Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Thiostrepton: One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.ThiazolesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein PrecursorsSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/65263)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (2/65263)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/65263)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (4/65263)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (5/65263)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (6/65263)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/65263)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (8/65263)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

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K12340 tolC; outer membrane protein K12530 rtxB; ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial RtxB K12530 rtxB; ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial RtxB K12531 rtxE; ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial RtxE K12532 rtxD; membrane fusion protein, RTX toxin transport system K12532 rtxD; membrane fusion protein, RTX toxin transport system K12536 hasD; ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, bacterial exporter for protease/lipase K12537 hasE; membrane fusion protein, protease secretion system K13408 raxA; membrane fusion protein K13409 raxB; ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial RaxB K02452 gspC; general secretion pathway protein C K02453 gspD; general secretion pathway protein D K02454 gspE; general secretion pathway protein E [EC:7.4.2.8] K02455 gspF; general secretion pathway protein F K02456 gspG; general secretion pathway protein G K02457 gspH; general secretion pathway protein H K02458 gspI; general secretion pathway protein I K02459 gspJ; general secretion pathway protein J ...
K07636 phoR; two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon sensor histidine kinase PhoR [EC:2.7.13.3] K07658 phoB1; two-component system, OmpR family, alkaline phosphatase synthesis response regulator PhoP K01077 E3.1.3.1; alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] K01077 E3.1.3.1; alkaline phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.1] K02040 pstS; phosphate transport system substrate-binding protein K04771 degP; serine protease Do [EC:3.4.21.107] K04771 degP; serine protease Do [EC:3.4.21.107] K07650 cssS; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase CssS [EC:2.7.13.3] K07770 cssR; two-component system, OmpR family, response regulator CssR K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02406 fliC; flagellin K02405 fliA; RNA polymerase sigma factor for flagellar operon FliA K02556 motA; chemotaxis protein MotA K07651 resE; two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase ResE [EC:2.7.13.3] K07775 resD; two-component system, OmpR family, response ...
The molecular determinants necessary and sufficient for recognition of its specific DNA target are contained in the C-domain (H-NSctd) of nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. H-NSctd protects from DNaseI cleavage a few short DNA segments of the H-NS-sensitive hns promoter whose sequences closely match the recently identified H-NS consensus motif (tCGt/aTa/tAATT) and, ... read more alone or fused to the protein oligomerization domain of phage λ CI repressor, inhibits transcription from the hns promoter in vitro and in vivo. The importance of H-NS oligomerization is indicated by the fact that with an extended hns promoter construct (400 bp), which allows protein oligomerization, DNA binding and transcriptional repression are highly and almost equally efficient with native H-NS and H-NSctd::λCI and much less effective with the monomeric H-NSctd. With a shorter (110 bp) construct, which does not sustain extensive protein oligomerization, transcriptional repression is less effective, but native H-NS, ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 26374675. Sci Rep 2015 Sep;5:14223. Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type I secretion systems, T1SS, to secrete virulence factors that contain calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) motifs. Here, we present structural models of an RTX protein, RD, in both its intrinsically disordered calcium-free Apo-state and its folded calcium-bound Holo-state. Apo-RD behaves as a disordered polymer chain comprising several statistical elements that exhibit local rigidity with residual secondary structure. Holo-RD is a folded multi-domain protein with an anisometric shape. RTX motifs thus appear remarkably adapted to the structural and mechanistic constraints of the secretion process. In the low calcium environment of the bacterial cytosol, Apo-RD is an elongated disordered coil appropriately sized for transport through the narrow secretion machinery. The progressive folding of Holo-RD in the extracellular calcium-rich environment as it emerges form the T1SS may then favor its ...
A search for factors that are necessary for the pathogenicity of Gram-negative microbes has identified many gene clusters that are closely related among different bacterial species (1). Several of these genetic loci encode type III secretion machines for the translocation of polypeptides across the bacterial double membrane envelope (1). Some mammalian pathogens such as Yersinia, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, and Shigella use type III machines for the injection of virulence factors into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells (2-7). A similar strategy is thought to be used by several plant pathogens; however, a direct demonstration of their protein injection has not yet been achieved (7). Salmonella typhimurium and perhaps other Gram-negative bacteria harbor two gene clusters that each specifies a type III machine (2). Mutants that abolish the function of individual type III machines arrest pathogenicity at distinct steps during Salmonella infection, indicating that protein secretion is ...
Our main project is on Type III Secretion Apparatus which is one of the most amazing biological devices. This apparatus which looks like a syringe can pass a whole protein molecule from a bacterial cell to a target eukaryotic cell. However, this apparatus is an organelle of pathogenic gram-negative bacterium such as Salmonella and Yersinia. So we are aiming at making this device safely available using E. coli. ...
Sara V. Pais. PhD Student. Project: Characterization of novel type III secretion effectors of Chlamydia trachomatis. Phone: +351 21 294 8530 ...
Approximately 20% of bacterial proteins have functions outside the cytoplasm ( 1 ). Consequently, all bacteria possess protein export pathways that transport proteins made in the cytoplasm beyond the cytoplasmic membrane. These exported proteins may remain in the bacterial cell envelope or be further secreted to the extracellular environment. Many exported proteins function in essential physiological processes. Additionally, in bacterial pathogens, many exported proteins have functions in virulence. Consequently, the pathways that export proteins are commonly essential and/or are important for pathogenesis. Across bacteria, including mycobacteria, there are conserved protein export pathways: the general secretion (Sec) and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathways. Both Sec and Tat pathways are essential to the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and both also contribute to virulence (L. Rank and M. Braunstein, unpublished; 2 - 4 ). In addition to these conserved pathways, bacterial pathogens
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial pathogenesis, recognition and targeting of type III secreted proteins has up until now been poorly understood. Several hypotheses are discussed, including an mRNA-based signal, a chaperon-mediated process, or an N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we systematically analyzed the amino acid composition and secondary structure of N-termini of 100 experimentally verified effector proteins. Based on this, we developed a machine-learning approach for the prediction of TTSS effector proteins, taking into account N-terminal sequence features such as frequencies of amino acids, short peptides, or residues with certain physico-chemical properties. The ...
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial pathogenesis, recognition and targeting of type III secreted proteins has up until now been poorly understood. Several hypotheses are discussed, including an mRNA-based signal, a chaperon-mediated process, or an N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we systematically analyzed the amino acid composition and secondary structure of N-termini of 100 experimentally verified effector proteins. Based on this, we developed a machine-learning approach for the prediction of TTSS effector proteins, taking into account N-terminal sequence features such as frequencies of amino acids, short peptides, or residues with certain physico-chemical properties. The ...
Bacterial protein structures can expedite the development of novel antibiotics. Here is the latest research on bacterial proteins and the resolution of their structures. ...
During infection, senses and responds to stress; such responses may be modulated by MisRS (NGO0177 and NGO0176), a two-component system that is a homolog of CpxRA. In , CpxRA senses and responds to envelope stress; CpxA is a sensor kinase/phosphatase for CpxR, a response regulator. When a mutant is grown in medium containing glucose, CpxR is phosphorylated by acetyl phosphate but cannot be dephosphorylated, resulting in constitutive activation. Kandler and coworkers (J. L. Kandler, C. L. Holley, J. L. Reimche, V. Dhulipala, J. T. Balthazar, A. Muszynski, R. W. Carlson, and W. M. Shafer, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:4690-4700, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00823-16) showed that MisR (CpxR) is required for the maintenance of membrane integrity and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, suggesting a role in gonococcal survival Here, we evaluated the contributions of MisR and MisS (CpxA) to gonococcal infection in a murine model of cervicovaginal colonization and identified MisR-regulated genes ...
Our aims in this competitive renewal application are shaped by our observations during the previous funding period that confirmed the critical role of cyclooxyg...
MIT researchers have discovered why an unusually short bacterial protein can have many more interactions than would normally be expected of something its size.
Open full size. Functional types of settlements. The map "Functional types of settlements" is created using conventional symbols. It shows the distribution of settlements within the Baikal basin and their economic significance. The main content of the map is the network of urban and rural settlements with their population. The size of population is shown by the symbols of different sizes in accordance with the selected scale of nine gradations of the population size. The color of symbols shows the functional type of settlements determined based on the structure of employment of the local population in various sectors of economy.. A dominant role in the settlement network formed in the Baikal basin is played by large multi-functional industrial-transport, administrative-cultural, and scientific centers of the state (Ulaanbaatar) and regional (Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, and Chita) significance.. Various specialized industrial and transport centers are almost exclusively confined to the railway lines. ...
Virulence, Disease and DefenseResistance to antibiotics and toxic compoundsCobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance Transcriptional regulator, MerR family ...
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Debby Brown, National Handi Quilter Educator, demonstrates how to use the TruStitch™ Stitch Regulation System on the HQ Sweet Sixteen sit-down machine. Clip is from Debbys video Sit-Down .... ...
hypothetical protein [hypothetical protein] GTGAGCGCGCCGCCGGCCGCCCTGTCGCCCACCGAGCGGGGCACGGAGTGCGACGCGCTG ATCGACGACTGGCTCGGGACCGACCTCGACGCGTGGACACGGAAGGTGGTGGCGCGGCAC TTCCACCCGGAGACCGGCAGTCCGTACTGGCTGCGGCGCGCCGCTGGACTGGGCTTCGAC GCGCGGGACATCACCCGCTATGACCAGCTCACGGCGTTCGGACCGTTCCCGGTGGACATC CTGCGCTCCCAGGACCCGGCGGATCTGGTGCCGCTCGACGTGCCGCGCCCGCTGACCGGC CGCGTCTGGGACACCGGCGGCACGACCGGCGCGCCCTGTCGGCTGTTCTACACACCCGCC ATGCTGCTGCACCGGGGCGCGTGGCGCCGCTGGTCCTTCGTCACCGAGGGGTTCACCCAG GGGCGGACCTGGCTCCAGGCGACCCCCACGGGACCGCATCTGATCGGCAACGGCATGTGG GAGGTGTCGGACCTGTACGCCGGTCAGGTGTACGGCGTCGACATGGACCCGCGCTGGGTC AAGCGGCTCATCCGGGCCGGCCGGCTGGCGGACGCGACCGAGTACACCACCCATCTGCTG GAGCAGGTCACCGACGTGCTCATCCACGGCCGGATCGACTACCTCAACACCACTCCCGCG CTCTTCCTGGCGCTGGTGCGCCGCCATCCCGAACTGGTCGCACCGCTGCGGGGGGTGCGG CTGAGCGGCACGCAGCTGAGCCCGGACATGTACCGGGACTTCATGGCCGCGATGGACGAC GGAATCTGCGGCCGCAGCTACGGCAACACCTTCGGCAACGCGGCGGGGCTGCCCGTCGAG CAGAACGCCGAACTCATGCCCTATGTTCCGAATTATCCACAGGTGACAATGAACGTCGTA ...
1.Grow cells to mid-log (~1x107 cells/ml; A600 = 0.7 or klett 80) and collect 1.5 ml cells in 1.5 ml microfuge tube (1 minute, 14000xg). It is important not to grow the cells to a high density as this method will not work well ...
hypothetical protein] GTGCACTTCCACGACGACTCTCTCTTCCCGGAGAACCAGGAGAAGTTGGTCATCCAGGCC GCGCCGTACGGGCCGGAGTGGCTGCCCGGCGACGCGGAGGACCTGCCGCTGACCATGGAC GAGCACGTCCAGGCGGCCGTCGACTGCCACAACGCCGGCGCGACCGTGCTGCACATCCAC GTCCGTGAGCTCGACGGCAAGGGCTCCAAGCGGATGTCCATGTTCAACGAGCTGCTCGGC CGGCTGCGCGAGGCCGTGCCGGACATGGTGCTGCAGATCGGCGGTTCGATCTCCTTCGCC CCCGAGGGCGAGGGCGGCGACGCCAAGTGGCTCGCGTACGACACCCGTCACCTGCTCGCC GAACTCACTCCGGCGCCCGACCAGGTGACCATCGCGATCAACACCAGCCAGATGAACATC GTCGAAATCATGAACGACGACGACCTGGCGGGCACCTCGATGGCGAAGCCCGACTACTAC CGCGCCTACCGCGACATGGTCGTCGAGGCCGGTCCGGACTTCTACCTGGAGCACCTCAAG AGGCTGCGCGCGAGCGGCATCCAGCCGCACTTCCAGCTCGCGCACCTGGCGCAGCTGGAG ACCGTCGAGCGGCTGATCCGCGCGGGCGTCCACACCGGCCCGCTGGTCCTCAACTACGTC GCCATAGGTGGCGGTTTCGCCGGTCGGCACCCGGCGGACCTGGTCGAGTTCATCCGTCGT GTACCGGACGGCGCCGTCCTCACGGTCGAGAGTTCCATGCGCGCCGTGGCCCCGATGAAC GCGGTGGCCATCGCCCTCGGCCAGCACGTGCGCGTCGGCAACGAGGACAACCTGTGGCGT GCCAAGGGCGAGCCGATGTCCTCCGTGGCGCAGGTCGAGCAGATGGTGCAGATCTCCGAG GCGCTCGGCCGGGACATCGCCACCGGCACGGACGCGAAGCGGATCTACCGGATCGGCGAG ...
The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria ...
Type III secretion systems enable plant and animal bacterial pathogens to deliver virulence proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells, causing a broad spectrum of diseases including bacteremia, septicemia, typhoid fever, and bubonic plague in mammals, and localized lesions, systemic wilting, and blights in plants. In addition, type III secretion systems are also required for biogenesis of the bacterial flagellum. The HrcQ(B) protein, a component of the secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas syringae with homologues in all type III systems, has a variable N-terminal and a conserved C-terminal domain (HrcQ(B)-C). Here, we report the crystal structure of HrcQ(B)-C and show that this domain retains the ability of the full-length protein to interact with other type III components. A 3D analysis of sequence conservation patterns reveals two clusters of residues potentially involved in protein-protein interactions. Based on the analogies between HrcQ(B) and its flagellum homologues, we propose ...
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize type III secretion systems (TTSSs) for subverting the normal cellular functions of their target eukaryotic cells. The type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) functions like a syringe to inject proteins through an external needle and into a target cells membrane and cytosol. The TTSA basal body spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes, and the external needle is topped with a tip complex that controls the secretion and delivery of translocator and effector proteins. The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. At the tip of the needle, a tip complex is assembled by tip proteins into a ring-like structure which serves as a platform for the assembly of the translocon by translocator proteins. We use NMR spectroscopy to understand how the needle is assembled and how the tip complex is assembled on top of the needle. We determined the solution structures of the BsaL ...
Since their discovery in the 20th century, antibiotics have been prescribed for patients with bacterial infections. The first commercially available antibiotic was penicillin, which was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming in St. Marys Hospital, UK. Penicillin was effective to inhibit the growth of disease-causing microorganisms. However, in 1947, four years after the mass-production of penicillin, the first penicillin resistance case was identified. Since then, scientists have been looking for new targets to inhibit the bacterial growth. Among them, the bacterial cell division protein, filament temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ), is a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. FtsZ protein is an essential protein in bacterial cytoplasmic division. A GTPase active site is formed when two FtsZ monomers are joined together in head-to-tail manner. The presence of GTP induces the polymerization of FtsZ in the middle of the cell. FtsZ polymers act as a platform to recruit other cell ...
FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division by polymerizing to form the Z ring at the site of cytokinesis. Phytochemicals are known to disrupt bacterial cell division through inhibition of FtsZ assembly. In the present study phytochemicals like eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, 4-formyl cinnamic acid, naringenin and caffeic acid were were tested for their potential to inhibit cell division. Effect of these antimicrobial compounds on the growth of E. coli was determined and the inhibition of FtsZ assembly in vitro was investigated. The present study revealed trans-cinnamic acid as the most potent inhibitor of FtsZ assembly ...
Protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves different mechanisms. The type II and type III secretory pathways control the extracellular release of a wide range of substrates. The type I secretion process, or ABC transporter, was believed to be exclusively involved in alkaline protease secretion. Recently, it was discovered that a P. aeruginosa heme binding protein, HasAp, is also secreted by a type I process. We present here the identification of a third putative type I-dependent protein of P. aeruginosa, AprX. The function of this protein has not yet been elucidated but very interestingly it appears to be linked to the apr cluster, and organized in one single operon together with the aprD, -E and -F genes.
Bacteria propel themselves through liquid environments using rotation of a propeller like organelle, the flagellum. Flagella are energized by the membrane ion gradient and enable bacteria to swim towards nutrients and away from harmful substances. This unique nanomachine shares structural and functional similarities to the needle-like injectisome complex that pathogenic bacteria employ to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. Bacterial flagella and injectisomes contain a specialized protein export system, termed type III secretion, that functions to deliver structural subunits and effector proteins to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. Type III secretion systems are made of multiple proteins, however, the function of individual subunits and the molecular mechanism of protein translocation is poorly understood.,br /,The first part of this thesis reports that the flagellar type III secretion system functions as a proton-driven protein exporter and demonstrates that many ...
Pss may be transmitted from one generation of its host to the next via seeds. Hence, inoculation of bean seeds with relatively small numbers of bacteria at the time of planting was selected as a way to naturally initiate the plant-bacterial interaction in the field. The apparently normal growth of the type III secretion mutants on preemergent bean plants was unexpected given the in planta growth defects of hrp mutants observed in laboratory experiments (16, 23). After plant emergence, however, leaf population sizes of the hrcC and hrpJ mutants were significantly lower than B728a. Numbers of the mutants tended to remain constant or decline, even under conditions of intense rains, when population sizes of B728a and the hrpZ mutant increased significantly. The hrcC and hrpJ mutants behaved similarly, although the specific genes mutated and the nature of the mutations differed in the two constructs. Thus, mutations in hrp genes that affected the Hrp secretion system substantially reduced growth and, ...
Web server == https://rostlab.org/services/pEffect/ == Introduction == The type III secretion system is one of the causes of a wide range of bacterial infections in human, animals and plants. This system comprises a hollow needle-like structure localized on the surface of bacterial cells that injects specific bacterial proteins, the so-called effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of a host cell. During infection, effectors convert host resources to their advantage and promote pathogenicity. We - Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost and Yana Bromberg - at [http://bromberglab.org BrombergLab] and [http://rostlab.org/cms/ RostLab] developed a novel method, pEffect that predicts bacterial type III effector proteins. In our method, we combine sequence-based homology searches and advanced machine learning to accurately predict effector proteins. We use information encoded in the entire protein sequence for our predictions. == Method design == pEffect is a method that combines sequence ...
1. OlsenSJMacKinnonLCGouldingJSBeanNHSlutskerL 2000 Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks-United States, 1993-1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 49 1 62. 2. SchmidtHHenselM 2004 Pathogenicity islands in bacterial pathogenesis. Clin Microbiol Rev 17 14 56. 3. GalanJEWolf-WatzH 2006 Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines. Nature 444 567 573. 4. AbrahamsGLHenselM 2006 Manipulating cellular transport and immune responses: dynamic interactions between intracellular Salmonella enterica and its host cells. Cell Microbiol 8 728 737. 5. GalanJE 2001 Salmonella interactions with host cells: type III secretion at work. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17 53 86. 6. WatermanSRHoldenDW 2003 Functions and effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system. Cell Microbiol 5 501 511. 7. HueckCJ 1998 Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62 379 433. 8. EllermeierJRSlauchJM 2007 Adaptation to the host ...
The LysR-family regulator MexT modulates the expression of the MexEF-OprN efflux system in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, we demonstrated that MexT regulates certain virulence phenotypes, including the type-three secretion system and early attachment independent of its role in regulating MexEF-OprN. In this study, transcriptome profiling was utilized to investigate the global nature of MexT regulation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and an isogenic mexEF mutant. Twelve genes of unknown function were highly induced by overexpressing MexT independent of MexEF-OprN. A well-conserved DNA motif was identified in the upstream regulatory region of nine of these genes and upstream of mexE. Reporter fusion analysis demonstrated that the expression of the genes was significantly induced by MexT in P. aeruginosa and a heterogenous Escherichia coli strain and that the conserved sequence was required for this induction. The conserved DNA motif was further characterized as the MexT binding site by ...
HilA activates the expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes. To learn more about regulation of hilA, we isolated Tn5 mutants exhibiting reduced hilA and/or invasion gene expression. In addition to expected mutations, we identified Tn5 insertions in pstS, fadD, flhD, flhC, and fliA. Analysis of the pstS mutant indicates that hilA and invasion genes are repressed by the response regulator PhoB in the absence of the Pst high-affinity inorganic phosphate uptake system. This system is required for negative control of the PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system, suggesting that hilA expression may be repressed by PhoRPhoB under low extracellular inorganic phosphate conditions. FadD is required for uptake and degradation of long-chain fatty acids, and our analysis of the fadD mutant indicates that hilA is regulated by a FadDdependent, FadR-independent mechanism. Thus, fatty acid derivatives may act as intracellular signals to regulate hilA expression. flhDC and fliA encode
Sensor kinases play a key role in sensing and responding to environmental and physiological signals in bacteria. In this study we characterized a previously unknown orphan hybrid sensor kinase from Pseudomonas putida, which is conserved in several Pseudomonads. Inactivation of the gene coding for this sensor kinase, which we have named HskA, modified the expression of at least 85 genes in cells growing in a complete medium. HskA showed a strong influence on the composition of the electron transport chain. In cells growing exponentially in a complete medium, the absence of HskA led to a significant reduction in the expression of the genes coding for the bc1 complex and for the CIO and Cbb3-1 terminal oxidases. In stationary phase cells, however, lack of HskA caused a higher expression of the Cyo terminal oxidase and a lower expression of the Aa3 terminal oxidase. The HskA polypeptide shows two PAS (signal-sensing) domains, a transmitter domain containing the invariant phosphorylatable histidine ...
Summary The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its contributions to agricultural, medical, and food biotechnology and for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, about 60% of the commercially available technical enzymes are produced by Bacillus species. Furthermore, a large body of information concerning transcription, translation, protein folding and secretion mechanisms, genetic manipulation, and large-scale fermentation has been acquired. But so far, efficient and inexpensive expression vectors for B. subtilis are still missing. To fill this gap, a glycine-inducible expression system and a lysine-autoinducible one were explored and IPTG-inducible expression plasmids that allow overexpression and purification of proteins were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, a technique with a useful promoter-probe plasmid to analyze strong promoters in B. subtilis was established, which allowed to study promoter and mRNA stabilizing elements to enhance the transcript ...
DnaA protein (a trans-acting element) and its binding sequence, DnaA-box: (a cis-acting element) are two elements essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. Recently these two elements have been found to be conserved in three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Mycoplasma capricolum) as well as in Gram-negative pseudomonads. DnaA protein was also found to be essential in the initiation of the replication of the B. subtilis chromosome, and regions containing multiple repeats of DnaA-box (DnaA-box region) are found to be active as autonomously replicating elements both in B. subtilis and pseudomonads. In this MicroReview we compare first the structures of these DnaA-box regions and their locations on the chromosome and then functional aspects of DnaA protein and DnaA-box regions in the initiation and regulation of chromosomal replication. From these observations we propose evolutionary relationships between ...
Our research seeks to elucidate the molecular basis for the temporal and spatial control of cell division. From bacteria to yeast to humans, cell division is initiated by the formation of a ring of a cytoskeletal protein at the nascent division site. This ring establishes the location of the division septum and serves as a framework for assembly of the division apparatus. In bacteria this ring is composed of the essential tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ. In response to an unidentified cell cycle signal, FtsZ polymerizes into a ring structure that serves as a framework on which the division machinery is assembled. As division proceeds, the FtsZ ring constricts, like a drawstring, at the leading edge of the invaginating septum. We focus our research on the regulatory networks that govern FtsZ ring formation in three model organisms, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To date, the signals that couple FtsZ ring formation and constriction to the cell cycle ...
The chromosome of Y. enterocolitica encodes a heat-stable enterotoxin, Yst, being related to STI. The capacity to produce Yst generally disappears during storage of the strains. In these strains, the yst gene is intact but remains silent. The pYV plasmid encodes the eleven secreted antihost proteins called Yops as well as the outer membrane protein YadA. The Yops are secreted by a novel, pYV-encoded secretion mechanism. This mechanism which does not involve the removal of an N-terminal signal sequence, is encoded by the pYV virA and virC loci. The virC locus contains 13 genes called yscA-M. The virA locus encodes the LcrD membrane protein. The yop, yadA and ysc genes form the yop regulon controlled by transcriptional activator VirF. Transcription of the yop, yadA, ysc and virF genes is controlled by temperature. A chromosome-encoded histone-like protein, called YmoA, is involved in the thermoregulation of the yop regulon, which suggests that this thermoregulation could result from ...
The σE-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response.σE is held at the membrane by the antisigma factor RseA. RseB binds to the periplasmic domain of RseA and pr
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The RTX toxin superfamily is a group of cytolysins and cytotoxins produced by bacteria. There are over 1000 known members with a variety of functions. The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). The name RTX (repeats in toxin) refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon. RTX proteins range from 40 to over 600 kDa in size and all contain C-terminally located glycine and aspartate-rich repeat sequences of nine amino acids. The repeats contain the common sequence structure [GGXGXDX[L/I/V/W/Y/F]X], (where X represents any amino acid), but the number of repeats varies within RTX protein family members. These consensus regions function as sites for Ca2+ binding, which facilitate folding of the RTX protein following export via an ATP-mediated type 1 ...
The earliest stage in bacterial cell division is the formation of a ring, composed of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ, at the division site. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of Z-ring formation is required to ensure that division occurs precisely at midcell between two replicated chromosomes. However, the mechanism of Z-ring formation and its regulation in vivo remain unresolved. Here we identify the defect of an interesting temperature-sensitive ftsZ mutant (ts1) of Bacillus subtilis. At the nonpermissive temperature, the mutant protein, FtsZ(Ts1), assembles into spiral-like structures between chromosomes. When shifted back down to the permissive temperature, functional Z rings form and division resumes. Our observations support a model in which Z-ring formation at the division site arises from reorganization of a long cytoskeletal spiral form of FtsZ and suggest that the FtsZ(Ts1) protein is captured as a shorter spiral-forming intermediate that is unable to complete this reorganization ...
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in phytopathogenic bacteria were first described in the 80s. However, whereas numerous characterization studies have revealed the basic processes of assembly, structure and function in animal/human pathogenic systems, our knowledge about these processes in plant type III biosystems is considerably small in comparison. Nonetheless, in recent years we have witnessed important breakthroughs in our understanding on how phytopathogens employ, build and regulate their T3SS: new master transcriptional regulators have been discovered, the activity of already described regulators of the system have been thoroughly investigated, quorum sensing regulators and population dynamics have been found to determine the fine activation of the system, new plant-derived signals have been found to upregulate the phytopathogenic T3SS, and more. Moreover, a considerable weaponry of effectors targeting and tuning the plant responses have been identified and protein components of the core
An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP), PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C)- and nitrogen (N)-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI) of phosphotransferase system (PTS), thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient
An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP), PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C)- and nitrogen (N)-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI) of phosphotransferase system (PTS), thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient
Typically comprised of ~12 different scaffold components, prokaryotic type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) translocate a variety of substrates across the cell envelope. Due to the ability to translocate large DNA segments (i.e., mobile genetic elements), some T4SSs contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Other T4SSs translocate smaller DNA segments and/or proteins into eukaryotic cells (e.g., arthropod, plant and human) in order to benefit bacterial survival. At least eight major groups of T4SSs are described and each group consists of minor variations on a common structural theme. Within a given bacterial genome, combinations of different T4SS groups can be encoded, and sometimes multiple copies of the same T4SS group can be present. As an example, two functionally divergent T4SSs (vir and trw) are found in many species of Bartonella, bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas and cause a range of diseases including endocarditis. In species of
Klein JA, Dave BM, Raphenya AR, McArthur AG, Knodler LA.. Mol Microbiol. 2017 Mar;103(6):973-991.. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic tip complex translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, possesses two T3SSs, one belonging to the Inv/Mxi-Spa family. We used invasion-deficient S. Typhimurium mutants as surrogates for expression of translocator ...
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
Creation and analysis of a lisK deletion mutant.A mutant, with a nonpolar 498-bp deletion in lisK from nucleotide 1872 to 2369, was created to confirm that the Tn917 insertion event was responsible for the enhanced survival at low pHH displayed by LO28-M9. The SOE (splicing by overlap extension) PCR procedure (13) was used to splice two 348-bp PCR products from either side of the sequence to be deleted. This hybrid was subsequently cloned into the temperature-sensitive shuttle vector pKSV7 (25) and transformed into LO28. An allelic exchange between the SOE product on pKSV7 and the intact gene resulted in the removal of a 498-bp sequence encoding one of the hydrophobic regions and the conserved histidine of the histidine kinase (Fig. 1A). The mutation was confirmed by PCR analysis, and the mutant was subsequently designated LO28ΔlisK.. Carbohydrate utilization (as assayed by API-CH50), listeriolysin O production on blood agar plates, and phospholipase production on egg yolk emulsion plates (all ...
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix ...
One of the important mechanisms by which H. pylori infection leads to severe gastric disease is through the actions of the bacterial oncoprotein CagA [4], [10], [11], [54]. Translocation of CagA into gastric epithelial cells occurs through a T4SS-mediated process and requires multiple proteins encoded by the cag PAI [12], [14]-[17], [21]. Several H. pylori proteins required for CagA translocation are distantly related to components of T4SSs in other bacterial species and presumably have conserved functions [12], [21], [28], [43]. In the current study, we provide new insights into three components of the cag T4SS that lack homologs in other T4SSs - CagH, CagI, and CagL.. Prior to the current study, it was known that CagL can bind α5β1 integrin and can cause several alterations in host cells [21], [39], [42], [44], [45]. CagL was localized in various studies to several bacterial subcellular sites, including a soluble bacterial fraction [38], [43], the bacterial surface [42], and pili on the ...
Cooperativity in the structuring equilibria of FtsZ and Z-ring disassembly.The model that emerges out of the in vitro work led us to determine the amount of SulA required to inhibit Z-ring formation in vivo. SulA inhibited Z-ring formation in vivo with somewhat lower stoichiometry compared to what we observed in vitro. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that MalE-SulA resulted in Z-ring disassembly when it reached ≤50% of the total cellular level of FtsZ. A previous study likewise found that a reduction in FtsZ levels by as little as 30 to 40% was sufficient to block cell division in E. coli (15). Why do Z rings disappear when the level of FtsZ decreases by only 30 to 50%?. It has been estimated that 30% of cellular FtsZ in E. coli is actually present in the Z ring (2). The estimates for intracellular concentration of FtsZ vary between strains but are generally 6 to 7 μM as we determined here (38, 61). This means that 2 μM of FtsZ is present in the ring with another 0.9 μM free in the ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
CP000667.PE286 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 328389..329336 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="Strop_0286" FT /product="phosphate binding protein" FT /note="TIGRFAM: phosphate binding protein; PFAM: FT extracellular solute-binding protein, family 1" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Strop_0286" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABP52771" FT /db_xref="GOA:A4X1M1" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR011862" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR024370" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A4X1M1" FT /protein_id="ABP52771.1" FT /translation="MLSRRILAGTALAALALTGCSSNNNEDADGGEKLSGEVKVNGSST FT VAPLSEAAATFYREVQSGVNVSVGTSGTGGGFERFCKGETDISDASRPIKDSEIEACEA FT AGIQYKELIVANDALTVVVSKDNDWADCLTVDQLKAIWEPNSQITSWNQVDPSFPDEPL FT KLFGPGTDSGTFDYFTDEINGEEGASRTDYTASENDNVVVQGVAGTKGGLGYFGFTYFE FT ENADKLKALKVDGGSGCVEPSLKTAQENTYQPLSRPLFIYVSDSGVKKEQVADFVTFYI FT ERIDDIVTEAQYVPLTEEQKSTLQAEFDALKAAA" gtgctttcgc ggcgcatcct cgccggcacc gcgctcgccg cgctcgcgct taccggctgc 60 agcagcaaca acaacgaaga cgccgatggt ggcgagaagc tttcgggtga agtcaaggtc 120 ...
We study mechanisms of transcription regulation by the histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein HNS in commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Specifically, we focus on mechanisms of de-repression by the LysR-type and FixJ/NarL-type transcription regulators such as LeuO, BglJ-RcsB and others, and their role in regulatory networks controlling pathogenicity. In addition, we analyze the interdependence of repression by H-NS and the rate of transcription. H-NS is an pleiotropic regulator and an architectural protein of the enterobacterial chromosome (the nucleoid), and it is important for silencing of loci acquired by horizontal gene transfer and for bacterial fitness. H-NS binds as dimer to specific nucleation sites located within an AT-rich sequence context, and then forms extended complexes by polymerization along the DNA (stiffening) and by building DNA-HNS-DNA bridges (bridging). Formation of HNS-DNA complexes next to promoters represses transcription by occluding RNA polymerase or, as ...
All about Survival: How to Prevail in Hostile Environments. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
Type-III secretion systems (T3SSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of flagella, and the interaction of many animal and plant pathogens with eukaryotic cells. T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. In silico analysis of several of the conserved components of T3SSs shows similarities between them and other secretion systems, as well as components of ATPases. Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, ...
1) Kunst F, et al. (1997) The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.. Nature 390(6657):249-56 PubMed: 9384377 ...
Deborah Hung Laboratory. We are facing an incredible challenge in the realm of infectious diseases that has been brought on by the convergence of three current phenomena - newly emerging infectious organisms, a global crisis in antibiotic resistance, and the threat of bioterrorism. A response to this challenge requires a renewed devotion to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in infection and an increased commitment to the discovery of new antibiotics.. The goal of research in the Hung Lab is to understand in vivo mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis by studying pathogen-host interactions. By merging the fields of chemical genetics and bacterial genetics/genomics, we hope to provide insight into possible new paradigms for addressing infectious diseases.. Despite recent, largely genetic, technical advances in the field of in vivo pathogen-host interactions, many important questions related to the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis remain unanswered, in part because of the inability ...
Bacillus subtilis comC protein: Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader peptide processing enzyme; has prepilin peptidase (EC 3.4.23.43) as well as N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) activities; amino acid sequence given in first source; may be a component of the DNA-processing apparatus of competent cells; cleaves pre-comGC; homologous to pilD protein; member of protease/transmethylase family; isolated from Bacillus subtilis; Do not confuse with comC, a peptide competence factor
Get information, facts, and pictures about Bacterial proteins at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Bacterial proteins easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
1452 ko00001 KEGG Orthology (KO) 1017 ko01000 Enzymes 838 ko00002 KEGG pathway modules 358 ko01000 Enzymes 282 ko02000 Transporters 197 ko02000 Transporters 129 ko03000 Transcription factors 89 ko03400 DNA repair and recombination proteins 84 ko03016 Transfer RNA biogenesis 65 ko01002 Peptidases 61 ko02035 Bacterial motility proteins 58 ko02022 Two-component system 57 ko03011 Ribosome 56 ko03011 M00178 Ribosome, bacteria 52 ko02044 Secretion system 49 ko03009 Ribosome biogenesis 45 ko01007 Amino acid related enzymes 44 ko00002 KEGG pathway modules 39 ko01005 Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteins 33 ko01001 Protein kinases 31 ko03011 M00179 Ribosome, archaea 28 ko03036 Chromosome 27 ko03110 Chaperones and folding catalysts 27 ko01003 Glycosyltransferases 26 ko03036 Chromosome 26 ko03032 DNA replication proteins 25 ko02044 Secretion system 20 ko03110 Chaperones and folding catalysts 20 ko01004 Lipid biosynthesis proteins 19 ko03009 Ribosome biogenesis 15 ko03012 Translation factors 13 ko02044 ...
The strong structural similarity between TrwB and other well known molecular motors, such as the ATP synthase or ring helicases, suggests that TrwB operates as a motor driving a DNA strand through the transport pore, using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. TrwB is the best model in a novel group of molecular motors involved in ssDNA transport across membranes; another example of biological molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. We work with three ATPases that belong to the type IV secretion system: TrwB, TrwD and TrwK. These three motors are inserted in the inner membrane of the cell and are involved in different functions: DNA transport, protein unfolding and protein transport through the secretion channel, respectively. The results obtained with TrwB have enabled us to propose a common mechanism that could be shared by all members of this family of ATPases, regardless of their role. Continuing with this project, we will carry out structural and biochemical ...
incollection{2049386, author = {Hendrix, An and Jacobs, Koen and De Boeck, Astrid and Westbroeck, Wendy and Bracke, Marc and De Wever, Olivier}, booktitle = {Mouse as a model organism : from animal to cells}, editor = {Brakebush, Cord and Pihlananiemi, Taina}, isbn = {9789400707504}, language = {eng}, pages = {131--143}, publisher = {Springer}, title = {Experimental procedures to assay invasion-associated activities of primary cultured fibroblasts}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0750-4\_8}, year = {2011 ...
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins ...
Two-component signal transduction pathways enable bacterium to sense and answer the setting. generally such pathways comprise a sensing element essentia..
E coli rssB protein: negative regulator of sigma(S) factor, Rpos; isolated from E. coli; this two-component response regulator affects sigma S-dependent proteins; it is implicated in the control of protein stability; has been sequenced; homologous proteins, namely, Mvia and Hnr found in other bacteria
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmen
Whether its through a lab mishap or eating undercooked beef, becoming infected with pathogenic (disease-causing) E. coli is brutal. When E. coli infects a person, it attaches to the intestinal wall and the infection begins. There is a particular set of proteins that E. coli makes that allow the bacterium to be incredibly successful at infection. These structures, called the Type III secretion system, look and act like tiny syringes. They essentially "inject" their own DNA and proteins into the hosts cells. Not only do E. coli use Type III secretion to wreak havoc on the host, but they also can release a chemical called Shiga toxin. This toxin can enter cells, disrupt host protein synthesis, and even burst the intestinal cells. A build up of this toxin is extremely detrimental to the host. Although E. coli infections are relatively uncommon, they are serious business and cant be taken lightly. Now, I dont want you to think all E. coli are bad guys. Most E. coli are an integral part of our ...
Dipping your hands into 160-degree water is guaranteed to give you an immediate and severe scalding unless youre one of the few species of bacteria that manage to thrive in temperatures that would maim or kill the rest of the Earths inhabitants. How these heat-loving bacteria manage to survive such intense temperatures has puzzled scientists for decades, but a researcher at the University of Rochester has uncovered a trick proteins may use to bolster bacteria against the searing heat.. Weve found a protein with a section that is flapping back and forth between two configurations like a flag in a storm, says Kara Bren, associate professor of chemistry at the University. Nobody expected to find this. Weve always expected high-temperature proteins to be rigid to bolster their structure in such an extreme environment, but were seeing this unusual motion for the first time and its opening up new ways of understanding how life manages to adapt to even the harshest environments.. The protein, ...
B.S. Biology VA Tech. COURSES TAUGHT Intro Micro., Biotechnology, Topics in Pathogenesis. RESEARCH FOCUS Bacterial Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium species, Bacterial Signal Transduction. PERSONAL INTERESTS music, hiking, farming ...
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Structural and functional homology between bacterial proteins and host antigens, called molecular mimicry, is considered as significant pathogenic fac
Many gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria have acquired a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) which enables them to inject so called ... ...
cremeglace writes Scientists say they may have discovered a way to develop cool new vaccines — and they mean that literally. By replacing essential genes in a mammalian pathogen with their counterparts from Arctic bacteria, they have created strains that provoke a protective immune response i...
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingtype III secretion apparatus H+-transporting two-sector ATPase (TIGR02546; EC 3.6.3.14; HMM-score: 16.4) ...
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Strain sensitivity to different translation-inhibitory drugs. Wild type (WT) or gene deletion mutant strains (yploo9cΔ, yil137cΔ, ypl183w-aΔ, ydr056cCΔ and
CP000529.PE394 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(396843..397241) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="Pnap_0398" FT /product="response regulator receiver protein" FT /note="PFAM: response regulator receiver; KEGG: FT pol:Bpro_0882 response regulator receiver domain protein FT (CheY-like)" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Pnap_0398" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABM35721" FT /db_xref="GOA:A1VJ93" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR001789" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR011006" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:A1VJ93" FT /protein_id="ABM35721.1" FT /translation="MALKVFLVEDSAAQRAYLAQALRAEAKVEIVGIAETEHQAIHWLD FT NNADQWDIALVDLFLGEGSGAGVIQHCHDRRPDQSVFVMTNHSQNEALLHHCKLLGADA FT VYHKATELENLLALLQESAHSNSRCVAQ" MALKVFLVED SAAQRAYLAQ ALRAEAKVEI VGIAETEHQA IHWLDNNADQ WDIALVDLFL 60 GEGSGAGVIQ HCHDRRPDQS VFVMTNHSQN EALLHHCKLL GADAVYHKAT ELENLLALLQ 120 ESAHSNSRCV AQ 132 ...
COVER This weeks issue features a Research Article that demonstrates that an FHA domain-containing bacterial protein (Rv1827) binds to and regulates target metabolic enzymes without the enzymes undergoing prior phosphorylation, a modification previously thought to be necessary for binding of the FHA domain. Dr. Stephen Smerdon, the lead author of this study, discusses this and other findings in this weeks Podcast. The image shows the structure of Rv1827 with a putative FHA accessory surface depicted in green and is based on PDB structure 2KFU. [Image: Stephen J. Smerdon, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK] ...
Each population is trying to expand, and selective pressure is constantly being applied on both sides," Deem said. "You can see how this plays out in the CRISPR over time. Theres a diverse assortment of genes in the first spacer, but the second spacer has been in there longer, so theres been more selective pressure applied to that spacer. Because bacteria that contain the dominant viral strain in their CRISPR are more likely to survive than those that dont, they tend to squeeze out their neighbors that are more vulnerable. At position N, the farthest way from position one, selection has been at work the longest, so the genes we find there were the most common and the ones that tended to afford the most overall protection to the organism ...
The complexity of quinoas genome brings the promise of improving and expanding crops in hostile environments previously unfit for agriculture.
Our bodies are hosts to some hundreds of thousands of bacteria that live in harmony with each other, helping the body be healthy, in return for the food
[ Linear Triatomic Molecules Coo 2b Oco 2b Cfeo Fecocnoncolandolt B6rnstein Numerical Da ] - 100 Pdf Mankiw Solutions Chapter 13 Uga Econ 2106 Class,100 Pdf Linear Functions Answer Key The Algebra Toolbox If,100 Pdf Essential Experiments For Chemistry Answer Key 10e
Study shows bacterial response to drugs varies in different environments, providing scientists with a new way to test antibiotics for better drugs.
Scientists at The University of Nottingham have opened the way for more accurate research into new ways to fight dangerous bacterial infections by proving a long-held theory about how bacteria communicate with each other.
... 는 고순도(> 95%) Protein G가 coating된 silica magnetic nanobead를 사용하고 있습니다. 이러한 bead는 특이적으로 항체를 인지하여 항체정제, immunoprecipitation, 항원-항체 상호작용 연구, 단백질 복합체 연구, cell separation 등에 응용할 수 있습니다.
Plasmid pAAV-EF1α-FRT-FLEX-GtACR2-EYFP from Dr. Mingshan Xues lab contains the insert GtACR2-EYFP and is published in Elife. 2018 Aug 9;7. pii: 38506. doi: 10.7554/eLife.38506. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pAAV-Ef1a-fDIO hChR2(H134R)-EYFP from Dr. Karl Deisseroths lab contains the insert hChR2(H134R)-EYFP and is published in Nat Methods. 2014 Jul;11(7):763-72. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2996. Epub 2014 Jun 8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Within an economic context, the concept of growth is extremely important. Extensive Growth is that which arises from adding new factors of production: b...
Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a significant cause of bacillary dysentery. Shigella uses its type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into human intestinal cells to alter their functions to promote pathogen entry. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of a basal body, an extracellular needle, and a tip complex. As a part of the tip complex, invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) controls secretion by acting as an environmental sensor for triggering recruitment of the first "translocator" protein, IpaB, to the bacterial surface. This work extends this knowledge to show that subsequent contact with the host cell triggers T3SS induction and the formation of an IpaB/IpaC translocon pore within the membrane of the host cell. While IpaB is recruited to the TTSA needle tip IpaD senses bile salt in the Shigella environment, IpaC remains within the bacterial cytoplasm. Upon adding liposomes containing cholesterol and sphingolipids, IpaC is recruited to ...
Global Markets Directs, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted pipeline therapeutics.. The report provides comprehensive information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A, targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Ag85A targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects.. Access Full Report with TOC @ http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-ag85a-pipeline-review-h2-2016. Global Markets Directs report features investigational ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2amf: Crystal Structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase From Human Pathogen Streptococcus Pyogenes
Global Markets Directs, Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) targeted pipeline therapeutics. The
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects a large variety of agricultural crops. Bacteria colonize leaf surfaces and enter plant mesophyll tissue through wounds or stomata. Once inside, P. syringae can alter plant cell signaling pathways and suppress plant defense responses enabling it to grow in the intercellular space in the mesophyll. P. syringae possesses at least two types of virulence factors that suppress plant defense responses: i) small phytotoxin molecules, and ii) effector proteins that are translocated through specialized secretion systems. Gram-negative bacteria possess at least six types of secretion systems. The P. syringae type II and type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS) are both involved in secreting proteins that are important for P. syringae pathogenesis. Functions of the other secretion systems have not been explored. This study investigates the role of the newly discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. syringae interaction with plants. The
The Pseudomonas syringae type III protein secretion system (T3SS) and the type III effectors it injects into plant cells are required for plant pathogenicity and the ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR). The HR is a programmed cell death that is associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). A primary function of P. syringae type III effectors appears to be the suppression of ETI and pathogen-associated molecular pattern--triggered immunity (PTI), which is induced by conserved molecules on microorganisms. We reported that seven type III effectors from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 were capable of suppressing an HR induced by P. fluorescens(pHIR11) and have now tested 35 DC3000 type III effectors in this assay, finding that the majority of them can suppress the HR induced by HopA1. One newly identified type III effector with particularly strong HR suppression activity was HopS2. We used the pHIR11 derivative pLN1965, which lacks hopA1, in related assays and found that a subset of ...
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the major cause of the common canine skin disease, pyoderma, and is a zoonotic pathogen of humans. Multidrug resistant strains of S. pseudintermedius have emerged and are spreading globally leading to decreased therapeutic success. The development of novel therapeutics is hindered by the lack of understanding of critical host-pathogen interactions mediating S. pseudintermedius colonization and pathogenesis. For the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, interactions with host fibrinogen play a fundamental role in pathogenesis. The aim of the current study was to genetically and functionally characterise 2 cell wall-associated proteins of S. pseudintermedius, SpsD and SpsL, which mediate binding to multiple host extracellular matrix proteins including fibrinogen and fibronectin. DNA sequencing of the A- (ligand binding) domains of spsD and spsL genes for 37 phylogenetically diverse isolates revealed a highly conserved sequence for SpsL (97.1% derived amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of colonization and infection by klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in long-term acute-care hospitals. AU - Hayden, Mary K.. AU - Lin, Michael Y.. AU - Lolans, Karen. AU - Weiner, Shayna. AU - Blom, Donald. AU - Moore, Nicholas M.. AU - Fogg, Louis. AU - Henry, David. AU - Lyles, Rosie. AU - Thurlow, Caroline. AU - Sikka, Monica. AU - Hines, David. AU - Weinstein, Robert A.. PY - 2015/4/15. Y1 - 2015/4/15. N2 - Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (hereafter "KPC") are an increasing threat to healthcare institutions. Long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) have especially high prevalence of KPC. Methods. Using a stepped-wedge design, we tested whether a bundled intervention (screening patients for KPC rectal colonization upon admission and every other week; contact isolation and geographic separation of KPC-positive patients in ward cohorts or single rooms; bathing all patients daily with ...
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is the etiological agent of peptic ulcer disease. All three H. pylori strains that have been sequenced to date contain a potential operon whose products share homology with the subunits of acetone carboxylase (encoded by acxABC) from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 and Rhodobacter capsulatus strain B10. Acetone carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetone to acetoacetate. Genes upstream of the putative acxABC operon encode enzymes that convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, which is metabolized further to generate two molecules of acetyl-CoA. To determine if the H. pylori acxABC operon has a role in host colonization the acxB homolog in the mouse-adapted H. pylori SS1 strain was inactivated with a chloramphenicol-resistance (cat) cassette. In mouse colonization studies the numbers of H. pylori recovered from mice inoculated with the acxB:cat mutant were generally one to two orders of magnitude lower than those recovered from mice inoculated
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have emerged in recent years as being among of the most important threats to public health. CPE have been detected in almost all European countries, although with a highly variable geographical distribution (1). Some high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae, mainly KPC-producing sequence type 258 (ST258) but also OXA-48-producing ST395 or ST15, have been implicated in the worldwide spread of carbapenemases (2-4).. Previous studies have shown that the population of Escherichia coli strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is less diverse than the susceptible population (5). Little is known about the population structure of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae in comparison with the carbapenem-susceptible population. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated in Spanish hospitals constitute a distinct and more homogeneous population than the carbapenemase-susceptible ...
Fosmidomycin is a time-dependent nanomolar inhibitor of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway to isoprenoids. Importantly, fosmidomycin is one of only a few MEP pathway-specific inhibitors that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Most inhibitors identified to date only exhibit activity against isolated pathway enzymes. The MEP pathway is the sole route to isoprenoids in many bacteria, yet has no human homologs. The development of inhibitors of this pathway holds promise as novel antimicrobial agents. Similarly, analyses of the bacterial response toward MEP pathway inhibitors provides valuable information toward the understanding of how emergent resistance may ultimately develop to this class of antibiotics. We have examined the transcriptional response of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosmidomycin via cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. Within the regulated genes identified by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of virulence gene expression resulting from streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable haemophilus influenzae interactions in chronic disease. AU - Cope, Emily K.. AU - Goldstein-Daruech, Natalia. AU - Kofonow, Jennifer M.. AU - Christensen, Lanette. AU - McDermott, Bridget. AU - Monroy, Fernando. AU - Palmer, James N.. AU - Chiu, Alexander G. AU - Shirtliff, Mark E.. AU - Cohen, Noam A.. AU - Leid, Jeff G.. PY - 2011/12/5. Y1 - 2011/12/5. N2 - Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disease of the sinonasal cavity mediated, in part, by polymicrobial communities of bacteria. Recent molecular studies have confirmed the importance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in CRS. Here, we hypothesize that interaction between S. pneumoniae and NTHi mixed-species communities cause a change in bacterial virulence gene expression. We examined CRS as a model human disease to validate these polymicrobial interactions. Clinical ...
"Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. ... Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose ... "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part , 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ... protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing. ...
"Automatic selection of representative proteins for bacterial phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 5 (1): 34. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. », Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... Rooting the Eukaryotic Tree with Mitochondrial and Bacterial Proteins. », Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 29, no 4,‎ ... A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data », Science (290), p. 972-977 ...
2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... In addition to the secretin protein, 10-15 other inner and outer membrane proteins compose the full secretion apparatus, many ... and in some cases certain proteins are shared between a pilus complex and type II system within a single bacterial species. ...
Wooldridge K (editor) (2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic ... It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer ... Protein digestion. Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and duodenum in which 3 main enzymes, pepsin secreted by the stomach ... It serves primarily as a site for acid hydrolysis of microbial and dietary protein, preparing these protein sources for further ...
Desvaux M, Hébraud M, Talon R, Henderson IR (April 2009). "Secretion and subcellular localizations of bacterial proteins: a ... in the bacterial phylum Firmicutes". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60 (Pt 6): 1271-9. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.013102-0. PMID ... Bacterial transformation[edit]. Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous ... A given bacteria's staining result, bacterial membrane organization, and lineage groupings do not always match up.[6][7][8][9] ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. ...
... , a bacterial histone-like DNA-binding protein. *Wu Hu (disambiguation), an ancient Chinese term for multiple groups in China ...
For the transport protein, see Bacterial Leucine Transporter.. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please ...
Synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid[edit]. Within minutes, bacterial ribosomes start translating viral mRNA into protein. ... Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it preferentially transcribes viral mRNA. The host's normal synthesis of ... phage structural proteins and also the enzymes responsible for lysis of the bacterial cell wall.[3][4][5] There have been ... Several attempts have been made to map Protein-protein interactions among phage and their host. For instance, bacteriophage ...
complement proteins to induce bacterial lysis. Richard Pfeiffer (1895)[5] Bacterial agglutinins and precipitins. Serum ... The proteins account for 5% of the serum globulin fraction. Most of these proteins circulate as zymogens, which are inactive ... and precipitate bacterial toxins. von Gruber and Durham (1896),[6]. Kraus (1897)[7] ... These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. Each B cell has a unique ...
... , like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[1] It is made from a combination of imipenem and ... bacterial sepsis, bone and joint infections, skin and skin structure infections, endocarditis and polymicrobic infections.[7][8 ...
Bacterial interactomes[edit]. Relatively few bacteria have been comprehensively studied for their protein-protein interactions ... Protein function prediction[edit]. Protein interaction networks have been used to predict the function of proteins of unknown ... The yeast interactome, i.e. all protein-protein interactions among proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been estimated to ... The basic unit of a protein network is the protein-protein interaction (PPI). While there are numerous methods to study PPIs, ...
Kadokura, H.; Beckwith, J. (Sep 2009). "Detecting folding intermediates of a protein as it passes through the bacterial ... Disulfide bond formation protein B Disulfide bond formation protein C Guddat, LW. "RCSB Protein Data Bank - RCSB PDB - 1A2M ... This feature is incredibly rare among proteins, as nearly all proteins are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. ... "DSB proteins and bacterial pathogenicity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 7 (3): 215-225. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2087. Zapun, A; ...
"Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
Dame RT (May 2005). "The role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization and compaction of bacterial chromatin". ... Interactions with proteins. All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be ... Structural proteins that bind DNA are well-understood examples of non-specific DNA-protein interactions. Within chromosomes, ... A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins is the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, ...
Parkinson JS, Kofoid EC (1992). "Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins". Annu. Rev. Genet. 26: 71-112. doi: ... In terms of enzymology, a histidine kinase (EC 2.7.13.3, EnvZ, histidine protein kinase, protein histidine kinase, protein ... Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and protein L-histidine, whereas its two products are ADP and protein N-phospho ... The ATP lid is connected via hydrophobic residues to the rest of the protein. The γ phosphate of ATP is somewhat exposed ...
The "ice-plus" protein (INA protein, "Ice nucleation-active" protein) found on the outer bacterial cell wall acts as the ... Bacterial ice-nucleation proteins Love, J.; Lesser, W. (April 1989). "The Potential Impact of Ice-Minus Bacteria as a Frost ... lacking the gene responsible for ice-nucleating surface protein production. This lack of surface protein provides a less ... syringae lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type P. syringae. ...
Aiba, H; Mizuno, T (12 February 1990). "Phosphorylation of a bacterial activator protein, OmpR, by a protein kinase, EnvZ, ... Gross, R.; Aricò, B.; Rappuoli, R. (1989-11-01). "Families of bacterial signal-transducing proteins". Molecular Microbiology. 3 ... The protein is composed of a short N-terminal tail in the periplasm, two transmembrane regions with an intervening periplasmic ... As the number of phosphorylated OmpR protein molecules increases, two events occur: OmpR binds not only to the high affinity ...
Bignell C, Thomas CM (2001). "The bacterial ParA-ParB partitioning proteins". J Biotechnol. 91 (2): 1-34. doi:10.1016/S0168- ... Iron regulatory protein 1) (IRP1) MAPK8IP3 C-jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 3 (JNK-interacting protein 3) (JIP-3 ... Nucleotide-binding protein 2 (NBP 2) also known as cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly factor NUBP2 is a protein that in humans is ... proteins as Nubp1 is involved in the formation of extramitochondrial Fe/S proteins the cell division inhibitor MinD is ...
Varughese, KI (April 2002). "Molecular recognition of bacterial phosphorelay proteins". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (2 ... Most structurally characterized HPt proteins, such as the Hpt domain from the Escherichia coli protein ArcB and the ... In fungi, the genomic inventory of HPt proteins varies, with filamentous fungi generally possessing more HPt proteins than ... "Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein". Structure. 21 (9): 1590-601. doi:10.1016/ ...
Parkinson JS, Kofoid EC (1992). "Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins". Annual Review of Genetics. 26: 71-112 ... Varughese KI (Apr 2002). "Molecular recognition of bacterial phosphorelay proteins". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (2): ... The N-terminal domain of this protein forms part of the cytoplasmic region of the protein, which may be the sensor domain ... Almost 25% of bacterial HKs are of the hybrid type, as are the large majority of eukaryotic HKs. Two-component signal ...
... interferes with the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, by binding to penicillin binding proteins. Due to high protein ... The maximum anti-bacterial activity occurs approximately two days after cefovecin has been administered. In the dog, the half- ... In cats, 99% of cefovecin is bound to proteins in the blood plasma. Cefovecin was first authorized for use in the European ...
Emanuelsson C, Spangfort MD; Spangfort (2007). "Allergens as eukaryotic proteins lacking bacterial homologues". Mol. Immunol. ... Milk-protein allergies are most common in children. Approximately 60% of milk-protein reactions are immunoglobulin E-mediated, ... and chestnut occurs because latex proteins are structurally homologous with some other plant proteins. About 10% of people ... Certain microbe-sensing proteins, known as Toll-like receptors, found on the surface of cells in the body are also thought to ...
"Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. doi ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2017-09-05). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein ...
... of the Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein family and a bacterial S-layer protein (SbsB), from Geobacillus ... Thus, the S-layer protein can represent up to 15% of the whole protein content of a cell. S-layer proteins are poorly conserved ... protein-carbohydrate interactions and/or protein-protein interactions. In Gram-positive bacteria whose S-layers often contain ... doi:10.1016/S0376-7388(00)80050-2. Pavkov-Keller T, Howorka S, Keller W (2011). "The structure of bacterial S-layer proteins". ...
... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ... "Bacterial biomineralization: new insights from Myxococcus-induced mineral precipitation". Geological Society, London, Special ...
"Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. doi ... Motor proteins of microtubules, e.g., dynein or kinesin and actin, e.g., myosins provide dynamic character of the network. ... From a consortium of bacterial and archaeal DNA originated the nuclear genome of eukaryotic cells. Spirochetes gave rise to the ... Harper, J. T.; Waanders, E.; Keeling, P. J. (2005). "On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of ...
... as well as the polymeric surface proteins YadA of yersinias and the A-protein of Aeromonas. Some of these bacterial proteins ... The best-characterized bacterial proteins active in these interactions are the mycobacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, the ... The interactions can be based on a protein-protein or on a protein-carbohydrate interaction, or on a bridging mechanism ... Bacterial proteins binding to the mammalian extracellular matrix.. Westerlund B1, Korhonen TK. ...
Bacterial protein toxins. [J E Alouf; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Federation of European ... proteins> # Bacterial Proteins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial Proteins"@en ;. .. ... Bacterial proteins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial proteins"@en ;. .. ... Bacterial proteins. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Bacterial proteins"@en ;. .. ...
Bacterial toxins inhibiting or activating small GTP-binding proteins.. Boquet P1. ... However, exoenzyme C3 is not a toxin, and chimeric proteins fusing C3 with the B moiety of either diphtheria toxin or ... acids located on the switch 1 or switch 2 domains of small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family are targets of several bacterial ...
Make research projects and school reports about Bacterial proteins easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Bacterial proteins at Encyclopedia.com. ... See also Bacteria and bacterial infection; Epidemics, bacterial ... Soon after becoming a doctor, Émile Roux began doing research on bacterial diseases for Louis Pasteur . It has taken a century ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin that is treated to make it harmless but still can induce immunity to the disease. ...
Home , Luminous bacterial proteins detect chemicals in water. Luminous bacterial proteins detect chemicals in water. " ... For this, the researchers need to integrate the individual components - which include bacterial proteins, dyes, and aptamers - ... They are extracted from the envelope proteins of bacteria which are cultivated by the researchers in a lab. "The proteins form ... "The color molecules are located on a nanostructured surface consisting of bacterial proteins. The dyes are so close to one ...
for proteins from GC-poor bacteria; % for proteins from bacteria with average genomic G + C; and just % for proteins from GC- ... proteins, 10% were all alpha proteins, and 4% were all beta proteins, while 23% of them were mixed proteins. So, most of the ... That is why we decided to study Mn2+ binding sites in three groups of bacterial proteins: from bacterial species with low, ... in proteins from GC-poor bacteria (b); in proteins from bacteria with average genomic GC-content (c); in proteins from GC-rich ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Bacterial microcompartments protein, conserved site (IPR020808). Short name: Bact_microcomp_CS Description. This domain is ... six shell proteins, CsoS1A, CsoS1B, CsoS1C, Cso2A, Cso2B and CsoS3 (carbonic anhydrase) [PMID: 14729686], one protein of ...
Antibodies produced by the body against this protein also react with the main satiety hormone, which is similar in structure. ... Inserm Researchers have demonstrated the involvement of a protein produced by some intestinal bacteria that may be the source ... Variations in food intake in the presence of the bacterial protein. To obtain these results, the researchers modified the ... Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders ...
Protein localization and dynamics within a bacterial organelle. H. Velocity Hughes, Edgar Huitema, Sean Pritchard, Kenneth C. ... Protein localization and dynamics within a bacterial organelle. H. Velocity Hughes, Edgar Huitema, Sean Pritchard, Kenneth C. ... Protein localization and dynamics within a bacterial organelle. H. Velocity Hughes, Edgar Huitema, Sean Pritchard, Kenneth C. ... 2006) Bacterial birth scar proteins mark future flagellum assembly site. Cell 124:1025-1037. ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... His research has been mainly focused on the study of the molecular mechanisms that underlie protein-protein and protein- ... The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins 4th Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... His 40-year research work relates to the field of bacterial protein toxins and immunology of infectious diseases. He is also ...
... Fleetwood, Filippa KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein ... Bacterial display is an emerging technology for isolation of new affinity proteins from such combinatorial libraries. Cells ... Bacterial display, Combinatorial protein engineering, Nanobodies, Phage display, Recombinant antibodies National Category ... Affibody molecule, Bacterial display, Directed evolution, Combinatorial protein engineering, AIDA-I, Autotransporter, FACS, ...
Phosphorylation of bacterial response regulator proteins by low molecular weight phospho-donors. G S Lukat, W R McCleary, A M ... Phosphorylation of bacterial response regulator proteins by low molecular weight phospho-donors ... Phosphorylation of bacterial response regulator proteins by low molecular weight phospho-donors ... Phosphorylation of bacterial response regulator proteins by low molecular weight phospho-donors ...
Pastor N, Davila S, Perez-Rueda E, Segovia L, Martinez-Anaya C (2014) Electrostatic analysis of bacterial expansins. Proteins. ... An oat coleoptile wall protein that induces wall extension in vitro and that is antigenically related to a similar protein from ... Wang WC, Liu C, Ma YY, Liu XW, Zhang K, Zhang MH (2014) Improved production of two expansin-like proteins in Pichia pastoris ... Lee HJ, Lee S, Ko HJ, Kim KH, Choi IG (2010) An expansin-like protein from Hahella chejuensis binds cellulose and enhances ...
... protein from Vibrio vulnificus can inhibit tumor cell growth by cutting the protein Ras. This protein is central to cell ... Bacterial sepsis protein may inhibit cancer cell growth. Northwestern University. Journal. Nature Communications. Funder. ... The scientists plan to continue to study the mechanisms and biochemistry of the MARTX toxin specificity to the Ras protein. ... The bacterium uses the MARTX toxin protein to inactivate Ras, increasing its own virulence and allowing it to spread throughout ...
Since most aphids harbor Buchnera, and likely have GroEL in their saliva, this bacterial protein may generally alert plants of ... Bacterial Protein In Aphid Saliva Triggers Plant Defense Against Aphids. by editor ... They discovered these proteins were of both aphid and Buchnera origins. One of these Buchnera proteins, GroEL, was found to ... "A protein from the bacterium, found in the aphid saliva and likely delivered inside the plant host by the aphid, triggers plant ...
This bacterial advantage has long been a mystery. Now engineers think theyve solved at least part of the puzzle. Wus team and ... The protein then anchors itself to the cellulose, and the well organized enzymes begin their work. The orderliness is a ... Engineers have shown that a protein vital to the ability of certain bacteria to break down cellulose, one of the most ... As far as I know, this is the first protein discovered that organizes enzymes in this way. The discovery clarifies a ...
GroES Protein Research. Integration Host Factors Research. Luciferases, Bacterial Research. Staphylococcal Protein A Research. ... Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins Research. Bacteriocins Research. Botulinum Toxins Research. Colicins Research. Escherichia ... Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein Research. Ferredoxins Research. Flagellin Research. Flavodoxin Research. GroEL Protein ...
A bacterial protein is a protein thats part of the structure of a bacterium or is produced by a bacterium. Researchers study ... In addition to being a unique structure, a bacterial protein also has the ability to bind with other proteins. Protein binding ... A bacterial protein is a protein which is either part of the structure of a bacterium, or produced by a bacterium as part of ... Some bacteria produce proteins which have a deleterious effect on the human body. A bacterial protein can be toxic, causing ...
For now, Martin and Abramovitch are working to find which proteins AvrPtoB acts on, and what role those proteins play in host ... a protein from a disease-causing bacterium slips into plant cells and imitates a key host protein in order to cripple the plant ... but also because bacteria don t use ubiquitin to recycle their own proteins. "An interesting question is where this protein ... an enzyme plant and animal cells use to attach the small protein ubiquitin to unneeded or defective proteins. Other enzymes ...
Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to ... Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to ... Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including ... Ubiquitination is the main pathway for protein degradation that governs a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes, including ...
... Daniel Y. Bargieri,1 ... Are Bacterial Flagellin Fusion Proteins the Bridge between Mouse and Humans?," Journal of Parasitology Research, vol. 2011, ...
In this chapter, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented,... ... Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. ... Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this chapter ... These pre-absorbed sera were used in Western blotting after 2-DE to find bacterial surface protein antigens. This new method ...
... (Nanowerk News) "Pharmaceutical residues are becoming increasingly a ... For this, the researchers need to integrate the individual components which include bacterial proteins, dyes, and aptamers into ... They are extracted from the envelope proteins of bacteria which are cultivated by the researchers in a lab. "The proteins form ... "The color molecules are located on a nanostructured surface consisting of bacterial proteins. The dyes are so close to one ...
... that enables the study of membrane proteins, that cannot be studied in an ... Bacterial Factory to Offer a Novel Ways to Study Membrane Proteins. June 5th, 2006 Editors Genetics ... Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory have devised a "bacterial factory" that enables the study of membrane proteins, ... copies of the protein. When membrane proteins are produced in E. coli, they overload the cells bi-layers and cause the cells ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
  • L. pneumophila mutants expressing enzymatically inactive effectors were also unable to fully induce the ETR, whereas multiple compounds or bacterial toxins that inhibit host protein synthesis via distinct mechanisms recapitulated the ETR when administered with TLR ligands. (purdue.edu)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the host response to bacterial infection is induced primarily by specific microbial molecules that activate TLRs or cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. (purdue.edu)
  • Within the scope of the AptaSens project, her team developed such a receptor for the antibiotic kanamycin which is used, for example, for the treatment of such bacterial infections of the eye as conjunctivitis, or in veterinary medicine. (ecnmag.com)
  • The study was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and suggests that bacterial infections may contribute to far more cancers than previously thought. (biospace.com)
  • The study also provides a mechanism for how some bacterial infections can interfere with specific cancer drugs. (biospace.com)
  • Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm, INRA and the University of Freiburg have uncovered the key role played by the protein ISG15 in the fight against bacterial infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • ISG15 is a biubiquitin-protein that can chemically attach to other proteins and is known to help cells fight viral infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • However, it is not clear what role ISG15 plays in fighting bacterial infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • These findings reveal a new role for ISG15 in fighting bacterial infections and bring to light a number of interesting avenues to explore in future studies. (pasteur.fr)
  • The discovery of GBPs as regulators of OMV-mediated inflammation paves the way toward a mechanistic understanding of the host response toward bacterial OMVs and may lead to effective strategies to ameliorate inflammation induced by bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • Research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists has identified a possible new approach to defeating bacterial infections by targeting an innate immune system component in a bid to invigorate the immune response. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Investigators showed the protein works by inhibiting two pathways that control production of specialized molecules that fight infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Despite the availability of antibiotics, bacterial infections continue to extract a heavy toll of suffering and death. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The type III secretion system is one of the causes of a wide range of bacterial infections in human, animals and plants. (rostlab.org)
  • In adult studies, TREM-1 has been shown to be specifically expressed in bacterial infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scientists at the University of California, San Diego and Yale University have discovered that a natural protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium sprayed on crops by organic farmers to reduce insect damage, is highly effective at treating hookworm infections in laboratory animals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The UCSD-Yale team found that a protein produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, given orally to laboratory hamsters infected with hookworms was as effective in eliminating the parasites, curing anemia and restoring weight gain in the hamsters as mebendazole, one of the drugs currently recommended to treat infections in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A protein from the bacterium, found in the aphid saliva and likely delivered inside the plant host by the aphid, triggers plant immune responses against the aphid. (redorbit.com)
  • Wu's team and an MIT group headed by renowned industrial microbiologist Arnold Demain discovered that a protein called CipA in the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum organizes several cellulase enzymes into a cohesive unit which it leads to the cellulose material, like a platoon of soldiers following its commander. (rochester.edu)
  • Proteins found in any species of bacterium. (molecularstation.com)
  • A bacterial protein is a protein which is either part of the structure of a bacterium , or produced by a bacterium as part of its life cycle. (wisegeek.com)
  • Researchers can spend years identifying all of the proteins associated with a single type of bacterium, and this process can be complicated by rapid mutations, as seen in the case of the wily Staphylococcus bacterium. (wisegeek.com)
  • Like a wolf in sheep s clothing, a protein from a disease-causing bacterium slips into plant cells and imitates a key host protein in order to cripple the plant s defenses. (innovations-report.com)
  • He has also observed a phenomena demonstrating that even without this protein and with the immune system responding perfectly, the bacterium can spring back in the body weeks later. (genengnews.com)
  • Now scientists have identified the thousands of proteins the bacterium. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now scientists have identified the thousands of proteins the bacterium produces, shedding light on how it interacts with healthy cells in order to thrive, according to dental researchers from the University of Florida and the University of Washington. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a new study published online in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Michael J. Daly, Ph.D., associate professor at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), and colleagues show that the ability of the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans to endure and survive enormous levels of ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma-rays) relies on a powerful mechanism that protects proteins from oxidative damage during irradiation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here we apply a powerful experimental scheme that integrates genetics with high-throughput localization to discover StpX, an uncharacterized bitopic membrane protein that modulates stalk elongation and is sequestered to the stalk. (pnas.org)
  • The stalk is a cylindrical protrusion of all envelope layers (inner membrane, periplasm, outer membrane, and S-layer) at the old cell pole and encloses cytoplasmic material that is free of chromosomal DNA, ribosomes, and most cytoplasmic proteins ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The first step in studying most proteins is to dissolve them in water," Hanson said, "but that does not work with membrane proteins that live in the oily, lipid bi-layer that surrounds the cell. (medgadget.com)
  • The sources that have yielded the majority of the few known membrane-protein structures are organisms in which the target membrane protein is naturally abundant. (medgadget.com)
  • The biologists developed a system that successfully expresses hundreds of copies of a chosen membrane protein in Rhodobacter while simultaneously synthesizing the internal membranes they want to live in. (medgadget.com)
  • First," Laible said, "we produced a variety of membrane proteins of different sizes, functions and physical properties, and we have had a 60 percent success rate with them. (medgadget.com)
  • As they continue to manufacture different membrane proteins, the team is tackling the next step to creating a pathway to protein crystallization for membrane proteins by developing specialized molecules, or reagents. (medgadget.com)
  • 1. Designer detergents that remove the membrane protein from the lipid bi-layer where it resides, 2. (medgadget.com)
  • Researchers will test the reagents on the membrane proteins produced in the Rhodobacter 'factory. (medgadget.com)
  • A NIST-developed model of a simplified cell membrane has been discovered by researchers, which may now accurately detect and measure protein associated with bacterial vaginosis. (medindia.net)
  • Extracellular and endocytosed LPS is recognized by the transmembrane protein Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and prompts discrete signaling events originating from the plasma membrane and from endosomes ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression, detergent solubilization, and purification of a membrane transporter, the MexB multidrug resistance protein. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Can anyone put my mind at ease that this solution will extract membrane bound proteins, or do I need to write this off as an extravegant and needless purchase which I will need to get another kit that is more suitable for the job. (protocol-online.org)
  • I'm not sure that B-per will extract membrane proteins. (protocol-online.org)
  • BioRad has a large variety of extraction reagents including one that specifically speaks to membrane proteins (including bacterial - I think), ReadyPrep Membrane II. (protocol-online.org)
  • The in vitro translocation of proOmpA precursors into membrane vesicles is strongly inhibited by RB with IC 50 values of approximately 0.25 μ M , making RB the most potent inhibitor of SecA ATPase and SecA-dependent protein translocation reported thus far. (wiley.com)
  • Collectively, these studies elucidate how an essential SRP RNA and two regulatory GTPases in the SRP and SRP receptor (SR) enable this targeting machinery to recognize, sense and respond to its biological effectors, i.e. the cargo protein, the target membrane and the translocation machinery, thus driving efficient and faithful co-translational protein targeting. (caltech.edu)
  • The majority of the Fts proteins are anchored to the cell membrane, and most of them appear to localize to the bacterial septum in a sequential order (for reviews, see references 5 , 33 , 35 , and 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Scientists believe that antibiotics could be developed that disrupt the FimD protein, and therefore the production line of pili proteins. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This will help physicians to prescribe antibiotics to only those with bacterial pneumonia and avoid antibiotic use in those with pure viral pneumonia, thus help to limit health-care cost and to decrease emergence of antibiotic resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 7-10 The enzymes involved transfer lipid-linked glycans, generated en masse in the cytoplasm, to protein targets in the periplasm. (rsc.org)
  • This approach will enable glycoproteins to be produced in the bacterial cytoplasm with endogenous nucleotide sugar donors. (rsc.org)
  • This system comprises a hollow needle-like structure localized on the surface of bacterial cells that injects specific bacterial proteins, the so-called effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of a host cell. (rostlab.org)
  • The best-characterized bacterial proteins active in these interactions are the mycobacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, the fibronectin- and the collagen-binding proteins of staphylococci and streptococci, specific enterobacterial fimbrial types, as well as the polymeric surface proteins YadA of yersinias and the A-protein of Aeromonas. (nih.gov)
  • The interactions can be based on a protein-protein or on a protein-carbohydrate interaction, or on a bridging mechanism mediated by a bivalent soluble target protein. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the interactions have also been demonstrated on tissue sections or in vivo, and adherence to the extracellular matrix has been shown to promote bacterial colonization of damaged tissues. (nih.gov)
  • MIT researchers have discovered why an unusually short bacterial protein can have many more interactions than would normally be expected of something its size. (phys.org)
  • As part of an investigation of the mechanism of action of the Bacillus subtilis response regulator Spo0F, we have explored the relationship between the motional characteristics and protein-protein interactions. (rti.org)
  • Here we use a set of nuclear magnetic resonance N-15 relaxation measurements to determine the relative timescales of Spo0F backbone fluctuations on the picosecond-to-millisecond timescale, We show that regions having motion on the millisecond timescale correlate with residues and surfaces that are known to be critical for protein-protein interactions. (rti.org)
  • Our results indicate that the Fts proteins are connected to one another through multiple interactions. (asm.org)
  • But it has long been unclear whether germination required protein synthesis, or cellular energy packets, which are known as ATP. (phys.org)
  • As someone who has been working on spores, and their resistance and germination, for nearly 50 years, Setlow said that he was very familiar with long ago studies that indicated that spores germinated without the synthesis of either ATP or protein. (phys.org)
  • Changes inSpore Small Molecules, rRNA, Germination and Outgrowth After Extended Sub-Lethal Exposure to Various Temperatures: Evidence That Protein Synthesis is not Essential for Spore Germination, Journal of Bacteriology (2016). (phys.org)
  • This thesis addresses different aspects of the question about accuracy of protein synthesis: i) the mechanism of tRNA selection during translation ii) study of ribosomal mutations that affect accuracy and iii) the choice of aminoacyl-tRNA isoacceptors on synonymous codons. (diva-portal.org)
  • that during translation the ribosomal A site is not blocked by unspecific binding of the non-cognate tRNAs which would inhibit the speed of protein synthesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the living cell the availability of cognate tRNAs versus the demand for them (the frequency of codon usage) is finely balanced to ensure critical protein synthesis in stress conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Co-translational protein targeting by the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) is an essential cellular pathway that couples the synthesis of nascent proteins to their proper cellular localization. (caltech.edu)
  • Most often, the purpose of heterologous cell-free synthesis is to produce properly folded and functionally active protein product in the amounts sufficient for structural and functional studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absence of ribosomes precludes a cotranslational protein targeting mechanism within the stalk. (pnas.org)
  • Little or no mycoplasma DnaK DNA sequences were found associated with the tumor, which was fully developed, suggesting a hit-and-run or hide mechanism of transformation, indicating that the damage is done early but the protein may not be needed once the cancer cells are formed. (biospace.com)
  • The PGRPs accomplish the mission by binding to specific sites in bacterial cell walls in ways that exploit a bacterial defense mechanism known as protein-sensing two-component systems. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The first mechanism involves the transfer of carbohydrates directly from nucleotide-activated sugars to acceptor proteins. (asm.org)
  • In the second mechanism, an oligosaccharide is preassembled onto a lipid carrier before being transferred en bloc to protein acceptors by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). (asm.org)
  • Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium: nucleotide sequence, protein expression, and mutational analysis of the cchA cchB eutE eutJ eutG eutH gene cluster. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Once a pathogen genome has been sequenced, effectors can be predicted based on protein sequence similarity, but such predictions are not always precise. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is useful for further work with the YopR protein domain as comparative sequence and structure homology can be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the variants all differ slightly in their DNA sequence, there will be many slightly different versions of the protein too. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Ultimately, the researchers were able to fill hundreds of gaps in the organism's sequence of roughly 2,000 proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • This functional characterization supports the concept that despite their low sequence similarity, PilO and PglL belong to a new family of "O-OTases" that transfer oligosaccharides from lipid carriers to hydroxylated amino acids in proteins. (asm.org)
  • Using this sequence, homogenous glucosylated proteins could be readily produced. (rsc.org)
  • In our method, we combine sequence-based homology searches and advanced machine learning to accurately predict effector proteins. (rostlab.org)
  • We use information encoded in the entire protein sequence for our predictions. (rostlab.org)
  • The protein influences host IFN [interferon] responses as well as suppresses multiple host microbicidal activities involving serum complement, neutrophils, and antimicrobial peptides," write the investigators. (genengnews.com)
  • The Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by the noncanonical inflammasome protein caspase-11 in the cytosol of infected host cells and thereby prompts an inflammatory immune response linked to sepsis. (asm.org)
  • The invention includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and protein subcomponents. (nih.gov)
  • This could be a target to develop new anti-bacterial applications," Dziarski adds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • When this approach is combined with the intermediates of bacterial O -antigen biosynthesis the resulting conjugates are valuable as potential anti-bacterial vaccine components. (rsc.org)
  • Thus, at the submicron scale the localization and the mobility of a protein are precisely regulated in space and time and are important for the correct organization of a subcellular compartment or organelle such as the stalk. (pnas.org)
  • FtsQ follows FtsK, whose localization requires both FtsA and ZipA proteins, in this hierarchical assembly. (asm.org)
  • For this, the researchers need to integrate the individual components - which include bacterial proteins, dyes, and aptamers - into a sensor chip. (ecnmag.com)
  • In this new study, the researchers have identified a protein that happens to be a mimic of the satiety hormone (melanotropin). (eurekalert.org)
  • At the same time, the researchers are using mice to study how to correct the action of the bacterial protein in order to prevent the dysregulation of food intake that it generates. (eurekalert.org)
  • To identify the protein composition of the aphid saliva, the researchers collected saliva from more than 100,000 aphids. (redorbit.com)
  • Understanding individual proteins can also allow researchers to monitor mutations and to keep track of the ways in which these mutations occurred, and how they can be addressed. (wisegeek.com)
  • The researchers found that mycoplasma infection caused the mice to develop lymphoma earlier in life than noninfected immune-compromised mice and that some, but not all, of the cancer cells had bacterial DNA. (biospace.com)
  • By demonstrating in detail how the HipA protein freezes bacterial activity, the researchers have opened the possibility of adding a new class of drugs to therapy against chronic and multidrug resistant bacterial infection. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Researchers studying the protein that makes up one such wire have determined the protein's structure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers said in their paper that because this naturally-produced protein is safe to humans and other vertebrates and can be produced inexpensively in large quantities, it has the potential to substantially improve this global health problem. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The best studied is the carboxysome of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, which is composed of at least 9 proteins: six shell proteins, CsoS1A, CsoS1B, CsoS1C, Cso2A, Cso2B and CsoS3 (carbonic anhydrase) [ PMID: 14729686 ], one protein of unknown function and the large and small subunits of RuBisCo (CbbL and Cbbs). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The proteins form regular lattice structures at the nano level. (ecnmag.com)
  • Advances in this field will be aided by a deeper understanding of how these proteins modify cellulosic structures. (springer.com)
  • Proteins, which consist of chains of amino acids, locally fold themselves into one of two structures--a helix or a pleated sheet. (phys.org)
  • In contrast, intrinsically disordered proteins lack such well-defined local structures. (phys.org)
  • Using X-ray crystallography to determine and then compare the structures of several HipA complexes, they showed that HipA has a serine/threonine protein kinase fold and that it binds tightly to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a common characteristic of kinases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The structure of the FimD protein means scientists can see the process of pili assembly, from individual protein subunits to complete structures, for the first time. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Many of these shell proteins form oligomeric structures with a semi-permeable 2-3Å radius central pore, suggesting a favorable feature for the binding of anions such as bicarbonate (HCO_3-), the aqueous soluble form of CO_2. (caltech.edu)
  • Strikingly, the majority of the aphid salivary proteins predicted for secretion were of unknown function and different from those typically secreted by microbes into plants," Kaloshian said. (redorbit.com)
  • Bacterial proteins capable of acting like prions could help the microbes to adapt to environmental changes. (the-scientist.com)
  • The structure of AvrPtoB revealed that the protein looks very much like a ubiquitin ligase, an enzyme plant and animal cells use to attach the small protein ubiquitin to unneeded or defective proteins. (innovations-report.com)
  • Of particular importance, the infection did not need to persist and the protein did not need to be continuously present in all cancer cells. (biospace.com)
  • Finding only a small amount of bacterial DNA in the cancer cells suggested that the infection did not have to persist to trigger cancer. (biospace.com)
  • Beginning by lysing cultured bacterial cells using 0.1 mm glass bead tubes, nucleic acids and proteins are made soluble and bound with solution. (qiagen.com)
  • Persistent cells are a one-in-a-million-cells occurrence because HipA is normally kept in check by a protein called HipB. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In a bacterial library, many different DNA sequences are introduced into the cells of a bacterial culture. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • We demonstrate further that this system can be applied to the study of proteins other than autotransporters that display polar positioning within bacterial cells. (harvard.edu)
  • The PGRP proteins are normally expressed in phagocytic cells in blood and on body surface areas such as skin, mouth, intestine and other tissues that have direct or indirect contact with the external world, Dziarski noted. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Exposure to such bacterial proteins may be involved in the generation of aberrant recognition of gluten by these same T cells when susceptible individuals eat cereals containing gluten, he said. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We tend to think about human biology as what goes on in human cells but there's at least as many bacterial cells as human cells on and in our bodies," he says. (wisc.edu)
  • These proteins serve as sentinels working inside cells to recognize and response to infectious agents. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • report that the ability of cells to survive radiation is highly dependent on the amount of protein damage caused during irradiation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Surprisingly, a dose of radiation that is sufficient to cause only minor DNA damage in radiation-sensitive cells will cause high levels of protein damage compared to resistant cells exposed to the same dose. (innovations-report.com)
  • This new model of radiation toxicity shifts the emphasis away from DNA damage toward protein damage, where DNA repair-related proteins in sensitive cells are devastated by radiation long before DNA is significantly damaged. (innovations-report.com)
  • SE-1 did not detectably inhibit the growth or metabolism of the bacterial or eukaryotic host cells, respectively, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was not due to general toxicity. (ku.edu)
  • Once proteins bind, they can trigger a reaction which may vary from an immune system response to an infection to the onset of a disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • Our work provides an explanation for how a bacterial infection can trigger a series of events that lead to cancer. (biospace.com)
  • Ultimately, ISG15 is important for viral and bacterial infection and its levels are increased in human cancers, therefore in the future being able to modulate its activity could be a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of important human diseases. (pasteur.fr)
  • Host guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) promote infection-induced caspase-11 activation in tissue culture models, and yet their in vivo role in LPS-mediated sepsis has remained unexplored. (asm.org)
  • It provides a general method for the study of activated response regulators in the absence of kinase proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The story started with a search for a non-lysosomal pathway for protein degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Significantly, this would direct recombination down the bacterial RecA pathway of break restoration rather than the phage Red pathway with potentially important consequences for the outcome of the exchange reaction. (bl.uk)
  • This method will be broadly applicable to study other bacterial protein export systems and for the identification of compounds that inhibit bacterial protein secretion. (mcponline.org)
  • Very importantly, the potency of these fluorescein analogues in inhibiting the truncated SecA ATPase correlates with their ability to inhibit the biologically relevant protein translocation activity of SecA. (wiley.com)
  • This thesis describes the development, evaluation and use of bacterial display technologies for the engineering of affinity proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Affinity proteins used in therapeutic and diagnostic applications commonly aim to specifically bind to disease-related drug targets. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results demonstrate great potential of these display systems and the generated affinity proteins for future biotechnological and therapeutic use. (diva-portal.org)
  • Proteins are lengthy chains of amino acids which are folded back upon themselves. (wisegeek.com)
  • The nature of a protein is determined both by the amino acid chain and by the way in which the protein is folded. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification in which one or more 76 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitin molecules are covalently linked to the lysine residues of target proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, with the help of a ubiquitin-protein ligase, E3, a covalent bond is formed between the C-terminus of ubiquitin and the ε-amino group of a lysine residue on the protein substrate. (frontiersin.org)
  • A protein like UmuD, which is made of fewer amino acids, would not be expected to have enough binding sites to interact with very many other proteins. (phys.org)
  • The artificial matrices were optimized on real protein-coding sequences based on Evolutionary Strategies approach to minimize or maximize the probability of non-synonymous substitutions and costs of amino acid replacements depending on their physicochemical properties. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • AraC family proteins are transcriptional regulators that are defined by the presence of a conserved DNA binding domain (DBD). (ku.edu)
  • We would like to understand how these proteins are able to modulate host metabolism and identify their host targets," she said. (redorbit.com)
  • It's the proteins that are most responsible for disease, and in most cases it's proteins that are vaccine and drug targets. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The scientists also discovered that this protein, called Cry5B, targets both developing, or larval, stages and adult parasites, as well as impairs the excretion of eggs by female worms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Effector proteins may have many different activities, but usually help the pathogen to invade host tissue, suppress its immune system, or otherwise help the pathogen to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia inhibits phagocytosis through the concerted actions of several effector proteins, including YopE which acts as a RhoGAP and inhibits Rac-dependent actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • We - Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost and Yana Bromberg - at BrombergLab and RostLab developed a novel method, pEffect that predicts bacterial type III effector proteins. (rostlab.org)
  • For a query protein it first runs PSI-BLAST to identify a homolog in the set of known and annotated effector proteins. (rostlab.org)
  • If such a homolog is available, then its annotation ( i.e. type III effector) is being transferred to a query protein. (rostlab.org)
  • If a homolog is not available, pEffect triggers an SVM that predicts effector proteins through searches of k -consecutive residues that are known from annotated proteins. (rostlab.org)
  • The graphs were obtained using the homology-reduced sets of 115 type III effector and 3,460 non-effector proteins in five-fold cross-validation. (rostlab.org)
  • Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • This new method has been proven to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • Optimization of Mutation Pressure in Relation to Properties of Protein-Coding Sequences in Bacterial Genomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to study the optimization of the pressure, we compared mutational transition probability matrices from bacterial genomes with artificial matrices fulfilling the same general features as the real ones, e.g., the stationary distribution and the speed of convergence to the stationarity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We observed no substantial differences between the effects of mutational matrices on protein-coding sequences in genomes under study in respect of differently replicated DNA strands, mutational cost types and properties of the referenced artificial matrices. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bacterial motility and gene expression are controlled by a family of phosphorylated response regulators whose activities are modulated by an associated family of protein-histidine kinases. (pnas.org)
  • A Rho factor will bind to the RNA in a region, called the transcription terminator pause site-- this is rich in guanine and cytosine and is after the part of the gene that codes for protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Different representatives of each of the sensor families can regulate gene expression in response to different metals, and the residues that form the sensory metal- binding sites have been defined in a number of these proteins . (rsc.org)
  • To make these libraries, scientists take as their starting point a gene that encodes a protein of interest. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • In their search for an improved enzyme, David and his colleagues have made bacterial libraries that each contain many variants of the gene that encodes the original enzyme. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • However, the information on preferable 3D structural motifs is available mostly for Ca 2+ and Zn 2+ binding proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequent experiments and structural analysis of a HipA/EF-Tu peptide complex indicated that HipA phosphorylates EF-Tu, freezing up the bacteria's protein-making machinery and inducing dormancy. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Wolters DA, Washburn MP, Yates JR III (2001) An automated multidimensional protein identification technology for shotgun proteomics. (springer.com)
  • The research, conducted by a Rockefeller team led by Elizabeth Campbell, in collaboration with scientists at Memorial Sloan Kettering, focuses on a cluster of interacting proteins called RNA polymerase. (nanowerk.com)
  • In the bacterial expressome, the polymerase and ribosome form one complex structure to carry out these two processes in a coupled manner, and this newly solved structure provides a snapshot of this taking place, says Rachel Mooney, a research scientist in Biochemistry and co-author on the paper. (wisc.edu)
  • These pre-absorbed sera were used in Western blotting after 2-DE to find bacterial surface protein antigens. (springer.com)
  • Here we report a unique innate immune evasion strategy of B. burgdorferi , orchestrated by a surface protein annotated as BBA57, through its modulation of multiple spirochete virulent determinants. (genengnews.com)
  • The genetic code of an organism holds the blueprints for numerous proteins. (wisegeek.com)
  • Proteins are important to study because they are the foundation of the cellular structure of every living organism, Lamont said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We've identified the complete protein complement of the organism, and we've looked at how those proteins are expressed when the organism is in an environment that closely mimics an oral situation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some of the proteins we previously thought were important when they were expressed in the lab proved not to be when the organism is in an environment that mimics the oral cavity,?Lamont said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To put it simply, the behavior, or protein expression, of the organism when it's at work in the human mouth is very different from its behavior when it's vacationing in a Petri dish. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Producing large quantities of protein quickly and economically often requires using a bacterial host organism. (thermofisher.com)
  • SoluLyse Protein Extraction Reagent is supplied in 1X solution in 50mM NaHPO 4 , pH 7.4. (genlantis.com)