasteur.fr)
  • 2012), and STm encodes multiple secretion systems that inject bacterial effector 5-Aminosalicylic Acid protein to modulate sponsor cell features (Galn et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Bacterial(1), oomycete(2) and fungal(3) plant pathogens establish disease by translocation of effector proteins into host cells, where they may directly manipulate host innate immunity. (elsevier.com)
  • In bacteria, translocation is through the type III secretion system(1), but analogous processes for effector delivery are uncharacterized in fungi and oomycetes. (elsevier.com)
  • 2017 ) Sequential displacement of Type VI Secretion System effector genes leads to evolution of diverse immunity gene arrays in Vibrio cholerae. (academictree.org)
  • Several of these effectors stimulate Cdc42- and Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal changes that promote bacterial internalization. (rcsb.org)
  • The type III secretion system (TTSS) acts as a conduit via which a constellation of proteinaceous products known as TTSS effectors are delivered into the host cell. (plantcell.org)
  • Furthermore, imaging-based screening approaches have demonstrated the mode of action of several bacterial effectors upon host cellular translocation. (pasteur.fr)
  • Type IV secretion systems and their effectors in bacterial pathogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The toxin, tuberculosis necrotizing toxin or TNT, became the founding member of a novel class of previously unrecognized toxins present in more than 600 bacterial and fungal species. (nsf.gov)
  • With fungal and bacterial secretion systems, we custom produce the evolved enzymes in large scale fermentation and downstream processes. (genofocus.com)
  • 6- Olibanum oil have the ability to strengthen skin, it improves its elasticity, tone and protect the skin from bacterial and fungal infection.it also helps in blemishes and fine lines and wrinkles. (aosproduct.com)
  • Fungal organisms like Aspergillus and Curvularia cause an allergic sinusitis to persons with suppressed immune systems. (mywebcommunity.org)
  • Therefore, we have focused our analysis on IL-13, as compared with IFN-γ, based on the lack of IL-13 protein secretion information in HIV-1 pathogenesis and its potential significance to adjunct immunotherapy. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is important to expand our understanding of IL-13 from message to protein secretion by activated T cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis to indirectly assess its potential as immunotherapy relative to its secretion in disease progression. (jimmunol.org)
  • The long-term objective of this research is to define the systems responsible for exporting these proteins to their proper location and determine the role they play in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • The research in this proposal will improve our understanding of the role played by the SecA2 export system in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and it will clarify the mechanistic basis of this new type of specialized export pathway. (grantome.com)
  • The proposed research will define the systems that export these proteins to their necessary locations and determine the role they play in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • We also use mammalian systems to study innate immunity and microbial pathogenesis. (duke.edu)
  • To this end, microporation was used to deliver plasmid DNA encoding azurin into MSC derived from bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord matrix (UCM), leading to expression and secretion of hazu to the conditioned medium (CM). Engineered hazu-MSC were shown to preserve tumor tropism toward breast (MCF-7) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines, comparable to non-modified MSC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence, a comprehensive understanding of protein secretion pathways is essential not only for delineating the mechanism of translocation but also the substrates that utilize these modules for exiting into extra cellular milieu. (frontiersin.org)
  • Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion apparatus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our research has helped show mycobacteria to possess conserved protein export pathways: the general secretion (Sec) pathway and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. (grantome.com)
  • Certain T4SS substrates require secretion chaperones for translocation. (sjtu.edu.cn)
  • These chaperones often possess physical properties (small size of 15 kDa, acidic pI, and amphipathic helices) resembling those of chaperones associated with the type III secretion systems, a family of macromolecular translocation systems ancestrally related to bacterial flagella. (sjtu.edu.cn)
  • The CagA-binding protein CagF is a secretion chaperone-like protein that interacts with a 100 aa region that is adjacent to the C-terminal secretion signal of CagA.CagF is a translocation factor for CagA, but is not translocated by the type IV apparatus. (sjtu.edu.cn)
  • Human beings are continuously exposed to pathogens and have developed a highly complex immune system to protect them. (medecinesciences.org)
  • The first line of defence is the innate immune system. (medecinesciences.org)
  • There has been renewed interest in the innate immune system since toll-like receptors (TLRs) were discovered around 20 years ago [ 49 ]. (medecinesciences.org)
  • Silk Peptide e nhances body's immune system. (magic-potions.com)
  • Contains Caprylic, Capric & Lauric fatty acids and Monolaurin which are Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral and Anti-protozoal and help to bolster your Immune System and destroy pathogens. (smoothiebar.in)
  • We are studying a number of signaling molecules that can be used by the nervous and immune system to communicate to each other. (duke.edu)
  • We use C. elegans to study the mechanism by which increased temperatures activate the innate immune system. (duke.edu)
  • Linda Kenney, professor of microbiology and immunology at the UIC College of Medicine and lead author of the study, had been studying how salmonella survive inside immune system cells called macrophages. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • This is in part due to the effect of these illnesses on the immune system. (hss.edu)
  • Immunosuppressive medications treat scleroderma, vasculitis and myositis by altering or damping the patient's immune system. (hss.edu)
  • This weakening of the immune system can be highly beneficial in treating these illnesses. (hss.edu)
  • If the immune system is not functioning well, the body may not develop a strong immune response to the vaccine. (hss.edu)
  • However, this risk does increase in patients who are taking medications which suppress the immune system. (hss.edu)
  • Your doctor may wish to vaccinate before immunosuppressive treatment is started, or may wish to wait until the treatment is completed and allow your immune system to recover. (hss.edu)
  • Most of the cells in our bodies are germs or archaea that are vital to our immune system. (socrates-wellness-institute.com)
  • It is when the immune system is compromised, overloaded or disabled that the cancer causing mechanism can thrive. (socrates-wellness-institute.com)
  • We examined the impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose moni-toring systems (CGM) during pregnancy in women with pre-gestational type 1 diabetes (T1DM) on glycemic control and subsequent adverse outcomes. (pubfacts.com)
  • Metagenics Zinlori 75 provides optimal support for healthy mucus secretion, which plays a role in helping to maintain the integrity of your gastric mucosal lining. (crohns.net)
  • both cause congestion, discomfort, inflammation and excessive mucus secretion. (mywebcommunity.org)
  • Ehret's basic philosophy was that every disease is related to a mucus-clogged system that is the result of the accumulation of undigested and unnatural food substances, commencing in childhood. (freedieting.com)
  • Colonic mucus: secretion and turnover in relation to dietary fibre intake. (freedieting.com)
  • In this work, we examined the effects of infection by R. solanacearum GMI1000 and Hrp mutants on the root system of petunia plants. (apsnet.org)
  • We are focused on understanding the structural and functional regulation of the serralysin proteases, the physical mechanisms associated with their secretion, and their impact on host tissues during bacterial infection. (pitt.edu)
  • According to our transcriptome data, this hypothesis was supported and places iron uptake systems beyond the speculative importance that has been suggested before, at least during early phases of infection. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The immunopathology of HIV-1 infection includes immune defects in T cell cytokine secretion, resulting in decreased Ag-specific responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Decreased IL-13 and IFN-γ secretion in HIV infection was present in sorted CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets, and additional analysis determined concurrent deficiency at the protein and transcriptional level. (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, results show a decline in IL-13 and IFN-γ secretion in progressive HIV-1 infection and suggest a role for both cytokines as part of T cell adaptive responses associated with a lack of disease progression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Major T cell defects following HIV-1 infection include a higher rate of apoptosis following interaction with APC ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) and a decreased secretion of type 1 cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Decreased secretion of type 1 cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ following mitogen stimulation of T cells in progressive HIV infection is associated with a higher susceptibility to opportunistic infections ( 4 , 9 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Accelerates wound healing, resistance to bacterial infection. (magic-potions.com)
  • lt;br />Aims and objective: to detection herpes simplex virus type two and some bacterial vaginosis from women and inductions of these microbes with them due to chronic infection. (ejmcm.com)
  • lt;br />Conclusions:<br />Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and bacterial vaginosis are two of the most common important infections of the female genital tract, both are associated with an increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, and they are associated with each other. (ejmcm.com)
  • Structure of a bacterial filament solved by solid-state NMRa: The type III secretion system needle. (mpg.de)
  • This proposal focuses on engineering the type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica to secrete non-native proteins at high quantity and low cost. (usda.gov)
  • Transforming the type III secretion system to enable efficient production of desired proteins will improve understanding of the mechanisms governing this process. (usda.gov)
  • FRANCE - A team from CIRAD has developed a software capable of identifying some of the proteins involved in triggering bacterial infections. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In this paper, we describe inflammasome receptors and their ligands, the way in which this protein complex assembles and the role of inflammasomes in bacterial and viral infections. (medecinesciences.org)
  • Unlike cold sores which are caused by the herpes virus canker sores are not the result of viral or bacterial infections and are not 14 nose strips per package. (amazonaws.com)
  • The bacterial type VI secretion system is one of the key players in microbial competition, as well as being an important virulence determinant during bacterial infections. (sfbbm.fr)
  • The biofilm structure, slower growth of the cells, secretion of extracellular polysaccharides and quorum sensing system are the major factors determining bacterial biofilm resistance to disinfectants. (przemyslspozywczy.eu)
  • In the paper the methods of eliminating the bacterial biofilm from abiotic surfaces were characterized. (przemyslspozywczy.eu)
  • Reduced bacterial fitness could be related to LAP suggesting that bacterial adaptation to an intramammary lifestyle requires resistance to host defensins present in mammary secretions, at least LAP. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • To study their ability to take up DNA, bacterial cells were grown on crab shells, then exposed to raw DNA containing a gene for antibiotic resistance. (gatech.edu)
  • To evaluate the impact of MTBC genetic diversity on the innate immune response, we analyzed intracellular bacterial replication, inflammatory cytokine levels, and autophagy response in human primary macrophages infected with MTBC clinical isolates belonging to the ancient lineages 1 and 5, and the modern lineage 4. (nature.com)
  • How do electrical activity and calcium signals in neurons influence the secretion of peptide hormones? (springer.com)
  • We have demonstrated that S. enterica genes related to the type three secretion system (TTSS) are expressed in the C. elegans intestine and required for full virulence. (duke.edu)
  • Longitudinal analysis showed that cytokine secretion levels correlated positively with CD4 count and negatively with plasma HIV-1 viral load. (jimmunol.org)
  • Köseoğlu VK, Agaisse H. Evolutionary Perspectives on the Moonlighting Functions of Bacterial Factors That Support Actin-Based Motility. (virginia.edu)
  • Kuehl CJ, Dragoi AM, Talman A, Agaisse H, Bacterial spread from cell to cell: beyond actin-based motility. (virginia.edu)
  • High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy. (mpg.de)
  • Kuehl CJ, Dragoi AM, Agaisse H, The Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion system is required for tyrosine kinase-dependent protrusion resolution, and vacuole escape during bacterial dissemination. (virginia.edu)
  • In this study, we investigated the potential of the Shigella flexneri T3SA as an in vivo delivery system for biologically active molecules such as cytokines. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we show for the first time that small Esx proteins of the WXG100 family have an important molecular function by mediating toxin secretion," said Niederweis. (nsf.gov)
  • In this perspective, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold a promising future as cell delivery systems for anticancer proteins due to their unique biological features. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2) IL-13 is secreted by Th0, Th1, and Th2 cells, in contrast to the secretion of IL-4 by only Th2 cells ( 24 , 26 , 27 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Isolated products will be used for analysis of biological activity targeted against bacterial and yeast cells, including biofilms and determination of immunomodulatory effects. (vscht.cz)
  • We are also studying the immune function of the scavenger receptor CED-1 and a system of proteins involved in the unfolding protein response (UPR) that are required to prevent bacterial invasion of host cells. (duke.edu)
  • 1.Substrate(s): For the conjugation systems, the listed proteins are relaxases that bind a cognate T4CP and are delivered to recipient cells. (sjtu.edu.cn)
  • Furthermore, specific T4SSs from or secrete DNA towards the extracellular milieu or uptake DNA from the surroundings towards the bacterial cytoplasm, respectively (Hofreuter et al. (pharosevent.com)
  • 3) Ecological factors that control emergence and endemic properties of bacterial pathogens such as phage and antibacterial systems. (peerj.com)
  • This is antibacterial therapy effective against all bacterial groups - Gram (+) aerobes and anaerobes and Gram (-) aerobes and anaerobes. (drjwv.com)
  • Design of bacterial expression system for production of existing antibacterial peptides identified in the laboratory of prof. Stensvåg at University in Tromso. (vscht.cz)
  • 2016 ) Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Polymicrobial Culture of Naked (N-Type) Emiliania huxleyi CCMP1516. (academictree.org)
  • 2016 ) Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Polymicrobial Culture of Coccolith-Bearing (C-Type) Emiliania huxleyi M217. (academictree.org)
  • In this study, we engineered human MSC to secrete a human codon-optimized version of azurin (hazu), a bacterial protein that has demonstrated anticancer activity toward different cancer models both in vitro and in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • We identified traits that promote bacterial growth and survival in milk whey. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • According to our transcriptome data, the lack of positively deregulated and also of true virulence-associated determinants in both of the mastitis isolates indicated that E. coli might have adapted by other means to the udder (or at least mammary secretion) as an inflammatory site. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The ability to utilize citrate promotes fitness and survival of E. coli that are thriving in mammary secretions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • According to our results, lactoferrin has only weak impact on E. coli in mammary secretions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • At the same time bacterial determinants involved in iron assimilation were negatively regulated, suggesting that, at least during the first hours, iron assimilation is not a challenge to E. coli colonizing the mammary gland. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the main causes of acute bovine mastitis, but although pathogenic E. coli strains can be classified into different pathotypes, E. coli causing mastitis cannot unambiguously be distinguished from commensal E. coli nor has a Bacterial mastitis is caused by invasion of the udder, bacterial multiplication and induction of inflammatory responses in the bovine mammary gland. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • It is responsible for local immunity in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems as well as the skin. (drjwv.com)
  • As in other bacterial pathogens, the secreted and surface-localized proteins of M. tuberculosis have important roles in virulence and in the development of host immunity. (grantome.com)
  • Our laboratory uses genetic and functional genomic methodologies to study the genetic basis of innate immunity using C. elegans and mammalian systems. (duke.edu)
  • This syndrome can occur in patients who have sustained damage to the central nervous system (e.g. patients with subarachnoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis or after neurosurgery). (nel.edu)
  • Bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia. (miningbmw.com)
  • This bacterium is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in adults. (hss.edu)
  • The majority of this work is focused on understanding the roles of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter family of proteins in regulating normal physiology and the virulence of bacterial pathogens. (pitt.edu)
  • The (p)ppGpp-mediated signaling is one of the master regulators of bacterial physiology and plays an important role in bacterial virulence, and tolerance to antibiotics. (ut.ee)
  • 2010). Molecular keying in of bacterial isolates offered proof reinfection and indicates poor advancement of immune memory space in such cases (Okoro et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • All the isolates were screened and identified via the VITEK-2 System (BioMerieux). (ejmcm.com)
  • Bacterial mastitis is caused by invasion of the udder, bacterial multiplication and induction of inflammatory responses in the bovine mammary gland. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the past, sulphur acted as a natural biocide, but since there's nothing to prevent bacterial growth in low-sulphur fuels, biocides are used to treat the fuel and prevent microbial growth. (superyachtnews.com)
  • In this study, we provide detailed characterization of APCs in chicken lungs, including their functional in vivo activities as measured by the uptake of fluorescently labeled 1-μm beads that are coated with either LPS or inactivated avian influenza A virus (IAV) mimicking the uptake of bacterial or viral Ag. (meta.org)
  • Hence, the localization of TlyA class of proteins at the bacterial surface may highlight the existence of non-classical bacterial secretion mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ectopic expression of RIN13 ( RIN13s ) enhanced bacterial restriction mechanisms but paradoxically abolished the normally rapid hypersensitive response (HR) controlled by RPM1. (plantcell.org)
  • The TlyA was visualized at the bacterial-surface by confocal microscopy and accessible to Proteinase K. In addition, sub-cellular fractionation has revealed the presence of TlyA in the membrane fractions and this sequestration is not dependent on TatA, TatC or SecA2 pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Tat and Sec systems recognize amino terminal signal sequences for their transport across the cytoplasmic membrane and also the proteins being exported may remain associated with the cell envelope or may get secreted into the extra-cellular milieu depending upon the function of the protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biogenesis and structure of a type VI secretion membrane core complex. (sfbbm.fr)
  • Quorum sensing negatively controls type III secretion regulon expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The finding may have broad application because a distinctive three-amino acid motif found on EsxE and EsxF -- tryptophan/any-amino-acid/glycine, known in shorthand as WXG -- is also found on many other small mycobacterium proteins and on the large WXG100 superfamily of bacterial proteins that resemble EsxE and EsxF. (nsf.gov)
  • IgA deficiency may predispose an animal to bacterial pneumonia. (drjwv.com)
  • Due to the wide range of underlying causes of bacterial pneumonia it is very important to autopsy any Shar-Pei who dies of pneumonia. (drjwv.com)
  • These RLS are efficient colonization sites allowing extensive bacterial multiplication. (apsnet.org)
  • Voltage-gated potassium (K v ), sodium (Na v ), and calcium (Ca v ) channels underpin specialized higher order cell functions such as excitability, contraction, secretion, and synaptic transmission ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This volume presents the current state of knowledge regarding the electrical, calcium signaling and synaptic properties of neuroendocrine systems from both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. (springer.com)
  • In this study, RNA-Seq was employed to assess the bacterial transcriptional response to milk whey. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The specific objectives are to 1) increase the protein yields achieved with bacterial production and secretion, 2) optimize control over the secretion process to enable scale up to industrial scales, and 3) develop a suite of molecular biology tools for the high-throughput production of a broad set of proteins. (usda.gov)
  • Studying S. typhimurium, Kenney discovered that the molecular switch is a bacterial molecule called SsrB. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella . (lookformedical.com)
  • Firstly, it is necessary to overcome the toxicity issues either by fusion with bulky protein or secretion achieved by fusion of the peptides to export sequence. (vscht.cz)
  • Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. (vt.edu)
  • However, they are not required for the bacterial vascular invasion that leads to the systemic spread of the bacterium through the whole plant, indicating that, instead, they might play a role in the rhizosphere-related stages of the R. solanacearum life cycle. (apsnet.org)
  • The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus , with a growth temperature ranging from 45° to 85°C, belongs to one of the oldest branches of bacterial evolution and forms a phylum together with the genus Deinococcus . (asm.org)
  • You experience a number of problems when you develop diabetes - it happens because the disease can disrupt the vascular system and affect the kidneys, eyes, feet, and leg. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Specifically, IL-13 enhances Ag presentation in HIV-1-infected PBMC ( 21 , 30 , 31 ), inhibits macrophage HIV-1 expression ( 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ), and primes macrophages for IL-12 secretion ( 31 , 36 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This SecA2-dependent export system is important to virulence as shown by the attenuated phenotype of a M. tuberculosis secA2 mutant in macrophages and mice. (grantome.com)
  • Taking advantage of their innate tropism for tumors, genetically engineered versions of MSC have been under preclinical and clinical development as cell delivery systems of several anticancer agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies from our laboratory highlight the importance of the nervous system in the regulation of innate immune responses. (duke.edu)