Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC, also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and BULLAE mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. Mutations in the ATP2C1 gene (encoding the secretory pathway Ca2++/Mn2++ ATPase 1 (SPCA1)) cause this disease. It is clinically and histologically similar to DARIER DISEASE - both have abnormal, unstable DESMOSOMES between KERATINOCYTES and defective CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is unrelated to PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS though it closely resembles that disease.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.

Mutation of the mitochrondrially encoded ATPase 6 gene modeled in the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli. (1/110)

Defects of respiratory chain protein complexes and the ATP synthase are becoming increasingly implicated in human disease. Recently, mutations in the ATPase 6 gene have been shown to cause several different neurological disorders. The product of this gene is homologous to the a subunit of the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli. Here, mutations equivalent to those described in humans have been introduced into the a subunit of E. coli by site-directed mutagenesis, and the effects of these mutations on the ATPase activity, ATP synthesis and ability of the enzyme to pump protons studied in detail. The effects of the mutations varied considerably. The mutation L262P (9185 T-C equivalent) caused a 70% loss of ATP synthesis activity, reduced DCCD sensitivity, and lowered proton pumping activity. The L207P (8993 T-C equivalent) reduced ATP synthesis by 50%, affected DCCD sensitivity, while proton pumping was only marginally affected when measured by the standard AMCA quenching assay. The other mutations studied affected the functioning of the ATP synthase much less. The results confirm that modeling of these point mutations in the E. coli enzyme is a useful approach to determining how alterations in the ATPase 6 gene affect enzyme function and, therefore, how a pathogenic effect can be exerted.  (+info)

Redox regulation of the rotation of F(1)-ATP synthase. (2/110)

In F(1)-ATPase, the smallest known motor enzyme, unidirectional rotation of the central axis subunit gamma is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, we report the redox switching of the rotation of this enzyme. For this purpose, the switch region from the gamma subunit of the redox-sensitive chloroplast F(1)-ATPase was introduced into the bacterial F(1)-ATPase. The ATPase activity of the obtained complex was increased up to 3-fold upon reduction (Bald, D., Noji, H., Stumpp, M. T., Yoshida, M. & Hisabori, T. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12757-12762). Here, we successfully observed the modulation of rotation of gamma in this chimeric complex by changes in the redox conditions. In addition we revealed that the suppressed enzymatic activity of the oxidized F(1)-ATPase complex was characterized by more frequent long pauses in the rotation of the gamma subunit. These findings obtained by the single molecule analysis therefore provide new insights into the mechanisms of enzyme regulation.  (+info)

Functions and ATP-binding responses of the twelve histidine residues in the TF1-ATPase beta subunit. (3/110)

The C2 proton signals of all (twelve) histidine residues of the TF1 beta subunit in the 1H-NMR spectrum have been identified and assigned by means of pH change experiments and site-directed substitution of histidines by glutamines. pH and ligand titration experiments were carried out for these signals. Furthermore, the ATPase activity of the reconstituted alpha3beta3gamma complex was examined for the twelve mutant beta subunits. Two of three conserved histidines, namely, His-119 and 324, were found to be important for expression of the ATPase activity. The former fixes the N-terminal domain to the central domain. His-324 is involved in the formation of the interface essential for the alpha3beta3gamma complex assembly. The other conserved residue, His-363, showed a very low pK(a), suggesting that it is involved in the tertiary structure formation. On the binding of a nucleotide, only the signals of His-173, 179, 200, and 324 shifted. These histidines are located in the hinge region, and its proximity, of the beta subunit. This observation provided further support for the conformational change of the beta monomer from the open to the closed form on the binding of a nucleotide proposed by us [Yagi et al. (1999) Biophys. J. 77, 2175-2183]. This conformational change should be one of the essential driving forces in the rotation of the alpha3beta3gamma complex.  (+info)

Genetic diversity of Pasteurella multocida fowl cholera isolates as demonstrated by ribotyping and 16S rRNA and partial atpD sequence comparisons. (4/110)

The genetic diversity of Pasteurella multocida, the aetiological agent of fowl cholera, was investigated. The strain collection comprised 69 clinical isolates representing a wide spectrum of hosts and geographic origin. The three type strains for the subspecies of P. multocida were also included. Avian isolates of P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica did not represent separate lines by HpaII ribotyping and the two type strains of mammalian origin (porcine and cat bite) seemed to be representative of avian strains of P. multocida subspp. multocida and septica. By ribotyping, all P. multocida subsp. gallicida strains, except one chicken isolate and the type strain, clustered together. This indicated that the bovine type strain was not representative of this subspecies and that most strains of P. multocida subsp. gallicida are genetically related and may be distantly related to other P. multocida isolates, including those of avian origin. By 16S rRNA and atpD sequence comparisons of selected strains, including both P. multocida isolated from birds and mammals and selected distantly related Pasteurella species associated with birds and mammals, it was found that P. multocida is monophyletic. Extended DNA-DNA hybridizations are highly indicated since strains may exist which would connect the existing subspecies at species level. The considerable genetic diversity of P. multocida fowl cholera isolates is probably related to the clonal nature of this organism, resulting in many divergent lines.  (+info)

Phylogenies of atpD and recA support the small subunit rRNA-based classification of rhizobia. (5/110)

The current classification of the rhizobia (root-nodule symbionts) assigns them to six genera. It is strongly influenced by the small subunit (16S, SSU) rRNA molecular phylogeny, but such single-gene phylogenies may not reflect the evolution of the genome as a whole. To test this, parts of the atpD and recA genes have been sequenced for 25 type strains within the alpha-Proteobacteria, representing species in Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Azorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Phyllobacterium, Mycoplana and Brevundimonas. The current genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium are well supported by these genes, each forming a distinct phylogenetic clade with unequivocal bootstrap support. There is good support for a Rhizobium clade that includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the very close relationship between Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Rhizobium tropici is confirmed. There is evidence for recombination within the genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium, but the congruence of the phylogenies at higher levels indicates that the genera are genetically isolated. rRNA provides a reliable distinction between genera, but genetic relationships within a genus may be disturbed by recombination.  (+info)

Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores. (6/110)

F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.  (+info)

The topology of the proton translocating F0 component of the ATP synthase from E. coli K12: studies with proteases. (7/110)

The accessibility of the three F0 subunits a, b and c from the Escherichia coli K12 ATP synthase to various proteases was studied in F1-depleted inverted membrane vesicles. Subunit b was very sensitive to all applied proteases. Chymotrypsin produced a defined fragment of mol. wt. 15,000 which remained tightly bound to the membrane. The cleavage site was located at the C-terminal region of subunit b. Larger amounts of proteases were necessary to attack subunit a (mol. wt. 30,000). There was no detectable cleavage of subunit c. It is suggested that the major hydrophilic part of subunit b extends from the membrane into the cytoplasm and is in contact with the F1 sector. The F1 sector was found to afford some protection against proteolysis of the b subunit in vitro and in vivo. Protease digestion had no influence on the electro-impelled H+ conduction via F0 but ATP-dependent H+ translocation could not be reconstituted upon binding of F1. A possible role for subunit b as a linker between catalytic events on the F1 component and the proton pathway across the membrane is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane integration and function of the three F0 subunits of the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli K12. (8/110)

Integration into the cytoplasmic membrane and function of the three F0 subunits, a, b and c, of the membrane-bound ATP synthase of Escherichia coli K12 were analysed in situations where synthesis of only one or two types of subunits was possible. This was achieved by combined use of atp mutations and plasmids carrying and expressing one or two of the atp genes coding for ATP synthase subunits. AU three F0 subunits were found to be required for the establishment of efficient H+ conduction. Subunits a and b individually as well as together were found to bind F1 ATPase to the membrane while subunit c did not. The ATPase activity bound to either of these single subunits, or in pairwise combinations, was not inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Also ATP-dependent H+ translocation was not catalysed unless all three F0 subunits were present in the membrane. The integration into the membrane of the subunits a and b was independent of the presence of other ATP synthase subunits.  (+info)

Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deleterious action of FA metabolites on ATP synthesis. T2 - Possible link between lipotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. AU - Abdulghani, Muhammad. AU - Muller, Florian L.. AU - Liu, Yuhong. AU - Chavez, Alberto O.. AU - Balas, Bogdan. AU - Zuo, Pengou. AU - Chang, Zhi. AU - Tripathy, Devjit. AU - Jani, Rucha. AU - Molina-Carrion, Marjorie. AU - Monroy, Adriana. AU - Folli, Franco. AU - Van Remmen, Holly. AU - DeFronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Insulin-resistant individuals manifest multiple disturbances in free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and have excessive lipid accumulation in insulin target tissues. Although much evidence supports a causal role for altered FFA metabolism in the development of insulin resistance, i.e., lipotoxicity, the intracellular mechanisms by which elevated plasma FFA levels cause insulin resistance have yet to be completely ...
1IJP: Structure of Ala(20) --> Pro/Pro(64) --> Ala substituted subunit c of Escherichia coli ATP synthase in which the essential proline is switched between transmembrane helices.
Bacterial proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-1) includes a peripheral and a membrane domain. at = 2.09 vanished in P110A and C63S but not in P71A. ARRY-614 Taking into consideration our data using the available information = 2 together.09 1.88 indicators are assigned to cluster N6a. It really is appealing that with regards to ideals cluster N6a is comparable to cluster N4. Furthermore we looked into the residues (Ile-94 and Ile-100) that are expected to serve as electron cables between N6a and N6b and between N6b and N2 respectively. Alternative of Ile-94 and Ile-100 with Ala/Gly didnt influence the electron transfer activity significantly. It is figured conserved Ile-100 and Ile-94 arent needed for the electron transfer. NDH-1 can be an extremely useful model program to elucidate the framework and function of complicated I because of its structural simpleness and simple gene manipulation (7 9 Organic I/NDH-1 includes a quality L-shaped framework with two specific domains ...
H+ transportujuća dvosektorna ATPaza (EC, ATP sintaza, F1-ATPaza, FoF1-ATPaza, H+-transportna ATPaza, mitohondrijska ATPaza, faktori sprezanja (F0, F1 i CF1), hloroplastna ATPaza, bakterijska Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom ATP fosfohidrolaza (H+ transport).[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ...
In order to visualize and appreciate conformational changes between homologous three-dimensional (3D) protein structures or protein/inhibitor complexes, we have developed a user-friendly morphing procedure. It enabled us to detect coordinated conformational changes not easily discernible by analytic methods or by comparison of static images. This procedure was applied to comparison ... read more of native Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase and of complexes with reversible inhibitors and conjugates with covalent inhibitors. It was likewise shown to be valuable for the visualization of conformational differences between acetylcholinesterases from different species. The procedure involves generation, in Cartesian space, of 25 interpolated intermediate structures between the initial and final 3D structures, which then serve as the individual frames in a QuickTime movie. show less ...
Ahmad Z. Identification of Phosphate Binding Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. Poster presented at 6th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Conference; Kirksville, MO; November 1, 2014.. Ahmad Z. Significance of α-subunit VISITDG Sequence Residues in the Catalytic Sites of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. Poster presented at the FASEB Experimental Biology 2014 Conference; San Diego, CA; April 26-30, 2014. Abstract published in FASEB J. 2014 Apr;28(1): Supplement LB247.. Barrett KL [student], Kondrashov P, Kondrashova T, Clay IS [student], Johnson J. Image Recognition and Development of Hands-on Sonographic Skills by First-Year Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine Students as Assessed by Practical Ultrasound Skill Assessment Exam. Poster presented at the 3rd Annual Missouri Osteopathic Student and Post-graduate Research Symposium; Missouri Osteopathic Annual Convention; Branson, MO; April 30-May 4, 2014.. Baum KR [student], Pannu M [student], Choudhry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - δPKC interaction with the d subunit of F1Fo ATP synthase impairs energetics and exacerbates ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts. AU - Walker, Matthew. AU - Caldwell, Robert W.. AU - Yoon, Yisang. AU - Nguyen, Tiffany T.. AU - Johnson, John A.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the American Heart Association Greater Southeast Affiliate Grants ( 11GRNT7950046 ; and 13GRNT17080109 [to JAJ]). PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Previously, we demonstrated protection against hypoxic injury in neonatal cardiac myocytes and reduced release of cardiac troponin I from perfused rat hearts by a novel peptide inhibitor [NH2-YGRKKRRQRRRMLATRALSLIGKRAISTSVCAGRKLALKTIDWVSFDYKDDDDK-] of the delta protein kinase C (δPKC) interaction with the d subunit of mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase (dF1Fo). This peptide was developed in our laboratory and contains: an HIV-Tat protein transduction domain; a mitochondrial targeting motif; the δPKC-dF1Fo inhibitor ...
FoF1 ATPase (also known as ATP synthase) exists in mitochondrial inner membranes and bacterial plasma membranes to synthesize ATP (adenosine triphosphate) by using electrochemical gradient of protons (H+) between inside and outside of the membranes. Fo is integrated in the membranes and thought to have a rotor ring that rotates horizontally. F1 has a dome-like structure comprised of three α and three β subunits that are alternately arranged, which is anchored to the membranes to prevent rotation. Shaft-like γ subunit connects the center of the rotor ring of Fo and F1. As protons flow down the gradient across the membranes through Fo, the rotor ring of Fo and γ rotate, and the spin force of γ against αβ complex is used to synthesize ATP molecules. In this drawing, a waterwheel (Fo) is rotated by the gradient of water (represents proton gradient), and series of three coins (which represent ATP) are generated from the apparatus (αβ of F1), which is made from six boards being attached to ...
ATP synthase is a membrane-bound rotary motor enzyme that is critical for cellular energy metabolism in all kingdoms of life. Despite conservation of its basic structure and function, autoinhibition by one of its rotary stalk subunits occurs in bacteria and chloroplasts but not in mitochondria. The crystal structure of the ATP synthase catalytic complex (F(1)) from Escherichia coli described here reveals the structural basis for this inhibition. The C-terminal domain of subunit ɛ adopts a heretofore unknown, highly extended conformation that inserts deeply into the central cavity of the enzyme and engages both rotor and stator subunits in extensive contacts that are incompatible with functional rotation. As a result, the three catalytic subunits are stabilized in a set of conformations and rotational positions distinct from previous F(1) structures.. ...
ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Pisum sativum E-value=3e-78; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Glycine max E-value=6e-78; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Phaseolus vulgaris E-value=6e-78; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Helianthus annuus E-value=1e-77; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Nicotiana plumbaginifolia E-value=4e-77 ...
The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzymes rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzymes rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles ...
In this study we combined several advanced techniques, such as proteomic analysis using the Proteome Lab PF 2D fractionation system, MALDI-TOF/MS and tissue microarray, with functional analysis to identify novel biomarkers for improved prediction of progression, metastasis and response to therapy for breast cancer. The work was also performed in an attempt to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis. Our studies revealed one highly over-expressed protein, the α-subunit of ATP synthase, in breast cancer. This observation was validated, refined and extended through a series of IHC on tissue microarray, immunofluorescence and functional analyses. The over-expression of ATP synthase α-subunit was detected by IHC in several different human tumor samples, including breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer and prostate cancer (data not shown). Since ATP synthase α-subunit was highly over-expressed in 94.6% of breast cancer samples ...
Céline Vuillier, Steven Lohard, Aurélie Fétiveau, Jennifer Allègre, Cémile Kayaci, Louise E King, Frédérique Braun, Sophie Barillé‐Nion, Fabien Gautier, Laurence Dubrez, Andrew P Gilmore, Philippe P Juin, Laurent Maillet ...
An illustration exactly where the classification fails is while in the framework of the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries rotor ring of Na dependent F ATP syn thase. The biological unit of this protein is usually a very symmetric assembly with C11 stage group sym metry, exactly where chains consisting of a helical hairpin repeat 11 times about an axis. The core versus surface indicator can not make a prediction due to the few surface residues which might be not interacting with other protomers. In the exact same time the rims from the interfaces come about to become pretty very well conserved, perhaps simply because several of the rim residues are associated with the sodium ion coordination. This outcomes in large core versus rim values that fall from the biological reduce off. The connected structure from the rotor ring of the proton dependent ATP synthase is misclassified by EPPIC in the very related way, with analogous causes.. The EPPIC strategy is known to possess troubles with tiny chains ...
Despite its limited resolution, this structural model is squarely consistent with the two-half-channel hypothesis outlined above and also helps to rationalize a wide range of biochemical data pertaining to the mechanism and inhibition of the enzyme. By construction, the structure shows one of the proton-binding sites in the c-ring in proximity to both Arg145, the crucial arginine in TM4 of subunit a, and Gln201 in TM5 (Fig. 6 A). The Cα-Cα distance from Glu58 to Arg145 (8 Å) is indeed consistent with a salt bridge, and that to Gln201 (13 Å) implies this same interaction would be feasible if Arg145 and Gln201 were swapped, as has been suggested for the E. coli ATP synthase (Ishmukhametov et al., 2008; Bae and Vik, 2009). A nontrivial finding, however, is that this c-ring binding site is aligned with a series of residues on subunit a that have been inferred to be exposed to the aqueous half-channel on the P side of the membrane (Fig. 6 A). Specifically, these are positions whose equivalent in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin. T2 - 2. Relationships between proton motive force and ATP synthesis. AU - Pitard, Bruno. AU - Richard, Peter. AU - Duñach, Mireia. AU - Rigaud, Jean Louis. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. By variation of the actinic light intensity it was found that ATP synthase activity depended in a sigmoidal manner on the amplitude of the transmembrane light-induced pH gradient. Maximal rates of ATP synthesis (up to 200 nmol ATP · min-1 · mg protein-1 were obtained at saturating light intensities under a steady-state pH gradient of about pH 1.25. It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback ...
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(0) domain. Minor subunit located with subunit a in the membrane.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because theyve had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 260,964 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 61% of its contemporaries ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_2059 (SAUSA300_RS11340); symbol: atpG; product: F0F1 ATP synthase subunit gamma
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
引用Abcam ATP Synthase免疫捕获试剂盒的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章。
Subunit c deposits co-localize with Lamp 1 in homozygous CbCln3Δex7/8 and CbCln6nclf cells.A. Representative micrographs of confluency aged wild-type, CbCln3Δ
Tropomyosin 1. (Aliases: TmH-33,2299,TMII,TmH-34,region 3,tmII,Tm,cTmII,cTm,l(3)02299,BcDNA:LD37158,BcDNA:GH09289,Dmel\CG4898,cTM,l(3)S130510,Dm TmH34,BcDNA:SD21996,1305/10,tm1,TnH-34,Dm TmH33,l(3)s2958,TmII,TnH-33,Dm Tm1,PmI,Tmr34,CG4898,tropomyosin,Tmr33,DmTm1,TmH33,mTmII,TmH34,TnH) ...
ATP synthase link the phosphorylation of ADP to ETC during chemiosmosis,resulting in the production of ATP Impermeable to H+ to allow formation and maintenance of ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Herolab \ Cleaning Brush for all Rotors for 50 ml 1 \ 258070 for more molecular products just contact us
quantification of AtpB, ATP synthase, AS03-030, Anti-AtpB, ATP Synthase, Beta subunit of ATP synthase polyclonal antibody, Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic ATP synthase subunit beta AtCg00480 and Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit
15 min with 200 ml of 50 mM NH4HCO3 at RT. A volume of 200 ml of 100 acetonitrile was added to this solution and incubated for 15 min at room temperature. Solvent was removed and gel plugs were allowed to dry for 30 min at RT under a flow hood. Plugs were rehydrated with 20 ng/ml of modified trypsin (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) in 50 mM NH4HCO3 in a shaking incubator overnight at 37uC. Enough trypsin solution was added in order to completely submerge the gel plugs.sample was acquired for a total of ,2.5 min. MS/MS spectra were searched against the International Protein Index (IPI) database using SEQUEST with the following parameters: two trypsin miscleavages, fixed carbamidomethyl modification, variable methionine oxidation, parent tolerance 10 ppm, and fragment tolerance of 25 mmu or 0.01 Da. Results were filtered with the following criteria: Xcorr1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 charge states, respectively, Delta CN0.1, and P-value (protein and peptide) 0.01. IPI accession numbers were ...
ASHGO_8.PE6 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS 7252..8043 FT /codon_start=1 FT /gene_family=HOG000253874 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] FT /evidence=3: Inferred from homology FT /gene_id=IGI15753604 FT /gene_name=ATP6 FT /locus_tag=AMI006W FT /orf_name=AgATP6 FT /product=ATP synthase subunit a FT /function=hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity FT /biological_process=ATP synthesis coupled proton transport FT /cellular_component=integral to membrane FT /cellular_component=mitochondrial inner membrane FT /cellular_component=proton-transporting ATP synthase FT complex, coupling factor F(o) FT /protein_id=AAS50173.1 FT /db_xref=GO:0005743 FT /db_xref=GO:0015078 FT /db_xref=GO:0015986 FT /db_xref=GO:0016021 FT /db_xref=GO:0045263 FT /db_xref=HOGENOM:HBG261838 FT /db_xref=HOGENOM:HBG734175 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR000568 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR023011 FT /db_xref=UniParc:UPI00002523BF FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:Q75G39 FT /transl_table=3 FT ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q03A21 (ATPD_LACP3), ATP synthase subunit delta. Lactobacillus paracasei (strain ATCC 334 / BCRC 17002 / CIP 107868 /KCTC 3260 / NRRL B-441)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
ID A0A0M0BRM1_9ARCH Unreviewed; 664 AA. AC A0A0M0BRM1; DT 11-NOV-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-NOV-2015, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=V-type ATP synthase subunit I {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}; GN ORFNames=AC478_03315 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KON31074.1}; OS miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group-1 archaeon SG8-32-3. OC Archaea; Candidatus Bathyarchaeota; MCG-1. OX NCBI_TaxID=1685125 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KON31074.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000054016}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000054016} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Lazar C.S., Baker B.J., Seitz K.W., Hyde A.S., Dick G.J., RA Hinrichs K.-U., Teske A.P.; RT New insights into the roles of widespread benthic archaea in carbon RT and nitrogen cycling.; RL Submitted (JUN-2015) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the V-ATPase 116 kDa subunit family. CC {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}. CC -!- CAUTION: The sequence shown here is derived from an CC ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A5Z2C204 (A0A5Z2C204_SALER), F0F1 ATP synthase subunit beta. Salmonella enterica (Salmonella choleraesuis)
ID X5DHV8_9BACT Unreviewed; 600 AA. AC X5DHV8; DT 11-JUN-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-JUN-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 20. DE RecName: Full=V-type ATP synthase subunit I {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}; GN ORFNames=FH5T_16410 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AHW60674.1}, SAMN05444285_12320 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:SET78049.1}; OS Draconibacterium orientale. OC Bacteria; Bacteroidetes; Bacteroidia; Marinilabiliales; OC Prolixibacteraceae; Draconibacterium. OX NCBI_TaxID=1168034 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AHW60674.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000023772}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AHW60674.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000023772} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=FH5 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AHW60674.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000023772}; RA Li X., Wang X., Xie Z., Du Z., Chen G.; RT Complete genome sequence of a deeply braunched marine Bacteroidia RT bacterium Draconibacterium orientale type strain FH5T.; RL Submitted (MAR-2014) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. ...
ATP Synthase : First Look The following images attempt to illustrate how ATP synthase produces ATP and emphasize the key steps in this process. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit c3 (subunit 9) genome duplicate b [Source:ZFIN;Acc:ZDB-GENE-020814-1 ...
View mouse Atp6v0c Chr17:24163866-24169702 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
TY - JOUR. T1 - An ATP-driven proton pump in clathrin-coated vesicles.. AU - Stone, D. K.. AU - Xie, X. S.. AU - Racker, E.. PY - 1983/4/10. Y1 - 1983/4/10. N2 - Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared from bovine brain catalyzed ATP-driven proton translocation and a 32Pi-ATP exchange reaction. Both activities were measured in the presence of 5 micrograms of oligomycin/mg of protein which completely inhibited these reactions catalyzed by submitochondrial particles. Analyses performed during the purification procedure demonstrated that the oligomycin-resistant pump was concentrated and highly purified in the fractions containing coated vesicles. Moreover, vesicles precipitated by either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies against clathrin contained the H+ pump activity. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (0.5 mM) and N-ethylmaleimide (1 mM) added to the assay mixture inhibited the pump completely, whereas neither vanadate, sodium azide, efrapeptin, or mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor had an ...
Looking for ATP synthase? Find out information about ATP synthase. An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphate and adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate during oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria... Explanation of ATP synthase
The crystal structure of the F1 showed alternating alpha and beta subunits (3 of each), arranged like segments of an orange around an asymmetrical gamma subunit. According to the current model of ATP synthesis (known as the alternating catalytic model), the proton-motive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane, generated by the electron transport chain, drives the passage of protons through the membrane via the FO region of ATP synthase. A portion of the FO (the ring of c-subunits) rotates as the protons pass through the membrane. The c-ring is tightly attached to the asymmetric central stalk (consisting primarily of the gamma subunit) which rotates within the alpha3beta3 of F1 causing the 3 catalytic nucleotide binding sites to go through a series of conformational changes that leads to ATP synthesis. The major F1 subunits are prevented from rotating in sympathy with the central stalk rotor by a peripheral stalk that joins the alpha3beta3 to the non-rotating portion of FO. The structure ...
Multi-disciplinary methods reveal a novel type of ion binding in the rotor ring of the F1Fo-ATP synthase from the opportunistic pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum.
Yeah, so we were replacing the rotors and pads on 93 Prelude S in my driveway... Got through the front fine, and started on the rears. Got the first...
Vacuolar ATP synthase subunit H (EC (V-ATPase H subunit) (Vacuolar proton pump subunit H) (V-ATPase 50/57 kDa subunits) (Vacuolar proton pump subunit SFD) (VMA13) (Nef-binding protein 1) (NBP1). [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:Q9UI12 ...
ETC: Advanced Look --, 4.) ATP Synthase ATP synthase is considered a part of the electron transport chain, but it is not involved in the transport of electrons. ATP synthase uses the proton gradient created by the ETC to synthesize ATP. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
Construction of a first atomic model for an intact bacterial ATP synthase allows for a structural understanding of the roles of individual amino acids in the mechanism of ATP synthesis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluorescent Probes Applied to Catalytic Cooperativity in ATP Synthase. AU - Weber, Joachim. AU - Senior, Alan E.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - U2 - 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)80006-5. DO - 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)80006-5. M3 - Article. C2 - 15051335. AN - SCOPUS:1542319961. VL - 380. SP - 132. EP - 152. JO - Methods in Enzymology. JF - Methods in Enzymology. SN - 0076-6879. ER - ...
A high speed generator with a hydraulic rotor mounting system that dampens rotor vibrations at the rotors critical speeds. Oil is supplied to a gap formed between the outer race of the rotor bearing assembly and the bearing liner. The oil provides soft bearing support for, and viscous damping of, the rotor.
A high-power and high-torque step motor comprising a stator which is provided with a first stator pole, a second stator pole, a third stator pole, a fourth stator pole, a fifth stator pole, a sixth st
Anyone know what the rotors should be re-torqued to after having them turned? I am doing the front brakes today and the rotors need to come off and be...
This one was attached to the bole of a beech, north Cornwell. £1 coin for reference TIA Fof NB. Reposted as the original didnt appear.
  • We conclude that the quantitative aspects of bacterial anion exchange are amenable to study in an artificial system, and that the use of osmolytes as general stabilants can be a valuable adjunct to current techniques for reconstitution of integral membrane transport proteins. (
  • Alpha-helical proteins are present in the inner membranes of bacterial cells or the plasma membrane of eukaryotes, and sometimes in the outer membranes . (
  • The bacterial flagellar protein export apparatus processively transports flagellar proteins even with extremely infrequent ATP hydrolysis. (
  • For self-assembly of the bacterial flagellum, a specific protein export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) as the energy source to transport component proteins to the distal growing end. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacterial Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria have evolved a complex protein secretion system termed type III to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells that then modulate host cellular functions. (
  • This system, which is termed type III, has evolved to deliver proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into the host cell cytosol. (
  • These bacterial proteins can then stimulate or interfere with host cellular processes, thereby dictating the terms of the bacterial-host cell interaction. (
  • The discovery of sequence homologies between proteins implicated in the secretion of virulence factors in several different bacterial pathogens and proteins implicated in the export of flagellar components prompted the proposal that a common protein secretion pathway existed, termed type III ( 3 ). (
  • The Clp ATPases are implicated in the tolerance of, and regulation of the response to, stresses by virtue of their protein reactivation and remodeling activities and their capacity to target misfolded proteins for degradation by the ClpP peptidase. (
  • The HSP100/Clp ATPases constitute a large family of closely related proteins that perform important housekeeping functions, including protein reactivation and remodeling activities typical of molecular chaperones, and target specific proteins for degradation by the ClpP peptidase ( 35 , 40 ). (
  • However, when ClpP associates with members of the Clp ATPase family, it acts as a serine protease and prevents the accumulation of altered proteins that might be toxic for the bacteria under stress-inducing conditions ( 25 ). (
  • The eukaryotic proteins are more complicated than the bacterial enzyme complexes. (
  • These proteins include chaperones, transcriptional regulators ( 13 ), the glutamic acid decarboxylase system, and the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex ( 10 , 31 ). (
  • Proton flow represents a major device for energy transfer by membrane proteins. (
  • Cell metabolism requires transmembrane proton and electrochemical gradients to synthesize adenosine 5′‐triphosphate (ATP), translocate ions, proteins and metabolites and regulate other vital activities. (
  • Subsequently, these proteins are translocated across the membrane by the Sec complex, while membrane proteins are inserted into the bilayer. (
  • In all organisms proteins are translocated post-translationally, although its importance appears to be species-dependent. (
  • For example, in the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli about 27% of its proteome comprises proteins that are probably transported in a post-translational fashion outside of the cytoplasm (9), while in mammals the vast majority of proteins are translocated co-translationally (1). (
  • This review highlights the similarities and differences between the structures and modes of regulation of the two H + -pumping ATPases and points out future challenges in the functional analysis of these proteins. (
  • Effector proteins translocated the SPI1 T3SS mediate bacterial uptake from the intestine ( 13 , 15 ), whereas SPI2 effectors are needed for subsequent intravacuolar replication in phagocytic cells ( 6 , 15 , 23 ). (
  • A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. (
  • Deletion of FliI residues 401 to 410 resulted in no flagellar formation although this FliI deletion mutant retained 40% of the ATPase activity, suggesting uncoupling between ATP hydrolysis and activation of the gate. (
  • The rotor (which consists of the c, ε and γ subunits) is believed to rotate relative to the stator in response to either ATP hydrolysis by F 1 or proton transport through F 0 . (
  • This suggested a role for the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex, which converts the energy of ATP hydrolysis to PMF. (
  • V-type ATPases facilitate the acidification of intracellular organelles, and use the energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to pump protons into cells and organelles ( Beyenbach and Wieczorek, 2006 ). (
  • The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. (
  • Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca 2+ ATPases (SERCA) in brown adipose tissue can uncouple ATP hydrolysis from Ca 2+ transport and be thermogenic (de Meis, 2003 ). (
  • b) Coupled vectorial electron transport and/or ATP hydrolysis by the F‐ATPase deposit protons on the p‐side of the vesicle to increase the pmf. (
  • This enzyme employs the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate polypeptides through the SecY channel in concert with the proton motive force (PMF). (
  • A proposed structure and subunit composition for the yeast V-ATPase is shown in Fig. 1 . (
  • Subunit composition and structural model of the yeast V-ATPase. (
  • ATP synthase FoF1 (3 3ab2c10-14) couples an electrochemical proton gradient and a chemical reaction through the rotation of its subunit assembly. (
  • The crystal structure of the S. cerevisiae c-subunit ring with bound oligomycin revealed the inhibitor docked on the outer face of the proton-binding sites, deep in the transmembrane region ( Zhou and Faraldo-Gómez 2018 ). (
  • Spectrometric analyses (surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) suggested that in ATR + listeriae, the downregulation of the proton-translocating c subunit of the F o F 1 ATPase was responsible for the decreased ATPase activity, thereby sparing vital ATP. (
  • Structures of the thermophilic F1-ATPase epsilon subunit suggesting ATP-regulated arm motion of its C-terminal domain in F1. (
  • To study the genetic diversity and the gene expression of membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPase (F-ATPase) subunit gene uncG derived from Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) clinical isolates. (
  • Identification and reconstitution of an isoform of the 116-kDa subunit of the vacuolar proton translocating ATPase. (
  • Many of these protein complexes are multisubunit with a large subunit serving the primary ATPase and ion translocation functions. (
  • The role of F1F0-ATPase in Streptococcus mutans GS5 was investigated by isolating a mutant (NTS1) defective in enzyme activity by homologous recombination with a plasmid encoding the 5' terminal fragment of the F1F0-ATPase beta-subunit gene. (
  • A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. (
  • Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer films of bacterial photosynthetic membranes and isolated reaction centers: preparation, spectrophotometric and electrochemical characterization. (
  • These data suggest that treatment of S. mutans with toluene is an efficient method for cell disruption, but care should be taken in the interpretation of ATPase activity when toluene-permeabilized cells are used, because results may not reflect the real P- and F-type ATPase activities present in intact cell membranes. (
  • The decreased proton motive force (PMF) of ATR + cells increased their resistance to nisin, the action of which is enhanced by energized membranes. (
  • These membranes are extremely proton impermeable and enable these organisms to survive under conditions that the extracellular pH is up to 4 units below that of the cytoplasm [ 6 ]. (
  • Bacterial Outer Membranes. (
  • S. Papa, Mechanism of active proton translocation of cytochrome systems, in: "Membranes and Transport" A. N. Martonosi ed. (
  • The ATPase activity of NTS1 membranes was 49% that of GS5 membranes. (
  • Structure of the Yeast V-ATPase V-ATPases are multisubunit enzymes composed of a peripheral complex (called V 1 by analogy to F 1 of the F 1 F 0 -ATP synthase) attached to a membrane-bound complex called V 0 ( 100 , 103 ). (
  • Thompson, C 2006, ' Structural studies on the mitochondrial and bacterial F1Fo-ATP synthase ', Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Western Australia. (
  • The putative proton binding site at the conserved carboxylate E61 in the chloroplast ATP synthase differs from the sodium binding site in Ilyobacter . (
  • I will discuss here the F-type ATPases (also called ATP synthase). (
  • The principle of ATP synthase is to facilitate the flow of protons down their concentration gradient from the inner membrane space to the matrix, using the energy released in the process to create ATP. (
  • The passage of electrons between these complexes releases energy that is stored in the form of a proton gradient across the membrane and is then used by ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP (adenosine 5′-diphosphate) and phosphate ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • The proton gradient is used by ATP synthase (purple) to make ATP. (
  • Consistent with a coupling between translocation across the SecYEG translocon and folding by periplasmic chaperones, a lack of PpiD retards the release of a translocating outer membrane protein into the periplasm. (
  • S. Papa and M. Lorusso, The cytochrome chain of mitochondria: Electron transfer reactions and transmembrane proton translocation, in: "Biomembranes" R. M. Burton and F. Carcalho Guerra eds. (
  • S. Papa, Molecular mechanism of proton translocation by the cytochrome system and the ATPase of mitochondria. (
  • S. Papa, M. Lorusso and F. Guerrieri, Mechanism of respiration driven proton translocation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (
  • Analysis of proton translocation associated with oxidation of endogenous ubiquinol, Biochim. (
  • Analysis of proton translocation associated to oxido-reductions of the oxygenterminal respiratory carriers, Biochim. (
  • G. Von Jagow, W. D. Engel and H. Schägger, On the mechanism of proton translocation linked to electron transfer at energy conversion site 2, in: "Vectorial Reactions in Electron and Ion Transport in Mitochondria and Bacteria", F. Palmieri, E. Quagliariello, N. Siliprandi, E. C. Slater, eds. (
  • S. Papa, M. Lorusso, D. Boffoli and E. Bellomo, Redox-linked proton translocation in the b-c1 complex from beef-heart mitochondria reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. (
  • M. Lorusso, D. Gatti, M. Marzo and S. Papa, Effect of papain digestion on redox linked proton translocation in b-c1 complex of beef-heart reconstituted into liposomes, FEBS Lett. (
  • Trumpower BL and Gennis RB (1994) Energy transduction by cytochrome complexes in mitochondrial and bacterial respiration: the enzymology of coupling electron transfer reactions to trans‐membrane proton translocation. (
  • The bacterial Sec system represents an excellent model for the analysis of protein translocation that has been studied for several decades with elegant genetic, biochemical and structural studies providing profound insight into the basic steps of Sec-dependent protein translocation. (
  • Despite various bacterial SecA structures in different conformational states, it is not well understood how SecA drives protein translocation. (
  • All such systems are multisubunit complexes with at least 3 dissimilar subunits embedded as a complex in the membrane (F 0 , a:b:c = 1:2:~12) and (usually) at least 5 dissimilar subunits attached to F 0 (F 1 , α:β:γ:δ:ε = 3:3:1:1:1 for F-type ATPases). (
  • Complexes I, III and IV serve as proton pumps, transporting protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. (
  • Electrons are passed along a series of respiratory enzyme complexes located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the energy released by this electron transfer is used to pump protons across the membrane. (
  • H + -translocating adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) pH i regulation was evident primarily at lower bacterial densities. (
  • And the crystal structure of the F 1 -ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) from bovine heart mitochondria ( 10 ) confirms the proposal ( 11 ) that three active sites within the F 1 head function in a rotating manner. (
  • Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases. (
  • Synthetic studies on the specific inhibitors of vacuolar-type H + -ATPase, bafilomycins, hygrolidines, and concanamycins, are described. (
  • abstract = "Synthetic studies on the specific inhibitors of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, bafilomycins, hygrolidines, and concanamycins, are described. (
  • The vacuolar-type H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) and the vacuolar H + -pumping pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) acidify the vacuolar lumen and other endomembrane compartments. (
  • RESULTS: The results showed that enzymes for acetate transport and oxidation, and for proton transport across the inner membrane were well conserved. (
  • V-type ATPases may pump 2-3 H + per ATP hydrolyzed, and these enzymes cannot catalyze pmf-driven ATP synthesis. (
  • The parasites Leishmania and Trypanosoma have ATPases phylogenetically related to fungal K + -ATPases, which are probably functional homologues of the fungal enzymes. (
  • In some cases, gene fusion events created P-type ATPases covalently linked to regulatory catalytic enzymes. (
  • With the exception of SDH, these enzymes translocate protons across the membrane. (
  • Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. (
  • These bacterial devices are present in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and are evolutionarily related to the flagellar apparatus. (
  • Type III secretion systems are present in both animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, which indicates that they are capable of operating not only across bacterial genera but also across host kingdoms. (
  • F-type ATPases are found in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as in bacteria. (
  • V-type ATPases are found in vacuoles of eukaryotes and in bacteria. (
  • Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are prevalent among the bacterial populations of the human body, particularly on mucous membrane surfaces. (
  • We propose that enlarged c-rings in proton-dependent F-ATP synthases may represent an adaptation to facilitate ATP synthesis at low overall proton-motive force, as occurs in bacteria that grow at alkaline pH. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer of PIB-type ATPases among bacteria isolated from radionuclide- and metal-contaminated subsurface soils. (
  • This is powered by SecA which is a conserved ATPase that is present in the cytosol of bacteria and the stroma of chloroplasts (1,2). (
  • The proton pump inhibitor bafilomycin A 1 , in contrast, mediated killing of intracellular bacteria and imposed a marked cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 cells. (
  • Streptococcus mutans membrane-bound P- and F-type ATPases are responsible for H+ extrusion from the cytoplasm thus keeping intracellular pH appropriate for cell metabolism. (
  • The membrane-associated F(0)F(1) ATPase is essential for the viability of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • Genetic studies aimed at eliminating expression of the atp operon (F(0)F(1) H(+)-ATPase) of Streptococcus pneumoniae by genetic disruption of atpC, the first gene of the operon, with a chloramphenicol-resistance cassette were performed. (
  • The F-ATPase operon promoter of Streptococcus mutans is transcriptionally regulated in response to external pH. (
  • Unlike Streptococcus faecalis, in which the proton-translocating ATPase regulates internal pH (73), E. org) (see Note 3) Plasmids contributed by Dr. Taking all of these results together, it is apparent that Nup98 assembly is dependent upon Nup153, but not vice versa. (
  • Consistent with the observation that S. pyogenes is responsible for a wider variety of human disease than any other bacterial species, more than 40 putative virulence-associated genes have been identified. (
  • Accumulating data suggest that bacterial cells in biofilms interact with and coordinate the expression of a wide range of genes in response to evolving environmental conditions, including pH, oxygen, carbon source and nutrient availability, cell density, and the presence of a solid surface. (
  • Genes coding for the ClpP protease and for the ClpC and ClpE ATPases of B. subtilis are designated as part of the class 3 stress regulon ( 10 , 11 , 20 ). (
  • Nucleotide sequence of the genes coding for alpha, beta and gamma subunits of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. (
  • Genome minimalization led to preferential loss of P-type ATPase genes. (
  • 1980. Homology among bacterial catalase genes. (
  • Genotypes identified in the biofilms were evaluated regarding their ability to lower the suspension pH through glycolysis and their acid susceptibility and F-ATPase activity. (
  • Biofilms are surface-attached, structurally and compositionally complex bacterial communities ( 17 , 31 - 33 ). (
  • Raman microspectroscopy for species identification and mapping within bacterial biofilms. (
  • The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans , like opportunistic bacterial pathogens ( 1 , 2 ), forms biofilms on the surfaces of a variety of tissues and synthetic devices introduced into hosts ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • Bacterial biofilms, which were initially the most intensely studied, have been shown to be architecturally complex, adhering at their base to a targeted surface and composed of multiple cell types embedded in a self-generated complex extracellular matrix ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Many of the characteristics of bacterial biofilms have been shown to be exhibited by biofilms formed by C. albicans , including drug resistance ( 12 - 15 ), impermeability to low- and high-molecular-weight molecules ( 15 ), and resistance to penetration by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Kdp-type ATPases) underwent far less horizontal gene transfer than other prokaryotic families, possibly due to their multisubunit characteristics. (
  • This novel combination provided a unique opportunity to measure changes in H + at either side of the bacterial membrane in real time and therefore to evaluate the rate of H + flux across the bacterial plasma membrane and its contribution to bacterial pH homeostasis. (
  • Transmission electron microscopy shows that, after S. mutans cells permeabilization with toluene, bacterial cell wall and plasma membrane are severely injured, causing cytoplasmic leakage. (
  • Ca 2+ ATPases of prokaryotes and eukaryotes comprise a very diverse family (Family 2) including in eukaryotes plasma membrane, golgi, and sarcoplasmic reticular types. (
  • The plasma membrane H + -ATPase (PM H + -ATPase) extrudes H + from the cell to generate a proton motive force with a membrane potential of -120 to -160 mV (negative inside) and a pH gradient of 1.5 to 2 units (acid outside). (
  • A key function of the PM H + -ATPase is to generate a proton electrochemical gradient, thereby providing the driving force for the uptake and efflux of ions and metabolites across the plasma membrane. (
  • SUMMARY All eukaryotic cells contain multiple acidic organelles, and V-ATPases are central players in organelle acidification. (
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase has emerged as an important model for V-ATPase structure and function in all eukaryotic cells. (
  • Although archaeal and bacterial V-ATPases show remarkable versatility, exhibiting the ability to transport Na + or H + , and to synthesize or hydrolyze ATP in different contexts ( 60 , 91 ), eukaryotic V-ATPases are dedicated proton pumps in vivo. (
  • In fungi and most other eukaryotic cells, their primary role is ATP-driven transport of protons from the cytosol into acidic organelles. (
  • Eukaryotic V-ATPases appear to have relinquished some of the versatility of their bacterial precursors, but they are still associated with an amazing range of cellular functions and regulated at many different levels. (
  • The yeast V-ATPase has become the major model system for the study of eukaryotic V-ATPases, and current knowledge of the structure, assembly, and regulation of this enzyme will be discussed, along with its functions in yeast. (
  • Atomic model for the membrane-embedded VO motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase. (
  • All eukaryotic F-type ATPases pump 3-4 H + out of mitochondria, or into thylakoids of chloroplasts, per ATP hydrolyzed. (
  • 2010 ) analyzed P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for which complete genome sequence data were available and compared the results with those for eukaryotic P-type ATPases. (
  • Kdp-type K + uptake ATPases (type III) and all ten prokaryotic functionally uncharacterized P-type ATPase (FUPA) familes), while others are restricted to eukaryotes (e.g. phospholipid flippases and all 13 eukaryotic FUPA families) ( Thever and Saier, 2009 ). (
  • The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES. (
  • Molecular basis for the binding and modulation of V-ATPase by a bacterial effector protein. (
  • Although designated a Clp protein, for caseinolytic protease, ClpP itself is unrelated to the Clp ATPase family and has only peptidase activity. (
  • A methyl-directed mismatch DNA REPAIR protein that has weak ATPASE activity. (
  • The membrane spanning component changes configuration with the aid of chemical energy input (often through the use of an associated ATPase protein), thus translocating the chemical from one side of the membrane to the other. (
  • Comparisons to the c(11)-rotor ring of the sodium translocating ATPase from Ilyobacter tartaricus show that the conserved carboxylates involved in proton or sodium transport, respectively, are 10.6-10.8 A apart in both c-ring rotors. (
  • This review discusses current knowledge of the structure, function, and regulation of the V-ATPase in S. cerevisiae and also examines the relationship between biosynthesis and transport of V-ATPase and compartment-specific regulation of acidification. (
  • The central player in organelle acidification in all eukaryotes is the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). (
  • Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments. (
  • Following phagocytosis in vivo, acidification of extracellular pH (pH o ) and intracellular metabolic acid generation contribute to cytosolic proton loading in neutrophils. (
  • P-type ATPases play essential roles in numerous processes, which in humans include nerve impulse propagation, relaxation of muscle fibers, secretion and absorption in the kidney, acidification of the stomach and nutrient absorption in the intestine. (
  • Vacuolar acidification is a normal process of endosomal vesicles and is generated chiefly through the activity of vacuolar H + -ATPases that lodge in the maturing endosome ( 39 ). (
  • Boyer J (1997) The ATPase - a splendid molecular machine. (
  • Yasuda R, Noji H, Kinosita Jr K and Yoshida M (1998) F‐1 ATPase is a highly efficient molecular motor that rotates with discrete 120° steps. (
  • Mitchell P (1974) A chemiosmotic molecular mechanism for proton‐translocating adenosine triphosphatases. (
  • Small molecular organic compounds recently have been used for interfering with bacterial pathogenicity on an experimental basis. (
  • In this study, we asked whether pharmaceutical proton pump inhibitors could be used as small molecular compounds for a targeted interference with virulence. (
  • They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane. (
  • A single stator stalk containing subunits C, E, G, and H is shown, but recent electron microscopy evidence suggests that there may be two peripheral stalks in the closely related Neurospora crassa V-ATPase ( 152 ). (
  • Mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase contains a hexamer of alternating alpha and beta subunits. (
  • Separate beta subunits are derivatized with 14C and 3H when the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is doubly labeled with 7-chloro-4-nitro[14C]benzofurazan and. (
  • Acid stress has a direct effect on the proton motive force and therefore may result in instantaneous changes in cell membrane potential ( 29 ). (
  • The transmembrane electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane (the matrix side now has a net negative charge) creates a proton motive force that drives the process of ATP synthesis. (
  • The proton motive Q‐cycle. (
  • A-type ATPases are found in archaea. (
  • One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. (
  • The F-type ATPase discussed here is unique inasmuch as it, rather than hydrolysing ATP, actively synthesizes it using the energy from the flow of protons down an electrochemical gradient. (
  • is the key enzyme involved in the biochemical process known as oxidative phosphorylation, which is very closely coupled to the electron transport chain since the electrochemical proton gradient that is produced by electron transport supplies the energy necessary for the production of the ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate group. (
  • These results suggest that S. mutans F1F0-ATPase contributes to the generation of a stoichiometric electrogenic gradient effectively in the lag phase. (
  • Recent studies have revealed that several genetic regulatory networks in S. mutans are required for bacterial adherence, biofilm accumulation, and growth under the conditions encountered during biofilm formation. (
  • on, or relevant to, the origins of F1F0 ATPase. (
  • Or a pre-LCA ancestor got by with just a PPase, which is equally successful at generating proton energy gradients but is a heck of a lot simpler than the F1F0 ATPase (and shares some homology to boot). (
  • these precautions were not required for the efficient reconstitution of F0F1-ATPase. (
  • ATP synthesis is driven forward when protons are conducted through the F 0 from the p‐side to F 1 on the n‐side. (
  • Also the pathways of generation of membrane-dependent energy forms are described as well as their use as the driving force for ATP synthesis, substrates accumulation in cells and organelles, bacterial motility, heat production for thermoregulation, etc. (
  • Not only is the structure of V-ATPases highly conserved among eukaryotes, but there are also many regulatory mechanisms that are similar between fungi and higher eukaryotes. (
  • Thever & Saier ( 2009 ) analyzed the fully sequenced genomes of 26 eukaryotes including animals, plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes for P-type ATPases. (
  • tenfold) while type II ATPases (specific for Na + ,K + , H + Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and phospholipids) predominate in eukaryotes (approx. (
  • Although type III secretion systems are substantially conserved, the effector molecules they deliver are unique for each bacterial species. (
  • Treatment of S. mutans membrane fractions with toluene reduced total ATPase activity by approximately 80 percent and did not allow differentiation between F- and P-type ATPase activities by use of the standard inhibitors vanadate (3 µM) and oligomycin (4 µg/mL). (
  • V-ATPases are evolutionary descendants of a family of archaeal proton pumps and ATP synthases that also gave rise to the F 1 F 0 -ATP synthases of mitochondria and chloroplasts ( 38 , 43 , 91 ). (
  • Efraim Racker purified the catalytic component of the mitochondrial ATPase (F 1 or factor 1) in 1961, and in 1997, Paul Boyer and John Walker shared half of the Nobel Prize for the discovery that this enzyme functions in a novel way. (
  • The mild conditions used for the preparation of membrane fractions may be more suitable to study specific ATPase activity in the presence of biological agents, since this method preserves ATPase selectivity for standard inhibitors. (
  • In addition to mitochondria (see Mackenzie and McIntosh, 1999 , in this issue) and chloroplasts, there are three distinct pumps in plants that generate proton electrochemical gradients ( Figure 1 ). (
  • The mechanism of proton pumping in cytochrome oxidase has been constrained by several crystal structures ( 4-8 ) although the debate on it continues ( 9 ). (
  • Inhibition of the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex by N ′- N ′-1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide increased ATP levels in ATR − but not in ATR + cells, where ATPase activity was already low. (
  • In Schizosaccharomyces , adaptation to Na + did not involve the duplication of the K + -ATPase and thus it retains an enzyme which is probably close to the original one. (
  • This review focuses on the V-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , with reference to work in other fungi in some cases. (
  • Overexpression of membrane-bound K + -dependent H + -translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (H + -PPases) from higher plants has been widely used to alleviate the sensitivity toward NaCl in these organisms, a strategy that had been previously tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • Direct genomic sequencing of bacterial DNA the pyruvate kinase I gene of Escherichia coli. (
  • Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A number of bacterial pathogens have evolved the capacity to engage their hosts in complex intimate interactions aimed not necessarily at causing disease but rather at securing the microbe's ability to multiply and move on to a new host. (
  • The relationship between bacterial pathogens and their hosts is most often a peaceful one, because it has been shaped by a coevolutionary process aimed at securing the survival of both the pathogen and the host. (
  • However, in other cases, fatal disease may occur when these bacterial pathogens encounter a host that has been weakened by circumstances that alter the delicate balance of the microbe-host interaction. (
  • The observation that these virulence-associated systems were always linked to phenotypes related to interactions between bacterial pathogens and their animal or plant hosts intrigued researchers in this field from the outset. (
  • These data suggest that regulation of F o F 1 ATPase plays an important role in the acid tolerance response of L. monocytogenes and in its induced resistance to nisin. (
  • There exists three main types of membrane-embedded ion-translocating ATPases: F-type, V-type and P-type. (
  • In contrast to bacterial ester lipids, archaeal lipids consist of repeating isoprenyl groups linked to a glycerol backbone through an ether linkage [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Selected salicylidene acylhydrazides, for example, have been used to block the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent intracellular replication of Chlamydia ( 30 , 44 ) and Salmonella enterica ( 31 ) in cultured cells and the T3SS-dependent cytotoxicity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( 21 , 22 , 32 ). (
  • The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the intracellular replication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in RAW264.7 cells without affecting bacterial growth in vitro or the viability of the host cells. (
  • For example, decreased vacuolar pH induces the activation of selected bacterial toxins such as cholera and tetanus toxins ( 27 , 43 ) and the intracellular replication of Leishmania ( 28 ) and Salmonella enterica ( 35 ). (
  • The F 1 portion of the bovine mitochondrial F-type ATPase has been solved to 2.8 Å resolution. (
  • Differences in acid resistance were not correlated with increases in F-ATPase activity, although bacterial sugar:phosphotransferase activity was elevated in the mutants. (
  • The export apparatus consists of a transmembrane PMF-driven export gate and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex composed of FliH, FliI and FliJ. (
  • The FliI(6)FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α(3)β(3)γ complex of F(O)F(1)-ATPase. (
  • The F 0 complex is a proton channel and is embedded within the mitochondrial membrane. (
  • The top horizontal bars of (a) and (b) show for each connected H + translocating complex (large red arrows) and the integrated (top right). (
  • Following phagocytosis, proton extrusion was dominated early by passive proton conductance channels, and later by Na + /H + exchange (NHE). (
  • Thus, a precarious balance between cytosolic proton loading and extrusion after phagocytosis dictates the mode of neutrophil cell death. (
  • In yeast hemiascomycetes these duplications have occurred recently and produced bifunctional ATPases, whereas in Neurospora , and probably in other euascomycetes, they occurred earlier in evolution and produced specialized ATPases. (
  • H + -translocating P-type ATPases of plants and fungi comprise their own family (Family 3). (
  • Family 9 Na + - or K + -ATPases can be found in fungi, plants bryophytes and protozoa ( Rodríguez-Navarro and Benito, 2010 ). (

No images available that match "bacterial proton translocating atpases"