Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.
The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/65263)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (2/65263)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/65263)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/65263)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (5/65263)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (6/65263)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/65263)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (8/65263)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.

Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.

Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.

Mattoo, Seema; Lee, Yvonne M; Dixon, Jack E (August 2007). "Interactions of bacterial effector proteins with host proteins". ... Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion ... Bacterial Effector Proteins and their domains/motifs (from Paul Dean's lab) T3DB - A database of Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS ... Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and ...
In molecular biology, bacterial DNA binding proteins are a family of small, usually basic proteins of about 90 residues that ... Research suggests that bacterial DNA binding protein has an important role during DNA replication; the protein is involved in ... These proteins participate in all DNA-dependent functions; in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an ... Initially, bacterial DNA binding proteins were thought to help stabilize bacterial DNA. Currently, many more functions of ...
Hueck CJ (June 1998). "Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR013349 (Protein domains, Protein families). ... This Yop protein is unusual in that it is released to the extracellular environment rather than injected directly into the ... Proteins in this entry are type III secretion system effectors. They are named differently in different species and in Yersinia ...
It is a conserved, hypothetical protein with sequence homologues found exclusively in bacteria. Several bacterial YecM proteins ... This comparison suggests that YecM may be a metal-binding protein and therefore may function as an enzyme. The protein domain, ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010393 (Protein families). ... However, YecM structural homologues reveal that all the proteins bind a divalent metal cation. ...
... is a family of proteins that enable Gram-negative bacteria to promote nucleation of ice at ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR000258 (Protein pages needing a picture, Protein ... The primary structure of the proteins contains a highly repetitive domain that dominates the sequence. The domain comprises a ... Gurian-Sherman D, Lindow SE (November 1993). "Bacterial ice nucleation: significance and molecular basis". FASEB Journal. 7 (14 ...
Bacterial binding protein-dependent transport systems, are multicomponent systems typically composed of a periplasmic substrate ... Saurin W, Kaster W, Dassa E (June 1994). "Bacterial binding protein-dependent permeases: characterization of distinctive ... one or two reciprocally homologous integral inner-membrane proteins and one or two peripheral membrane ATP-binding proteins ... Protein pages needing a picture, ATP-binding cassette transporters, Protein families). ...
Portal: Biology (Protein domains, Protein families, Virulence factors, Bacterial proteins). ... YadA is a collagen-binding outer membrane protein. It forms the fibrillar matrix on the bacterial cell surface. This aids cell ... In molecular biology, YadA is a protein domain which is short for Yersinia adhesin A. These proteins have strong sequence and ... YadA is a homotrimeric outer membrane protein which forms part of the fibrillar matrix. Simplistically, this means the protein ...
Bacterial proteins). ... The MinC protein is one of three proteins in the Min system ... The protein has the ability to disassemble the ZapA, ZapB and ZipA proteins which preferentially bind to the FtsZ scaffold ... de Boer applied live-cell imaging with GFP fusion proteins to reveal a dynamic interaction of the Min proteins, demonstrating ... protein and which are needed to initiate cell division. Concentrations of MinC are lowest at the mid-zone of bacterial cells, ...
Bacterial proteins). ... CRP then activates transcription through direct protein-protein ... cAMP receptor protein (CRP; also known as catabolite activator protein, CAP) is a regulatory protein in bacteria. CRP protein ... in which protein-protein interactions between CRP and RNA polymerase assist binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter. Busby S ... CRP binds to a DNA site located upstream of core promoter elements and activates transcription through protein-protein ...
Bacterial proteins). ... The MinD protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB ... When first discovered in E.coli, MinD was thought to associate with MinC and form a stable cap at each bacterial pole, thereby ... It is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of ... Through the use of live-cell imaging with GFP fusion proteins, Raskin and de Boer revealed a dynamic interaction of the Min ...
... three proteins of the Min system encoded by the minB operon required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial ... Raskin and de Boer later revealed a dynamic interaction of the Min proteins, where the unstable interaction between the ... "Mapping the MinE Site Involved in Interaction with the MinD Division Site Selection Protein of Escherichia coli" (PDF). J. ... "Membrane Binding of MinE Allows for a Comprehensive Description of Min-Protein Pattern Formation". PLOS Comput Biol. 9 (12): ...
Many bacterial transcription regulation proteins bind DNA through a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif, which can be classified into ... Haydon DJ, Guest JR (April 1991). "A new family of bacterial regulatory proteins". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 63 (2-3): 291-5. doi: ... The crystal structure of the FadR protein has been determined. In general, these proteins contain a DNA-binding HTH domain at ... Rigali S, Derouaux A, Giannotta F, Dusart J (April 2002). "Subdivision of the helix-turn-helix GntR family of bacterial ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. ...
Todar K (2012). "Bacterial Protein Toxins". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Madison, Wisconsin. Edwin C, Parsonnet J, ... When the protein is translated, it is in a pro-protein form, and can only leave the cell once the signal sequence has been ... Based on studies of various mutations of the protein it appears that the superantigenic and lethal portions of the protein are ... This three-dimensional structure of the TSST-1 protein was determined by purifying the crystals of the protein. The two domains ...
"Bacterial Protein Toxins". Retrieved 2022-04-20. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". National Cancer ... Immune evasion proteins from Staphylococcus aureus have a significant conservation of protein structures and a range of ... Toxinosis is pathogenesis caused by the bacterial toxin alone, not necessarily involving bacterial infection (e.g. when the ... Pore forming bacterial toxins are common and have a very interesting way of entering or invading the host's cell. The mechanism ...
A protein called CspA was originally found in E. coli and is known to be one of the first cold shock proteins discovered and is ... These chemicals inflict extensive cellular damage to different systems such as the bacterial membrane, denaturation of proteins ... This is especially true when looking at the Cpx proteins which help to prevent the protein from folding the wrong way or not at ... Chaperones are proteins that are responsible for keeping other proteins in their proper conformations by binding to them. ...
Bacterial proteins, Copper proteins). ... Amicyanin is a type I copper protein that plays an integral ... As a type I copper protein, amicyanin contains one copper atom coordinated by two histidine residues and a cysteine residue in ... This is the only redox complex composed of three weakly associated proteins naturally observed. 1. Victor L. Davidson and Limei ...
Ion channels, Bacterial proteins). ... The pH activated protein possesses two transmembrane segments ... NMR studies performed by the Riek group show that pH sensitivity occurs in both the C-terminal TM2 region of the protein as ... The pH-dependent conductance of KcsA indicates that the opening of the ion channel occurs when the protein is exposed to a more ... A model of KcsA at the 3.2A resolution was produced that confirmed the tetrameric arrangement of the protein around a center ...
More information on the lac repressor molecule on protein database Lac Repressor in Proteopedia. (Gene expression, Bacterial ... The lac repressor (LacI) is a DNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the ... They showed that in vitro the protein bound to DNA containing the lac operon, and it released the DNA when IPTG (an analog of ... The existence of hopping, where the protein slips out of the major groove of DNA to land in another nearby groove along the DNA ...
... the internal anchoring protein CsoS2 and the major shell protein CsoS1A. Phylogenetic analysis of the shell proteins of both ... "Bacterial microcompartment shells of diverse functional types possess pentameric vertex proteins". Protein Science. 22 (5): 660 ... Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelle-like structures found in bacteria. They consist of a protein shell that ... have evolved from bona fide cellular proteins, namely, PII signaling protein and OB-fold domain-containing protein, ...
Typas, Athanasios; Sourjik, Victor (2015-08-10). "Bacterial protein networks: properties and functions". Nature Reviews ... Bacterial transcription is the process in which a segment of bacterial DNA is copied into a newly synthesized strand of ... Bacterial RNA polymerase is made up of four subunits and when a fifth subunit attaches, called the σ-factor, the polymerase can ... The rho protein then pulls the RNA transcript from the DNA template and the newly synthesized mRNA is released, ending ...
It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. The combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin is not active against Enterococcus ...
Finn, Adam (1 January 2004). "Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines". British Medical Bulletin. 70 (1): 1-14. doi ... mutant diphtheria protein; and meningococcal group B outer membrane protein. Multiple combinations of Hib and other vaccines ... PRP covalently linked to a protein carrier was found to elicit a greater immune response than the polysaccharide form of the ... The CDC and the WHO recommend that all infants be vaccinated using a polysaccharide-protein conjugate Hib vaccine, starting ...
... s comprise more than 1/3 of all bacterial protein toxins. Bacterial protein toxins can be highly poisonous to human. ... Bacterial Protein Toxins Panthee, S; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H; Ogasawara, AA; Iwasa, T; Blom, J; Sekimizu, K (24 March 2021). " ... recognized C. perfringens α-toxin's molecular mechanism in 1941, which marked the pioneering work on any bacterial protein ... Alouf, J. E. "Pore-forming bacterial protein toxins: an overview." Pore-forming toxins. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2001. 1-14 ...
This list covers bacterial proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these are ... MeSH D12.776. - adhesins, escherichia coli MeSH D12.776.097.120.300.500 - transferrin-binding protein a MeSH ... D12.776.097.120.300.750 - transferrin-binding protein b The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124). (Wikipedia ...
Heras B, Shouldice SR, Totsika M, Scanlon MJ, Schembri MA, Martin JL (March 2009). "DSB proteins and bacterial pathogenicity". ... Disulfide bond formation protein B Disulfide bond formation protein C Guddat, LW (1998). "RCSB Protein Data Bank - RCSB PDB - ... Kadokura H, Beckwith J (September 2009). "Detecting folding intermediates of a protein as it passes through the bacterial ... This feature is incredibly rare among proteins, as nearly all proteins are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. ...
Parkinson JS, Kofoid EC (1992). "Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins". Annu. Rev. Genet. 26: 71-112. doi: ... In terms of enzymology, a histidine kinase (EC, EnvZ, histidine protein kinase, protein histidine kinase, protein ... Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and protein L-histidine, whereas its two products are ADP and protein N-phospho ... The ATP lid is connected via hydrophobic residues to the rest of the protein. The γ phosphate of ATP is somewhat exposed ...
Henderson, Brian; Martin, Andrew (2011). "Bacterial Moonlighting Proteins and Bacterial Virulence". In Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker ... S. bovis is one of the few non-bacterial species with a known moonlighting protein. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( ... The schistosome can also take on host proteins. Schistomiasis can be divided into three phases; Within the haematobium group S ...
The "ice-plus" protein (INA protein, "Ice nucleation-active" protein) found on the outer bacterial cell wall acts as the ... Bacterial ice-nucleation proteins Love, J.; Lesser, W. (April 1989). "The Potential Impact of Ice-Minus Bacteria as a Frost ... lacking the gene responsible for ice-nucleating surface protein production. This lack of surface protein provides a less ... syringae lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type P. syringae. ...
Galperin MY (June 2005). "A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: bacterial IQ, ... Sarkar MK, Paul K, Blair D (May 2010). "Chemotaxis signaling protein CheY binds to the rotor protein FliN to control the ... relying on protein-protein interactions to exert their downstream biological effects. The receiver domain undergoes a ... although in some cases they possess only a receiver domain and exert their effects through protein-protein interactions. In two ...
Class 2 systems use a single large Cas protein for the same purpose. Class 1 is divided into types I, III, and IV; class 2 is ... The intended therapeutic targets are antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The company was founded as a spin-off from ... Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. ... 818 million to develop CRISPR-Cas3 drugs targeting two bacterial pathogens. Locus received $20 million upfront and up to $798 ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... whereas Alveolata and stramenopiles have bacterial ones. Other rearrangements are also possible, since Fungi have bacterial ... It is believed that the two separate catalytic sites fused into a single protein to stabilize its monomeric form. The covalent ... Homo sapiens OPRTase and ODCase activities lower to a greater extent when heated than the fused protein does. To determine the ...
... interacting proteins or protein fragments.[citation needed] The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India ... Protein pages needing a picture, Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2010, All articles containing ... The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... February 2010). "Acquired carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens: detection and surveillance issues". Clin. ...
Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a ... A suggested nomenclature for bacterial host modification and restriction systems and their enzymes". J. Mol. Biol. 81 (3): 419- ... Jeremy MB, John LT, Lubert S (2002). "3. Protein Structure and Function". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0- ... 7167-4684-0. Anfinsen C.B. (1973). "Principles that Govern the Folding of Protein Chains". Science. 181 (4096): 223-30. doi: ...
Delcher, Arthur; Bratke, Kirsten A.; Powers, Edwin C.; Salzberg, Steven L. (2007). "Identifying bacterial genes and ... Durbin, Richard (23 April 1998). Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge ...
... are also known to produce gephyronic acid, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis and a potential agent for ... One species of myxobacteria, Minicystis rosea, has the largest known bacterial genome with over 16 million nucleotides. The ... Sasse F, Steinmetz H, Höfle G, Reichenbach H (January 1995). "Gephyronic acid, a novel inhibitor of eukaryotic protein ... Myxobacteria are also good models to study the multicellularity in the bacterial world. When nutrients are scarce, ...
... which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). ... In E. coli these proteins include DiaA, SeqA, IciA, HU, and ArcA-P, but they vary across other bacterial species. A few other ... Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the ... Relaxase may work alone or in a complex of over a dozen proteins known collectively as a relaxosome. In the F-plasmid system ...
Some bacterial oxidoreductases use tungsten in a similar manner as molybdenum by using it in a tungsten-pterin complex, with ... Sulfur is conveyed from cysteinyl persulfide in a manner reminiscent of the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur proteins. The ... tungsten-containing xanthine dehydrogenase from bacteria has been found to contain tungsten-molybdopterin and also non-protein- ...
... primarily proteins. Destruction of cells by lysis may also play a role. While "sterility" implies the destruction of free- ... cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization ...
To prevent the salting out of proteins, H. salinarum encodes mainly acidic proteins. The average isoelectric point of H. ... Type strain of Halobacterium salinarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Food (CS1 Afrikaans-language ... salinarum proteins is 5.03. These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in ... These proteins form a lattice in the membrane. Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving ...
Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... Bacterial metabolic networks are a striking example of bow-tie organization, an architecture able to input a wide range of ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
This protein domain, often found in bacterial species, is actually of viral origin. The protein forms an oligomer and functions ... YqaJ is one of three protein subunits that form a toroid with a tapered channel passing through the middle. The channel changes ... The function of this protein domain is to digest DNA. Most viruses, inject their host with linear DNA, and this gets ...
"Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ...
This protein is also far more effective in targeting bacterial membranes than mammalian membranes, though it can target many ... It exists in its own granule after translation, and release of the protein is triggered by Protein Kinase C (PKC). Its C- and N ... It is expressed in 2 forms: a 15kDa precursor protein, the translation product, and a 9kDa cytotoxic protein, which is formed ... Orthologs of this protein are found in most mammal species, such as in cows and pigs, however not in rodents. Granulysin is ...
... the microsporidia shrunk its genome eliminating almost 1000 genes and reduced even the size of protein and protein-coding genes ... Mira, Alex; Ochman, Howard; Moran, Nancy A. (2001-10-01). "Deletional bias and the evolution of bacterial genomes". Trends in ... Wernegreen, J. J.; Moran, N. A. (1999-01-01). "Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein- ... Scherbakov, D. V.; Garber, M. B. (2000-07-01). "Overlapping genes in bacterial and phage genomes". Molecular Biology. 34 (4): ...
Kuan G, Dassa E, Saurin W, Hofnung M, Saier MH (1995). "Phylogenetic analyses of the ATP-binding constituents of bacterial ... Saier MH Jr (1998). "Molecular phylogeny as a basis for the classification of transport proteins from bacteria, archaea and ... "Identification of a second Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene cluster encoding proteins of an ABC phosphate transporter". FEBS ...
Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine ... Postpartum infections, also historically known as childbed fever and medically as puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections ...
v t e (Bacterial proteins, Whooping cough, Virulence factors, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... The filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin (FHA) is a large, filamentous protein that serves as a dominant attachment factor for ... One notable bacterium that produces filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin is Bordetella pertussis, which uses this protein as a ...
Superantigens are composed of viral or bacterial proteins and can hijack the clonal deletion process when expressed in the ... This helps eliminate autoreactive T cells that recognize a protein from a specific body part. Complete clonal deletion results ... Clonal deletion provides an incentive for microorganisms to develop epitopes similar to proteins found within the host. Because ... These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific ...
... caused by inhibition of protein synthesis through binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Tylosin has a wide ... Tylosin is used in veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections in a wide range of species and has a high margin of safety ... Examples of bacterial infections that could potentially be treated with tylosin include respiratory infections, metritis, and ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ... phosphorylates ribosomal protein s6, which is involved in protein synthesis; and phosphorylates a translational repressor ...
"Rickettsial Outer-Membrane Protein B (rOmpB) Mediates Bacterial Invasion through Ku70 in an Actin, c-Cbl, Clathrin and Caveolin ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. This causes the ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ...
... proteins are of interest for biotechnology and industrial use due to their thermostable nature. One application is ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is ... Intracellular proteins are not necessarily stable at low pH however, as Sulfolobus species maintain a significant pH gradient ... They are also unique in the sense that the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are constantly transcribed and ...
The proteins encoded by psbA genes form the reaction center of the photosystem II complex. It was proposed that PhotoRC RNAs ... are cis-regulatory elements functioning at the RNA level, since bacterial cis-regulatory RNAs typically reside in 5′ UTRs. ...
4486-4491 Kolatka K, Witosinska M, Pierechod M, Konieczny I.: "Bacterial partitioning proteins affect the subcellular location ... PFF1 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, an origin of transfer, oriT, a gene coding for plasmid replication proteins, ... the TrfA protein, binds to and activates oriV. In Escherichia coli, replication proceeds unidirectionally from oriV after ... as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. Plasmids in the IncP- ...
A connector protein dimer (e.g. CTCF or YY1) stabilizes the loop by anchoring one member on the enhancer and the other on the ... Estrem ST, Ross W, Gaal T, Chen ZW, Niu W, Ebright RH, Gourse RL (August 1999). "Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite ... The loop is stabilized by a dimer of a connector protein (e.g. dimer of CTCF or YY1), with one member of the dimer anchored to ... The RNA transcript may encode a protein (mRNA), or can have a function in and of itself, such as tRNA or rRNA. Promoters are ...
However, bacteria produce D-amino acid residues that polymerize into short polypeptides which can be found in bacterial cell ... Protein structure, Post-translational modification). ... less digestible by peptidases and are synthesized by bacterial ...
Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... transfer and spin exchange contributing to the magnetic field dependence of the primary photochemical reaction of bacterial ... His work made possible the dynamic simulation of the activities of thousands of proteins working together at the macromolecular ... 1996 marked the publication of Schulten's model of the LH2 structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre protein family of ...
The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... This highlights the bacterial microbiome of the L. longipalpis midgut as another area of interest that can be explored to ... The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... Blood is rich in proteins, consisting mainly of hemoglobin (Hb), which accounts for approximately 60% of the blood protein ...
Dagg, Belinda; Rigsby, Peter; Hockley, Jason; Ho, Mei M.; WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization; World Health Organization (‎World Health Organization, 2012)‎ ...
Researchers developed a protein delivery system that can be customized to target specific human cell types. ... Targeted protein delivery using bacterial injection system. At a Glance. *Researchers developed a protein delivery system that ... References: Programmable protein delivery with a bacterial contractile injection system. Kreitz J, Friedrich MJ, Guru A, Lash B ... The findings suggest that eCISs could be used as programmable protein delivery devices that deliver custom protein payloads to ...
The bacterial superantigens are protein toxins that bind to major histocompatibility complex class II and T-cell receptor to ... The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins John D Fraser et al. Immunol Rev. 2008 Oct. ... The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins John D Fraser 1 , Thomas Proft ... The bacterial superantigens are protein toxins that bind to major histocompatibility complex class II and T-cell receptor to ...
Here, we show that proteins containing a NACHT mo … ... Bacterial NLR-related proteins protect against phage Emily M ... Bacterial NLR-related proteins protect against phage Emily M Kibby et al. Cell. 2023. . ... Some bacterial NACHT proteins have domain architectures similar to the human NLRs that are critical components of inflammasomes ... Immunology: NACHT domain proteins get a prokaryotic origin story. Marino ND, Brodsky IE. Marino ND, et al. Curr Biol. 2023 Aug ...
Structure-Function Studies of Bacterial Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins ... In search of damage : structure-function studies of bacterial nucleotide excision repair proteins / Ben Van Houten. ... In Search of Damage: Structure-Function Studies of Bacterial Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins. ... In Search of Damage: Structure-Function Studies of Bacterial Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins ...
Although the proteins primary function is to increase bacterial colonization, serum opacity factor alters the structure of ... Motivated by these results, they turned to a bacterial protein serum opacity factor that is known in the literature to be ... When the gene was expressed and the bacterial protein was produced, the animals HDL cholesterol significantly lowered, and ... They also reversed infertility in sterile preclinical models by reducing high circulating cholesterol with a bacterial protein ...
The bacterial protein transport channel in its resting closed state (green) and the activated open state (blue). The channel is ... Bacterial Protein Caught in the Act of Secreting Sticky Appendages. Atomic-level structural images and mechanism suggest new ... "These crystal structures unravel a complex choreography of protein-protein interactions that will aid in the design of new ... combined their efforts to publish the first complete structure of the pore-like protein complex that traverses the bacterial ...
Most Opa proteins engage human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) to facilitate bacterial ... While Opa protein expression is selected for in vivo, bacteria expressing some Opa proteins are readily killed by neutrophils, ... In this study, we hypothesized that the receptor-binding capability of individual Opa proteins impacts bacterial survival in ... Variable Expression of Opa Proteins by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Influences Bacterial Association and Phagocytic Killing by Human ...
... we report the rational design of two reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins able to fold and photoswitch in the bacterial ... opening the door to the nanoscale investigation of proteins localised in hitherto non-observable cellular compartments. ... Phototransformable fluorescent proteins are central to several nanoscopy approaches. As yet however, there is no available ... secreted proteins, periplasmic proteins, inner membrane proteins and outer membrane proteins. Most outer-membrane, secreted and ...
Antibacterial alkoxybenzamide inhibitors of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Anti-Bacterial AgentsBacterial ProteinsBenzamidesCytoskeletal ProteinsMicrobial Sensitivity TestsStaphylococcusStructure- ... Antibacterial Alkoxybenzamide Inhibitors of the Essential Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jan ... Antibacterial alkoxybenzamide inhibitors of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19(2 ...
Dormant bacterial spores are encased in a thick protein shell, the "coat", which contains ~70 different proteins and is among ... A versatile nano display platform from bacterial spore coat proteins. Thursday, September 17, 2015. - Poster Session II ... Bacterial spores are dormant cell types formed by some Gram-positive species in response to stressful conditions such as ... SpoIVA is anchored to the surface of the forespore by SpoVM, a small amphipathic α-helical protein that localizes properly by ...
The optimization framework should be generally applicable to developing therapeutic phages against bacterial pathogens. ... For example, if protein A is 30 times as many as protein B in the final assembled virion, but only 3 times as many as protein B ... If a virion needs 100 copies of protein A and 10 copies of protein B, then one should engineer the phage to make proteins A and ... Optimizing Protein Production in Therapeutic Phages against a Bacterial Pathogen, Mycobacterium abscessus by Xuhua Xia ...
Absorbance-based bacterial cell-based high throughput confirmation assay for inhibitors of AddAB recombination protein complex. ...
... vesicle-mediated protein trafficking, and intracellular signaling. Here we report a bacterial protein with BAR domain-like ... Bin/Amphiphysin/RVS (BAR) domain proteins belong to a superfamily of coiled-coil proteins influencing membrane curvature in ... we propose that BdpA and its homologs comprise a newly identified class of bacterial BAR domain-like proteins. ... Using a chemical bypass method, we deleted four of the FeS pathway proteins involved in sulfur acquisition and cluster assembly ...
Molecular basis of bacterial protein Hen1 activating the ligase activity of bacterial protein Pnkp for RNA repair Proceedings ... and BRCA1-Associated Ring Domain protein 1 (BARD1) mutations on the protein-protein interface Advances in Protein Chemistry and ... Structural basis of a rationally rewired protein-protein interface critical to bacterial signaling. Podgornaia, A.I.; Casino, P ... Human C4b-binding protein, structural basis for interaction with streptococcal M protein, a major bacterial virulence factor ...
Database of in silico Predicted Potential Drug Target Proteins in Common Bacterial Human Pathogens ... Database of in silico Predicted Potential Drug Target Proteins in Common Bacterial Human Pathogens. American Journal of Drug ... Database of in silico Predicted Potential Drug Target Proteins in Common Bacterial Human Pathogens table, th, td { border: 0px ... Study of Antibiogram and Drug Resistance for some Bacterial Infection from the Human Internal Fluid (CSF, Ascitic Fluid and ...
bacterial phytochrome iRFP IFP near-infrared fluorescent protein GAF domain biliverdin competitive inhibition HISTIDINE KINASES ... Interaction of Biliverdin Chromophore with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein BphP1-FP Engineered from Bacterial Phytochrome. ... Interaction of Biliverdin Chromophore with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Protein BphP1-FP Engineered from Bacterial Phytochrome. ... We studied BV interaction with a series of NIR FP variants derived from the recently reported BphP1-FP protein. The latter was ...
Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice ... Download PDF Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic ... Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. Journal ... To facilitate the morphological and functional analysis of glycinergic neurons, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome ( ...
Previously, observed variation in the number of Rib domains within these bacterial cell wall-attached proteins has been ... 8 more authors) (2019) Defining the remarkable structural malleability of a bacterial surface protein Rib domain implicated in ... Defining the remarkable structural malleability of a bacterial surface protein Rib domain implicated in infection ... Rib domain-containing surface proteins are found associated with invasive strains and elicit protective immunity in animal ...
... bacterial proteins. Fields of Study , biochemistry , biochemical compounds , amino acids, peptides and proteins , proteins , ... Research, Technology, Methods , chemical substances , biochemical compounds , amino acids, peptides and proteins , proteins , ...
Immunomodulatory Activity of Probiotics in Models of Bacterial Infections. Immunomodulatory Activity of Probiotics in Models of ... The most prevalent bacterial genera used to evaluate infectious processes were Salmonella, Escherichia, Klebsiella, and ... The objective of this review is to analyze the scientific literature on the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in bacterial ... researchers are increasingly focusing on alternative strategies for preventing and treating bacterial infections, one of which ...
... and effector protein prediction. Users can also browse and search the database using particular keywords or proteins with a ... In the last decade, the emergence of bacterial stem blight (caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3) in alfalfa has ... user-friendly and efficient tool and includes other features such as subcellular localization annotations of pathogen proteins ... alfaNET: A Database of Alfalfa-Bacterial Stem Blight Protein-Protein Interactions Revealing the Molecular Features of the ...
Protein and Nucleic Acid Synthesis in Subcellular Fractions of Bacterial Cells. Contributor(s):. Spiegelman, Sol, 1914-1983. ... Proteins. Nucleic Acids. RNA. DNA. Bacteria. Deoxyribonucleases. Ribonucleases. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Monographs. ...
... includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and protein ... The method in the present form is simple to perform, gives reproducible results, allows preparation of carbohydrate-protein ... proteins) without prior modification of either component. While demonstrated in this new cholera prototype vaccine, the ...
Bacterial Load [‎1]‎. Bacterial Proteins [‎1]‎. Bacterial Toxins [‎6]‎. Bacterial Typing Techniques [‎1]‎. ...
Quaternary ammonium bacterial cellulose for adsorption of proteins. Teppei Niide, Hikaru Shiraki, Tatsuya Oshima, Yoshinari ... Dive into the research topics of Quaternary ammonium bacterial cellulose for adsorption of proteins. Together they form a ...
  • Here, we show that proteins containing a NACHT module, the central feature of the animal nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family (NLRs), are found in bacteria and defend against phages. (
  • NACHT proteins are widespread in bacteria, provide immunity against both DNA and RNA phages, and display the characteristic C-terminal sensor, central NACHT, and N-terminal effector modules. (
  • N. gonorrhoeae expressing CEACAM3-binding Opa proteins survived significantly less well than bacteria expressing other Opa proteins when exposed to primary human neutrophils. (
  • While Opa protein expression is selected for in vivo , bacteria expressing some Opa proteins are readily killed by neutrophils, which are recruited to sites of infection. (
  • As resistance to conventional antibiotics among bacteria continues to increase, researchers are increasingly focusing on alternative strategies for preventing and treating bacterial infections , one of which is microbiota modulation. (
  • Kaundal, R. alfaNET: A Database of Alfalfa-Bacterial Stem Blight Protein-Protein Interactions Revealing the Molecular Features of the Disease-causing Bacteria. (
  • Two-Partner Secretion: Combining Efficiency and Simplicity in the Secretion of Large Proteins for Bacteria-Host and Bacteria-Bacteria Interactions. (
  • Outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • We found that infection with BV-associated bacteria induced IL-36y in a species-specific manner, and that infection with a polymicrobial mixture of the BV-associated bacteria induced IL-36y at a level greater than infection with any single bacterial species alone," Gardner said. (
  • From Constructs to Crystals - Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins. (
  • Serum opacity factor is known mainly in the context of bacterial strep infections where it serves as a virulence factor. (
  • Immunomodulatory Activity of Probiotics in Models of Bacterial Infections. (
  • The objective of this review is to analyze the scientific literature on the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in bacterial infections . (
  • This review found that probiotics interact with the immune system through different mechanisms and have a positive effect on preventing different types of bacterial infections . (
  • What was not known was whether the protein was needed for the bacterium to survive in the less harsh parts of the stomach, where it lives during lifelong infections and can start to damage the stomach and cause ulcers. (
  • Detection and validation of serum C-reactive protein and procalcitonin as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis of liver. (
  • Bacterial Infections remains a leading cause of death in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). (
  • The combined impact of increasing resistance to the current arsenal of antibiotics and limited pace of new antibiotic development threatens to erode the past 70 years of progress in fighting life-threatening bacterial infections. (
  • Collectively, they hypothesize this research can have broad implications with other bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic diseases, including cancer. (
  • The invention includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and protein subcomponents. (
  • Insertion of proteins and lipopolysaccharide into the bacterial outer membrane. (
  • Recently, the bacterial GlmU protein, involved in peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and techoic acid synthesis, has been identified as an important drug target. (
  • alfaNET is a user-friendly and efficient tool and includes other features such as subcellular localization annotations of pathogen proteins, gene ontology (GO) annotations, network visualization, and effector protein prediction. (
  • For example, naturally predatory bacteriophage that target and kill a specific bacterial pathogen have demonstrated therapeutic capability. (
  • The structural component of the basement layer is composed of SpoIVA, an exceptional cytoskeletal protein that hydrolyzes ATP to drive its irreversible polymerization. (
  • Assembly mechanisms of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FilP. (
  • Phototransformable fluorescent proteins are central to several nanoscopy approaches. (
  • Here, we report the rational design of two reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins able to fold and photoswitch in the bacterial periplasm, rsFolder and rsFolder2. (
  • The nanoscale visualisation of intracellular details in live cells by super-resolution microscopy often relies on employing "phototransformable" fluorescent proteins (PTFPs) as genetically encoded markers 1 . (
  • Notably, methods such as RESOLFT (REversible Saturable OpticaL Fluorescence Transitions) 4 , nonlinear SIM (Structured Illumination Microscopy) 5 or pcSOFI (photochromic Stochastic Optical Fluctuation Imaging) 6 exploit reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) that are able to repeatedly toggle between a fluorescent ( 'on' ) and a non-fluorescent ( 'off' ) state. (
  • Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) designed from PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim repeats) and GAF (cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenylate cyclase/FhlA transcriptional activator) domains of bacterial phytochromes covalently bind biliverdin (BV) chromophore via one or two Cys residues. (
  • The bacterial superantigens are protein toxins that bind to major histocompatibility complex class II and T-cell receptor to stimulate large numbers of T cells. (
  • The ColM Family, Polymorphic Toxins Breaching the Bacterial Cell Wall. (
  • These inhibitors were docked in the active site of the C-terminal domain of GlmU protein (2OI6) using the AutoDock. (
  • Antibiotic resistance has become a major hurdle to overcome bacterial diseases and thus there is always a need to find new drug targets or inhibitors or both. (
  • One feature impacting N. gonorrhoeae-neutrophil interactions is the phase-variable opacity-associated (Opa) proteins. (
  • Our approach and conclusions have implications for studies of other protein-protein interactions and protein evolution and for the design of novel protein interfaces. (
  • Remarkably, for those interactions studied in detail, it emerges that all the Ig-binding proteins target the CH2-CH3 domain interface, regardless of specificity for IgG or IgA, streptococcal or staphylococcal origin, or host species (equine or human). (
  • SpoIVA is anchored to the surface of the forespore by SpoVM, a small amphipathic α-helical protein that localizes properly by sensing the positive membrane curvature of the forespore surface. (
  • Bin/Amphiphysin/RVS (BAR) domain proteins belong to a superfamily of coiled-coil proteins influencing membrane curvature in eukaryotes and are associated with vesicle biogenesis, vesicle-mediated protein trafficking, and intracellular signaling. (
  • The model suggests that simple differences in the impact of antibiotic exposure does not differ according to the natural history of colonization, interhuman contact, and expo- mechanism of resistance and do not consider the particular nat- sure to -lactam antibiotics explain major differences in the epi- ural history of the colonization of the bacterial species. (
  • Although the protein's primary function is to increase bacterial colonization, serum opacity factor alters the structure of cholesterol-carrying high-density lipoproteins or HDLs, making it easier for the liver to dispose of the excess cholesterol that is preventing conception. (
  • Here, the structure of tandem domains, combined with molecular dynamics simulations and small angle X-ray scattering, suggests that variability in Rib domain number would result in differential projection of an N-terminal host-colonization domain from the bacterial surface. (
  • In one instance, eCISs carrying gene-editing proteins created targeted edits to the cells' genome. (
  • The members of the DNA Repair Interest Group perform research in areas including DNA repair enzymology and fine structure, mutagenesis, gene and cell cycle regulation, protein structure, and human disease. (
  • When the gene was expressed and the bacterial protein was produced, the animals' HDL cholesterol significantly lowered, and they were permanently rescued from infertility. (
  • To facilitate the morphological and functional analysis of glycinergic neurons, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, which specifically express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promotor of the glycine transporter (GlyT) 2 gene, which is a reliable marker for glycinergic neurons. (
  • Effects of nucleoid-associated proteins on bacterial chromosome structure and gene expression. (
  • Certain nucleoid-associated proteins also regulate transcription initiation at specific promoters, and work in concert with dedicated transcription factors to regulate gene expression in response to growth phase and environmental change. (
  • FilP, like IF proteins, is composed of central coiled-coil domains interrupted by short linkers and flanked by head and tail domains. (
  • Structural insight into the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins. (
  • Structural insight into mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane protein biogenesis. (
  • Structural Insights into Substrate Recognition and Catalysis in Outer Membrane Protein B (OmpB) by Protein-lysine Methyltransferases from Rickettsia. (
  • Despite low-sequence homology, the intermediate filament (IF)-like protein FilP from Streptomyces coelicolor displays structural and biochemical similarities to the metazoan nuclear IF lamin. (
  • 2) acquisition by transformation from other commensal species two bacterial species. (
  • Bacterial spores are dormant cell types formed by some Gram-positive species in response to stressful conditions such as starvation. (
  • The new method simplifies production by utilizing squaric acid chemistry for conjugating the free amine-containing species (e.g. polysaccharides) directly to amine-containing species (e.g. proteins) without prior modification of either component. (
  • Additionally, we demonstrate that SSHELs may be easily covalently modified with small molecules and proteins. (
  • The engineered genes encode Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and -3, CEACAM1 but not CEACAM3, or neither CEACAM1 nor -3. (
  • Experiments will focus on the expression of genes and the characterization of multicopper oxidase-like proteins involved in catalyzing Mn(II) oxidation in different bacterial groups. (
  • The most prevalent bacterial genera used to evaluate infectious processes were Salmonella , Escherichia , Klebsiella , and Streptococcus . (
  • Here, we review some recent progress in our understanding of the effects of these proteins on DNA and their biological role, focussing mainly on Escherichia coli and its chromosome. (
  • In this study, we learned that this novel protein is elevated in the most common vaginal disorder - BV, and may be playing a key role in susceptibility to other diseases. (
  • Therefore, -lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin G, bind to PBPs in better understanding of S. pneumoniae resistance selection and the bacterial cell wall. (
  • This study describes the models developed for predicting inhibitory activity ( IC 50 ) of chemical compounds against GlmU protein using QSAR and docking techniques. (
  • They also reversed infertility in sterile preclinical models by reducing high circulating cholesterol with a bacterial protein called serum opacity factor. (
  • Motivated by these results, they turned to a bacterial protein serum opacity factor that is known in the literature to be highly selective for HDL. (
  • The serum procalcitonin level was assessed by Electro Chemi Luminescence Immuno Assay (Eclia) with a measuring range of 0.02-75ng/ml. and C-Reactive Protein level was assessed by ImmunoTurbido Kumaragurubaran Sivanesan, Narayanasamy Krishnasamy, Shanthiselvi, Chezhian Annasamy, Senthilkumar Ramalingam, Akilandeswari Alagan Ramasamy, Premkumar Krishnamoorthy, Jaiganesh Mohan. (
  • We describe a mathematical model of the emergence and diffusion of bacterial resistance in the community. (
  • In the last decade, the emergence of bacterial stem blight (caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. (
  • This protein-protein interaction relies on molecular recognition via a small set of residues in each protein. (
  • Analysis of the crystal structures of the wild-type and mutant protein complexes and a systematic mutagenesis study reveal how individual mutations contribute to the rewiring of interaction specificity. (
  • We studied BV interaction with a series of NIR FP variants derived from the recently reported BphP1-FP protein. (
  • The mode of interaction of FgBP with IgG fits a common theme for bacterial Ig-binding proteins. (
  • These findings underscore how the ability of N. gonorrhoeae to change Opa expression through phase variation contributes to bacterial resistance to neutrophil clearance. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), resistin, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) waveform and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the diagnosis of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children on admission to PICU and their use as prognostic indicators. (
  • The structure and function of the superantigens has revealed a common architecture that is also shared by another group of staphylococcal virulence factors called the superantigen-like proteins (SSL). (
  • Competitive binding experiments revealed that FgBP could inhibit the binding of staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G to both IgG4 and IgG7, implicating the Fc interdomain region in binding to FgBP. (
  • By learning from how nature transports proteins, we were able to develop a new platform that can help address this gap. (
  • The ability of eCISs to target insect cells suggests they might be engineered to deliver proteins to other animal cell types. (
  • The findings suggest that eCISs could be used as programmable protein delivery devices that deliver custom protein payloads to specific cells. (
  • The group analyzed cervicovaginal epithelial cells collected from women with and without bacterial vaginosis. (
  • Together, this family of structurally related molecules highlights how a common pathogenic organism has employed a simple but adaptable protein to generate an armamentarium of potent defense molecules designed to target of the innate and adaptive immune response. (
  • The objective of this study was to demonstrate that protein fractions 42 and 75 from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus pumilus were capable of acting as elicitors of induced resistance in tomato plants against Xanthomonas vesicatoria, following partial resolution by gel-filtration chromatography. (
  • Users can also browse and search the database using particular keywords or proteins with a specific length. (
  • At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, the Washington University/UK group determined the atomic-level crystal structure of the entire transporter protein, known as an "usher," bound to the sticky adhesin subunit that forms the end of a pilus and another helper protein, called a chaperone, that shuttles the pilus subunits to the usher one at a time. (
  • This large conformational rearrangement in the translocation channel upon activation by adhesin-chaperone is unprecedented for these barrel proteins, which until now were considered rigid structures," Li said. (
  • Objectives: To assess the predictive validity of c-reactive protein and procalcitonin in predicting bacterial infection and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. (
  • In this study, we hypothesized that the receptor-binding capability of individual Opa proteins impacts bacterial survival in the presence of neutrophils. (
  • The latter was engineered from a bacterial phytochrome RpBphP1, and has two reactive Cys residues (Cys15 in the PAS domain and Cys256 in the GAF domain), whereas its mutants contain single Cys residues either in the PAS domain or in the GAF domain, or no Cys residues. (
  • Researchers developed a protein delivery system that can be customized to target specific human cell types. (
  • This result means that the protein is a very good target for designing new types of therapeutics to treat the infection," Dr Debowski said. (
  • But the scientists were still not sure how the transporter protein's various parts worked to "recruit" and bring together the many subunits that make up the pili - or how it assembled and moved these structures through the membrane to the bacterial cell's surface. (
  • Dormant bacterial spores are encased in a thick protein shell, the "coat", which contains ~70 different proteins and is among the most durable static structures in biology. (
  • The research also reveals that the usher protein has two binding sites for chaperone-subunit complexes. (
  • equi known as fibrinogen-binding protein (FgBP) is a cell wall-associated protein with antiphagocytic activity that binds IgG. (
  • So, this protein is quite potent. (
  • Our findings indicate that the extent to which Opa proteins mediate nonopsonic binding is the predominant determinant of bacterial survival from neutrophils. (
  • Some parts of the protein molecule are omitted for simplicity. (
  • Some specific examples, involving the E. coli IHF and Fis proteins, that illustrate new principles, are described in detail. (
  • Here we report a bacterial protein with BAR domain-like activity, BdpA, from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, known to produce redox-active membrane vesicles and micrometer-scale outer membrane extensions (OMEs). (
  • Based on the ability of BdpA to alter membrane architecture in vivo , we propose that BdpA and its homologs comprise a newly identified class of bacterial BAR domain-like proteins. (
  • Rib domain-containing surface proteins are found associated with invasive strains and elicit protective immunity in animal models. (
  • Previously, observed variation in the number of Rib domains within these bacterial cell wall-attached proteins has been suggested as a mechanism of immune evasion. (
  • Scientists at The University of Western Australia and Perth-based biotech Ondek Pty Ltd have revealed new insights into the function of an important bacterial protein in Helicobacter pylori , the bacterium that causes stomach ulcers. (
  • We are working with a very special protein with unique characteristics," said Corina Rosales, assistant research professor of molecular biology in medicine and lead author on the study. (
  • Lead author on the study Dr Aleksandra Debowski said the research demonstrated for the first time that H. pylori needed the protein for lifelong infection but what was more surprising was that the bacterium would give up production of other important proteins to keep urease production. (
  • Women with bacterial vaginosis exhibit elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory protein, IL-36y, according to a new collaborative study led by the University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix. (
  • Most Opa proteins engage human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) to facilitate bacterial binding and invasion. (
  • Our work shows that Opa-dependent differences in bacterial survival after exposure to primary human neutrophils correlates with Opa-dependent bacterial binding and phagocytosis. (
  • Professor Marshall has invented two important clinical tests for diagnosing patients with H. pylori infection, both of which are based on detecting the activity of the H. pylori urease protein. (
  • The latest UWA-led research, published in PLOS Pathogens reveals that H. pylori needs a protein known as urease to sustain lifelong infection. (