Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction RNA(n+1) and orthophosphate to yield RNA(n) and a nucleoside diphosphate, or the reverse reaction. ADP, IDP, GDP, UDP, and CDP can act as donors in the latter case. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.7.7.8.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A form-species of nitrogen-fixing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (1/1292)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview from Korea. (2/1292)

Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria has become a worldwide problem. Available data suggest that the resistance problem is comparatively more serious in Korea. In large hospitals, the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported at over 70%, and of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae at around 70%. Infection or colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has started to increase. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae has become widespread and even carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been increasing. Community-acquired pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of resistant bacteria can lead to erroneous empirical selection of either noneffective or expensive drugs, prolonging hospitalization and higher mortality. The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria are unavoidable unless antimicrobial agents are not used at all. The high prevalence of resistant bacteria in Korea seems to be related to antibiotic usage: 1) easy availability without prescription at drug stores, 2) injudicious use in hospitals, and 3) uncontrolled use in agriculture, animal husbandry, and fisheries. Nosocomial infection is an important factor in the spread of resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance problems should be regarded as the major public health concern in Korea. It is urgently required to ban the sale of antibiotics without prescription, to use antibiotics more judiciously in hospitals by intensive teaching of the principles of the use of antibiotics, and to establish better control measures of nosocomial infections. Regulation of antimicrobials for other than human use should also be required. These issues are not easy to address and require the collective action of governments, the pharmaceutical industry, health care providers, and consumers.  (+info)

Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of bacteria in 1997. (3/1292)

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are known to be prevalent in tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. Twenty hospitals participated to this surveillance to determine the nationwide prevalence of resistance bacteria in 1997. Seven per cent and 26% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporin. Increased resistance rates, 19% of Acinetobacter baumannii to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 17% of Pseudomonas aeruginoa to imipenem, were noted. The resistance rate to fluoroquinolone rose to 24% in E. coli, 56% in A. baumannii and 42% in P. aeruginosa. Mean resistance rates were similar in all hospital groups: about 17% of P. aeruginosa to imipenem, 50% of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin, 70% of Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin, and 70% of pneumococci to penicillin. In conclusion, nosocomial pathogens and problem resistant organisms are prevalent in smaller hospitals too, indicating nosocomial spread is a significant cause of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria in Korea.  (+info)

Thiorhodospira sibirica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium from a Siberian soda lake. (4/1292)

A new purple sulfur bacterium was isolated from microbial films on decaying plant mass in the near-shore area of the soda lake Malyi Kasytui (pH 9.5, 0.2% salinity) located in the steppe of the Chita region of south-east Siberia. Single cells were vibrioid- or spiral-shaped (3-4 microns wide and 7-20 microns long) and motile by means of a polar tuft of flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes were of the lamellar type. Lamellae almost filled the whole cell, forming strands and coils. Photosynthetic pigments were bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin group. The new bacterium was strictly anaerobic. Under anoxic conditions, hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur were used as photosynthetic electron donors. During growth on sulfide, sulfur globules were formed as intermediate oxidation products. They were deposited outside the cytoplasm of the cells, in the peripheral periplasmic space and extracellularly. Thiosulfate was not used. Carbon dioxide, acetate, pyruvate, propionate, succinate, fumarate and malate were utilized as carbon sources. Optimum growth rates were obtained at pH 9.0 and optimum temperature was 30 degrees C. Good growth was observed in a mineral salts medium containing 5 g sodium bicarbonate l-1 without sodium chloride. The new bacterium tolerated up to 60 g sodium chloride l-1 and up to 80 g sodium carbonates l-1. Growth factors were not required. The DNA G + C composition was 56.0-57.4 mol%. Based on physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics, the newly isolated bacterium is recognized as a new species of a new genus with the proposed name Thiorhodospira sibirica.  (+info)

Rhodovulum iodosum sp. nov. and Rhodovulum robiginosum sp. nov., two new marine phototrophic ferrous-iron-oxidizing purple bacteria. (5/1292)

Two new strains of marine purple bacteria, N1T and N2T, were isolated from coastal sediment of the North Sea (Germany) with ferrous iron as the only electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The isolates are the first salt-dependent, ferrous-iron-oxidizing purple bacteria characterized so far. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed an affiliation with the genus Rhodovulum, which until now comprises only marine species. The sequence similarity of both strains was 95.2%, and their closest relative was Rhodovulum adriaticum. Like all known Rhodovulum species, the new strains had ovoid to rod-shaped cells, contained bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene series, and were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate. Like Rhodovulum adriaticum, both strains were unable to assimilate sulfate; for growth they needed a reduced sulfur source, e.g. thiosulfate. In contrast to the new strains, none of the known Rhodovulum species tested was able to oxidize ferrous iron or iron sulfide. In growth experiments, strains N1T and N2T oxidized 65 and 95%, respectively, of the ferrous iron supplied. Electron diffraction analysis revealed ferrihydrite as the main product of ferrous iron oxidation. In addition, traces of magnetite were formed. Strains N1T (= DSM 12328T) and N2T (= DSM 12329T) are described as Rhodovulum iodosum sp. nov. and Rhodovulum robiginosum sp. nov., respectively.  (+info)

PAS domains: internal sensors of oxygen, redox potential, and light. (6/1292)

PAS domains are newly recognized signaling domains that are widely distributed in proteins from members of the Archaea and Bacteria and from fungi, plants, insects, and vertebrates. They function as input modules in proteins that sense oxygen, redox potential, light, and some other stimuli. Specificity in sensing arises, in part, from different cofactors that may be associated with the PAS fold. Transduction of redox signals may be a common mechanistic theme in many different PAS domains. PAS proteins are always located intracellularly but may monitor the external as well as the internal environment. One way in which prokaryotic PAS proteins sense the environment is by detecting changes in the electron transport system. This serves as an early warning system for any reduction in cellular energy levels. Human PAS proteins include hypoxia-inducible factors and voltage-sensitive ion channels; other PAS proteins are integral components of circadian clocks. Although PAS domains were only recently identified, the signaling functions with which they are associated have long been recognized as fundamental properties of living cells.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a flagellin gene from the endosymbiont of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. (7/1292)

The bacterial endosymbionts of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila play a key role in providing their host with fixed carbon. Results of prior research suggest that the symbionts are selected from an environmental bacterial population, although a free-living form has been neither cultured from nor identified in the hydrothermal vent environment. To begin to assess the free-living potential of the symbiont, we cloned and characterized a flagellin gene from a symbiont fosmid library. The symbiont fliC gene has a high degree of homology with other bacterial flagellin genes in the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions, while the central region was found to be nonconserved. A sequence that was homologous to that of a consensus sigma28 RNA polymerase recognition site lay upstream of the proposed translational start site. The symbiont protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and flagella were observed by electron microscopy. A 30,000-Mr protein subunit was identified in whole-cell extracts by Western blot analysis. These results provide the first direct evidence of a motile free-living stage of a chemoautotrophic symbiont and support the hypothesis that the symbiont of R. pachyptila is acquired with each new host generation.  (+info)

Structural and functional analyses of photosynthetic regulatory genes regA and regB from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, Roseobacter denitrificans, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. (8/1292)

Genes coding for putative RegA, RegB, and SenC homologues were identified and characterized in the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans, species that demonstrate weak or no oxygen repression of photosystem synthesis. This additional sequence information was then used to perform a comparative analysis with previously sequenced RegA, RegB, and SenC homologues obtained from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. These are photosynthetic bacteria that exhibit a high level of oxygen repression of photosystem synthesis controlled by the RegA-RegB two-component regulatory system. The response regulator, RegA, exhibits a remarkable 78.7 to 84.2% overall sequence identity, with total conservation within a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The RegB sensor kinase homologues also exhibit a high level of sequence conservation (55.9 to 61.5%) although these additional species give significantly different responses to oxygen. A Rhodovulum sulfidophilum mutant lacking regA or regB was constructed. These mutants produced smaller amounts of photopigments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that the RegA-RegB regulon controls photosynthetic gene expression in this bacterium as it does as in Rhodobacter species. Rhodobacter capsulatus regA- or regB-deficient mutants recovered the synthesis of a photosynthetic apparatus that still retained regulation by oxygen tension when complemented with reg genes from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans. These results suggest that differential expression of photosynthetic genes in response to aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions is not the result of altered redox sensing by the sensor kinase protein, RegB.  (+info)

Now you know some of the best dry skin face serum products to try, and certain hydrating ingredients to look for. Just make sure you choose a serum formulated for dry skin. If you choose a product containing hyaluronic acid and Vitamin C
Dive into the research topics of Move over, bacteria! viruses make their mark as mutualistic microbial symbionts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
It is generally assumed that microorganisms synthesize, release, detect and respond to small signaling hormone-like molecules. These molecules are used for a process termed
Do bacteria really cooperate? What is the syntax and semantics of bacterial communication? How does selection at the gene, mobile element, bacterium and group levels shape the structure and function of cooperative traits? If such questions interest you, come and work with us.. ​. We are looking for talented MSc, PhD and post-doc students for an ERC-funded interdisciplinary project. The project revolves around understanding microbial co-evolutionary processes across multiple levels of selection (selfish elements, bacterial-parasite interactions, cell-cell communication and community interactions) and across orders of organization ranging from protein structure to community behavior.. We are looking for students with a range of expertise in either experimental, computational or theoretical facets of biology (or all of them combined). Major areas of the project include: ...
Drugs that stop bacteria from talking might be new, powerful antibiotics - a much needed weapon in our never-ending struggle against bacterial infections. On the other hand, drugs that make bacteria chat more could boost the production of biofuels and other industrial goods that bacteria make for us. In 1990 a young Bonnie Bassler, mesmerized by glow-in-the-dark bacteria that could talk to their peers to coordinate light production, wondered whether other bacteria could talk too. The answer, she soon found out, was yes - including all the nasty bacteria that cause disease. Today, Bonnie Bassler is a professor in molecular biology at Princeton University and an authority in the field of bacterial communication. Her findings, that all bacteria can talk, revolutionized the way we think of bacteria and opened the doors to important medical and industrial applications. But the discovery of bacterial communication has given us much more than new drugs. It has shown us how bacteria live in the real
Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling phenomenon used by bacteria for coordination of population-wide phenotypes, such as expression of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Lately, disruption of bacterial communication has emerged as an anti-virulence strategy with enormous therapeutic potential given the increasing incidences of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. The quorum quenching therapeutic approach promises a lower risk of resistance development, since interference with virulence generally does not affect the growth and fitness of the bacteria and, hence, does not exert an associated selection pressure for drug-resistant strains. With better understanding of bacterial communication networks and mechanisms, many quorum quenching methods have been developed against various clinically significant bacterial pathogens. In particular, Gram-negative bacteria are an important group of pathogens, because, collectively, they are responsible for the majority of
...LA JOLLA CALIFORNIA OCT. 30 2007 -- In hopes of combating the growi...The work was published in the October 29 issue of the journal Chemistr...Staph and other infections are becoming increasingly deadly because ma...The bacterial infection process is dependent on a sort of chemical con...,Scripps,research,team,blocks,bacterial,communication,system,to,prevent,deadly,staph,infections,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Microtiter plate-based bacterial biofilm assay is frequently used to study bacterial biofilm development and growth. While this assay is simple and relatively high-throughput, it frequently shows difficulty in establishing robust biofilm attachment in the wells. We report that the consistency of bacterial biofilm a
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices, said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.. It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can only be seen through a microscope. However, bacteria have evolved ways to gather into ...
In 1975 our laboratory reported that a methylated membrane protein is involved in bacterial chemotaxis (Kort et al., 1975). It is now known that the extent of methylation of this protein (called MCP...
Viruses are being redefined as more than just pathogens. They are also critical symbiotic partners in the health of their hosts. In some cases, viruses have fused with their hosts in symbiogenetic relationships. Mutualistic interactions are found in plant, insect, and mammalian viruses, as well as with eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, and some interactions involve…
In a recent study a new role of cAMP was described (A synthetic Escherichia coli communication system mediated by extracellular cyclic AMP (publication in progress). This system is involved in bacterial communication. We used this module to allow communications within our bacteria ...
In a recent study a new role of cAMP was described (A synthetic Escherichia coli communication system mediated by extracellular cyclic AMP (publication in progress). This system is involved in bacterial communication. We used this module to allow communications within our bacteria ...
Bacterial Biofilms von Tony Romeo und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
This year-long proof of concept explores the interplay between bacterial communication circuits and the surface topology of the substrate they are on, to see if certain designed surface features can be made to trigger genetic development switches. Differentiation due to a diffusible chemical signal is central in the development of multicellular organisms. Success in replicating this strategy on a synthetic structure enables a spatially programmable consortium of bacterial cells. Our aims were to enable the self-assembly of multicellular microbial films on the surface of synthetic silicon and polymer forms to form hybrid constructs, generation of construct polarity in gene expression driven by the topology of the synthetic form, and size control of the assembled multicellular film. These achievements would enable our long term vision, which is to create a micro scale, programmable cellular-synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environments. These ...
keywords = {Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Cell Surface, Flagella, Flagellin, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Toll-Like Receptors ...
Stoodley P, Wilson S, Cargo R, Piscitteli C, Rupp CJ, Detachment and other dynamic processes in bacterial biofilms, in Surfaces in Biomaterials 2001 Symposium Proceedings, pp. 189-192, Surfaces in Biomaterials Foundation, Minneapolis ...
Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC ® 15444D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Hyphomonas neptunium strain 14-15 TypeStrain=True Application:
Tumbling and swimming motility of a flagellated rod are illustrated using 3D animation, one of many videos available for the classroom or broadcast.
Rajagopala, S.V.; Titz, B.; Goll, J.; Parrish, J.R.; Wohlbold, K.; McKevitt, M.T.; Palzkill, T.; Mori, H.; Finley, R.L.; Uetz, P ...
Many species of bacteria actively propel themselves in a low Reynolds number environment via the rotation of one or more flagella. At the base of each flagella, you find Natures version of the rotary motor, called the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM). At a diameter of 50 nm and composed of about a dozen different proteins, the BFM is able to rotate at hundreds of hertz, change direction within milliseconds, and attain very high thermodynamic efficiencies. Moreover, the motor can sense the environmental conditions and dynamically adapt its power output accordingly. This talk will introduce some of the basic physical mechanisms underlying the operation of this remarkable molecular machine which drives bacterial motility, with a particular focus on the motors ability to sense its mechanical environment.. ...
De Mot, R., and Vanderleyden, J. (1994) The C-terminal sequence conservation between OmpA-related outer membrane proteins and MotB suggests a common function in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, possibly in the interaction of these domains with peptidoglycan. Mol Microbiol 12: 333-334 ...
Breast cancer is a threat to men and women worldwide. Like all cancers, the known causes are attributed to genetics and carcinogens, but recently, scientists have begun to recognize the microbiome as another contributing factor. Historically, breast tissue had been thought to be sterile, but it has become increasingly evident that microbes may both move to and reside in the breast tissue and nipple ducts.. Building on the recent discovery of Escherichia and Bacillus bacteria in the breast tissue, researchers published a study in PLOS ONE illustrating the role bacterial communication may play in breast tumor progression.. Bacteria have a system of communicating with each other called quorum sensing, where they may release hormones, lactones, or peptides that act as chemical signals to elicit a specific response in other bacteria. Quorum sensing peptides and bacteria themselves can travel in the blood stream, and this may allow for both the peptides and bacteria from other areas of the body to ...
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Bacterial cell-to-cell signalling has emerged as a new area in microbiology. Individual bacterial cells communicate with each other and co-ordinate group activities. Although a lot of detail is known about the mechanisms of a few well-characterized bacterial communication systems, other systems have …
Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells treated for up to 20 hours with 3,4-(di)hydroxy-heptyl-quinoline (PQS), a bacterial intercellular signaling molecule. Results provide insight into the role of PQS in the bacterial communication system termed quorum sensing. ...
In his first five years, the chemical biologist has led important research on bacterial communication and raised the bar for grant funding
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A team of researchers with members from the U.S., Germany and Sweden has discovered that the cellulose found in bacterial biofilms differs from the cellulose in plants. In their paper published in the journal Science, the ...
Exospores 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, television, and games.
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
A community-based life style is the normal mode of growth and survival for many bacterial species. These cellular accretions or biofilms are initiated upon reco
Gliding Cyanobacterial filaments A thin slime sheath, external to the oscillin layer, encloses the cell or filament. Cyanobacteria may be immotile, or they move
In this video the concept of irreducible complexity is discussed as a obstacle to the theory of natural selection. In irreducible complexity, a system requires the existence of its unique parts in order to function. A non-biological example of this is the common mousetrap. Each component of the mousetrap is required in order for it to operate appropriately. The biological example of irreducible complexity is the bacterial flagellum. Natural selection, cannot explain the existence of the bacterial flagellum where the concept of irreducible complexity challenges its theory ...
This weeks post at Design Disquisitions is the first in a series of articles entitled Critics Corner where I focus on a critic of ID. The main purpose of these posts is to document their work relevant to ID and also to document the direct responses to the particular critic in question, by those sympathetic to […]. ...
Harmful bacteria are often associated with the toxins they use on their hosts. It is generally believed that the greater the toxicity the more severe is the
CamStent Ltd is an emerging medical materials company based in Cambridge, UK. We are focused on building revenues through the...
Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease pathogenesis, in-situ bioremediation and marine biogeochemistry. And therefore, studying bacterial chemotaxis is of significant importance to scientists and engineers alike. Microfluidics has revolutionized the way we study the motile behavior of cells by enabling observations at high spatial and temporal resolution in carefully controlled microenvironments. This thesis aims to explore the potential of microfluidic technology in studying bacterial behavior by investigating different aspects of bacterial chemotaxis on a microfluidic platform. We quantified population-scale transport parameters of bacteria using videomicroscopy and cell tracking in controlled chemoattractant gradients. Previously, transport parameters have been derived theoretically from single-cell swimming behavior ...
immune Uncategorized Bosutinib, LDHAL6A antibody Bacterial biofilm has been shown to play a role in delaying wound healing of chronic wounds, a major medical problem that results in significant healthcare burden. gradually cleared from your wounds while the presence of (part of the normal mouse pores and skin flora) improved. Scabs from all unhealed wounds contained 107 study of bacterial biofilm reactions to sponsor defenses and the effects of biofilms on sponsor wound healing pathways. It may also be used to test anti-biofilm strategies the treatment of chronic wounds. spp., and [5C7] have been isolated from chronic wounds, even though the wound may not display any medical indications of localized illness. Multiple bacterial varieties, usually two to five varieties, reside concurrently on a single ulcer [7C9]. The chronicity of unhealed wounds is definitely associated with higher proportion of colonization by anaerobic bacteria and greater variety of aerobic varieties [5]. More recent studies ...
RICHARDSON, Texas (March 29, 2006) - A research associate and a professor at The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) have been awarded a three-year, $240,000 grant to study how bacterial communication affects the formation of biofilms, the culprit in many human bacterial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded the grant to Dr. Audry Almengor, research associate, and Dr. Juan E. González, associate professor, in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. The grant supports Almengors postdoctoral work at UTD.. This is a very important area of study, since most of the bacteria that interact with animals or plants attach to surfaces, where they form biofilms, González said. Biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that attach themselves to either an inert or living surface, and they exist wherever surfaces contact water. In addition to being implicated in a significant number of human bacterial infections, biofilms can also cause product contamination and even ...
Some bacteria boast a marvelous swimming device, the flagellum, which has no counterpart in more complex cells. In 1973 it was discovered that some bacteria swim by rotating their flagella. So the bacterial flagellum acts as a rotary propellor -- in contrast to the cilium, which acts more like an oar.. The structure of a flagellum is quite different from that of a cilium. The flagellum is a long, hairlike filament embedded in the cell membrane. The external filament consists of a single type of protein, called flagellin. The flagellin filament is the paddle surface that contacts the the liquid during swimming. At the end of the flagellin filament near the surface of the cell, there is a bulge in the thickness of the flagellum. It is here that the filament attaches to the rotor drive. The attachment material is comprised of something called hook protein. The filament of a bacterial flagellum, unlike a cilium, contains no motor protein; if it is broken off, the filament just floats stiffly in ...
Host-pathogen interactions are like an arms race, in which the outcome of the encounter is determined by the dynamic interplay between the bodys (the host) responses, which aim to eliminate the pathogen, and the countermeasures that pathogens employ to avoid eradication. Thus, to understand host-pathogen interactions, both sides of this war should be studied simultaneously. In the laboratory we study both the bacterial and the host adaptation strategies engaged during the course of infection, focusing on: 1) How the host spies on bacterial communication systems and what are the sensors and mechanisms involved, with a major focus is on an important host receptor recently discovered to be able to sense bacterial infection, the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). 2) How the bacteria reacts and adapts to host derived responses. ...
Building natures extraordinary machines - new insights, new technologies Lawrence Lee and his team are building natures extraordinary molecular machines such as the bacterial flagellar motor − a rotary engine that can rotate five times faster than an F1 engine. They hope to uncover one of Natures best-kept secrets − how so many brainless molecules self-assemble into sophisticated nanoscopic machines. These machines often surpass man-made technologies with their function, efficiency, scale and robustness.
The flow cell biofilm system is an important and widely used tool for the in vitro cultivation and evaluation of bacterial biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions of flow. This paper provides an introduction to the background and use of such systems, accompanied by a detailed guide to the assembly of the apparatus including the description of new modifications which enhance its performance. As such, this is an essential guide for the novice biofilm researcher as well as providing valuable trouble-shooting techniques for even the most experienced laboratories. The adoption of a common and reliable methodology amongst researchers would enable findings to be shared and replicated amongst the biofilm research community, with the overall aim of advancing understanding and management of these complex and widespread bacterial communities.. ...
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Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Turnover of Endogenous SsrA-tagged Proteins Mediated by ATP-dependent Proteases in Escherichia coli*[S with combining enclosing square]: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2516991 ...
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Roberts, M.A.J. and August, E. and Hamadeh, A. and Maini, P. K. and McSharry, P. E. and Armitage, J. P. and Papachristodoulou, A. (2009) A model invalidation-based approach for elucidating biological signalling pathways, applied to the chemotaxis pathway inR. sphaeroides. BMC Systems Biology, 3 (3). pp. 1-14. ...
Motility is achieved in most bacterial species by the flagellar apparatus. It consists of dozens of different proteins with thousands of individual subunits. The published literature about bacterial chemotaxis and flagella ...
This phenomenon was termed "autoinduction" because it involved a molecule (autoinducer) that accumulated in a growth medium and ... As the density of quorum sensing bacterial cells increases so does the concentration of the autoinducer. Detection of signal ... Sporulation, on the other hand, is a physiological response of B. subtilis to depletion of nutrients within a particular ... Quorum sensing is a phenomenon that allows both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to sense one another and to regulate a ...
Johne's disease is a bacterial disease that causes parts of the body to progressively become weaker. It tends to occur in ... where analogies are drawn from the phenomenon to human illness. The experiments of Brown and Harvey in 1939 with the myotonic ... of Brown and Harvey in 1939 with the myotonic goat made a major contribution to the understanding of the physiological basis of ... goat made a major contribution to the understanding of the physiological basis of this condition and influenced many other ...
Jayaraman R (2008). "Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon" (PDF). J Biosci. 33 (5): 795-805. doi: ... Persister cells have entered a non- or extremely slow-growing physiological state which makes them insensitive (refractory or ... Bacterial multidrug or antibiotic tolerance poses medically important challenges. It is largely responsible for the inability ... Multidrug tolerance can be caused by a reversible physiological state in a small subpopulation of genetically identical cells, ...
Physiological inability to close the eyelids during sleep (nocturnal lagophthalmos) may also cause exposure keratopathy. ... A weak bell phenomenon may result in exposure keratopathy after ptosis surgery. Postoperative lagophthalmos following ... Corneal ulceration may develop due to bacterial invasion. Main complication of exposure keratopathy is permanent vision loss ...
Bacterial resistance to phages puts pressure on the phages to develop stronger effects on the bacteria. The Red Queen ... In the mid 1910s, when phage were first discovered, the concept of phage was very much a whole-culture phenomenon (like much of ... and physiological ecology under the heading of phage "organismal" ecology. However, as noted, these subdisciplines are not as ... As a rule of thumb, many phage biologists expect that phage population densities will exceed bacterial densities by a ratio of ...
Jayaraman, R (December 2008). "Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon". Journal of Biosciences. 33 (5 ... Antibiotic tolerance can be caused by a reversible physiological state in a small subpopulation of genetically identical cells ... The formation of bacterial persisters is now known to be a common phenomenon that can occur by the formation of persister cells ... Recognition of bacterial persister cells dates back to 1944 when Joseph Bigger, an Irish physician working in England, was ...
Chemical Genomics Centre (CGC) Official site Federation European Physiological Societies Official site European Federation for ... researchers identify and develop new tools for the investigation of biologically relevant processes and phenomena. Rabinbach, ... attention is given to the investigation into the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction and the infection with bacterial ...
Bacterial circadian rhythms Biological clock (aging) Circadian rhythm Circannual cycle Circaseptan, 7-day biological cycle ... Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines timing processes, including periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms, ... a roughly 24-hour cycle shown by physiological processes in all these organisms. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa ... They have even been found in bacteria, especially among the cyanobacteria (aka blue-green algae, see bacterial circadian ...
Lenski chose an E. coli strain that reproduces only asexually, lacks any plasmids that could permit bacterial conjugation, and ... nor did the physiological characteristics in transport assays of Hall's Cit+ mutants match those to be expected for aerobic ... evolution has presented new phenomena to study, and as technology and methodological techniques have advanced. The use of E. ... and physiological levels. The bacteria can also be frozen and preserved while remaining viable. This has permitted the creation ...
ESA Molecular and physiological analysis of bacterial samples isolated from manned spacecraft (SAMPLE) - ESA SAMPLE - ESA Study ... Observation of environmental phenomena (IMEDIAS) A demonstration of physical phenomena in space. (VIDEO) Amateur Radio on ISS ( ... Molecular and physiological analysis of bacterial samples isolated from manned spacecraft (SAMPLE) SAMPLE Study of the ... ESA Physiological parameters that predict orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight (AORTA) - ESA Physiological parameters that ...
The phenomenon of immune tolerance was first described by Ray D. Owen in 1945, who noted that dizygotic twin cattle sharing a ... Oral tolerance may depend on the same mechanisms of peripheral tolerance that limit inflammation to bacterial antigens in the ... Reactions are mounted, however, to pathogenic microbes and microbes that breach physiological barriers. Peripheral mucosal ... It is used to describe the phenomenon underlying discrimination of self from non-self, suppressing allergic responses, allowing ...
Eur J Neurosci 8: 2428-2439 Klink R., de Kerchove d'Exaerde A., Zoli M., Changeux J.-P. (2001). Molecular and Physiological ... During the 1970s, he tried to document this phenomenon, either by studying mutant animals or by experimental denervation. While ... of a bacterial homolog in the open and resting conformations supporting the concept of a symmetrical concerted opening for ... Dehaene S., Sergent C., Changeux J.-P. (2003) A neuronal network model linking subjective reports and objective physiological ...
"We did not set out with the idea in mind of studying the immunological consequences of the phenomenon described by Owen; on the ... Oral tolerance may depend on the same mechanisms of peripheral tolerance that limit inflammation to bacterial antigens in the ... Immune tolerance encompasses the range of physiological mechanisms by which the body reduces or eliminates an immune response ... The phenomenon of immune tolerance was first described by Ray D. Owens in 1945, who noted that dizygotic twin cattle sharing a ...
This topic was finally able to be studied thoroughly under physiological shear stress conditions using a typical flow chamber.[ ... Thomas WE, Trintchina E, Forero M, Vogel V, Sokurenko EV (June 2002). "Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear ... Selectins (E-selection, L-selection, and P-selectin) were found to be involved in this phenomenon. The shear threshold ... Thomas WE, Trintchina E, Forero M, Vogel V, Sokurenko EV (June 2002). "Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear ...
By contrast, in vivo experiments can provide information about the physiological role of a protein in the context of a cell or ... Lectins typically play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins.[35] Receptors and hormones are ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods (San Diego, Calif.). 20 ...
Some complexities of bacterial regulation and metabolism suggest that other, more subtle, purposes for the enzyme may also play ... ALP has the physiological role of dephosphorylating compounds. The enzyme is found across a multitude of organisms, prokaryotes ... In such a case, the phenomenon is referred to as intragenic complementation. E. coli alkaline phosphatase, a dimer enzyme, ... Higher levels are seen in the physiological response, the leukemoid reaction, and in pathologies that include mature white ...
This parallels the phenomenon of osteophagy in birds, in which snail shells are ingested by egg-laying females to supplement ... Over the next several years, he was able to show that a bacterial strain living in the decomposing carcasses, Clostridium ... Therefore, it would be expected that the increased physiological needs of juvenile and gravid female tortoises would also ... This lack of protein during winter conditions can be attributed to the scarcity of animal proteins, a phenomenon that occurs in ...
The phenomenon has long been known in animals and plants. Heterosis appears to be largely due to genetic complementation, that ... "Physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D". Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ... In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. Its ...
... a common and benign phenomenon. Physiological afterimages appear when viewing a bright stimulus and shifting visual focus. For ... Arnold, RW; Janis, B; Wellman, S; Crouch, E; Rosen, C (Jan-Mar 1999). "Palinopsia with bacterial brain abscess and Noonan ... Physiological afterimages are usually the complementary color of the original stimulus (negative afterimage), while palinoptic ... entoptic phenomena, and cerebral polyopia.[citation needed] Posterior visual pathway cortical lesions (tumor, abscess, ...
... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... bacterial infections and mycoses C02 - virus diseases C03 - parasitic diseases C04 - neoplasms C05 - musculoskeletal diseases ... chemical and pharmacologic phenomena G13 - genetic phenomena G14 - genetic structures H - Physical Sciences H01 - natural ... psychological phenomena and processes F03 - mental disorders F04 - behavioral disciplines and activities G - Biological ...
The transfer of bacterial DNA is under the control of the bacteriophage's genes rather than bacterial genes. Conjugation in the ... For a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine donor DNA into its own chromosome, it must first enter a special physiological ... a phenomenon known as quorum sensing. Biofilms may be highly heterogeneous and structurally complex and may attach to solid ... Other aspects of bacterial cooperation-such as bacterial conjugation and quorum-sensing-mediated pathogenicity, present ...
Another observed metabolic phenomenon is the cooperation between Geobacter species, in which several species cooperate in ... Detailed functional genomic/physiological studies on one species, G. sulfurreducens was conducted. Genome-based models of ... Geobacter species are anaerobic respiration bacterial species which have capabilities that make them useful in bioremediation. ... several Geobacter species that are able to predict physiological responses under different environmental conditions are ...
In 1889, German physiologist Max Verworn applied a low-level direct current to a mixture of bacterial species and observed that ... a phenomenon which he coined galvanotaxis. Dineur used a zinc-copper cell to apply a constant current to the abdominal cavity ... Physiological Reviews. 85 (3): 943-978. doi:10.1152/physrev.00020.2004. PMID 15987799. The dictionary definition of ...
... cellular phenomena, seeding and sorting of single cells, and recapitulation of physiological parameters Integration of ... and bacterial cells. A challenge in optical detection is the need for integrating detectors and photodiodes in a miniaturized ... Manipulation of small fluid droplets occurs via electrowetting, which is the phenomenon where an electric field changes the ... and portable applications in developing countries An interesting approach combining electrokinetic phenomena and microfluidics ...
One factor in deployment is low level physiological control by proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 triggered by bacterial ... incorporation of cost-benefit calculations into body regulation provides a science grounded approach to mind-body phenomena ... The brain controls such physiological process through top-down regulation. External treatment and the availability of support ... Noakes TD (June 2000). "Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance ...
Postpartum physiological changes Postpartum care Postpartum confinement, a period of rest Romano, Mattea; Cacciatore, ... Postpartum thyroiditis is a phenomenon observed following pregnancy and may involve hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism or the two ... are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage. Signs and symptoms usually ...
For instance, penicillin kills bacterial enzymes by inhibiting DD-transpeptidase, destroying the development of the bacterial ... This phenomenon is called positive modulation. Conversely, allosteric binding that decreases the protein's affinity for ... and physiological regulation. The formulation of an inhibitor to mute a protein's function is a common form of pharmaceutical ... and physiological function. Electric charge, steric shape and geometry of the site selectively allow for highly specific ...
This phenomenon is typically described as amyloid polymorphism. It has notable biological consequences given that it is thought ... Bacterial Inclusion Bodies Contain Amyloid-Like Structure at SciVee Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis Amyloid: Journal of Protein ... Many examples of non-pathological amyloid with a well-defined physiological role have been identified in various organisms, ... This phenomenon is important, since it would explain interspecies prion propagation and differential rates of prion propagation ...
The targeted DamID (TaDa) approach uses the phenomenon of ribosome reinitiation to express Dam-fusion proteins at appropriately ... Brooks JE, Roberts RJ (February 1982). "Modification profiles of bacterial genomes". Nucleic Acids Research. 10 (3): 913-34. ... This allows for investigation into developmental or physiological processes in animal models. ... but is widespread in bacterial genomes, as part of the restriction modification or DNA repair systems. In Escherichia coli, ...
Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Invasion of long-established ecosystems by organisms from distant bio-regions is a natural phenomenon, which has likely been ... "Pseudo-nitzschia physiological ecology, phylogeny, toxicity, monitoring and impacts on ecosystem health". Harmful Algae. 14: ... Citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the invasive Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Because of the impacts of this ...
... it recruits autophagy adaptor such as NDP52 leading to the formation of an autophagosome and bacterial degradation.[64] ... de Duve christened the phenomena "autophagy". Unlike Porter and Ashford, de Duve conceived the term as a part of lysosomal ... and that the process was not limited to injury states that functioned under physiological conditions for "reutilization of ... Stimulation of autophagy in infected cells can help overcome this phenomenon, restoring pathogen degradation. ...
A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... The phenomenon occurs naturally but is also frequently mimicked in industry and engineering.. crista. A fold in the inner ... A nutrient required for normal physiological function which cannot be synthesized by a particular organism, either at all or in ... A lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.. flavin adenine dinucleotide ...
Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.[117]. Medicine[edit]. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... Historically, some phenomena not necessarily heritable have also been described as epigenetic. For example, the term epigenetic ... Some human disorders are associated with genomic imprinting, a phenomenon in mammals where the father and mother contribute ...
By contrast, in vivo experiments can provide information about the physiological role of a protein in the context of a cell or ... Lectins typically play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins.[39] Receptors and hormones are ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ...
This phenomenon, where molecule Y affects the binding of molecule X to a transport molecule Z, is called a heterotropic ... Oxyhemoglobin is formed during physiological respiration when oxygen binds to the heme component of the protein hemoglobin in ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ...
Omega-3 may inhibit production of interferon gamma and other cytokines which cause the physiological symptoms of depression. ... Finally, IgA deficiency is also sometimes associated with the development of autoimmune and atopic phenomena. ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients also present with eczema, autoimmune manifestations, recurrent bacterial infections and ... While major depression is not necessarily an autoimmune disease, some of its physiological symptoms are inflammatory and ...
Ideomotor phenomenon - A psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously. *Illusions of self-motion - A ... Sense of balance, also known as Equilibrioception - Physiological sense allowing animals to dynamically maintain an unstable ... and bacterial infections may cause transient vertigo if it involves the inner ear, as may chemical insults (e.g., ... Broken escalator phenomenon - The sensation of losing balance or dizziness when stepping onto an escalator which is not working ...
Apoptosis and autophagy are both forms of programmed cell death, but necrosis was long seen as a non-physiological process that ... Cook, B (1998). "Developmental neuronal death is not a universal phenomenon among cell types in the chick embryo retina". ... "Bacterial Programmed Cell Death and Multicellular Behavior in Bacteria". PLoS Genetics. 2 (10): e135. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ... Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with physiological as well ...
Mindful of Griffith and Avery, Joshua Lederberg confirmed bacterial conjugation -reported decades earlier but controversial- ... a phenomenon never before observed. Avery was initially skeptical of Griffith's findings and for some time refused to accept ... is the study of the disordered physiological processes that cause, result from, or are otherwise associated with a disease or ... upon Ferdinand Cohn's report of a tiny spore stage of a bacterial species, the fellow German Robert Koch isolated Davaine's ...
Complicating the use of aspirin for prevention is the phenomenon of aspirin resistance.[50][51] For people who are resistant, ... often fatal illness associated with the use of aspirin or other salicylates in children during episodes of viral or bacterial ... Physiological Reviews. 88 (4): 1547-65. doi:10.1152/physrev.00004.2008. PMID 18923189.. ... Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ...
This phenomenon was labeled "virus-induced gene silencing" (VIGS), and the set of such phenomena were collectively called post ... RNAi could potentially be used to treat viruses,[136] bacterial diseases,[137] parasites,[138] maladaptive genetic mutations,[ ... Studying the effects of this decrease can show the physiological role of the gene product. Since RNAi may not totally abolish ... After these initial observations in plants, laboratories searched for this phenomenon in other organisms.[198][199] Craig C. ...
An organic disease is one caused by a physical or physiological change to some tissue or organ of the body. The term sometimes ... For example, a primary viral infection that weakens the immune system could lead to a secondary bacterial infection. Similarly ... However, association and causality are two very different phenomena, as a third cause might be producing the disease, as well ... A doctor must determine what primary disease, a cold or a bacterial infection, is causing a patient's secondary rhinitis when ...
Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, whereas many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of ... Immune memory in insects was discovered through the phenomenon of priming. When insects are exposed to non-lethal dose or heat ... as used in immunology is problematic as acquired immune responses can be both adaptive and maladaptive in the physiological ... and most bacterial vaccines require the addition of adjuvants that activate the antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune ...
The usage physiologic race is not to be confused with physiological race.. Sibling species. Also aphanic species. This term, ... a phenomenon called "morphological stasis".[17] As an examples, the Amazonian frog Pristimantis ockendeni is actually at least ... such as bacterial strains or plant varieties), but this is not a species complex. ... For the mycology and phytopathology informal classification, see Race (biology) § Physiological race. ...
Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts. ... "Top Strip Club" lists in some media have demonstrated that U.S.-style striptease is a global phenomenon and that it has also ... There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as ... Sexual activity usually results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced ...
This same phenomenon can cause significant over-reporting of B12 content in other types of foods as well.[11] ... Instead, it measures a bacterial response to the food. Chemical variants of the B12 vitamin found in plant sources are active ... Stipanuk, M.H. (2006). Biochemical, physiological, molecular aspects of human nutrition (2nd ed.). St Louis: Saunders Elsevier ...
The term algal bloom or harmful algal bloom has since replaced red tide as the appropriate description of this phenomenon. ... oxygen depletion of the water column (hypoxia or anoxia) from cellular respiration and bacterial degradation ... Physiological response to water immersion. *Physiology of decompression. *Pulmonary circulation. *Respiration (physiology) ... HABs occur in many regions of the world, and in the United States are recurring phenomena in multiple geographical regions. The ...
fingers turning white or blue when cold (Raynaud's phenomenon). Criteria for individual diagnosis. Some people, especially ... studies show that social support is a modulating factor which buffers against SLE-related damage and maintains physiological ... Raynaud's phenomenon, and psychiatric symptoms. Males tend to have more seizures, kidney disease, serositis (inflammation of ... "Shrinking lung syndrome as a manifestation of pleuritis: a new model based on pulmonary physiological studies". The Journal of ...
Analysis of bacterial genomes has shown that a substantial amount of microbial DNA consists of prophage sequences and prophage- ... phenomena such as heterosis (hybrid vigour), epistasis (effect of one gene on another), pleiotropy (one gene affecting more ... studies have demonstrated how these sequences could be used very successfully to infer important ecological and physiological ... Bacteriophages have played and continue to play a key role in bacterial genetics and molecular biology. Historically, they were ...
... that is a sequela or complication of some other disease or underlying cause (root cause). Bacterial infections can be ... An organic disease is one caused by a physical or physiological change to some tissue or organ of the body. The term sometimes ... Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma. ... a stage in the history of a pathological condition that begins with anatomical or physiological changes that are sufficient to ...
The usage physiologic race is not to be confused with physiological race.. Sibling species. Also called aphanic species. This ... a phenomenon known as "morphological stasis".[17] For example, the Amazonian frog Pristimantis ockendeni is actually at least ... such as bacterial strains or plant varieties), that is complex but it is not a species complex. ...
Some anticodons can pair with more than one codon due to a phenomenon known as wobble base pairing. Frequently, the first ... Soma, Akiko (2014). "Circularly permuted tRNA genes: their expression and implications for their physiological relevance and ... "Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-6738. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC ... "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding". Science. 332 (6032): 981-984. Bibcode ...
Molecular Biology of Bacterial Viruses. WH Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA. ASIN: B002OXAPMO ... Physiological studies on conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 375-394. ... Weigle also demonstrated the inducible nature of DNA damage-response genes in bacteria, a phenomenon that has come to be known ... 96). What he discovered was that when, after UV irradiation, two or more "dead" phage entered the same bacterial cell, they ...
This article is about the physiological process of healing. For other uses, see Healing (disambiguation). ... After inflammation has damaged tissue (when combatting bacterial infection for example) and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids have ... that the client is able to lead a normal or fulfilling existence without being overwhelmed by psychopathological phenomena. ...
That phenomenon may be caused most commonly by greasy, hard-to-wipe-off fecal matter, but occasionally also from anal leakage ( ... These include celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth, tropical sprue, Giardiasis (a protozoan parasite infection), Zollinger- ... Place, A. R. (1992). "Comparative aspects of lipid digestion and absorption: Physiological correlates of wax ester digestion". ...
The transposable P elements, also known as transposons, are segments of bacterial DNA that are transferred into the fly genome ... a significant but neglected phenomenon for understanding Drosophila climatic adaptations". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 18 ... Most often lower developmental temperatures reduce growth rates which influence many other physiological factors.[101] For ...
The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation. ... Scaly, flaking, itchy nipple - This is most often due to eczema or a bacterial or fungal infection. This change is not expected ... Reynauld phenomena of the nipple[22]. *Flat nipple[34]. Surgery. A nipple-sparing/subcutaneous mastectomy is a surgical ...
"Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacterial Physiological ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomena*Bacterial Physiological Phenomena. *Phenomena, Bacterial Physiological. *Bacterial ... "Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" by people in Profiles.. * Nair RR, Vasse M, Wielgoss S, Sun L, Yu YN, Velicer GJ. Bacterial ... "Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
"Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" was a ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomena*Bacterial Physiological Phenomena. *Phenomena, Bacterial Physiological. *Bacterial ... "Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" by people in Profiles. ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena * Bacteriological Techniques / methods* * Bacteroidetes / genetics* * Bacteroidetes / ... The vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, ... physiological characterization, and genetic manipulation of the previously uncultured microbes. ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena * Eukaryotic Cells / physiology* * Evolution, Molecular * Membrane Lipids / chemistry * ...
In general, innate and acquired host defense mechanisms act in concert with the resident bacterial flora such that Candida ... Phenomena of bacterial adhesion, p. 3-43. In D. C. Savage and M. Fletcher (ed.), Bacterial Adhesion Mechanisms and ... As the physiological and molecular processes that occur during biofilm formation are studied in greater detail, it is becoming ... Mixed Candida-Bacterial Biofilms. There is mounting interest in the study of Candida-bacteria biofilms formed in vitro. ...
Physiological Phenomena [G07]. *Physiological Processes [G07.700]. *Bacterial Shedding [G07.700.085]. Below are MeSH ... Bacterial shedding in household contacts of cholera patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Oct; 91(4):738-42. ... "Bacterial Shedding" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Shedding" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ...
Bacterial Infections (prevention & control) *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena (drug effects) *Bandages. *Cell Survival (drug ... in simulated wound exudates fluid and antibacterial effectiveness of the eluted mafenide was tested on a range of bacterial ...
Bottom Line: There are many different kinds of signal molecules in the bacterial community.In this article, different methods, ... Bottom Line: There are many different kinds of signal molecules in the bacterial community.In this article, different methods, ... Extraction, purification and identification of bacterial signal molecules based on N-acyl homoserine lactones. ... Extraction, purification and identification of bacterial signal molecules based on N-acyl homoserine lactones. ...
Therefore, molecular simulation provides a way to observe and explain this phenomenon. Plantaricin A is a 26 amino-acid ... The α-helical structure allows the partitioning into bacterial membrane. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanism ... antimicrobial pheromone peptide and can spontaneously unfold and refold under physiological condition. This study demonstrated ... The α-helical antimicrobial peptides are often unstructured in aqueous solution but become structured on bacterial membrane. ...
Therefore, molecular simulation provides a way to observe and explain this phenomenon. Plantaricin A is a 26 amino-acid ... The α-helical structure allows the partitioning into bacterial membrane. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanism ... antimicrobial pheromone peptide and can spontaneously unfold and refold under physiological condition. This study demonstrated ... The α-helical antimicrobial peptides are often unstructured in aqueous solution but become structured on bacterial membrane. ...
... hPNPaseold-35 is a genuine physiological phenomenon. We have observed that there is a comparable level of hPNPaseOLD-35 upon ... This contrasts with bacterial PNPase in which mutation in the key residues in either of the RPH domains inhibits catalytic ... 1B). These findings indicate that Ad.hPNPaseold-35 generates hPNPaseOLD-35 that is within a physiological range, and the ... Interestingly, the bacterial PNPase does not contain such a signal, whereas the plant PNPase contains a chloroplast ...
In this study, we concurrently measured the physiological structure of bacterial communities and HNF single-cell activities ... In this study, we concurrently measured the physiological structure of bacterial communities and HNF single cell activities ... Grazing regulation of bacterial communities, both of biomass and community structure, have been frequently reported. ... We found that changes in the abundance and proportion of the preferred, highly active bacterial prey, caused by the feeding ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena; *Virus Physiological Phenomena; Axonal Transport; Bacterial Toxins/*metabolism; Blood-Brain ... Some viruses and bacterial toxins interact with membrane receptors that are present at nerve terminals to enter the axoplasm. ...
Microbiological Phenomena [G06]. *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena [G06.099]. *Bacterial Processes [G06.099.112]. *Nitrogen ...
Pathogenic bacteria, stress (Physiology), Bacteria, Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Stress, Physiological. Kidd, Stephen P. ...
The physiological and biochemical bases for this phenomenon were investigated.. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Bacterial strain, growth ...
Bacterial photosynthesis is an ancient phenomenon and widely spread throughout the environment. Sulfur bacteria are exclusively ... Some bacteria can fix CO2 from the environment in the same way that plants and algae do; photosynthesis is the physiological ... 9.) Bacterial Conversion of CO2 to Lipids: A Sustainable Fuel Source; December 2016. cohanlab.research.wesleyan.edu/2016/12/07/ ... This bacterial conversion process avoids the controversial use of carbohydrate feedstocks for biodiesel production and uses ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Francisella tularensis Anti-Bacterial Agents Ribozyme Guided CRISPRi in Human- and Rodent- ...
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena * Francisella tularensis * PHYSIOLOGY OF TEMPERAMENT IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN. Buss, K. ... PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES OF INFANT COLIC. Stifter, C.. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health ... Physiological Adaptive COntrol of Continuous Flow Ventricular Assist Devices. Cysyk, J.. National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... Physiological Disturbances Associated with Neonatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage. Kaiser, J. R.. National Institute of ...
... we extended our analysis to nine additional taxa from across the bacterial domain with diverse physiological characteristics ( ... Table S3). We found that all clades experienced switching, highlighting the phylogenetic breadth of this phenomenon (Fig. 4). ... Regulatory switching is ubiquitous across the bacterial domain. The bacterial species phylogeny based on 29 concatenated ... Bacterial regulatory switching. Yaara Oren, Mark B. Smith, Nathan I. Johns, Millie Kaplan Zeevi, Dvora Biran, Eliora Z. Ron, ...
... in contrast to bacterial pathogens. Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. ... Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has ... in contrast to bacterial pathogens. Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. ... Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has ...
The substrate-binding protein in bacterial ABC transporters: dissecting roles in the evolution of substrate specificity ... Under certain physiological conditions, these rarer mutants may be favoured and, when antibiotic selection pressure is applied ... However, the definition of moonlighting is somewhat imprecise with different interpretations of the phenomenon. True ... P450s with known or suspected physiological functions are present in each of these clades and only a dozen genes appear to have ...
To further characterize the complex phenomena associated with this common bacterial product, we studied differential gene ... Physiological Genomics Published 13 April 2006 Vol. 25 no. 2, 203-215 DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00192.2005 ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Physiological Genomics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... Copyright © 2006 the American Physiological Society. REFERENCES. *↵. [No author listed.] American College of Chest Physicians/ ...
... bacterial SOS responses and increased recombinase activity) can occur in localized regions inside microcolonies. Physiological ... Autolysis has previously been observed in P. aeruginosa isolates (5, 6, 26). In early descriptions of this phenomenon the ... Bacterial viability was determined by using a BacLight LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability staining kit (Molecular Probes Inc., ... Bacterial strains and culture media.P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, obtained from B. Iglewski, was used unless indicated otherwise. ...
... physiological and metabolic levels. Galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and mannose (Man) affected the expression of ... physiological and metabolic levels. Galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and mannose (Man) affected the expression of ... Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions. Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 (serotype 2) and its derivative D39Δcps (A. M. ... The S. pneumoniae physiological responses to Man are far from being understood and should be the focus of future research. In ...
Bacteria, Virulence, Virulence Factors, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Host-bacteria ... Regulation of bacterial virulence. Bacteria, Bacterial genetics, Bacterial toxins, Bacteriophages, Virulence (Microbiology), ... Allergy and Immunology, Bacterial Infections, Bacterial Infections and Mycoses, Bacteriology, Communicable Diseases, ... Bacterial virulence : basic principles, models and global approaches. ...
... as well as the involvement of other cytoskeletal elements in these phenomena. In E. coli and C. crescentus, the MreB helix ... the cell wall is represented as a network composed of crosslinked glycan strands with a physiological distribution of glycan ... 2011) The bacterial actin MreB rotates and rotation depends on cell-wall assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:15822-15827. ... 2005) Bacterial cell wall synthesis: New insights from localization studies. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:585-607. ...
Fair to say, this is pretty much the rule: a huge number of physiological phenomena are waiting for a habitat. Such concerns, ... Much is known about one mechanism that leads to this behavior, termed bacterial programmed cell death. Two E. coli proteins, ... What might such a metabolic enzyme have to do with these higher order phenomena? As noted in a Perspective in Science:. ...it ... For now, this phenomenon joins the long list of those that cannot easily be related to the organisms ecology. ...
... although the physiological significance of this phenomenon has been questioned (Belyy et al., 2010b; Booth et al., 2011). An ... Gating transitions in bacterial ion channels measured at 3 µs resolution. J. Gen. Physiol. 124:151-161. doi:10.1085/jgp. ... Adaptive behavior of bacterial mechanosensitive channels is coupled to membrane mechanics. J. Gen. Physiol. 135:641-652. doi: ... Fusion of bacterial spheroplasts by electric fields. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 819:105-113. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(85)90200-7. ...
Significantly greater bacterial diversity was observed in the cancer samples than in the normal samples. Compared with previous ... Our study revealed drastic changes in surface bacterial communities of OSCC. The findings enrich knowledge of the association ... OSCC lesion surface samples at the species level using next-generation sequencing to comprehensively investigate bacterial ... To unravel the connections underlying oral bacterial dysbiosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cancer lesion samples ...
  • Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA. (harvard.edu)
  • These shifts in the specific cellular activity of HNF occur at a much shorter time scale than population level shifts in flagellate abundance, and offer a complementary mechanism to explain not only the tight coupling between bacteria and HNF, but also the relative constancy of bacterial abundance in aquatic ecosystems. (frontiersin.org)
  • which has been explained by the fact that the predator (HNF) can potentially grow at similar rates as the prey (bacteria), and therefore effectively track the changes in bacterial abundance or biomass ( Fenchel, 1982c ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We then profiled the bacteria within OSCC lesion surface samples at the species level using next-generation sequencing to comprehensively investigate bacterial community composition and functional genes in these samples. (nature.com)
  • Courses in microbial genetics focus on the genetic phenomena and genetic changes in various microbes, such as bacteria or bacterial viruses. (study.com)
  • The goal of this project is to understand the system-wide changes in the proteome of model bacteria that exhibit the phenomenon of wax ester accumulation. (umn.edu)
  • Bacteria realize the ability to communicate by production of quorum sensing (QS) molecules called autoinducers, which regulate the physiological activities in their ecological niches. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell-to-cell communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), acts as a tool that diversifies the physiological activities regulated by bacteria such as motility, biofilm formation and production of virulence factors [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The term QS, coined by Fuqua and colleagues, describes the cell-density dependent phenomenon whereby bacteria produce and respond to high intracellular concentrations of signal molecules inducing concerted physiological process in the bacterial community [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacterial endophytes are defined as bacteria that can be detected at a particular moment within the internal tissues of an apparently healthy host plant [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Quorum sensing is a phenomenon that allows both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to sense one another and to regulate a wide variety of physiological activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). (edu.au)
  • The occurrence of live bacteria beyond the mucosal barrier is known as bacterial translocation. (tribunes.com)
  • Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance determinants, natural molecules closely related to bacterial physiology and consistent with an ancient origin, are not only present in antibiotic-producing bacteria. (amazonaws.com)
  • It has been anticipated that the intrinsic resistome elements have a physiological role in bacteria other than conferring resistance to antibiotics currently used in the clinical practice (Wright, 2007, 2010). (amazonaws.com)
  • The idea that intrinsic resistance is a consequence of the global bacterial physiology was later demonstrated with the study of the intrinsic resistomes of P. Although the origin of antibiotic resistance was mysterious in the past, it has become evident over the last decade that environmental bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics (Wright, 2010). (amazonaws.com)
  • Translocation of intestinal bacteria to ascitic fluid is probably the first step in the development of episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. (bmj.com)
  • 1, 2 SBP probably occurs as a consequence of repeated access of bacteria from the intestinal lumen through a haematogenous route reaching the mesenteric lymph nodes 3, 4 and, eventually, gaining access to ascitic fluid (AF) in a process that has been termed bacterial translocation (BT). (bmj.com)
  • Physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. (osti.gov)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the occurrence of severe diseases is often observed in combination with an overproduction of flotillin, but a functional link between these two phenomena is yet Bacteria organize many membrane-related signaling processes in functional microdomains that are structurally and functionally similar to the lipid rafts of eukaryotic cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • He plans to develop new, physics-based nanometer-resolution tools to guide treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and to improve understanding of how human and bacterial cells interact. (umass.edu)
  • The bacteria-targeted metagenomic analysis revealed different community compositions between the distinct physiological stages of those tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that bacterial communities located close together were more similar in composition than communities located farther apart, and we used the decay of community similarity with distance to show that bacteria can exhibit a taxa-area relationship. (nih.gov)
  • Since aggregated proteins can cause disease, either because they can no longer efficiently perform their physiological function (loss of function) or because they form harmful aggregated species with cytotoxic properties (toxic gain of function) ( 1 ), compounds that prevent, delay, or reverse protein aggregation constitute valuable leads for the development of potential therapeutics. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this report, we took advantage of the tractability of the prokaryotic model Bacillus subtilis to provide evidence for the coexistence of two distinct families of FMMs in bacterial membranes, displaying a distinctive distribution of proteins specialized in different biological processes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multisubunit cell-envelope-spanning structures, ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation machines, which transfer proteins and nucleoprotein complexes across membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, T4SSs are also used for the delivery of bacterial effector proteins across the bacterial membrane and the plasmatic membrane of eukaryotic host cell, thus contributing directly to pathogenicity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, metabolic capabilities, and role in the environment. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-wall structure and growth dynamics are critical to our understanding of bacterial physiology and cell biology, with cell-wall architecture relevant for mechanical interactions with other cells as well as the local microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • We now describe a detailed investigation into the synthetic biology of this man-made protein in a living bacterial organism, and the effect that this protein has on normal cell physiology. (elsevier.com)
  • The latent scorbutic state can then be converted into frank scurvy by infections (and even vaccines), and under such conditions hemorrhagic phenomena are frequent. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • But, the researchers found, early-life exposure to the stress hormone can permanently alter many immune system responses, decreasing the body's ability to ward off bacterial infections and fight tumors. (yale.edu)
  • As adults, for instance, the exposed mice were more susceptible to bacterial infections and tumors than mice without exposure. (yale.edu)
  • Bacterial infections are frequently observed complications arising in patients with cirrhosis, and among them, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is probably the most relevant. (bmj.com)
  • At present, Malvankar says, "Static and dynamic charges are involved in many bacterial infections but right now there is no imaging technique that can monitor their effects. (umass.edu)
  • It is largely responsible for the inability to eradicate bacterial infections with antibiotic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2, bacterial co-infections, and AMR: the deadly trio in COVID-19? (qub.ac.uk)
  • Despite their small sizes, bacterial cells within a host-associated microbial community often form highly structured complexes determined by environmental factors and interspecies interactions. (stanford.edu)
  • However, microbial pathogenesis is often studied in mucus-free environments that lack the geometric constraints and microbial interactions in physiological three-dimensional mucus gels. (nih.gov)
  • The conditions of the vaginal ecosystem's environment is complicated by the proximity of the anus, where microbial proliferation, tight clothes, hindered transpiration, sebum production and area compression from the bodyweight in seated position create maceration phenomena and additional irritation conditions. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This novel accumulation of polyP by C. humicola G-1 in response to acid pH provides further evidence as to the importance of polyP in the physiological adaptation of microbial cells during growth and development and in their response to environmental stresses. (asm.org)
  • 41 ]). PolyP may therefore play an important role in the physiological adaptation of microbial cells during growth and development and in their response to nutritional and environmental stresses ( 3 , 32 , 39 , 45 , 46 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • Options and Limitations in Clinical Investigation of Bacterial Biofilms. (harvard.edu)
  • The differentiated microcolony phenotype has been found in most bacterial biofilms studied to date, including those of Escherichia coli ( 10 ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 14 , 34 ), and Vibrio cholerae ( 65 ). (asm.org)
  • However, much remains to be learned about the ecological and physiological roles of microcolonies in biofilms. (asm.org)
  • We developed fluid-flow and static test systems based on purified mucin polymers, the major gel-forming constituents of the mucus barrier, to understand how the mucus barrier influences bacterial virulence, particularly the integrity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which can become resistant to immune clearance and antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
  • Some viruses and bacterial toxins interact with membrane receptors that are present at nerve terminals to enter the axoplasm. (cnrs.fr)
  • Other researchers have confirmed that non-survivors from meningitis having oxidised whatever AA reserves they had to neutralize bacterial toxins, suffered acute, lethal scurvy. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Bacterial toxins: Offensive, defensive, or something else altogether? (bath.ac.uk)
  • It is now clear that trophic interactions, including viral infection and grazing by unicellular protists, play a major role in regulating the overall bacterial biomass and activity in both the water column and sediments of oceans and lakes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The phenomenon is readily apparent among patients of Lyme disease, caused by a bacterial infection that is transmitted by ticks. (utah.edu)
  • Usually the mucus secretion from nose is watery and colorless, greenish mucus secretion occurs when there is bacterial and viral infection of the sinuses. (tandurust.com)
  • Plant pathology deals mainly with biotic phenomena that interfere with the normal metabolism of plants. (intechopen.com)
  • Proteorhodopsin (PR), a ubiquitous membrane photoprotein in marine environments, acts as a light-driven proton pump and can provide energy for bacterial cellular metabolism. (diva-portal.org)
  • These products must address the female genitalia's complex anatomy, physiological elements and role in body metabolism and reproductive functions. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Physiological and biochemical studies of T. mathranii, including extraction of intracellular metabolites and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis, revealed several bottlenecks in the D-xylose metabolism. (osti.gov)
  • This directed culturing method will greatly aid efforts aimed at understanding uncultured microorganisms, including beneficial symbionts, pathogens, and ecologically relevant microorganisms, by facilitating genome sequencing, physiological characterization, and genetic manipulation of the previously uncultured microbes. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. (eurekaselect.com)
  • One specific physiological change was decreased activity in a key T cell that responds to pathogens and other threats to the host. (yale.edu)
  • Type F and P (type IVA) T4SSs resembling the archetypal VirB/VirD4 system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are considered to be the paradigm of type IV secretion, while type I (type IVB) T4SSs are found in intracellular bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Using Escherichia coli CAB1 and antibiotics of five different classes (ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, streptomycin, and tetracycline), we examine the details of this phenomenon and, with the aid of mathematical models, develop and explore the properties and predictions of three hypotheses that can account for this phenomenon: (i) antibiotic decay, (ii) inherited resistance, and (iii) phenotypic tolerance. (asm.org)
  • Our experiments cause us to reject the first two hypotheses and provide evidence that this phenomenon can be accounted for by the antibiotic-mediated enrichment of subpopulations physiologically tolerant to but genetically susceptible to these antibiotics, phenotypic tolerance. (asm.org)
  • The capture of antibiotic resistance or pre-resistance genes from intrinsic, environmental, or unknown resistomes is a stochastic, unpredictable phenomenon. (amazonaws.com)
  • The goal of this experiment was to choose three colonies from the petri dish that has been exposed to +Amp, and look for any signs of the +Amp resistant gene, blaTEM, within the colonies and decide if this gene does have an impact on bacterial resistance towards the antibiotic. (ipl.org)
  • The formation of persisters is now known to be a common phenomenon that can occur by the formation of persister cells prior to the antibiotic treatment or in response to a variety of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial multidrug or antibiotic tolerance poses medically important challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial cells come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with morphology often linked to cellular behaviors that provide significant selective advantages ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (jove.com)
  • On the other hand, bacterial cells can be kept alive in water which is not proper to maintain epidermal peels for long period of times. (jove.com)
  • We examined the bacterial growth in glycerol cultures while monitoring the metabolic activity of individual cells. (asm.org)
  • We show that a prolonged nongrowing state of the bacterial population can be brought about by a distinct regulatory architecture of metabolic genes when cells face specific nutrients (e.g., glycerol). (asm.org)
  • The phenomenon known as persistence, i.e., the occurrence of a live but nongrowing fraction of cells in a bacterial pool ( 20 ), is one of the most intriguing cases of phenotypic variation. (asm.org)
  • As the density of quorum sensing bacterial cells increases so does the concentration of the autoinducer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hygiene products are needed for the external part of the vagina, where the occlusion triggered by clothes, the residues of dead skin cells and the nutrient materials from traces of urine and other secretions can induce uncontrolled bacterial proliferation. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the occurrence of severe diseases is often observed in combination with an overproduction of flotillin, but a functional link between these two phenomena is yet to be demonstrated. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In this work, we used the bacterial model Bacillus subtilis as a tractable system to study the physiological alterations that occur in cells that overproduce flotillin. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • It also provides evidence of the critical role of these signaling platforms in orchestrating diverse physiological processes in prokaryotic cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • We discovered that bacterial cells control the spatio-temporal remodeling of microdomains by restricting the activation of FloT expression to stationary phase. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The main activity of the fluids group is the theoretical description and numerical simulation of complex fluids, self-organization in active suspensions and biological processes relating to blood flow in the arterial tree, brain aneurysms, diseases of blood cells and bacterial locomotion. (brown.edu)
  • Two hypotheses, termed quorum sensing (QS) and diffusion sensing (DS), have been suggested as competing explanations for why bacterial cells use the local concentration of small molecules to regulate numerous extracellular behaviours. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Persister cells have entered a non- or extremely slow-growing physiological state which makes them insensitive (refractory or tolerant) to the action of antimicrobial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multidrug tolerance can be caused by a reversible physiological state in a small subpopulation of genetically identical cells, similar to a differentiated cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with the ongoing bacterial translocation, this occurs relatively rarely. (tribunes.com)
  • There is compelling evidence that C. albicans and C. dubliniensis form tight associations with specific oral bacterial species, and that these promote adhesion and colonization by mixed-species communities ( 41 ). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the degradation of materials and the release profile of mafenide were investigated in simulated wound exudates fluid and antibacterial effectiveness of the eluted mafenide was tested on a range of bacterial species. (curehunter.com)
  • In the vast majority of bacterial species, the peptidoglycan cell wall is the component of the cell envelope that mechanically dictates cell shape ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to traditional views, recent analyses suggest the involvement of a consortium of microbes, rather than a single species, as causing disease 8 , a phenomenon that has been well characterized for periodontal diseases 9 . (nature.com)
  • However, until recently, limited technical resources were available to study this interaction in detail: only a minority of the bacterial species constituting the microbiota could be cultured in vitro . (inserm.fr)
  • It thus identified a total of 3.3 million different genes, belonging to more than 1,000 different species, the vast majority of bacterial origin. (inserm.fr)
  • Lastly, MetaHIT was the first study to demonstrate the extreme wealth of the intestinal flora, by identifying certain as yet unknown bacterial species. (inserm.fr)
  • In this study, we report the isolation of a QS bacterial isolate C10B from dentine caries. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, molecular simulation provides a way to observe and explain this phenomenon. (scirp.org)
  • These physical principles of cell growth link the molecular structure of the bacterial cytoskeleton, mechanisms of wall synthesis, and the coordination of cell-wall architecture. (pnas.org)
  • This often involves studying the molecular mechanisms for these changes, such as gene transfer and other physiological activities. (study.com)
  • Plant pathologists have been advancing their studies from morphological and physiological to now molecular studies at the gene l. (intechopen.com)
  • This book, Advances in Plant Pathology, attempts to investigate advances in viral, fungal, bacterial, and other diagnostic molecular approaches in various plants. (intechopen.com)
  • Known molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon include genetic changes, epigenetic variations, and feedback-based multistability. (asm.org)
  • Toward increasing the effectiveness of early-stage drug discovery for these conditions, we report a bacterial platform that enables the biosynthesis of molecular libraries with expanded diversities and their direct functional screening for discovering protein aggregation inhibitors. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have recently reported the detection of bacterial DNA in blood and ascitic fluid from patients with advanced cirrhosis, what we consider as molecular evidence of bacterial translocation. (bmj.com)
  • 5 Supporting this hypothesis, in a previous work we detected the presence of bacterial DNA (bactDNA) fragments simultaneously in blood and AF in as many as 32% of patients with advanced cirrhosis and sterile non-neutrocytic AF, 6 a fact that we interpret as molecular evidence of BT. (bmj.com)
  • By using scanning probe microscopy combined with microelectrodes under physiological conditions, we can study these processes mechanistically at the molecular level as well as at the cellular level. (umass.edu)
  • In the present study, we utilized a new molecular method, bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) that can perform diversity analyses of gastrointestinal bacterial populations. (nih.gov)
  • This regulatory mobility enables bacterial genes to access a vast pool of potential regulatory elements, facilitating efficient exploration of the regulatory landscape. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that bacterial genes can rapidly shift between multiple regulatory modes by acquiring functionally divergent nonhomologous promoter regions. (pnas.org)
  • We were hoping to identify genes and physiological pathways responsible for the differences in arthritis severity, with an eventual goal of identifying potential therapeutic interventions," says Janis Weis, Ph.D., U of U professor of pathology and senior author on the study. (utah.edu)
  • My partner and I decided to utilize a bacterial colony sample that does have blaTEM genes as our control group for us to indicate what a blaTEM gel strand would appear in the agarose gel results. (ipl.org)
  • and it has been suggested to have a stronger effect on bacterial biomass, whereas viral lysis is considered to influence more strongly the diversity of their host populations ( Pernthaler, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This a physiological process that does not lead to disease: "portal vein endotoxinemia of gut origin in minute amounts is a normal physiological phenomenon", and "the mesenteric lymph node is the most reliable site to culture for the purposes of monitoring bacterial translocation" (2) . (tribunes.com)
  • Bacterial translocation may also be influenced by the gut eco-system. (tribunes.com)
  • Apparently, bacterial translocation provides the necessary antigenic stimulus for memory persistence. (tribunes.com)
  • Thus, it may be relevant to examine these biofilm bacterial populations for the origins of key multicellular traits that occur in other, more complex organisms. (asm.org)
  • Other viscous polymer solutions did not match the biofilm disruption caused by mucins, suggesting that mucin-specific properties mediate the phenomenon. (nih.gov)
  • We investigate this phenomenon by combining a population dynamic analysis with in vitro experiments. (asm.org)
  • Several studies have shown the immunogenic role of bacterial DNA in vitro, and we hypothesised that the presence of bacterial DNA could activate the type I immune response in peritoneal macrophages from these patients, leading to greater cytokine synthesis (interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, tumour necrosis factor α, and interferon γ) and effector molecules such as nitric oxide. (bmj.com)
  • SDB with heat-stable metabolites of the selected Bacillus gaemokensis strain PB69 significantly reduced subsequent bacterial diseases under in vitro and field conditions and increased fruit yield. (nature.com)
  • The development of pathogenicity is facilitated by endogenous physiological modifications of host immunity, by immunodeficiency diseases, or by iatrogenic factors. (nih.gov)
  • The phenomenon of protein misfolding and aggregation is a defining feature of a wide range of human diseases with very high socioeconomic impact, including neurodegenerative disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cancer ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Once we understand more about how the process works, these generic tools can be applied to develop new treatment approaches to many different bacterial diseases. (umass.edu)
  • Bacterial predator-prey coevolution accelerates genome evolution and selects on virulence-associated prey defences. (harvard.edu)
  • Type IV secretion systems: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and virulence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • AA levels in the spinal fluid of meningitis patients has been negatively correlated with the outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis and thus, its depletion also may be an indicator of a bad prognosis. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • All of the patho-physiological features of haemorrhagic and thrombotic conditions found in bacterial meningitis are seen in AA deficiency states. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Olarte L. Vancomycin Should Be Part of Empiric Therapy for Suspected Bacterial Meningitis. (childrensmercy.org)
  • There are many different kinds of signal molecules in the bacterial community.In this article, different methods, including extraction, purification and characterization of HSLs, are reviewed.The review provides an insight into identification and characterization of new HSLs and other signal molecules for bacterial intercellular communication. (nih.gov)
  • Extraction, purification and identification of bacterial signal molecules based on N-acyl homoserine lactones. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thus, we set out to assess the pneumococcal response to sugars found in glycans and the influence of glucose (Glc) on this response at the transcriptional, physiological, and metabolic levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • What might such a metabolic enzyme have to do with these higher order phenomena? (asmblog.org)
  • Since the physiological agonist of GlpR is G3P, the arrangement of metabolic and regulatory components at this checkpoint merges a positive feedback loop with a nonlinear transcriptional response, a layout fostering the observed time-dependent shift between two alternative physiological states. (asm.org)
  • Significantly greater bacterial diversity was observed in the cancer samples than in the normal samples. (nature.com)
  • The aim of the work was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the structure, diversity, abundance, and composition of endophytic and diazotrophic bacterial community associated with field-grown sweet sorghum. (hindawi.com)
  • The level of N fertilization affected the structure and abundance but not the diversity of the endophytic bacterial communities associated with sweet sorghum plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Nowadays and thanks to the high-throughput sequencing tools and bioinformatics software, knowledge on high bacterial diversity in bacterial communities (metagenome) is increasing. (amazonaws.com)
  • Evaluation of bacterial diversity in the rumen and feces of cattle fed different levels of dried distillers grains plus solubles using bacterial ta. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that SDB treatment with the heat-stable bacterial metabolite effectively elicited immunity and controlled disease in seedlings to whole plants, thereby increasing yield even under field conditions. (nature.com)
  • The ability of peritoneal macrophages to synthesise nitric oxide and levels of all cytokines were significantly increased in patients with bacterial DNA. (bmj.com)
  • Prof. Clemetson's 1989 3 volume texbook on Vit.C showed why bacterial toxin-induced mortality increases with AA depletion. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Up to 15% of the population may be scorbutic (below 0.2mg/100ml serum) and thus at increased risk of bacterial endotoxin toxicity as would many of the impoverished and nutrient-deficient South Auckland populations. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • RAB-5- and RAB-11-dependent vesicle-trafficking pathways are required for plasma membrane repair after attack by bacterial pore-forming toxin. (umassmed.edu)
  • The α-helical antimicrobial peptides are often unstructured in aqueous solution but become structured on bacterial membrane. (scirp.org)
  • The α-helical structure allows the partitioning into bacterial membrane. (scirp.org)
  • We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The physiological changes that occur upon expression of this mutant protein-including loss of membrane potential, chromosome condensation and fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing-point to a PCD mechanism. (asm.org)
  • We here demonstrate the existence of a bacterial PCD pathway that induces characteristics that are strikingly reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptosis, such as fragmentation of DNA, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing. (asm.org)
  • Much is known about one mechanism that leads to this behavior, termed bacterial programmed cell death . (asmblog.org)
  • Recent advances in the study of bacterial gene expression have shed light on the topic of cell-to-cell communication and community behavior that are critical for successful interactions between higher organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • To unravel the connections underlying oral bacterial dysbiosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cancer lesion samples and anatomically matched normal samples were obtained from the same patients. (nature.com)
  • The findings enrich knowledge of the association between oral bacterial communities and oral cancer. (nature.com)
  • This oral bacterial flora plays an essential role in maintaining a normal oral physiological environment and is associated with host health 7 . (nature.com)
  • Grazing not only regulates bacterial biomass in oceans and freshwaters, but also profoundly influences bacterial community structure as well. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ronneau S, Helaine S. Clarifying the Link between Toxin-Antitoxin Modules and Bacterial Persistence. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, we concurrently measured the physiological structure of bacterial communities and HNF single-cell activities during re-growth cultures of natural aquatic communities. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that changes in the abundance and proportion of the preferred, highly active bacterial prey, caused by the feeding activity of their predators (HNF), induced a negative feedback effect on the single-cell activity of these HNF. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a result, within any given bacterial community there is a continuum of physiological states and cell characteristics, which collectively determine the physiological structure of the community ( del Giorgio and Gasol, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cell shape plays a critical role in regulating many physiological functions, yet little is known about how the wide variety of cell shapes are determined and maintained. (stanford.edu)
  • The volume of wax esters produced by the bacterial cell is significantly higher during conditions of nitrogen starvation, when all other media components are identical. (umn.edu)
  • The production of autoinducers generally increases as bacterial cell densities increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, key regulators and executioners of known bacterial PCD pathways were shown not to influence this cell death program. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, our results suggest that the cell death pathway described in this work constitutes a new mode of bacterial PCD. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Programmed cell death (PCD) is a well-known phenomenon in higher eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • His innovative biophysical studies are making important fundamental contributions to the understanding of basic biological phenomena and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund career award offers him the opportunity to develop a new field of inquiry in pathogenic microbiology. (umass.edu)
  • In general, innate and acquired host defense mechanisms act in concert with the resident bacterial flora such that Candida organisms grow and survive as commensals. (nih.gov)
  • This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. (mdpi.com)