Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (1/8526)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (2/8526)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (3/8526)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (4/8526)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (5/8526)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (6/8526)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (7/8526)

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (8/8526)

Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein.  (+info)

Title: Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) of Chlamydia pneumoniae Major Outer Membrane Protein (ompA) mRNA with Bioluminescent Detection. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):B. K. Coombes and J. B. Mahony. Affiliation:Regional Virology and Chlamydiology Laboratory, St. Josephs Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave. East,Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 4A6, CANADA.. Abstract: Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease but the precise role of this intracellular bacteria in the pathogenesis of these diseases is not well defined. Several techniques have been developed for detection of C. pneumoniae in atheromatous lesions, however it remains unclear whether persistent forms of the organism and/or actively replicating bacteria contribute to associated pathology. The aim of this study was to utilize nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) technology together with a highly sensitive aequorin bioluminescent hybridization assay for ...
Journal Article: Small-Molecule Transport by CarO, an Abundant Eight-Stranded beta-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein from Acinetobacter Baumannii ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A set of two monoclonal antibodies specific for the cell surface-exposed 39K major outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae type b defines all strains of this pathogen. AU - Gulig, P. A.. AU - Frisch, C. F.. AU - Hansen, E. J.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Six murine plasma cell hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the 39,000-molecular-weight (39K) major outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae type b were employed in the antigenic analysis of the 39K protein. The initial characterization of the mabs by radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that four of these mabs reacted with antigenic determinants of the 39K protein that are exposed on the bacterial cell surface and accessible to antibody. The other two mabs reacted with antigenic determinants of the 39K protein that are either not exposed on the H. influenzae type b cell surface or not accessible to antibody (internal determinants). A total of 126 clinical isolates of H. ...
Outer membrane proteins are structurally distinct from those that reside in the inner membrane and play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and human metabolism. X-ray crystallography studies on |40 different outer membrane proteins have revealed that the transmembrane portion of these proteins can be constructed from either beta-sheets or less commonly from alpha-helices. The most common architecture is the beta-barrel, which can be formed from either a single anti-parallel sheet, fused at both ends to form a barrel or from multiple peptide chains. Outer membrane proteins exhibit considerable rigidity and stability, making their study through x-ray crystallography particularly tractable. As the number of structures of outer membrane proteins increases a more rational approach to their crystallization can be made. Herein we analyse the crystallization data from 53 outer membrane proteins and compare the results to those obtained for inner membrane proteins. A targeted sparse matrix screen for
OprF is a major outer membrane protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homolog of OmpA from Escherichia coli. The N-terminal domains of both proteins have been demonstrated to form low conductance channels in lipid bilayers. Homology models, consisting of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, of the N-terminal domain OprF have been constructed based on the crystal structure of the corresponding domain from E. coli OmpA. OprF homology models have been evaluated via a set (6 x 10 ns) of simulations of the beta-barrel embedded within a solvated dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer. The conformational stability of the models is similar to that of the crystal structure of OmpA in comparable simulations. There is a degree of water penetration into the pore-like center of the OprF barrel. The presence of an acidic/basic (E8/K121) side-chain interaction within the OprF barrel may form a gate able to close/open a central pore. Lipid-protein interactions within the simulations were analyzed and revealed that
A vast number of studies have been completed on the virulence determinants of Yersinia spp.; however, the focus of many of these studies has been on the virulence plasmid and the plasmid-encoded Type three secretion system. Nevertheless, many chromosomal genes whose products are directly involved in virulence have also been identified. Some of these critical virulence determinants are outer membrane proteins. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria often have important physiological roles; however, some have also been found to be important for pathogenesis. In this thesis, we investigated two Yersinia. pestis outer membrane proteins, Ail and OmpA, and their roles in virulence. We provide evidence that Y. pestis Ail is a highly expressed outer membrane protein that is absolutely essential for Y. pestis to resist the killing action of the complement system present in human blood and tissues, as well as the blood and tissues of other mammalian hosts. Furthermore, Ail was important for ...
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The toxR gene of Vibrio cholerae encodes a transmembrane, DNA-binding protein that activates transcription of the cholera toxin operon and a gene (tcpA) for the major subunit of a pilus colonization factor. We constructed site-directed insertion mutations in the toxR gene by a novel method employing the chromosomal integration of a mobilizable suicide plasmid containing a portion of the toxR coding sequence. Mutants containing these new toxR alleles had an altered outer membrane protein profile, suggesting that two major outer membrane proteins (OmpT and OmpU) might be under the control of toxR. Physiological studies indicated that varying the concentration of the amino acids asparagine, arginine, glutamate, and serine caused coordinate changes in the expression of cholera toxin, TcpA, OmpT, and OmpU. Changes in the osmolarity of a tryptone-based medium also produced coordinate changes in the expression of these proteins. Other environmental signals (temperature and pH) had a more pronounced ...
Drugs and certain proteins are transported across the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria by energy-activated pumps. The outer membrane component of these pumps is a channel that opens from a sealed resting state during the transport process. We describe two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein TolC in its partially open state. Opening is accompanied by the exposure of three shallow intraprotomer grooves in the TolC trimer, where our mutagenesis data identify a contact point with the periplasmic component of a drug efflux pump, AcrA. We suggest that the assembly of multidrug efflux pumps is accompanied by induced fit of TolC driven mainly by accommodation of the periplasmic component.,br/, ...
Cloning and characterization of the major outer membrane protein gene (ompH) of Pasteurella multocida X-73.: The major outer membrane protein (OmpH) of Pasteure
PCR methods.Holland et al. (31) developed a major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-based PCR test that could identify three species of Chlamydia (C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci) using three primer pairs and one restriction enzyme digestion.. Rasmussen et al. (73) described a protocol that amplifies a conserved genus-specific target of the chlamydial MOMP gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion for species identification.. Watson et al. (89) developed a PCR assay based on amplification of the 60-kDa cysteine-rich outer membrane protein genes of C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, and C. trachomatis, followed by species differentiation with four restriction endonuclease digestion enzymes. Similarly, Tjhie et al. (84) developed a general PCR with a target within the MOMP gene. Subsequent species-specific differentiation of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaciwas performed by hybridization of the amplified PCR product with internal probes.. Several of the early methods described ...
Molecular dynamics simulations by Department of Biochemistrys Dr Phillip Stansfeld, in the lab of Professor Mark Sansom, have helped to reveal how bacteria construct a barrier against antibiotics and the bodys immune system.
Khandelwal and colleagues succeeded in identifying the insecticidal factor. The active component was found in a large complex normally associated with the bacterial outer membrane, and was also present in or on outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from the bacterial surface, says Khandelwal. They then searched through OMV components and identified a small (17 kDa) toxic protein. When purified, this protein was toxic to cultured larval cells and directly killed H. armigera larvae. Gene cloning and sequencing showed this protein is related to a class of bacterial outer membrane proteins that form protrusions, called pili or fimbriae, which often help bacteria attach to host cells during infection. Similar to pili proteins, the purified 17 kDa protein self-associated to form oligomers, each of which was connected to the next by a strand. Most importantly, the recombinant 17 kDa protein killed H. armigera larvae, demonstrating its potential as a biological control agent in a world desperately in ...
Dispensable loops shield the functionally-important extracellular loops of the essential Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein LptD from antibody interference.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetric phospholipid. T2 - Lipopolysaccharide bilayers; a Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane mimic. AU - Clifton, Luke A.. AU - Skoda, Maximilian W. A.. AU - Daulton, Emma L.. AU - Hughes, Arwel V.. AU - Le Brun, Anton P.. AU - Lakey, Jeremy. H.. AU - Holt, Stephen A.. PY - 2013/12/6. Y1 - 2013/12/6. N2 - The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a complex and highly asymmetric biological barrier but the small size of bacteria has hindered advances in in vivo examination of membrane dynamics. Thus, model OMs, amenable to physical study, are important sources of data. Here, we present data from asymmetric bilayers which emulate the OM and are formed by a simple two-step approach. The bilayers were deposited on an SiO2 surface by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of phosphatidylcholine as the inner leaflet and, via Langmuir-Schaefer deposition, an outer leaflet of either Lipid A or Escherichia coli rough lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The membranes were examined using ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Studies on the region involved in the transport activity of Escherichia coli TolC by chimeric protein analysis. AU - Yamanaka, Hiroyasu. AU - Tadokoro, Satoshi. AU - Miyano, Masaya. AU - Takahashi, Eizo. AU - Kobayashi, Hidetomo. AU - Okamoto, Keinosuke. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (C) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (Grant no. 14570252) and the scientific grant 2006 from Hiroshima International University, Japan (Project no. 9905833).. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Gram-negative bacteria possess the outer membrane protein TolC which acts as an exit duct across the outer membrane. However, the region involved in the transport activity of TolC has remained unclear. We analyzed this region by creating chimeric TolCs. First, we expressed the genes for TolCs of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (vp-tolC) and Salmonella typhimurium (sal-tolC) in Escherichia coli. The levels ...
Bacterial OMPs are synthesized in the cytosol as precursor proteins with an amino‐terminal signal sequence that guides the proteins to the Sec machinery for crossing the inner membrane and is cleaved off in the periplasm. Periplasmic chaperones then escort OMPs through the aqueous periplasmic space in a partly unfolded state. On reaching the outer membrane, OMPs assemble into a β‐barrel structure and insert into the outer membrane with the help of the BAM complex. The bacterial OMP insertion pathway can be compared to the assembly pathway of MBOMPs from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the outer membrane. MBOMPs are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the intermembrane space by the outer membrane translocator TOM40. The subsequent chaperone‐mediated escort across the intermembrane space and insertion into the outer membrane by the TOB complex is similar to the OMP assembly process. Notably, the BAM and TOB complexes share the homologous β‐barrel proteins BamA and ...
Tohidi, F. and Teymournejad, O. and Taravati, A. and Al Ahmadi, K. J. and Rajabnia, R. (2015) Analysis of important H.pylori Outer membrane proteins by detection of common sequences in exposed areas; in silico study. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 12. pp. 135-143. Tohidi, F. and Teymournejad, O. and Taravati, A. and Al Ahmadi, K. J. and Rajabnia, R. (2015) Analysis of important H.pylori Outer membrane proteins by detection of common sequences in exposed areas; in silico study. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 12. pp. 135-143. ...
Antigen 43 is a unique autotransporter that promote bacterial cell-to-cell aggregation. Antigen 43 can be expressed on the E.coli cell surface in large quantities, up to 50000 copies per cell.[1] The structure analysis of antigen 43 revealed that antigen 43 has an N-terminal signal peptide; an N-proximal passenger domain that is secreted, which could also be called α domain; an autochaperone domain that facilitates folding of the passenger domain; and a C-terminal β-barrel domain that forms an integral outer membrane protein, also called β domain[2]. The passenger domain(αdomain) confers the autoaggregation phenotype and it is bound to the surface via non-covalent interaction with the βdomain. ...
Proteins can be immobilised on surfaces to make arrays with potential uses in tissue engineering, proteomics and point of use diagnostic devices. Outer membrane proteins (OMP) from Escherichia coli have a beta-barrel structure, making ideal protein engineering scaffolds for building arrays. The proteins can be immobilised onto flat gold surfaces by introducing a cysteine residue into their periplasmic turns. The thiol group of the cysteine will form a strong gold-thiolate bond immobilising the OMP to the surface in a specific and correct orientation. The membrane layer is completed by the immobilisatin of a lipid with a thiol head group to the gold surface. Here we use the transmembrane section of the monomeric protein OmpA (TmOmpA). The Z domain of Staphylococcus aureau protein A has been engineered into the N - terminal of a circularly permuted TmOmpA to create the protein ZZctOmpA. The Z domain can bind immunoglobulin G (IgG) at its constant region leaving the variable regions free to bind ...
The gram-negative bacterial envelope is a complex extracytoplasmic compartment responsible for numerous cellular processes. Among its most important functions is its service as the protective layer separating the cytoplasmic space from the ever-changing external environment. To adapt to the diverse conditions encountered both in the environment and within the mammalian host, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species have evolved six independent envelope stress response systems . This review reviews the sE response, the CpxAR and BaeSR two-component systems (TCS) , the phage shock protein response, and the Rcs phosphorelay system. These five signal transduction pathways represent the most studied of the six known stress responses. The signal for adhesion to abiotic surfaces enters the pathway through the novel outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE, and activation on entry into the exponential phase of growth occurs independently of CpxA . Adhesion could disrupt NlpE causing unfolding of its unstable N-terminal
Author: Anbazhagan, V. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-06-10; Title: Incorporation of outer membrane protein OmpG in lipid membranes: protein−lipid interactions and β-barrel orientation.
Allison, Heather, Smith, Darren, Loughnane, Paul, Saunders, Jon and McCarthy, Alan (2004) Identification of an outer membrane protein that enables infection of Escherichia coli by Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophage. In: 155th Society for General Microbiology Meeting, September 2004, Dublin, Ireland. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Danese, P.L., Pratt, L.A., Dove, S.L. and Kolter, R. (2000) The Outer Membrane Protein, Antigen 43, Mediates Cell-to-Cell Interactions within Escherichia coli Biofilms. Molecular Microbiology, 37, 424-432.
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We compare several spectral domain based clustering methods for partitioning protein sequence data. The main instrument for this exercise is the spectral density ratio model, which specifies that the logarithmic ratio of two or more unknown spectral density functions has a parametric linear combination of cosines. Maximum likelihood inference is worked out in detail and it is shown that its output yields several distance measures among independent stationary time series. These similarity indices are suitable for clustering time series data based on their second order properties. Other spectral domain based distances are investigated as well; and we compare all methods and distances to the problem of producing segmentations of bacterial outer membrane proteins consistent with their transmembrane topology. Protein sequences are transformed to time series data by employing numerical scales of physicochemical parameters. We also present interesting results on the prediction of transmembrane ...
Subunit Of Both The ERMES And The SAM Complex; Component Of ERMES Complex Which Acts As A Molecular Tether Between The Mitochondria And The ER, Necessary For Efficient Phospholipid Exchange Between Organelles And For Mitophagy; SAM/TOB Complex Component That Functions In The Assembly Of Outer Membrane Beta-barrel Proteins; Involved In Mitochondrial Inheritance And Morphology; ERMES Complex Is Often Co-localized With Peroxisomes And Concentrated Areas Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a crucial role in the biogenesis, inheritance and dynamics of the organelle and forms the functional and signaling link between mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. This membrane contains a diverse set of proteins that are synthesized in the cytosol and harbor signals that are essential for their subsequent import into mitochondria. We investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the various mitochondrial outer membrane proteins are targeted to mitochondria, inserted into the outer membrane and assembled into functional complexes within the membrane. In addition, we study the mechanisms and components that regulate lipids homeostasis in mitochondria. For our studies we use both yeast and mammalian tissue cultures as experimental systems.. ...
The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a crucial role in the biogenesis, inheritance and dynamics of the organelle and forms the functional and signaling link between mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. This membrane contains a diverse set of proteins that are synthesized in the cytosol and harbor signals that are essential for their subsequent import into mitochondria. We investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the various mitochondrial outer membrane proteins are targeted to mitochondria, inserted into the outer membrane and assembled into functional complexes within the membrane. In addition, we study the mechanisms and components that regulate lipids homeostasis in mitochondria. For our studies we use both yeast and mammalian tissue cultures as experimental systems.. ...
Nair, S A and Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi (2015) Bidirectional water conductivity of E.coli outer membrane lectin(Wzi) is regulated by surface aromatic residues and luminal hydrophobic plug. In: National Symposium on Biophysics and Golden Jubilee Meeting of Indian Biophysical Society, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, 14-17 February 2015, New Delhi, India. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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Bacterial proteins with MCE domains were first described as being important for Mammalian Cell Entry. More recent evidence suggests they are components of lipid ABC transporters. In Escherichia coli, the single-domain protein MlaD is known to be part of an inner membrane transporter that is important for maintenance of outer membrane lipid asymmetry. Here we describe two multi MCE domain-containing proteins in Escherichia coli, PqiB and YebT, the latter of which is an orthologue of MAM-7 that was previously reported to be an outer membrane protein. We show that all three MCE domain-containing proteins localise to the inner membrane. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that MCE domains are widely distributed across bacterial phyla but multi MCE domain-containing proteins evolved in Proteobacteria from single-domain proteins. Mutants defective in mlaD, pqiAB and yebST were shown to have distinct but partially overlapping phenotypes, but the primary functions of PqiB and YebT differ from MlaD. Complementing
Syma Khalid (Investigator) Many bacteria have an outer membrane which is the interface between the cell and its environment. The components of this membrane are well studied at an individual level, but there is a need to model and understand the outer membrane as a whole. In this project we aim to develop such a model of a bacterial outer membrane, linking computer simulations of the component molecules through to a more systems biology approach to modelling the outer membrane as a whole. Such an approach to modelling an OM must be multi-scale i.e. it must embrace a number of levels ranging from atomistic level modelling of e.g. the component proteins through to higher level agent-based modelling of the interplay of multiple components within the outer membrane as a whole. The different levels of description will be integrated to enable predictive modelling in order to explore the roles of outer membrane changes in e.g. antibiotic resistance.. ...
The relationship between iron acquisition and microbial pathogenesis (1, 38, 51, 84, 104) underscores the importance of the role of TonB in cell envelope physiology. Passage of ferric complexes through the OM requires TonB activity, and one theory of this requirement is that TonB participates in transport energetics by capturing proton motive force from the IM (where its N terminus resides) and distributing it to the OM transporters (14, 23, 76, 82, 95). According to the shuttle model of TonB action, it associates with the IM proteins ExbB and ExbD (42, 56), acquires proton motive force-generated energy by an unknown structural transition, and transmits (15) or physically transports (55, 57) the energy across the periplasm to the OM. The proposed interaction of energized TonB with OM proteins entails recognition of ligand-bound receptors and release of the stored force to them by protein-protein interactions between the C-terminal residues of TonB and the TonB box sequence of the LGP (76, ...
We describe a lesion, lamB701-708, affecting the hydrophilic portion of the lambda receptor signal sequence. The C to A transversion of the sixth codon of the signal sequence changes a positively charged arginine to a neutral serine. The phenotype conferred by this alteration is unique among previously described signal sequence mutations. The results suggest an essential role for the charged amino acids of the hydrophilic segment in the initial interaction between a nascent secreted protein and a membrane export site. The results further suggest that synthesis of lambda receptor is coupled to its export ...
The outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria is made up of LPS, and in nearly all bacteria that contain LPS it is essential for the life of the organism. The lipid portion of this molecule, lipid A, also known as endotoxin, is a potent activator of the innate immune response. More than 50 genes are required to synthesize LPS and assemble it at the cell surface. Enormous progress has been made in elucidating the structure and biosynthesis of LPS, but until recently the cellular components required for its transport from its site of synthesis in the inner membrane to its final cellular location at the cell surface remained elusive. Here we describe the identification of a protein complex that functions to assemble LPS at the surface of the cell. This complex contains two proteins: Imp, already identified as an essential outer-membrane protein implicated in LPS assembly; another protein, RlpB, heretofore identified only as a rare lipoprotein. We show that RlpB is also essential for cell viability and
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. Shodhganga Mirror Site ...
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CPn0444 is similar to CT871, CT874, CT413, CT812, CT872, CT414, CT412, CT870, CT869, and CT456. They are predicted outer membrane proteins. CT871 is a predicted pmpG outer membrane protein G. Residues 470-1407 are 28% similar to CT871 ...
22, Table 33. Their outer membrane proteins contain cross- reactive antigens and surface-exposed epitopes that are species specific.
An outer membrane protein T (OmpT) could play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) in human and animals. However, whether ompT plays a role in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompT in APEC pathogenesis. An ompT gene was deleted from APEC mutant strain (TW-XM) was constructed and cha ...
sample_1: KpOmpA transmembrane domain, [U-13C; U-15N; U-2H], 1 mM; DHPC 300 mM; NaH2PO4 20 mM; NaCl 100 mM; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_2: KpOmpA transmembrane domain, [U-13C; U-15N; U-2H]/[L,V,I(delta1)-13CH3], 1 mM; DHPC 300 mM; NaH2PO4 20 mM; NaCl 100 mM; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_3: KpOmpA transmembrane domain, [U-15N; 10% 13C], 1 mM; DHPC 300 mM; NaH2PO4 20 mM; NaCl 100 mM; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_4: KpOmpA transmembrane domain, [U-13C; U-15N; U-2H]/[L,V,I(delta1)-13CH3], 1 mM; DHPC 300 mM; NaH2PO4 20 mM; NaCl 100 mM; H2O 90%; D2O 10%. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 0.1 M; pH: 6.5; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 313 K ...
The 5C outer membrane protein, one of the N. meningitidis class 5 proteins, was preferably expressed in bacteria isolated from the nasopharynx and its role in adhering to the mucosal cells and invading them as well as the development of anti-5C antibodies in healthy carriers was demonstrated.... mehr ...
Michalik, M.; Orwick-Rydmark, M.; Habeck, M.; Alva, V.; Arnold, T.; Linke, D.: An evolutionarily conserved glycine-tyrosine motif forms a folding core in outer membrane proteins. PLoS One 12 (8) (2017 ...
View Notes - cells2 from BIOL 20204 at TCU. II. The Cell- Basic Unit of Life A. Cell or Plasma membrane-found @ outer surface of cell 1. Structure i. Thickness-75 ancryms=3/10,000,000 ii. Fluid
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版outer road是什么意思,outer road的用法,outer road翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
This guide explains all the core attributes of your character in The Outer Worlds, changing which affects your characters abilities and skills
... s are a family of outer bacterial membrane proteins. These are anion-specific porins, the binding site ... Protein pages needing a picture, Outer membrane proteins, Protein families). ...
v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Outer membrane proteins, Protein families, EC 3.4.23, All stub articles, Protein stubs) ... Omptins have been linked to bacterial pathogenesis. Hritonenko V, Stathopoulos C (2007). "Omptin proteins: an expanding family ... Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative enterobacteria such as Shigella flexneri, Yersinia pestis, Escherichia coli, and ... Omptins (EC, protease VII, protease A, gene ompT proteins, ompT protease, protein a, Pla, OmpT) are a family of ...
... s (or LamB porins) are bacterial outer membrane proteins of the porin family. Maltoporin forms a trimeric structure ... v t e (Protein domains, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... which facilitates the diffusion of maltodextrins across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The membrane channel is ...
... is an evolutionarily conserved domain of bacterial outer membrane proteins. This domain consists ... v t e (Protein domains, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... "The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning β- ... Nair MK, Venkitanarayanan K, Silbart LK, Kim KS (May 2009). "Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Cronobacter sakazakii binds ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Outer membrane proteins, Bacterial proteins). ... Outer membrane protein). This complex is responsible in catalyzing folding and insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer ... "Membrane protein architects: the role of the BAM complex in outer membrane protein assembly". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 7 ( ... β-barrel membrane proteins can only be found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and in organelles such as ...
... s (KdgM) are a family of outer bacterial membrane proteins from Dickeya dadantii. The ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR009331 (Protein pages needing a picture, Outer ... membrane proteins, Protein families). ...
Irreversible interaction: bacterial adhesins recognise specific host receptors such as pili and outer membrane proteins. The ... Bacterial transportation: bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ... Cementum is the outer layer of the tooth root; it overlies the dentine layer of the tooth and provides attachment for the ... This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ...
In molecular biology, an autotransporter domain is a structural domain found in some bacterial outer membrane proteins. The ... v t e (Protein domains, Outer membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Leo JC, Grin I, Linke D (April 2012). "Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane". ... The protein is directed to the inner membrane by a signal peptide transported across the inner membrane via the Sec machinery. ...
The comet forms in a polar manner and aids the bacterial migration to the host cell's outer membrane. Gelsolin, an actin ... It induces directed polymerization of actin by the ActA transmembrane protein, thus pushing the bacterial cell around. Listeria ... Abrishami S. H.; Tall B. D.; Bruursema T. J.; Epstein P. S.; Shah D. B. (1994). "Bacterial adherence and viability on cutting ... Laine R. O.; Phaneuf K. L.; Cunningham C. C.; Kwiatkowski D.; Azuma T.; Southwick F. S. (1 August 1998). "Gelsolin, a protein ...
Domestic chickens have been vaccinated against Pasteurella anatis using bacterial outer membrane vesicles purified by ... It is a plasmid that contains a viral, bacterial or parasite gene. The animal's immune system recognises the expressed protein ... "Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles as a Versatile Tool in Vaccine Research and the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance". mBio ... This type of vaccine uses a vector to deliver either one or multiple proteins to the immune system of the animal. Currently, ...
... that the transport proteins called porins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacterial cell ... A membrane lipid cardiolipin is exclusively found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial cell membranes. Some ... Transport proteins called porins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts and are also found in ... The membrane of nuclear envelope and endomembrane vesicles are composed of similar membrane proteins. These vesicles also share ...
... (the tsx gene of Escherichia coli) is an outer membrane protein, Tsx, which constitutes the receptor ... The protein contains 294 amino acids, the first 22 of which are characteristic of a bacterial signal sequence peptide. Tsx ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR003055 (Protein domains, Protein families, Outer ... which encodes a nucleoside-specific channel-forming protein (Tsx) in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli". Gene. 96 (1): 59- ...
However, large proteins must have a specific signaling sequence to be transported across the outer membrane, so the protein ... It is formed as a beta barrel that spans the outer membrane, similar to that in the gram-negative bacterial membrane. Larger ... A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. The two membranes have ... ATP crosses out through the inner membrane with the help of a specific protein, and across the outer membrane via porins. ADP ...
"Rickettsial Outer-Membrane Protein B (rOmpB) Mediates Bacterial Invasion through Ku70 in an Actin, c-Cbl, Clathrin and Caveolin ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... This causes the host cell membrane to protrude outward and invaginate the membrane of an adjacent cell. The bacteria are then ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. This causes the ...
Usually, an endotoxin is part of the bacterial outer membrane, and it is not released until the bacterium is killed by the ... that are in the outer plasma membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Exotoxins are typically proteins with enzymatic activity that ... LSP are structural components of the bacteria's outer membrane that only become toxic to the host as a result of the immune ... "Bacterial Protein Toxins". Retrieved 2022-04-20. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". National Cancer ...
At least 10 protein components of the bacterial flagellum share homologous proteins with the type three secretion system (T3SS ... It is helical and has a sharp bend just outside the outer membrane; this "hook" allows the axis of the helix to point directly ... The similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory system structures and proteins provide scientific evidence ... The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine (Mot complex) made up of protein, located at the flagellum's anchor point ...
The OmpW protein contains features similar to a bacterial TonB-linked outer membrane protein which allows the bacteria to ... The TonB-linked outer membrane protein contains a TonB box that is highly conserved and also present in OmpW. OmpW may play a ... B. caccae contains a TonB-linked outer membrane protein called OmpW that has only been characterized in this particular strain ... "Molecular Cloning of a Bacteroides caccae TonB-Linked Outer Membrane Protein Identified by an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Marker ...
The filled capsids are then coated with the nucleocapsid protein P8, and then outer membrane proteins somehow attract bacterial ... Fusion of the viral envelope with the bacterial outer membrane is facilitated by the phage protein, P6. The muralytic ( ... The spike protein P3 is anchored to a fusogenic envelope protein in P6. P7 is a minor capsid protein, P8 is responsible of ... and the nucleocapsid enters the cell coated with the bacterial outer membrane. A copy of the sense strand of the large genome ...
The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer ... Secretion and subcellular localizations of bacterial proteins: a semantic awareness issue. Trends Microbiol. 17:139-145. doi: ... between these membranes. The presence of both inner and outer cell membranes forms and define the periplasmic space or ... all archetypical gram-negative bacteria are bounded by a cytoplasmic membrane as well as an outer cell membrane; they contain ...
... a lipoprotein which may form a channel in the bacterial outer membrane. Wzb - a cytoplasmic regulatory phosphatase which ... The CPS operon is likely transcriptionally regulated by the Rcs (regulation of capsule synthesis) proteins. Reduced levels of ... Wzc - a tyrosine kinase found in the bacterial inner membrane. Participates in polymerization of capsule polysaccharides. Wzx ... The CPS operon contains genes which code for the following proteins: Wza - ...
... or resistance to diffusion across the bacterial outer membrane. Unlike imipenem, it is stable to dehydropeptidase-1, so can be ... In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, ... It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis like other β-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly ... Meropenem usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to make a cell wall. It is more resistant to ...
In the periplasm a β-barrel domain at the protein's C-terminus inserts into the bacterial outer membrane, forming a channel ... by attaching the protein of interest to a protein which is known to localize to the surface of the bacterial outer membrane. ... These proteins have a signal peptide at the N-terminus which allows them to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ... The rest of the protein threads through this channel across the outer membrane and to the surface of the bacteria. Once it ...
YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... the outer membrane is a barrier for the secretion of proteins, and it requires energy to transport proteins across the outer ... Kostakioti M, Newman CL, Thanassi DG, Stathopoulos C (2005). "Mechanisms of protein export across the bacterial outer membrane ... of the membrane anchor is to oligomerise the stalk domain and to anchor the whole protein to the bacterial outer membrane. All ...
The more outer-membrane protein genes that can be expressed, the higher the chance the organism can avoid being recognized by ... Amblyomma americanum ticks spread E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii bacterial infection in the Eastern and Southeastern United ... With a higher range of outer membrane proteins, the parasite can evade the immune system of the host more effectively and ... The evolutionary changes in the outer membrane proteins have led to the emergence of new strains that can infect a larger ...
F. nucleatum can bind to host tissue E-cadherins via a FadA, an outer membrane protein. Additionally, a surface expressed ... List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Kapatral V, Anderson I, Ivanova N, Reznik G, Los T, Lykidis A, et al. (April 2002). " ... F. nucleatum can also be isolated from the vaginal microbiome, especially in women with a condition known as bacterial ... In many studies, F. nucleatum cells have been isolated from the amniotic fluid, placenta, and chorioamnionic membranes of women ...
Those genes are filtered for desirable attributes that would make good vaccine targets such as outer membrane proteins. Once ... Because those bacterial strains induce antibodies that react with human antigens, the vaccines for those bacteria needed to not ... Later, by addition of outer membrane vesicles that contain lipopolysaccharides from the purification of blebs on gram negative ... This bacterium's polysaccharide shell is identical to that of a human self-antigen, but its surface proteins vary greatly; and ...
... as well as an outer membrane auxiliary protein (OMA; TC #3.C.5). Each Gram-positive bacterial PST system functions in ... auxiliary proteins that allow passage across just the cytoplasmic membrane or both membranes of the Gram-negative bacterial ... The protein members of the PST family are generally of 400-500 amino acyl residues in length and traverse the membrane as ... The ANK protein has 12 membrane-spanning helices with a central channel permitting the passage of PPi. Mutations occur at ...
... investigates the mechanism of action of bacterial proteins based on their spatial structures, which are ... allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase and the translocation of small molecules through the porins of the outer membrane ... transduction of the messenger substrate cyclic di-GMP and the structure-function relationships of bacterial effector proteins ... Official website Schirmer, Tilman (21 June 2005). "Structure-Function Relationships in Sugar-Specific Porins". Bacterial and ...
Wagegg, W; Braun, V (January 1981). "Ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli requires outer membrane receptor protein fecA ... Lenski chose an E. coli strain that reproduces only asexually, lacks any plasmids that could permit bacterial conjugation, and ... This change was partly the result of a mutation that changed the expression of a gene for a penicillin-binding protein, which ... The duplicated segment contained the gene citT for the citrate transporter protein used in anaerobic growth on citrate. The ...
... popularly known as bacterial outer membrane vesicles, released by gram-negative microbes, translocate bacterial signal ... Cholesterol also helps regulate the activity of certain integral membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins function when ... these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. Certain kinds of membrane proteins ... One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps ...
"The phosphocarrier protein HPr of the bacterial phosphotransferase system globally regulates energy metabolism by directly ... NADH are transferred to dihydroxyacetone to form glycerol-3-phosphate which readily traverses the outer mitochondrial membrane ... Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI).[28] Indeed, some proteins interact with and ... 2011) Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism, 3rd edition. *^ a b c Mehta S (20 September 2011). "Glycolysis - Animation and Notes ...
"Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. ... The plant membrane in response to low temperature: an overview. pp. 1-24 in Lyons, J.M.; Graham, D.; Raison, J.K. (Eds.). Low ... 1200 mya).[63][64] The resistant outer walls of prasinophyte cysts (known as phycomata) are well preserved in fossil deposits ... "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part 1): 151-157. doi:10.1042/ ...
... and only the middle one holds the porous membrane. Culture cells were grown on either side of the membrane: human alveolar ... Living E-coli bacteria was used to demonstrate how the system can even mimic the innate cellular response to a bacterial ... The production of urea and steady-state protein proves the viability of this device for use in high-throughput toxicity studies ... the tough outer layer of the epidermis, which is the main barrier to penetration of the surface layer of the skin.[91] ...
The protein to calorie ratio of a beaver's diet is 40 mg/calorie in summer and 8 mg/calorie for the rest of the year. In ... The beaver's fur consists of long, coarse outer hairs and short, fine inner hairs (see Double coat). The fur has a range of ... The eyes are covered by a nictitating membrane which allows the beaver to see under water. The nostrils and ears are sealed ... "Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)". PLOS ONE. 11 ...
... evidence for a novel outer membrane and for intracellular vesicle budding in an archaeon". Archaea. 1 (1): 9-18. DOI:10.1155/ ... Hall-Stoodley L; Costerton JW; Stoodley P (2004). "Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases". ... "DNA-binding proteins and evolution of transcription regulation in the archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (23): 4658-70. DOI ... "The bacterial species dilemma and the genomic-phylogenetic species concept". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ...
Ff phages for phage display is that they require the protein of interest to be translocated across the bacterial inner membrane ... enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... interacting proteins or protein fragments.[citation needed] The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial ...
... as Sulfolobus species maintain a significant pH gradient across the outer membrane. Sulfolobales are metabolically dependent on ... Sulfolobus proteins are of interest for biotechnology and industrial use due to their thermostable nature. One application is ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is ... They are also unique in the sense that the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are constantly transcribed and ...
... absorption has a positive correlation with aquaporins and the uptake of water in plant cells via cell membrane proteins. ... Because of zinc's antibiotic nature, it is often used in many drugs against bacterial infections in humans. Inversely, due to ... measure for oxidative stress by destroying free radicals which are ions that have an unpaired electron in their outer shells. ... Both proteins are tetramer complexes with iron protein complexes called hemes built into each subunit of the tetramer. The ...
... along with an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. Because of their double-membrane envelope, Borrelia bacteria ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Successful infection of the mammalian host depends on bacterial expression of OspC. Tick bites often go unnoticed because of ... The recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi with aluminum ...
Aldehydes inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting the outer membrane. They are used in the disinfection and sterilization of ... Alcohols interfere with the hydrogen bonds present in the protein structure. Alcohols also dissolve the lipid membranes that ... Bacterial spores on the other hand cannot be killed by iodine, but they can be inhibited by iodophors. The growth of ... Bacterial endospores can be killed using this method. Both dry and moist heat are effective in eliminating microbial life. For ...
Hemm, M. R., Paul, B. J., Schneider, T. D., Storz, G. and Rudd, K. E. (2008) Small membrane proteins found by comparative ... the major outer membrane lipoprotein. Genes Dev. 28, 1620-1634. Hobbs, E. C., Yin, X., Paul, B. J., Astarita, J. L. and Storz, ... An early focus of her research was the study of redox-sensitive transcription factors and the bacterial and yeast responses to ... Her research group demonstrated that one such small protein, AcrZ, binds to the multidrug efflux pump protein AcrB to affect ...
Peptides that were translocated across the outer membrane create pores in the cytoplasmic membrane, thereby disrupting the ... Peptides that were translocated into the cell membrane then exert a secondary effect by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is ... The bactericidal properties of arenicin-3 are responsible for its efficacy in inducing a 3-log reduction of E. coli bacterial ... Cationic residues on arenicin-3 interacts with negatively charged lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram-negative ...
"The Xanthomonas Ax21 protein is processed by the general secretory system and is secreted in association with outer membrane ... The first PRR identified in plants or animals was the Xa21 protein, conferring resistance to the Gram-negative bacterial ... The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic proteins, which recognize bacterial peptidoglycans and mount proinflammatory and ... Based on their localization, PRRs may be divided into membrane-bound PRRs and cytoplasmic PRRs: Membrane-bound PRRs include ...
Astral microtubules interact with motor proteins at the cell membrane to pull the spindle and the entire cell apart once the ... consisting of a hollow tube of protofilaments assembled from heterodimers of bacterial tubulin A (BtubA) and bacterial tubulin ... Accordingly, mostly 13 protofilaments form the outer wall of the microtubules. It is also important to note that the ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ...
Armadillo proteins are involved in mediating attachment to intracellular filaments and cell membrane proteins. Armadillo ... The outer dense plaque, which is about 15-20 nm in length, contains the intracellular ends of desmocollin and desmoglein, the N ... Pemphigus can also be caused by a bacterial infection: bullous impetigo is an infection caused by a staphylococcus bacterium ... as it operates as the mediator between the cadherin proteins in the plasma membrane and the keratin filaments. Desmoplakin has ...
... bacterial conjugation - bacterial outer membrane protein - bacterial protein - bacteriorhodopsin - base (chemistry) - base pair ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... membrane glycoprotein - membrane protein - membrane topology - membrane transport - memory B cell - memory T cell - Mendelian ...
... outer membrane proteins such as a sialic acid-modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and immunoglobulin-binding protein-A (IbpA) ... Diagnosis can be made by testing blood, cerebrospinal fluids, joint or pleural fluids for bacterial DNA via PCR or bacterial ... H. somni vaccines are usually killed cells or specific outer membrane proteins but have not been proven to be effective at ... 2,263,857 base pairs with 1,980 protein coding genes) and preputial strain 129Pt (2,007,700 base pairs with 1,792 protein ...
Alternatively, it has been suggested that few proteins 'rivet' the outer and cell membranes together, so that the periplasmic ... Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are vesicles of lipids released from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Surrounding this inner cell membrane there is a second bilayer called the bacterial outer membrane. The compartment or space ... "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles: New insights and applications". Molecular Membrane Biology. 33 (6-8): 125-137. doi:10.1080/ ...
While the outer membrane of E. coli contains porins that are permeable to phosphorylated compounds, the inner membrane does not ... the enzyme is in solution with a smaller amount of proteins than there are in another portion of the cell. The proteins' heat ... Some complexities of bacterial regulation and metabolism suggest that other, more subtle, purposes for the enzyme may also play ... Protein Engineering. 4 (7): 801-4. doi:10.1093/protein/4.7.801. PMID 1798702. Maxam AM, Gilbert W (1980). Sequencing end- ...
These vesicles are produced from the outer membrane of myxobacterial cells and are found in large quantities within bacterial ... Secreted and non-secreted proteins involved in their feeding behaviors, either identified directly or speculatively identified ... Another means for intercellular signaling could be via the exchange of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). ... The bacterial nature of this organism was recognized by Thaxter in 1892, who grouped it among the Chrondromyces. It had been ...
Ng CK, Sivakumar K, Liu X, Madhaiyan M, Ji L, Yang L, Tang C, Song H, Kjelleberg S, Cao B (2013). "Influence of outer membrane ... The biofilm needs bacterial cells to move in a certain manner, while flagella is the organelle which has locomotive function. ... Cytochrome c class protein SO3300 also has an elevated transcription. For example, when reducing U(VI), special cytochromes ... in particular outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. A 2013 study suggested that it is possible to alter particle ...
Pazos M, Peters K (2019). "Peptidoglycan". In Kuhn A (ed.). Bacterial Cell Walls and Membranes. Subcellular Biochemistry. Vol. ... Clarke AJ (September 2018). "The "hole" story of predatory outer-membrane vesicles". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 64 (9): ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Cleavage of the proline- and hydroxyproline-rich proteins of the ... April 2014). "Bacterial autolysins trim cell surface peptidoglycan to prevent detection by the Drosophila innate immune system ...
"Accelerated microevolution in an outer membrane protein (OMP) of the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia". BMC Evol Biol. 10: 10: ... Taylor MJ, Bandi C, Hoerauf A (2005). Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts of filarial nematodes. Advances in Parasitology. Vol. ... Dying microfilariae have been recently discovered to release Wolbachia surface protein that activates TLR2 and TLR4, triggering ... pruritus and common secondary bacterial infections Skin atrophy - loss of elasticity, the skin resembles tissue paper, 'lizard ...
... effects of the bacteria by a mechanism likely associated with the presence of a protein present on the outer membrane of ... Recently, A. muciniphila strain Urmite became the first (evidently) unculturable bacterial strain to be sequenced in its ... "A purified membrane protein from Akkermansia muciniphila or the pasteurized bacterium improves metabolism in obese and diabetic ... Its circular chromosome contains 2,664,102 base pairs and its proteome contains 5644 unique proteins. It colonizes the ...
Protein families, Membrane proteins, Transmembrane proteins, Transmembrane transporters, Transport proteins, Integral membrane ... Bacterial mechanosensitive channels, MscL and MscS, reflect an intimate coupling of protein conformation with the mechanics of ... The tension applied to the inner and outer rims of the channel by the lipid bilayer tilts the transmembrane helixes of MscL ( ... MscL in Pfam UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2oar As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A ...
Their polysaccharide outer layer and matrix allows them to survive and thrive in a variety of conditions and habits ranging ... Nostoc is also highly nutritious, containing protein and vitamin C, as well as all essential amino acids. It has been suggested ... Some species within the genus also have nitrogen-fixing heterocyst filaments enclosed in this membrane. Many members of the ... Aguilar, Pablo; Dorador, Cristina; Vila, Irma; Sommaruga, Ruben (2019). "Bacterial Communities Associated With Spherical Nostoc ...
These were the flagellar hook protein FlgE, flagellar hook-associated protein 1, flagellar hook-associated protein, flagellin ... were chosen for proteomic analysis of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). One-dimensional gel analysis revealed a ~29 kDa ... These were the flagellar hook protein FlgE, flagellar hook-associated protein ... ... The presence of flagellin protein was confirmed in 2D gel spot. Mass spectrometry analysis of total OMPs revealed that the four ...
Wandersman C (September 1992). "Secretion across the bacterial outer membrane". Trends Genet. 8 (9): 317-22. doi:10.1016/0168- ... two within the inner membrane and one within the outer. An FHIPEP protein is located within the inner membrane, although it is ... "Homology between the HrpO protein of Pseudomonas solanacearum and bacterial proteins implicated in a signal peptide-independent ... This mechanism translocates proteins lacking an N-terminal signal peptide across the cell membrane in one step, as it does not ...
Contamination with bacterial outer membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23661-7. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Prion diseases are neurodegenerative conditions associated with a misfolded and infectious protein, scrapie prion protein (PrP ... Dagdanova A, Ilchenko S, Notari S, Yang Q, Obrenovich ME, Hatcher K, Characterization of the prion protein in human urine. J ... Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C, Delalande F, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Thierse D, Diemer H, Detection of prion protein in urine-derived ...
Although P5 has been proposed as a fimbrial protein composed of coiled coils, both structural analysis by circular dichroism of ... which are highly conserved and align with the transmembrane region predicted for the homologous Escherichia coli protein, OmpA ... P5 outer-membrane protein from a range of clinical isolates is presented and represents the first analysis of the heterogeneity ... Proposal for a peptidoglycan-associating alpha-helical motif in the C-terminal regions of some bacterial cell-surface proteins ...
... the numerous targets which can be used for the development of vaccines against Pseudomonas aeruginosa we focused on the outer ... membrane proteins OprF and OprI. The C-terminal part of OprF from aa 190 to aa 350 was investigated for its conservation and ... Antibodies, Bacterial * Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins * Bacterial Vaccines * Recombinant Fusion Proteins * Vaccines, ... A recombinant hybrid outer membrane protein for vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vaccine. 1999 Mar 26;17(13-14):1663- ...
7.5 and 15 microg of individual PorA proteins) consisting of vesicles expressing class 1 outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) of ... To study the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a hexavalent meningococcal outer-membrane-vesicle vaccine (OMV), two ... Antibodies, Bacterial / blood * Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / immunology* * Bacterial Vaccines / adverse effects ... 7.5 and 15 microg of individual PorA proteins) consisting of vesicles expressing class 1 outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) of ...
Categories: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... reduce the effects of LPS on cell membranes and increase the cellular uptake of Aβ by interactions with apo E. LPS alter ... Interests in acute phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers for the early progression of Alzheimers disease indicate that the ... a Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Mimic. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 10, Article ID: 20130810. http://dx.doi ... Ng, P.M., Jin, Z., Tan, S.S., Ho, B. and Ding, J.L. (2004) C-Reactive Protein: A Predominant LPS-Binding Acute Phase Protein ...
B meningococci have focused on common proteins, including the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of specific epidemic strains. ... Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases The material in this report originated in ... Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a meningococcal vaccine group B (15:P1.3) outer membrane protein vaccine in Iquique, ... outer membrane proteins. Vaccine 1999;17:2612--9. * Tondella ML, Popovic T, Rosenstein NE, et al. Distribution of Neisseria ...
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins. 1. 2015. 414. 0.120. Why? Serine Endopeptidases. 1. 2018. 1129. 0.110. Why? ...
Growth under iron-restricted conditions resulted in the induction of several outer membrane proteins. At least four proteins, ... Iron-regulated proteins appear to be conserved within bacterial species; thus, antibodies directed against these proteins could ... Title: IDENTIFICATION OF IRON-REGULATED OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEINS OF HAEMOPHILUS PARASUIS (POSTER PRESENTATION) Author. BARTLESON ... The outer membrane protein profile of Haemophilus parasuis serovar was studied under iron-restricted and iron-repleted ...
This is 97-kD outer-membrane protein (OMP) encoded by each gene on chromosomes. This codes for intimin protein, and an anti- ... Bacterial shedding usually ceases within 4 weeks of the onset of illness; rarely, it can persist for months. Appropriate ... The A2 fraction is a pentamer polypeptide of 7.7-kD protein and is required to bind the A1 fraction to the B subunit. The main ... The A1 subunit is released and it targets 28S RNA of the ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis. Stxs may play a role in the ...
Bacterial outer membrane proteins and host mucins involved in colonization of the gastric mucosa by the zoonotic pathogen ... Involvement of the Helicobacter heilmannii locus encoding the HOF outer membrane proteins in binding to the gastric mucosa ...
Evidence for a novel domain of bacterial outer membrane ushers Capitani G, Eidam O, Grutter MG PROTEINS-STRUCTURE FUNCTION AND ... Motor Neuron Disease-Associated Mutant Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-Associated Protein (VAP) B Recruits Wild-Type VAPs ... Bin2 Is a Membrane Sculpting N-BAR Protein That Influences Leucocyte Podosomes, Motility and Phagocytosis Soldati T, Sánchez- ... In meso in situ In meso in situ serial X-ray crystallography of soluble and membrane proteins at cryogenic temperatures Huang ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEASE OMPT FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI ... Coordinates are in the Protein Data Bank (accession No. 1I78). Organizational Affiliation: Department of Crystal and Structural ... Therefore, the structure described here provides a sound basis for the design of drugs against omptin-mediated bacterial ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEASE OMPT FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1I78/pdb ...
... with measurement of 69-kilodalton outer membrane protein antibody. J Pediatr 1990;117:46-51. * CDC. General recommendations on ... Usually other bacterial species can also be isolated. Cutaneous diphtheria has most commonly affected indigent adults and ... a recently identified 69-kiloDalton outer-membrane protein (pertactin), and agglutinogens (23). In published studies, some of ... Currently, several candidate vaccines containing at least one of the bacterial components thought to provide protection are ...
... bacterial proteins; biofilm; cell membranes; deformation; developmental stages; disinfectants; disinfection; growth curves; ... outer membrane proteins; plant pathogens; tomatoes. Abstract:. ... In this study, 7, 8- dihydroxyflavone (DHF) was isolated ... Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection has become one of the most serious threats to global public health. The preparation ... oryzae (Xoo) induces bacterial leaf blight (BLB), is known to be the most devastating disease of rice. The present ...
The focus of the research will be on finding antibiotics that interfere with the activity of a bacterial outer membrane protein ...
... the second-leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis, Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), a cause of extraintestinal disease ... Virulence factors associated with NMEC include outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and type I fimbriae (FimH), which also occur in ... The differences in OmpA protein sequences suggest that OmpA may influence variation in virulence and host specificity within ... however the protein has amino acid variants, which may influence virulence of strains or alter vaccine efficacy. Although OmpA ...
Towards this goal, outer membrane proteins were prepared and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotted ... As a first step to demonstrate that the outer membrane proteins also contained T cell epitopes, it was shown that whole ... However, due to the complexity of the peptide mixture generated by a tryptic digest of the outer membrane proteins, it was ... The results showed that the serum antibodies bound to a number of outer membrane proteins, confirming that they contained B ...
In Gram-negative bacteria, β-lactams enter the periplasm through outer membrane porin channels and bind to PBPs, causing cell ... β-lactam antibiotics target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. They bind to and inhibit penicillin binding proteins, or PBPs, ...
... indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were highly upregulated in rough ... CLas, however, still possesses 57 genes coding for products that function in cell envelope biogenesis and the outer membrane, ... The peptide flg22, a bacterial flagella protein recognized by most plants, activates a MAPK cascade which then leads the ... hypothetical protein; JAZ1: JASMONATE-ZIM-DOMAIN PROTEIN; MPK3: MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3; WRKY70: WRKY transcription ...
... a set of objective and rigorous data was collected by searching through the Universal Protein Resource (the UniProt database), ... Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases ... C. Yan, J. Hu, and Y. Wang, "Discrimination of outer membrane proteins using a K-nearest neighbor method," Amino Acids, vol. 35 ... According to the concept of PseAAC, a protein with the length of can be formulated in a dimension space as given by. where. ...
Modelling bacterial iron piracy from plant proteins. EGI Research story. ... The team learned that FusA is a glove-like structure able to grab plant ferredoxins and squeeze them across the outer membrane ... because the bacterial membrane protects the cell from toxins and antibiotics which may be present in the environment," says ... "The fact that plants must produce this protein for their cells to function makes it a good target for Pectobacterium during ...
... of a protein complex called complement component 8. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... which inserts itself in the outer membrane of bacterial cells. This complex creates a hole (pore) in the membrane, which kills ... Complement component 8 combines with several other complement proteins to form the membrane attack complex (MAC), ... These mutations alter the sequence of protein building blocks, resulting in an abnormally short protein that, if produced, is ...
... a 69-kilodalton outer-membrane protein -- pertactin {Pn}, and fimbriae {Fim} types 2 and 3). PT is detoxified either by ... None of the deaths or invasive bacterial infections was vaccine related. In a study conducted in the United States, children ... Each dose of Tripedia{Registered} contains approximately 23.4 ug protein of inactivated PT (toxoid) and 23.4 ug protein of FHA ... Rates of invasive bacterial infections, hospitalizations, and deaths among infants vaccinated with Tripedia{Registered} were ...
The susceptibility of bacterial membranes to AMP-induced damages was independent of the ompU-mediated AMP resistance. Besides ... The major outer membrane protein OmpU of Vibrio splendidus contributes to host antimicrobial peptide resistance and is required ... two antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) involved in C. gigas immunity. The resistance to both oyster Cg-Def and Cg-BPI and ... splendidus LGP32 was shown to resist to up to 10 microM Cg-Def defensin and Cg-BPI bactericidal permeability increasing protein ...
1993). Bacterial long-chain fatty acid transport. Identification of amino acid residues within the outer membrane protein FadL ... View Proteins belonging to: The FadL Outer Membrane Protein (FadL) Family. 1.B.9 The FadL Outer Membrane Protein (FadL) Family ... View Proteins belonging to: The FadL Outer Membrane Protein (FadL) Family. References associated with 1.B.9 family:. Bhat, S., ... The FadL family includes several distantly related proteins, all probably outer membrane proteins, sequenced from E. coli, ...
  • OmpT from Escherichia coli belongs to a family of highly homologous outer membrane proteases, known as omptins, which are implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • As a first step to demonstrate that the outer membrane proteins also contained T cell epitopes, it was shown that whole bacteria and bacterial antigens can be successfully labelled with carbon-13 such that all derived peptide fragments may be distinguished by isotopic analysis. (
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, β-lactams enter the periplasm through outer membrane porin channels and bind to PBPs, causing cell death. (
  • The HADDOCK portal helps to show that bacteria have a special drawbridge to steal iron from plant proteins. (
  • Animal and plant cells tend to 'hide' their iron inside proteins to prevent bacteria from getting it and stopping infections before they start. (
  • The team learned that FusA is a glove-like structure able to grab plant ferredoxins and squeeze them across the outer membrane of the bacteria. (
  • It's very important for the bacteria that this opening of the hole in FusA is specific and temporary, because the bacterial membrane protects the cell from toxins and antibiotics which may be present in the environment," says Grinter. (
  • Studies have indicated that endotoxins are heat stable lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/protein complexes contained within the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria that are released into the environment after lysis of bacterial cells and during active cell growth. (
  • The outer membrane (OM) surrounding Gram-negative bacteria is a nontypical, asymmetric bilayer with an outer layer of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • Although membrane-bound compartments of eukaryotic cells fuse all the time, it is very unusual for bacteria to have developed fusion machinery. (
  • Identifying a bacterial protein that helps intracellular parasitic compartments fuse, gives researchers a new tool to probe key disease processes caused by bacteria," says Dr. Cingolani. (
  • Once RECCE 327 enters the bloodstream, it binds to a pathogen's outer membrane and interacts with the bacterial plasma membrane proteins, weakening the cell wall and building internal pressure, causing the bacteria to burst without affecting healthy cells. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria naturally produce outer member vesicles (OMVs): spherical, bilayered proteolipids from 20-200nm in diameter. (
  • The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is a unique asymmetric membrane bilayer that is composed of phospholipids in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the outer leaflet. (
  • 6) other ongoing outer membrane - protein simulations in other bacteria. (
  • Strategies for bypassing the membrane barrier in multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane, enclosing Gram-negative bacteria, depends on the interactions of the outer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, with surrounding ions and molecules. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as pilli and flagella, nutrient acquisition, virulence, and efflux of drugs and other toxins. (
  • Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway. (
  • Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors in many Gram-negative bacteria, are localised on the bacterial surface, and mediate the first adherence to host cells in the course of infection. (
  • This gives a microbial population flexibility so it can adapt and survive, at least some of the bacteria in a population will be ready to generate the right amount of protein at the right time. (
  • AGPs, inhibit or kill bacteria by disturbing essential cell processes, like inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell wall and proteins, damaging the outer cell membrane, inhibiting of nucleic acid synthesis, and interfering in the bacterial metabolism. (
  • Current research is focused in the study of the electric properties of outer membrane cell extensions from Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 and of protein fibers from the so-called cable bacteria cells. (
  • TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are membrane proteins that have high affinity for iron, vitamin B 12 , siderophores and carbohydrates, which are important for bacteria. (
  • His team tested the protein on the food-poisoning bacteria Salmonella and other similar microbes. (
  • Salmonella belongs to a class of bacteria bounded by two membranes. (
  • The team found that APOL3 avoids cholesterol, a major constituent of cell membranes, and instead targets distinctive lipids favored by bacteria. (
  • Researchers have discovered how cells fight back: with a detergent-like molecule, called APOL3, that kills the bacteria by breaking up their membranes. (
  • However, only limited antibiotics could be delivered across the cell membrane, which was under MIC to inhibit the intracellular bacteria. (
  • mixed this peptide with five different membrane proteins from bacteria, all were perfectly soluble and functional without detergent. (
  • Although neutrophils are the body's first defenders against bacterial and fungal challenge, neutrophils are ineffective at killing N. gonorrhoeae , and gonorrheal exudates contain viable, infectious bacteria. (
  • Fluorescence-based microscopy assays for quantifying bacterial survival inside and outside of human neutrophils over time have shown that some N. gonorrhoeae are found in immature phagosomes that delay fusion with primary granules, in which the bacteria are more likely to survive. (
  • Finally, artificial neural networks were used to construct protein feature based methods for identification of non-classically secreted proteins in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • While the Sec- and Tat-dependent secretion pathways translocate proteins across only the inner membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, additional translocation machinery components are found in the outer membrane of this group of organisms. (
  • Haemophores are secreted by several Gram-negative bacteria and are able to extract haem (assimilated as an iron source) from haemoproteins and deliver it to specific outer membrane receptors. (
  • The APC is one of three chain reaction processes involving the splitting and combining of more than 20 different proteins - known as complement proteins - that usually gets activated when bacteria or viruses invade the body. (
  • Their mechanism of action is quite diverse, targeting cell wall, lipid membrane, membrane receptors and ion channels, bacteria metabolites and biofilm formation. (
  • Jaiswal V , Chanumolu SK , Gupta A , Chauhan RS , Rout C . Jenner-predict server: prediction of protein vaccine candidates (PVCs) in bacteria based on host-pathogen interactions. (
  • Scientists have discovered how bacteria transport the tiny hair-like strands, called pili, which cover their outer surface from the inside of the cell, where they are assembled, to the exterior. (
  • Published today in Nature, the scientists from the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (a joint institute between University College London (UCL) and Birkbeck, University of London) have revealed the structural and energetic process by which the bacteria transport the pili across their outer membrane. (
  • Professor Gabriel Waksman, at the ISMB, said: "For the first time we have been able to see the structural and energy pathways via which the FimD usher protein facilitates the transport of the newly assembled pilus across the outer membrane of the bacteria. (
  • It has a cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria (thus, it being classified as Gram-negative) but, it lacks a peptidoglycan cell wall. (
  • This report highlights the untapped resource of bacteria-specific small molecules as potential vaccine antigens and provides a proof of principle for incorporating these compounds into multicomponent vaccines for the prevention of bacterial infections. (
  • The gram-negative bacteria have 'porin' channels formed by specific proteins located in their outer membrane. (
  • In graduate school, I did a fair amount of work on the outer membranes of the gram negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and, in the process, learned a lot about the biochemistry of bacteria. (
  • The review article provides an overview of recent work on protein localization in bacteria, noting that the emphasis is shifting from identifying which proteins are localized to trying to understand why and how localization occurs. (
  • Although gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and viruses can be pyrogenic during infection stages, they do so through a different mechanism and to a lesser degree than gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. (
  • These effects can include meningitis and a rapid loss of blood pressure such as in the highly and rapidly lethal condition known as septic shock that sometimes occurs in infections with gram-negative bacteria caused by the introduction of bacterial endotoxin into the circulatory system. (
  • 1 , 2 Bacterial endotoxin is a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria ( Figure 66.1 ). (
  • Bacterial endotoxins are constantly released from gram-negative bacteria into the environment as a result of cell division, damage, or lysis and can pose a biologic threat apart from the intact microorganism if introduced to a susceptible host in sufficient quantity. (
  • Endotoxin, or LPS, is located in the outer layer of the dual-layered cell wall separated by a thin layer of peptidoglycan that protects gram-negative bacteria from their environment (see Figure 66.1 ). (
  • She recently uncovered the structure of AlgK, an outer-membrane lipoprotein on P. aeruginosa that helps the bacteria form a biofilm. (
  • Bacteria must initially hydrolyze macromolecules to smaller substrates outside the cell, since the size of substrate which can be transported into the bacterial cell is severely restricted. (
  • In gram-negative bacteria (a designation that includes most ma- rine bacteria), a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane surrounds the cell wall. (
  • however, the en- zymes of marine mesophilic bacteria have not been extensively investigated. (
  • Studying bacterial enzymatic activity in situ is difficult, however, since there is a lack of specific information about the nature and concentrations of natural substrates and about the types of enzymes expressed by marine bacteria. (
  • Porins and small-molecule translocation across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Jan Tommassen Abstract The envelope of Gram negative bacteria consists of an inner membrane and an outer membrane, separated by the periplasm. (
  • This transport system may be widespread across many Gram-positive bacteria that contain proteins in the WXG100 superfamily. (
  • There are two types of active transports in bacteria: ion driven transport systems (IDT) and binding-protein dependent transport systems (BPDT). (
  • PEP group translocation, also known as the phosphotransferase system or PTS, is a distinct method used by bacteria for sugar uptake where the source of energy is from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP).It is known to be a multicomponent system that always involves enzymes of the plasma membrane and those in the cytoplasm. (
  • The inner membrane (IM) is a symmetric bilayer of glycerophospholipids (GPL), of which zwitterionic phosphatidylethanalomine (PE), acidic phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and cardiolipin (CL) are among the most widely distributed in bacteria (Zhang and Rock, 2008). (
  • Autodisplay represents an efficient tool for the surface display of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria, in particular E. coli . (
  • Hence, these bacteria may provide important clues about the evolution of the bacterial cell envelope. (
  • In addition to passive diffusion via porin channels, cefiderocol is actively transported across the outer cell membrane of bacteria into the periplasmic space using a siderophore iron uptake mechanism. (
  • In the Western-Blot test, only specific stripes characteristic for Borrelia spirochetes are used - protein bacteria fragments. (
  • As we shall see in, the genes unique to pathogens are frequently found clustered in genetic segments within either plasmids or the bacterial chromosome, with interesting implications for the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. (
  • By comparing the genome sequence of the bacteria before and after re-infection, we were able to determine the rate at which the bacterial genome changes during this early, acute phase of infection in a human host," said Linz. (
  • Of particular importance in the battle between the immune system and invading bacteria are the proteins that protrude through the outer cell membrane of the bacteria. (
  • Bacteriocin s are a type of peptide or precursor peptide molecules with bactericidal biological activity that are produced by bacteria during the metabolic process through protein. (
  • It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive. (
  • Andersen C. (2003) Channel-tunnels: outer membrane components of type I secretion systems and multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • 1991) Structural characterization of protein secretion genes of the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris: relatedness to secretion systems of other gram-negative bacteria Mol Gen Genet, 229, 357-64. (
  • Genin S and Boucher CA (1994) A superfamily of proteins involved in different secretion pathways in gram-negative bacteria: modular structure and specificity of the N-terminal domain. (
  • OM-85 is a bacterial lysate, a combination of molecules extracted from the cell walls of bacteria, marketed outside of the U.S. under the brand name Broncho-Vaxom TM as a preventive treatment for upper respiratory infections in children and adults. (
  • Our idea is to use bacterial lysate to train our immune system to protect us from viruses, in the same way those who are regularly exposed to farm animals are protected against a multitude of bacteria and other microbes. (
  • To infect bacteria, most bacteriophages employ a 'tail' that stabs and pierces the bacterium's membrane to allow the virus's genetic material to pass through. (
  • Phages recognize their host bacteria by binding to specific surface receptors that may be outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides or components of bacterial capsules, pili and flagella 8 , 9 , 10 . (
  • Bacteriophages are viruses with the ability specifically to infect and replicate inside target bacteria by injecting their acid nucleic content that incorporates into the bacterial genome or remains a stable episome replicating with their host. (
  • Whole bacteria and bacterial components have been investigated as possible vaccine candidates, but no candidate has reached a clinical testing stage [8]. (
  • Besides its physiological function as a specific membrane transporter of the siderophore (iron-chelating molecule) ferrichrome, FhuA is used as a receptor by numerous other effectors, which are mostly harmful to bacteria. (
  • Firstly, it's important to understand the difference between bacteria, which is a single cell organism, and a virus which is an intracellular parasite consisting of DNA/RNA, which is encapsulated in a protein coat, which makes them more robust than bacteria. (
  • Hand sanitisers are based on rubbing-alcohol or isopropyl alcohol and therefore hand sanitisers disrupt the cell membrane and make it difficult for bacteria to procreate. (
  • OMV, outer membrane vesicles, driving host development in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease using bacteria-derived membrane vesicles in blood. (
  • Monoderm bacteria possess a cell envelope made of a cytoplasmic membrane and a cell wall, whereas diderm bacteria have and extra lipid layer, the outer membrane, covering the cell wall. (
  • Ozone can act on genetic substances in bacterial cells, such as purine and pyrimidine in nucleic acids, destroy their organelles, DNA and RNA, destroy the metabolism of bacteria, and cause bacterial death. (
  • Ozone can react with the lipid double chain of the bacterial cell wall, penetrate the cell membrane, invade the cell, act on the lipoproteins of the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharides of the inner membrane, make the bacteria have permeability distortion and dissolve to death. (
  • Multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is conferred by three-component membrane pumps that expel diverse antibiotics from the cell. (
  • Disrupting bacterial, but not mammalian, outer-membrane integrity with peptides is one such strategy to destroy toxic bacteria in a highly selective manner. (
  • A promoter for mRNA transcription in bacteria is recognized by the sigma protein and has two recognition zones about 10 and 35 bases before the transcription start site. (
  • Gram positive bacteria have a single cytoplasmic membrane encased in a thick rigid cell wall while gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane in addition to the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • The murein layer either follows the outer layer in the case of gram-negative bacteria or completely replaces it in the case of gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Autotransporters are type V secreted proteins that can be present on the surface of bacteria, or secreted after being cleaved from the outer membrane. (
  • The cell membrane is integral to the health and structure of the bacteria. (
  • Gram positive bacteria have a plasma membrane and a thick peptidoglycan layer, whereas Gram negative bacteria have a plasma membrane, a thin peptidoglycan layer, and an outer membrane (see Figure 1). (
  • Daptomycin targets the plasma membrane of gram positive bacteria, while polymixin targets the outer membrane and then plasma membrane of gram negative bacteria. (
  • Daptomycin forms a complex with calcium, and is inserted into the plasma membrane of Gram positive bacteria. (
  • Polymixin binds to the lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria. (
  • Using high-resolution microscopy and other techniques, the team pieced together the mechanism: GBP1 damages a bacterium's outer membrane, allowing APOL3 through so it can break apart the inner membrane-the "coup de grace" that kills the bacterium, MacMicking says. (
  • Instead of removing dirt from fabric, these components remove chunks of the bacterial inner membrane , which is composed of greasy molecules called lipids. (
  • Its bacterial envelope constitutes of an outer and an inner membrane enclosing the periplasm. (
  • Inner Membrane. (
  • They are synthesized within the cell as a polyprotein precursor with a typical signal peptide (SP) at the N terminus that directs the protein across the inner membrane (IM). (
  • Their cell envelope consists of an inner membrane, a thin layer of the peptidoglycan cell wall and a unique outer membrane. (
  • The cell envelope of T. maritima consisted of an inner membrane, a thin layer of peptidoglycan and a toga. (
  • The distance between the inner membrane and the toga was significantly greater at the poles ( ∼450±100 nm) compared to the lateral sides (∼70±10 nm). (
  • The authors then analyzed the lipid composition of the inner membrane and the toga and found differences in the enrichment of some lipids in the two fractions. (
  • Particularly, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids, short free fatty acids and select digalactosyldiacylglycerols were enriched in the toga fraction whereas glycerol-linked diabolic acid was enriched in the inner membrane. (
  • When T. maritima cells were fluorescently labeled with a PE derivative, puncta were observed in the toga of exponentially and stationary growing cells, while the inner membrane was only weakly stained. (
  • The authors next used proteomics to characterize the protein composition of the inner membrane and the toga. (
  • Once established [at the outer membrane], host proteins could then gain access to the intermembrane space and the inner membrane in an "outside-to-inside" trajectory of evolution. (
  • We suggest that both the TOM complex in the outer membrane and the transporter in the inner membrane (TIM complex) were derived from ancestral bacterial proteins-that is, proteins originally encoded by the bacterial endosymbiont's genome. (
  • The hydrophobic tails are sandwiched in between the outer membrane and the inner membrane. (
  • The non-covalent bonds of the hydrophobic tails of the inner membrane are essential for maintaining the membrane structure, mainly because of Van der Waals attractive forces . (
  • The Sec-dependent protein export pathway of Escherichia coli is responsible for translocation of secretory proteins across the inner membrane to final destinations in the periplasm or outer membrane. (
  • I found resistance mutations that modified the expression or sequence of proteins used by during infection: LamB and OmpF at the outer membrane, and ManY and ManZ at the inner membrane. (
  • These efflux pumps consist of an inner membrane transporter such as the AcrB proton antiporter, an outer membrane exit duct of the TolC family, and a periplasmic protein known as the adaptor. (
  • Numerous sRNAs have been identified using both computational analysis and laboratory-based techniques such as Northern blotting, microarrays and RNA-Seq in a number of bacterial species including Escherichia coli, the model pathogen Salmonella, the nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, marine cyanobacteria, Francisella tularensis (the causative agent of tularaemia), Streptococcus pyogenes, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. (
  • Alignment of the P5 sequences identified regions which are highly conserved and align with the transmembrane region predicted for the homologous Escherichia coli protein, OmpA. (
  • Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), are responsible for host diseases such as Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC), the second-leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis, Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), a cause of extraintestinal disease in poultry, and Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), the most common cause of urinary tract infections. (
  • Primary sequence of the Escherichia coli fadL gene encoding an outer membrane protein required for long-chain fatty acid transport. (
  • Here we consider the most abundant membrane protein from Escherichia coli (i.e. (
  • Mechanism of sugar transport through the sugar-specific LamB channel of Escherichia coli outer membrane. (
  • To overcome this, we use Protein Glycan Coupling Technology (PGCT), which enables the production of glycoconjugates in bacterial cells at considerably reduced costs, to generate a candidate glycan-based live vaccine intended to simultaneously protect against Campylobacter jejuni , avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and Clostridium perfringens . (
  • We suggest candidates for non-classically secreted proteins in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis . (
  • protein_coding" "AAC74305","narL","Escherichia coli","response regulator in two-component regulatory system with NarX [Ensembl]. (
  • Maurer J, Jose J, Meyer TF (1997) Autodisplay: One-component-system for efficient surface display and release of soluble recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli . (
  • Localized adherence by enteropathogenic escherichia coli is an inducible phenotype associated with the expression of new outer membrane proteins. (
  • A protein receptor-the FhuA receptor of Escherichia coli-is crystallized in liposomes, and the proteoliposomes then immobilized on the chemically activated gold-coated surface of the sensor by ink-jet spotting in a humid environment, thus keeping the receptors functional. (
  • The Sec-dependent protein export apparatus of Escherichia coli is very efficient at correctly identifying proteins to be exported from the cytoplasm. (
  • My recent work focuses on partitioning of multi-drug efflux pumps in Escherichia coli , which are large trans-membrane- and trans-envelope protein structures that are at the core of innate resistance to many classes of antibiotics, thus complicating antibiotic treatment. (
  • By fusing a fluorescent marker to a drug efflux protein (AcrB) whose expression provides Escherichia coli with resistance to some antibiotics, we quantified the evolution and spread of drug-resistant E. coli through spacetime using image analysis and quantitative PCR. (
  • In this section, secretory vesicles migrate to the cell membrane where the vesicular membrane fuses with the plasma membrane, leaving a clear or lightly stained cytoplasm. (
  • No immunomodulatory effects were observed when Opa was contained within meningococcal outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), compared to Opa-negative OMVs. (
  • 5 Bacterial LPS molecules are shed from the cell into the environment through various processes such as multiplication, death, and lysis as well as constant sloughing as outer membrane vesicles (OMV) in a manner analogous to shedding of hair or skin in animals. (
  • Watkins HC, Pagan CL , Childs HR, Posada S, Chau A, Rios J, Guarino C , DeLisa MP, Whittaker GR and Putnam D. (2017) Long-term single dose protection against H1N1 influenza A in BALB/c mice through controlled release of M2e-containing recombinant outer membrane vesicles. (
  • Visick KL, Foster J, Doino J, McFall-Ngai M, Ruby E. Vibrio fischeri-derived outer membrane vesicles attenuate IL-8 secretion in human sepsis. (
  • OMV, outer membrane vesicles and the tissues they inhabit. (
  • OMV, outer membrane vesicles, driving host development in a symbiotic conversation. (
  • The aim of this project was to attempt to use a novel metabolic labelling technique to enable biochemical identification of potential T cell epitopes in bacterial antigens. (
  • It was concluded from these studies that the metabolic labelling of bacterial proteins with carbon-13 is applicable to the analysis of processed products of bacterial antigens in complex peptide mixtures. (
  • Glycoconjugate vaccines, which consist of an immunogenic protein covalently coupled to glycan antigens of the targeted pathogen, have a proven track record in human vaccinology, but have yet to be used for livestock due to prohibitively high manufacturing costs. (
  • Ong E , Wang H , Wong MU , Seetharaman M , Valdez N , He Y . Vaxign-ML: supervised machine learning reverse vaccinology model for improved prediction of bacterial protective antigens. (
  • Our study has identified additional antigens suitable for a multicomponent UTI vaccine and highlights the potential use of bacterial-derived small molecules as antigens in vaccine therapies. (
  • The Helicobacter pylori babA gene encodes an outer membrane protein that mediates binding to fucosylated ABH antigens of the ABO blood group. (
  • Antibodies are detected in the test material using special labeled test bands, i.e. labeled Borrelia bacterial protein antigens. (
  • To ascertain the hypothesis, we developed a pilot model with the concept of the presence of antibodies against enteric bacterial antigens in IBD. (
  • Our hypothesis suggests the possibility of subcutaneous vaccination of animals with administration of all or specific enteric bacterial antigens. (
  • The definite antigens to which these antibodies are directed have not been identified, but they have cross-reactions with enteric bacterial antigens. (
  • HYPOTHESIS Although the above-mentioned studies support the concept of the presence of antibodies against enteric bacterial antigens in IBD, we propose a model to investigate whether the production of antibodies is a result of barrier dysfunction induced by inflammation or a serologic finding secondary to IBD. (
  • Nutritional diets that reduce the increase in plasma endotoxins (gut microbiotica) such as lipopolysaccarides (LPS) reduce the effects of LPS on cell membranes and increase the cellular uptake of A β by interactions with apo E. LPS alter hepatic lipid metabolism with an increase hepatic cytokines and APPs in plasma. (
  • OmpF), purify and reconstitute the membrane protein in an artificial lipid bilayer and then study its ex vivo electrochemical behaviour. (
  • Among others, we have determined the dielectric constant of lipid bilayers, supramolecular protein structures like virus capsids and tails, bacterial flagella and protein layers, and of DNA. (
  • This was quantified by calculating the lipid-inaccessible buried surface area of the proteins in the region around the minimum of each PMF. (
  • Structural basis for maintenance of bacterial outer membrane lipid asymmetry. (
  • From this work, we conclude that that the lipid-mimetic system used to solubilize mTSPO for NMR studies thermodynamically destabilizes the protein, introduces structural perturbations, and alters the characteristics of ligand binding. (
  • Lipid bilayer experiments reveal that refolded M35 functions as a channel that is typical of gram-negative bacterial porins. (
  • Both are icosahedral with vertex fibers, have trimeric major coat proteins, and contain double-stranded linear DNA with terminal proteins, PRD1 is the only known spherical prokaryotic virus to have this form of genome, and is also unique in possessing a lipid membrane within its outer capsid. (
  • Unfortunately, the special architecture of transmembrane proteins (which is a result of the amphiphilic nature of most biological (lipid) membranes) makes it challenging to work with them2, and makes it difficult to obtain structural and functional data. (
  • Some virion-associated depolymerases cleave polypeptide or lipid chemicals of polysaccharides rather, which is most likely a reply to this character of some bacterial extracellular buildings [46]. (
  • While crossing the membrane layers from the BCE could be achieved by mechanised puncturing and/or proteins fusion using the lipid constituents, traversing the rigid CW could be more challenging. (
  • Micro-organisms basically consist of a cell wall and one or two lipid membranes [2] while archaea and eubacteria, which are commonly found in soils, are also surrounded by a crystalline surface layer (S-layer) [3]. (
  • Cytoplasmic membrane Lipid bilayer of mainly glycerol-ether lipids. (
  • Rather than inhibiting a specific bacterial protein, RECCE 327 can overcome potential bacterial mutations through its universal mechanism of action that continuously kills pathogens. (
  • In Europe and the UK, for instance, bacterial species of Campylobacter and Salmonella are the top two reported bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens in humans. (
  • But scientists know little about how such proteins help cells fight pathogens. (
  • To understand the new vaccines' magic, consider how older vaccines detect, defang and destroy invading bacterial and viral pathogens. (
  • Chlamydiae are a bacterial phylum and class whose members are obligate intracellular pathogens. (
  • Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis are anaerobic , Gram-negative bacterial species which have been implicated in periodontal diseases as a part of red complex of periodontal pathogens. (
  • Metal-binding proteins sequester metals and limit the amount of free essential metal ions that pathogens need to flourish and cause disease. (
  • One TdT named TdfJ recognizes human S100A7, a zinc-binding protein that inhibits the replication of pathogens by hiding zinc. (
  • Gerlach, R. G. & Hensel, M. Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens. (
  • Most bacterial pathogens must survive and grow in two very different circumstances - in the broad external environment and in or on the human host. (
  • Plant-derived antibacterial peptides have active effects on plant pathogens and bacterial pathogens that infect humans. (
  • Dr. Guarino is interested in the development of novel serologic assays for the diagnosis of infection with viral and bacterial pathogens in companion and production animals. (
  • Web-Based Genome Analysis of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens for Public Health Applications Using the Bacterial Meningitis Genomic Analysis Platform (BMGAP). (
  • Her work, published in the Feb 10 2010 Structure, shows that AlgK helps situate the porin AlgE on the outer-membrane pore, allowing it to export alginate outside of the cell. (
  • Subsequently, the C terminus of the precursor folds into the outer membrane (OM) as a porin-like structure, a so called ß-barrel, which facilitates surface translocation of the passenger domain. (
  • They have an extended sheath-like structure as the outer membrane with porin-type proteins. (
  • Subtomogram averaging of the toga revealed that it is arranged as a hexagonal lattice with porin-type proteins arranged in trimers. (
  • We have previously predicted the outer membrane protein M35 to be a general porin, and in the current study, we have investigated the function of M35 and its importance for survival of M. catarrhalis in vivo. (
  • These results suggest that M35 is a general porin that is necessary for the uptake of important energy sources by M. catarrhalis and that it is likely that M35 is an essential functional protein for in vivo colonization. (
  • T4 attaches to an outer membrane porin protein, ompC . (
  • For example, 55% of CD patients have antibodies against outer membrane porin C of antibodies have been found. (
  • Pre- and postimmunisation sera were tested for bactericidal antibodies against six isogenic meningococcal vaccine strains expressing different PorA proteins. (
  • thus, antibodies directed against these proteins could be valuable in protecting the animal from disease. (
  • The results showed that the serum antibodies bound to a number of outer membrane proteins, confirming that they contained B cell epitopes. (
  • To apply Periplasmic Expression with Cytometric Screening (PECS) for high throughput directed evolution of exogenous proteases, a permeabilization study of the E. coli outer membrane was carried out using FACS with cells expressing periplasmic scFv antibodies. (
  • These antibodies are created as a result of the body's immune response to bacterial infection. (
  • For example, the lack of good antibodies may prevent the identification and verification of proteins in complex samples via co-immunoprecipitation and electromobility supershift assays. (
  • Components and strategies Bacterial strains and antibodies stress LVS was extracted from Dr Jeannine Petersen (Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance, Fort Collins, CO) and was manipulated under biosafety level 2 (BSL2) containment circumstances. (
  • From the [ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]]] ''P. aeruginosa'' was first described as a distinct bacterial species at the end of the nineteenth century, after the development of sterile culture media by Pasteur. (
  • These pathways are highly conserved throughout the Gram-negative bacterial species. (
  • The most common bacterial infections encountered in poultry are colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, and salmonellosis, caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (and less frequently by Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis ), and Salmonella enterica species (mostly Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum and Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum), respectively [ 4 ]. (
  • However, some of the proteins have been detected extracellularly by different groups in several bacterial species supporting the argument that they are, indeed, exported from the intact cell. (
  • Studies using both traditional culture and culture independent molecular approaches have identified around 700 predominant bacterial species in the oral cavity [ 9 ]. (
  • The serological characteristics of a group of 32 Pseudomonas anguilliseptica strains isolated in Spain from seabream ( Sparus aurata ) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) were compared with a total of 18 collection strains of this bacterial species with different geographical and host origin. (
  • No gram-negative bacterial species have been found to be able to survive when totally lacking LPS. (
  • Geobacter and other metal reducing bacterial species have extra _____ in their outer membranes. (
  • In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are known to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity by exerting toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. (
  • Experimentally-derived structures of mouse TSPO (mTSPO) and its homologs from bacterial species have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, respectively. (
  • Yet of the many thousands of bacterial species, only a small percentage are associated with humans as part of the natural flora or as causative agents of disease. (
  • Identical results were obtained between singleplex PCR and mPCR assays and no cross- and/or non-specific amplification products were obtained when tested against other closely related bacterial species. (
  • Application of two-dimensional protein analysis for strain fingerprinting and mutant analysis of Azospirillum species. (
  • Several species are monophyletic in this tree and A. See S1 Text and S1 Data), meloxicam mobic 7.5 mg tablet its monomeric version for use in fluorescent protein that forms a red chromophore. (
  • The protein expression system can express protein from any species and has been validated with numerous genes from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources. (
  • Not many people have heard of this little Bacterial species. (
  • Among the numerous targets which can be used for the development of vaccines against Pseudomonas aeruginosa we focused on the outer membrane proteins OprF and OprI. (
  • Neisseria meningitidis has become a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States after dramatic reductions in the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 1 ) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) ( 2 ) infections have been achieved as a result of using conjugate vaccines. (
  • Vaccines of this type, prepared from suspensions of inactivated Bordetella pertussis bacterial cells, have been licensed for routine vaccination of infants since the mid-1940s. (
  • These findings have potential implications for development of vaccines derived from meningococcal outer membranes. (
  • The newly licensed COVID-19 vaccines contain myriad identical RNA strands all coding for a critical section of the coronavirus's spike protein . (
  • The siderophore vaccines reported here are easy to formulate and reduce bacterial burdens in a murine model of UTI. (
  • Children less than 2 years of age do not mount an immune response to most polysaccharide vaccines, so it has been necessary to render the polysaccharides immunogenic by chemical conjugation to a protein carrier. (
  • Rappazzo CG and Watkins HC, Guarino C , Chau A , Lopez JL, DeLisa MP, Leifer CA, Whittaker GR, Putnam D. (2016) Recombinant M2e outer membrane vesicle vaccines protect against lethal influenza A challenge in BALB/C mice. (
  • The mechanism by which OM-85 prevents viral infection is unlike that of vaccines or antibody treatments, which focus on a viral protein. (
  • All successful vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have used the spike protein as the target and delivered the vaccine by intramuscular injection, typically a shot in the left or right shoulder. (
  • Duim B. , Bowler L. D. , Eijk P. P. , Jansen H. M. , Dankert J. , van Alphen L. Molecular variation in the major outer membrane protein P5 gene of nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae during chronic infections. (
  • People with complement component 8 deficiency have a significantly increased risk of developing recurrent infections, particularly by Neisseria meningitidis , which causes meningitis, a serious condition that involves inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Overall, RECCE 327 shows strong potential as an alternative treatment for resistant Staphylococcus aureus , one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, by demonstrating repeated efficacy at a range of dosing levels on topical skin conditions. (
  • Other less common, but possibly severe bacterial infections include fowl cholera, necrotic enteritis, botulism and tuberculosis [ 4 ]. (
  • This killer cleaner, a protein known as APOL3, thwarts infections by dissolving bacterial membranes, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator John MacMicking and his colleagues report in the journal Science on July 15, 2021. (
  • The advantages of the combination of nanotechnology and targeting strategies in combating bacterial infections are highlighted in this review, and the upcoming opportunities and remaining challenges in this field are rationally prospected. (
  • We have been working for a number of years to try and understand the process of pili biogenesis and an understanding of this process takes us a step closer to the development of new antibiotics which will successfully treat cystitis - a common and extremely painful condition, as well as other bacterial infections. (
  • Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in humans and are the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. (
  • Bacterial infections include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. (
  • By understanding the structures, and chemical and physical properties of the proteins that export the polysaccharides that form the biofilms, she hopes to uncover new ways to battle these lethal biofilm infections. (
  • RÉSUMÉ L'émergence et la propagation rapide des souches de Klebsiella pneumoniae résistantes aux antibiotiques et porteuses du gène blaKPC codant la production de carbapénèmases ont compliqué la prise en charge des infections des patients. (
  • TUCSON, Ariz. - A team of University of Arizona Health Sciences researchers at the UArizona College of Medicine - Tucson found that a combination of bacterial extracts used in Europe to treat respiratory infections may offer a new way to prevent or reduce infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Primary bacterial, viral or fungal infections of the outer ear. (
  • Multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections are becoming more of an issue, with 1.2 million people dying of previously treatable bacterial infections. (
  • They bind to and inhibit penicillin binding proteins, or PBPs, which are required for building peptidoglycan, an essential cell wall component. (
  • We also performed virtual screening of thousand different polyphenols against proteins involved in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis to find potential valuable bioactive compounds. (
  • Transposon mutagenesis in Mycobacterium abscessus identifies an essential penicillin-binding protein involved in septal peptidoglycan synthesis and antibiotic sensitivity. (
  • Unipolar Peptidoglycan Synthesis in the Rhizobiales Requires an Essential Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein. (
  • Chromosome Segregation and Peptidoglycan Remodeling Are Coordinated at a Highly Stabilized Septal Pore to Maintain Bacterial Spore Development. (
  • Necrostatin-1 distributor These protein will be known right here as virion-associated lysins Necrostatin-1 distributor (VALs), however they are known in the books as virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) also, tail-associated muralytic enzymes (TAME), tail-associated lysins (TAL), exolysins, or structural lysins [47,68]. (
  • Between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane/ cell wall is a thin peptidoglycan layer. (
  • Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (
  • It is now known that most bacterial sRNAs are encoded by free-standing genes located in the intergenic regions (IGR) between two known genes. (
  • Siderophores, a group of plasmid-coded genes, control the acquisition of iron from host cells from its protein-bound state. (
  • Chromosomal assignment of genes encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of human complement protein C8: identification of a close physical linkage between the alpha and the beta loci. (
  • Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were highly upregulated in rough lemon. (
  • It also has 2002 protein genes. (
  • At any particular time, the bacterium can express zero, one, or several different Opa proteins, and each strain has 10 or more genes for different Opas. (
  • The scientists found that NikS is helping to control four genes: two of H. pylori's critical virulence factors and two encoding for outer membrane proteins. (
  • MacMicking's team screened more than 19,000 of the human cells ' genes, looking for ones that might encode protective proteins. (
  • We have also conducted transposon-seq to identify genes that contribute to bacterial survival after exposure to neutrophils. (
  • The majority of opa genes in UK disease isolates (315/463, 68.0%) were in the 'on' phase, suggesting the importance of Opa proteins during invasive disease. (
  • Other studies indicate that some of these essential genes' protein products must be spatially and temporally localized within the cell for life to be possible, indicating that even in its most minimal form, living systems require organization. (
  • This enables the functional display of multimeric proteins i.e. homodimeric, up to homononameric or heterotetrameric proteins, by simply expressing the monomeric genes as fusions with the autotransporter domains. (
  • Protein-encoding genes (pegs) that are functionally related (e.g., enzymes from a single pathway or subunits of a transport cassette) tend to cluster on the chromosome. (
  • When one simply looks at the genes as they occur on a chromosome, one notices these clusters of functionally-related pegs, and often they suggest clues to the functions of hypothetical proteins. (
  • Resistance mediated by mutations in genes altering DNA gyrase and expression of outer membrane proteins has been described for Ciprofloxacin and other quinolones. (
  • Proteins whose genes are observed to be correlated in expression, across a large number of experiments. (
  • This work centers on three themes of broad interest to evolutionary biology and microbiology: coevolutionary origins of novelty and diversity, the role of tradeoffs in constraining evolvability, and the ecological impacts of host resistance.In Chapter 1, I worked with a set of experimentally coevolved E. coli/ communities to investigate the bacterial genes that gained mutations and whether fitness tradeoffs had constrained the evolution of those mutations. (
  • This data will provide us with a list of genes that are crucial for bacterial invasion, which may lead us to discover specific pathways that produce proteins or metabolites that elicit an inflammatory response. (
  • The videos show complex spatio-genomic patterns redolent of, yet more complex than, Fisher's predictions whereby a decelerating wave front of advantageous genes colonises towards the antibiotic source, forming bullseye patterns en route and leaving a wave back of bacterial sub-populations expressing AcrB at decreasing levels away from the drug source. (
  • MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a key structural gene that makes up the outer membrane of the E. coli cell. (
  • β-lactam antibiotics target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. (
  • Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases are suitable candidates of antibacteria sources. (
  • C. trachomatis pathogenicity relies on the creation of an intracellular parasitic niche called an "inclusion," which is made from the outer membrane of the host cell . (
  • Mice deficient for TLR9 (which is expressed within endosomes and recognises bacterial DNA 3 ) had an impaired host defence after infection with K. pneumoniae via their airways, due to reduced dendritic cell accumulation, and dendritic cell and macrophage activation in their lungs 8 . (
  • Also, all applications where a bacterial cell will be used within a eukaryotic organism (medical applications) are far from being ethically approved. (
  • The "molecule" could for instance be a cancer cell or a viral protein. (
  • Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS , as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES . (
  • They have been implicated in the delivery of toxins to host cells, in the transfer of proteins and genetic materials between bacterial cells and in cell-to-cell signalling [2]. (
  • The Scanning Dielectric Microscopy is also used to investigate the electrical properties of the so-called bacterial nanowires, nanoscale structures produced by electrogenic bacterial cells, which enable the exchange of electrons extracellularly at long distances from the bacterial cell body. (
  • Nanoscale dielectric map of a single bacterial cell obtained with the Scanning Dielectric Microscope. (
  • The color scale represents the local dielectric constant, which provides information on the local polarization of the bacterial cell in response to an external electric field. (
  • From the nanodielectric map the local composition (e.g. lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) of the bacterial cell can be obtained in a label-free way. (
  • This process must be highly selective, MacMicking says, since APOL3 needs to avoid attacking membranes of the human cell itself. (
  • We believe that secreted proteins and those found on the outer surface of the bacterial cell are likely to be crucial virulence determinants. (
  • Surrounding every living cell is a biological membrane that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules. (
  • We apply a combination of cell biology, molecular biology, bacterial genetics, genomics, and biochemistry to address these questions. (
  • Receptors for Opa proteins include human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and/or heparan sulfate proteoglycans, but each Opa has a unique sequence and receptor-binding capacity. (
  • The detection of non-classically secreted proteins in the extracellular environment could obviously be attributed to cell lysis during experimental handling. (
  • Cell body cavities of body membranes contain unconjugated double bonds requires water. (
  • The structure and components of a cell membrane are studied. (
  • Endocytosis of coupled to act antagonistically to host cell found in low turnover and because of body membranes are a membrane protein with a hydroxyl group of loosely woven collagen. (
  • One of the functions of membranes is to control what passes into and out of the cell. (
  • Facilitated by its initial binding with heparan sulfate, SARS-CoV-2 then uses another cell-surface component, the protein known as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as its doorway into the attacked cell. (
  • In 2011, the scientists from the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology uncovered how pili biogenesis is initiated by the protein FimD - an usher in the outer cell wall. (
  • In our laboratory, a FRET peptide probe was used with a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-based screening method for OmpT, a native outer membrane protease of E. coli. (
  • Newly devised protease probes that operate via electrostatic capture on the bacterial cell surface allowed a very powerful "twocolor" type of FACS sorting, in which new catalytic activities are selected while simultaneously deselecting unwanted activities. (
  • Researchers haven't made much progress in figuring out why individual proteins localize in the cell, but based on a few glimmers of insight, they are convinced that this localization is critical. (
  • On the other hand, investigators are beginning to learn quite a bit about how proteins become localized in the cell. (
  • The protein slated for localization within that complex is captured as it diffuses throughout the cell and, thus, encounters the target. (
  • But recent studies have identified several of these cues, such as the curvature of the cell membranes. (
  • A single gram-negative bacterial cell wall is estimated to contain approximately 3.5 million LPS molecules occupying about 75% of the cell's outer surface area. (
  • Either the final hydrolysis step was closely linked to substrate uptake, or specialized porins similar to maltoporin might permit direct transport of large oligosaccharides into the bacterial cell. (
  • Porins, trimeric proteins spanning the outer membrane, form the channels through which hydrophilic sub- strates are transported into the cell. (
  • Tel. Phosphate import depends on a pH gradient across the membrane-more acidic outside the cell than inside the cell. (
  • The energy for phosphate import is provided by a pH gradient across the membrane (lower pH outside the cell than inside the cell), rather than by ATP hydrolysis. (
  • Structural components such as cell wall and cell membrane restrict the entry of several molecules inside the cell. (
  • Loss of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor Switch Complex upon Cell Lysis. (
  • Proteins that are transporting themselves to the cell surface are catalogued as autotransporters. (
  • By simply replacing the coding region of the natural passenger by the coding region for a recombinant protein in the precursor gene, the recombinant protein can be transported to the cell surface very efficiently and in high yields. (
  • A unique feature of Autodisplay in comparison to other surface display tools is that the anchoring domain is not covalently fixed at the cell surface, but is able to move in the plane of the outer membrane. (
  • Finally, a major advantage of Autodisplay is its high expression rate, which yields 105 -106 functional recombinant proteins at the cell surface per single cell of E. coli, without disturbing cell viability of cell integrity. (
  • Although it is still unknown how effector proteins of T7SSs cross the outer membrane of the diderm mycobacterial cell envelope, recent advances in the structural characterization of these secretion systems have revealed the intricate network of interactions of conserved components in the plasma membrane. (
  • They are traditionally classified as either monoderm or diderm, depending on whether the cell is surrounded by one membrane or two membranes respectively. (
  • One way the mitochondria interacts with the cell around it is via its importing of protein machines from the cell's cytoplasm. (
  • How did the process of protein import in mitochondria-which facilitated the evolution of this organelle, and thus, eukaryotic cell evolution-arise? (
  • In the former], to capitalize on energy production by the ancestral endosymbiont, a protein sorting and importing mechanism was necessary to relocate host cell proteins to the endosymbiont. (
  • In support of this view, some characteristics of host cell proteins appear to have served as " preadaptations " for mitochondrial protein import. (
  • Coupling the polysaccharide, a T-cell independent antigen, to a protein, a T-cell dependent antigen, confers upon the polysaccharide the properties of T cell dependency including isotype switching, affinity maturation, and memory induction. (
  • The answer is not simple, because it turns out that many properties are necessary for a bacterial cell to gain entrance to a human, evade its defense systems, and establish an infection. (
  • PhoQ is a sensor protein kinase in the cell membrane, and PhoP is the response regulator to which it relates. (
  • Some are repressed, including some encoding proteins essential for epithelial cell invasion and others encoding compo-nents of a contact secretion system. (
  • They have similar characteristics, such as positive charge, disulfide bond, and the target sites are all located in the outer cell membrane and so on. (
  • Cephalosporins work by attacking the bacterial cell wall. (
  • With the protein out of commission and not building the mesh, holes start to appear in the cell wall. (
  • Bacterial cell biology has seen a renaissance in the past several years that has been spurred in part by advances in imaging techniques. (
  • Major advances in fluorescent microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy (2-D) and cryo-electron tomography (3-D) have provided new insight into bacterial ultrastructures that accomplish fundamental processes, such as cell growth and movement. (
  • We are particularly interested in the macromolecular assemblies that govern bacterial cell division, cell-to-cell interaction, biofilm formation, motility and chemotaxis. (
  • involving an HD-GYP domain protein links cell-cell signalling to pathogeniCity gene expression in Xanthomonas campestris. (
  • A cellular enzyme changes the shape of a protein on the virus to enable SARS-CoV-2 to breach the membrane and infect the cell. (
  • Proteins in the "tail" of the phage bind to a specific receptor (in this case, a sugar transporter) on the surface of the bacterial cell. (
  • As a consequence of infection, the genetic material of the phage is injected into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. (
  • What part of the bacteriophage gets injected into a bacterial cell? (
  • Which part of the bacteriophage was injected into the bacterial cell? (
  • The bacteriophage injects its double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) genome into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. (
  • In terms of how it works to keep you clean, soap destroys the integrity of Bacterial, Amoeba cell membranes and Fungi cell walls. (
  • Soaps are physical, they are solid (hand sanitisers aren't), not only are they highly alkaline which disrupts bacterial cell membranes and fungal cell walls, the alkalinity also creates a hostile biochemical environment for microorganisms. (
  • Imagine little jelly discs, with an outer layer that is a wall made of oil (aka Bacterial, Amoeba cell membranes and Fungi cell walls). (
  • Regular soap is not expected to kill viruses, because a virus is not a cell with a cell membrane. (
  • The Thermo Scientific 1-Step Human In Vitro Translation System is a method for expressing proteins from DNA or mRNA templates in a cell-free solution containing essential components of the cellular translational machinery. (
  • Extracts of an immortalized human cell line provide the ribosomes, initiation and elongation factors, tRNAs and other basic components required for protein synthesis. (
  • The 1-Step Human IVT Kits use human cell lysates to synthesize proteins. (
  • Compared to bacterial ( E. coli ) or other (e.g., insect, wheat germ and rabbit reticulocyte lysates) systems, in vitro protein expression using human cell extracts delivers functional proteins within hours. (
  • The benefits of in vitro protein expression include compatibility with microliter-scale reactions and speed compared to traditional cell-based methods (overnight for bacterial cultures or weeks for baculoviral protein preparations). (
  • Simply add the appropriate template to a mixture of HeLa cell lysate, Accessory Proteins, Reaction Mix and incubate at 30°C for 90 minutes for protein yields up to 100µg/mL. (
  • These problems can be overcome using in vitro -expressed proteins, but many cell-free protein expression systems lack the ability or fidelity to generate high levels of functional proteins. (
  • The hydrophilic heads of the cell membrane face outwards and inwards. (
  • The very first outer layer is cell membrane which is made up of phospholipids. (
  • The function of cell membrane is to keep the outer and inner content separate. (
  • On the surface of the cell membrane are molecules present, which play a role in cell recognition. (
  • Cell wall is also present in plants, animal, fungi, algae and few prokaryotes, which is present outside the cell membrane. (
  • It keeps the cell rigid, protects it from outer environment. (
  • The cytoplasm present in the cell, inhabiting near the organelles, consist of cytosol, a liquid solution made up of ion such as chloride, sodium, water and biomolecules such as carbohydrate, protein and others. (
  • Plants possess cell wall which protect them from the outer environment and provides rigidity and shape. (
  • The cell wall is surrounded by cell membrane, which is a barrier separating outer contents from the inside. (
  • Understanding the natural context and setting of action from the phage-derived enzymes that bargain the bacterial cell envelope might provide beneficial information because of their program as antimicrobials. (
  • They further differ in about 10% of their gene content, with the highest variability in gene presence as well as gene sequence found for proteins involved in host cell interactions, including Opc, NadA, TonB-dependent receptors, RTX toxin, and two-partner secretion system proteins. (
  • Their outer cell wall or membrane acts as an efficient permeability barrier, preventing internal exposure and subsequent exposure related toxicity. (
  • There are types of antibiotics that disrupt the structure of the cell membrane. (
  • There are different kinds of antibiotics that target the cell membrane. (
  • Pogliano J, Pogliano N, Silverman JA (2012) Daptomycin-mediated reorganization of membrane architecture causes mislocalization of essential cell division proteins . (
  • This includes the development of new bacterial devices and technology for live-cell imaging. (
  • In this study, eight strains of C. malonaticus ST7, that had been isolated from a wide range of sources and varied in their in vitro virulence, were chosen for proteomic analysis of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). (
  • Mass spectrometry analysis of total OMPs revealed that the four highly invasive C. malonaticus strains expressed the main flagellum proteins that were absent from the four low invasive strains. (
  • OmpA contributes to NMEC's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, persist in the bloodstream and has been identified as a potential vaccine target for ExPEC, however the protein has amino acid variants, which may influence virulence of strains or alter vaccine efficacy. (
  • Although the use of AGPs has enabled farms to improve production and productivity in intensive production systems, concerns about residues and cross-resistance of pathogenic bacterial strains in people have risen, causing a complete ban of AGPs in the EU in 2006. (
  • The presence of Opa PV in meningococcal populations and high expression of Opa among invasive strains likely indicates the importance of this protein in bacterial colonization in the human nasopharynx. (
  • The study of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMP) corroborated these results, indicating that the serological differences among strains are due to the somatic antigen and not to antigenic determinants of protein nature. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy identified occasional bacterial cells with a Leb-binding phenotype in populations of Leb-nonbinding strains. (
  • The mutant strains compensated for the lack of M35 by enhancing their uptake of glutamic acid, and this enhanced rate of glutamic acid uptake was attributed to the compensatory upregulation of a protein of approximately 40 kDa. (
  • Yet the resistant strains, which have been identified in Japan, France, Spain and most recently in Canada , evade the lethal action of cephalosporins by preventing the antibiotic from binding to the protein target. (
  • There are 60-some mutations on the PBP2 protein in the resistant strains of gonorrhea. (
  • The 16S tree is inconclusive as to the rest of the green fluorescent protein derived from errors in the pNCST vector is semi-constitutive in most strains of mobic price walmart E. C with shaking at 250 rpm. (
  • You may need to implement a sterilisation process if you want to totally destroy all microbes, including viruses and bacterial strains that are resistant to disinfectants. (
  • Biological variability among B. longum strains Among the 29 spots that differed (present/absent) between see more the NCC2705 and BS64 proteomes, only selleck chemical 11 proteins from BS64 had an orthologous gene in NCC2705. (
  • Even bacterial strains that carry prl mutations, which allow export of signal sequence-defective precursors, accurately differentiate between cytoplasmic and mutant secretory proteins. (
  • Virulence factors associated with NMEC include outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and type I fimbriae (FimH), which also occur in APEC and UPEC. (
  • The differences in OmpA protein sequences suggest that OmpA may influence variation in virulence and host specificity within ExPEC subpathotypes. (
  • OMVs can carry outer membrane, periplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins, DNA, RNA and other factors associated with virulence. (
  • These pathogen-associated stealth siderophores evade host immune defenses and enhance bacterial virulence. (
  • We propose that adhesin metastability and heterogeneity contributes to bacterial fitness and results in some clones having potential for periodic activation and deactivation of virulence appropriate for intensity of the host response to infection. (
  • The recognized target virulence factors used in the study were fibronectin binding protein (cj1349), filamentous hemagglutinin (hecA), hemolysin activation protein (hecB), hemolysin (tlyA), integral membrane protein virulence factor (mviN), invasin (ciaB), outer membrane protein (irgA) and phospholipase (pldA). (
  • Vibrio splendidus LGP32 was shown to resist to up to 10 microM Cg-Def defensin and Cg-BPI bactericidal permeability increasing protein, two antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) involved in C. gigas immunity. (
  • Nikaido H. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability revisited. (
  • However, outer membrane permeability toward a peptide probe (~ 2800 Da) was significantly enhanced by adding polymixin B nonapeptide (PMBN) or using a "heptoseless" LPS (lipopolysaccharide) E. coli mutant, D21f2. (
  • Such a size cut-off for membrane permeability has been demonstrated using libraries of cyclic peptides of different sizes in the 800 - 1200 Da size range. (
  • It was found that there is a steep drop-off in membrane permeability at molecular weights above 1000 Da and it appears likely that this cutoff constitutes an upper size limit also for more drug-like compounds [5]. (
  • This causes structural changes of the outer membrane, which increases membrane permeability, and allows polymixin to disrupt the structure of the plasma membrane. (
  • PTI is mediated by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize PAMPs, whereas effector-triggered immunity is mediated by resistance (R) proteins that recognize pathogen effectors. (
  • TLR4 has been implicated as the most important TLR for the recognition of K. pneumoniae by virtue of its capacity to sense lipolysaccharide (LPS) present in the outer membrane of this Gram-negative pathogen 3 . (
  • Moreover, macrophages and dendritic cells can be activated by the K. pneumoniae pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) outer membrane protein A (OmpA) through TLR2 11 . (
  • N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human bacterial pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. (
  • Scientists already know that spike proteins on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus - making the pathogen look like the spiny ball from a medieval mace - are the means by which it attaches to cells targeted for infection. (
  • At the heart of every vaccine is a component called an antigen -- typically a chunk of a protein that's identical to one borne by the targeted pathogen -- that can excite the immune system to recognize it, then rally and retaliate against it. (
  • When it does, its first hunch is that the out-of-place genetic material belongs to a viral or bacterial pathogen, and it may react aggressively and indiscriminately. (
  • Haemophilus influenzae is a bacterial pathogen that can cause serious invasive disease. (
  • Creating a mutation that inhibits how the bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhea, a common sexually transmitted infection, could offer a new way to prevent and treat the disease, according to researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University. (
  • Here we present an overview of the viral structures, essential proteins systems and players root phage DNA entrance to bacterias, and get away from the newly-formed pathogen contaminants from infected hosts then. (
  • Restriction of iron ncan induce Gram-negative organisms to express new outer membrane proteins, which may function as receptors for an iron-uptake mechanism. (
  • With a more thorough understanding of the intricate relationships between these bacterial nutrient receptors and their host nutrient sources, we may help pave the way toward identifying effective prophylaxis and/or treatment for an important human disease. (
  • The mechanism of host regulation is thought to involve the outer membrane composition, including the type IV pili of A. muciniphila, that directly signal to host immune receptors. (
  • When SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs, it binds to receptors including the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the outer membranes of lung cells. (
  • In addition, other receptors are outer membrane proteins, pili and flagella (Sørensen et al. (
  • Quantitative time-resolved measurement of membrane protein - ligand interactions using microcantilever array sensors Thomas Braun1†, Murali Krishna Ghatkesar2†, Natalija Backmann3, Wilfried Grange1, Pascale Boulanger4, Lucienne Letellier4, Hans-Peter Lang3, Alex Bietsch3, Christoph Gerber3 and Martin Hegner1 * Membrane proteins are central to many biological processes, and the interactions between transmembrane protein receptors and their ligands are of fundamental importance in medical research. (
  • Indeed, membrane proteins are the most important target for present-day drug discovery programmes, with half of all marketed drugs affecting membrane proteins called G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)1. (
  • Dorsam RT, Gutkind JS: G-protein-coupled receptors and cancer. (
  • After irreversible adsorbing Necrostatin-1 distributor to cellular receptors, the phage T7 (podovirus) ejects the proteins composing. (
  • How do opacity-associated (Opa) proteins modulate N. gonorrhoeae interactions with human epithelial cells and neutrophils? (
  • Opa proteins are major proteins involved in meningococcal colonization of the nasopharynx and immune interactions. (
  • Hijacking transferrin bound iron: protein-receptor interactions involved in iron transport in N. gonorrhoeae. (
  • Opa proteins are critical in meningococcal pathogenesis, mediating bacterial adherence to host cells, and modulating human cellular immunity via interactions with T cells and neutrophils, although there are conflicting data regarding their effects on CD4(+) T cells. (
  • Microsporidian Lso2 interactions with various ribosome-associated proteins, a previous study on the top. (
  • J.S. Slusky, H. Yin, W.F. DeGrado "Understanding membrane proteins: How to design inhibitors of transmembrane protein-protein interactions. (
  • It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis through interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and Van der Waals forces) with the A- and P-sites of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in domain V of the 23s rRNA of the 50S subunit. (
  • The protein is walking around the membrane layer as normal, but its active site is blocked by antibiotic, so all those potential interactions with the peptide substrate are fruitless," Davies said. (
  • This experience in combining biochemical, biophysical and structural techniques to characterize protein-protein interactions laid the foundation for my drive to apply a multidisciplinary approach to study bacterial processes. (
  • Alegria MC, Souza DP, Andrade MO, Docena C, Khater L, Ramos CHI, da Silva Ana, Farah CS: Identification of new protein-protein interactions involving the products of the chromosome- and plasmid-encoded type IV secretion loci of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. (
  • These experiments demonstrate the potential of resonating microcantilevers for the specific, label-free and time-resolved detection of membrane protein-ligand interactions in a micro-array format. (
  • Our research activities fall within 3 main areas, which all relate to the study of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein conformational changes, namely membrane protein folding, protein-detergent interactions and protein fibrillation. (
  • These areas are linked by a keen interest in understanding the mechanistic and thermodynamic behaviour of proteins in different circumstances by quantifying the strength of internal side-chain interactions as well as contacts with solvent molecules, whether it be detergents, denaturants, stabilizing salts and osmolytes or lipids. (
  • Protein function assays for enzymatic activity and protein interactions can have several obstacles. (
  • The OmpA protein forms four extracellular loops that exhibit residue patterns encoded by allelic variants in the ompA gene across the protein's loops [ 13 ]. (
  • In recent years, bacterial outer membrane proteins have become of major interest, as they are the main proteins interacting with the extracellular environment. (
  • Extracellular bacterial endotoxin in nature is usually associated with other outer membrane components such as proteins or phospholipids. (
  • The combination of GPC and NMR could easily be used to assess other types of extracellular enzyme activity in bacterial cultures. (
  • 1992) Cloning and characterization of a gene required for the secretion of extracellular enzymes across the outer membrane by Xanthomonas campestris pv. (
  • Crystal structure of the extracellular protein secretion NTpase EpsE of vibrio cholerae. (
  • 1995) Interaction between the autokinase EpsE and EpsL in the cytoplasmic membrane is required for extracellular secretion in Vibrio cholerae. (
  • The capability of this antibody to initiate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling and up-regulating of the TLR and production of cytokines, and also the correlation between the titers of this antibody and the severity of colitis, suggest the possibility that such a protein could represent autoantigen- or complement-mediated responses[13,31]. (
  • Bacterial or Viral? (
  • Microorganisms-derived antimicrobial peptides are classified into two types: antimicrobial peptides derived from bacterial and antimicrobial peptides derived from viral. (
  • A three-dimensional image reconstruction at high resolution from cryo-electron micrographs has revealed how hexon proteins form the viral facets and showed the interaction of penton base and fiber at the vertex. (
  • The rationale for using bacterial extracts to prevent viral infection relates to a previous study led by Dr. Vercelli, who also is the director of the Arizona Center for the Biology of Complex Diseases . (
  • An assay that directly detects viral binding to membranes is still not available20,21. (
  • In typical diderms, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are major components of the outer membrane. (
  • A hybrid protein which combines the protective epitopes of OprF and OprI was expressed in E. coli and was proven to be highly protective against an intraperitoneal challenge with P. aeruginosa by active immunization of immunocompromised mice as well as by passive immunization of SCID mice with specific antisera. (
  • The E. coli FadL protein functions in long chain fatty acid transport across the outer membrane. (
  • NanC is a member of the KdgM-family of bacterial outer membrane proteins and is responsible for sialic acid transport in E. coli. (
  • In the present study, we demonstrate the application of the dynamic mode method for virus detection in liquid using the model system of the complete E. coli outer transmembrane protein FhuA (Mw ¼ 78.9 kDa)22. (
  • The focus of the research will be on finding antibiotics that interfere with the activity of a bacterial outer membrane protein known as BamA. (
  • However, antibiotics abuse may cause bacterial drug resistance. (
  • Current studies focusing on how BL antibiotics or BLIs interact solely with the bacterial outer membrane nanopores (porins) on reaching the periplasmic side using a nanopore-based sensing technique. (
  • We suggest a quick and relatively cheap screening method to test the ability of BL antibiotics/BLIs to cross the bacterial cellular membrane. (
  • The outer bacterial membrane acts like armor, protecting the inner bacterial membrane from threats like antibiotics. (
  • Harnessing ß-Lactam Antibiotics for Illumination of the Activity of Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Bacillus subtilis. (
  • But antibiotics jump in to bind to the protein before it can get to a peptide. (
  • Davies' team has identified six mutations that are at the root of the resistance and is looking at how the mutations change the way the protein reacts to antibiotics. (
  • We are specifically interested in the interplay between bacterial physiology such as growth and gene expression and sub-MIC antibiotics. (
  • Although P5 has been proposed as a fimbrial protein composed of coiled coils, both structural analysis by circular dichroism of purified P5 and computer analysis of the multiply aligned sequences predict a high proportion of β strand with no evidence of coiled coil structure. (
  • Structure to this body membranes, please confirm your body membranes can be classified by an important structural insights into this is due to form simple. (
  • Primary structure analysis of AlgO and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the C-terminal domain of AlgO contains the structural fold common to periplasmic solute-binding proteins . (
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the various siderophore-antibiotic conjugates that have been developed for use against P. aeruginosa and show that an accurate knowledge of the structural and functional features of the proteins involved in this transmembrane transport is required for the design and synthesis of effective siderophore-antibiotic Trojan horse conjugates. (
  • 42] Beeby M . (2020) Toward Organism-scale Structural Biology: S-layer Reined in by Bacterial LPS. (
  • Jose J, Jähnig F, Meyer TF (1995) Common structural features of IgA1-protease-like outer membrane protein autotransporters. (
  • This structural information, added to recent advances in the molecular biology and regulation of mycobacterial T7SSs as well as progress in our understanding of their secreted effector proteins, is shedding light on the inner working of the T7SS machinery. (
  • Fig. 2: Structural model of the membrane-embedded type VII secretion system core complex. (
  • But proteomics data generated in the study suggested other uncharacterized proteins predicted to form β-barrel trimers (R4NP97, G4FDI2) may also be important structural components of the toga lattice. (
  • The unified mTSPO model agrees with available experimental NMR data, appears to be physically realistic (i.e. thermodynamically not frustrated as judged by the Rosetta energy function), and simultaneously shares the structural features observed in sequence-conserved regions of the bacterial proteins. (
  • Led by postdoctoral fellow Avinash Singh, Ph.D., the researchers showed the protein undergoes key structural changes, including twisting and rolling of a loop to bind the antibiotic, that enhance the reaction with cephalosporins. (
  • The strong similarities between P3 and hexon suggest strongly that PRD1 and adenovirus are related, and establish the first direct structural link between viruses from the animal and bacterial kingdoms. (
  • We hope that the imaging methods we develop in this research program will transcend bacterial studies and significantly impact applications in diverse biological fields, thus leading to advances in structural biology, nanotechnology, ecology and medicine, among others. (
  • Structurally, this process has been inferred from the supposed structural similarity between Mfns and their cyanobacteria homologue bacterial dynamin-like protein (BDLP). (
  • As regular OM channels such as porins do not allow passage of hydrophobic molecules, specialized OM transport proteins are required for their uptake. (
  • Transport of molecules across the membrane barrier is essential for all cells (e.g. for metabolite supply). (
  • Recombinant proteins, biological molecules with therapeutic potential, represent an advance in human and animal health as is the case of insulin. (
  • Membrane proteins are generally purified in detergent micelles, but these small amphipathic molecules are quite often detrimental to protein structure and activity, in addition to interfering with downstream analytical methods. (
  • When the bladder is empty, support, especially for smaller proteins or molecules with partially disordered regions that have inhibited crystallisation attempts. (
  • Here, we have pursued a strategy for eliciting protective immunity by vaccinating with small molecules required for pathogenesis, rather than proteins or peptides. (
  • Because their cognate siderophores are water soluble, we hypothesized that these bacterial-derived small molecules are prime vaccine candidates. (
  • Hydrophobic molecules can easily pass through the membrane through passive diffusion. (
  • Membrane proteins can bind with the molecules of disinfectants, causing them to be disorganised and weak. (
  • The second barrier in the case of Gram-negative is the outer membrane which has membrane spanning porins which serve as a molecular sieve, preventing penetration of molecules with a molecular mass greater than 600 to 1000 Daltons [4]. (
  • The OprF/OprI hybrid protein is considered to be a candidate for a vaccine against P. aeruginosa. (
  • In January 2005, a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine ([MCV4] Menactra, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., Swiftwater, Pennsylvania) was licensed for use among persons aged 11--55 years. (
  • Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children. (
  • Opacity-associated adhesin (Opa) proteins are major meningococcal outer membrane proteins, which have shown recent promise as a potential novel vaccine. (
  • The present invention also provides methods for providing an enhanced immune response to a pneumococcal polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine comprising administering to a human subject an immunogenic composition comprising polysaccharide-protein conjugates prepared in DMSO conditions. (
  • But experts said the decision-making is complicated because a child's chance of suffering this bacterial infection is infinitesimal while the efficacy and safety track record for both approved versions of the vaccine is limited. (
  • Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis identified several peptides that matched the flagellin protein. (
  • However, due to the complexity of the peptide mixture generated by a tryptic digest of the outer membrane proteins, it was critical to combine isotope analysis with excellent chromatographic resolution in order to identify carbon-13 labelled peptides. (
  • The idea was that the peptides would wrap around the hydrophobic parts of the membrane protein, and shield them from the watery solution. (
  • Brewers' spent grain (BSG) typically contains 20 ~ 29% crude protein (CP) with high concentrations of glutamine, proline and hydrophobic and non-polar amino acid, making it an ideal material for producing value-added products like bioactive peptides which have antioxidant properties. (
  • Among them, LLPs are lentiviral cytolytic peptides encoded by the C-terminal sequence of the human defect virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane protein, which have strong toxic effects on microorganisms and cells. (
  • Normally, PBP2 moves along the bacterial cell's cytoplasmic membrane, reaching out into the space between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane, looking for peptides to bind to. (
  • The protein joins peptides together to create a mesh - just like an onion bag at the grocery store, Davies said. (
  • The Opa outer-membrane proteins are a family of phase-variable bacterial adhesins. (
  • Therefore, the structure described here provides a sound basis for the design of drugs against omptin-mediated bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • In recent years there has been a reappraisal of our understanding of the bacterial pathogenesis of periodontitis. (
  • The fact that plants must produce this protein for their cells to function makes it a good target for Pectobacterium during infection. (
  • TLR4 played a more prominent role in antibacterial defence than TLR2, considering that only TLR4 KO mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial growth in lungs and spleen 24 h after infection with 3×10 3 colony-forming units of Klebsiella compared with wild-type (WT) mice. (
  • In late-stage infection or after exposure to a higher infectious dose, bacterial counts in lungs of TLR2 KO animals were elevated compared with WT mice and TLR2×4 KO animals were more susceptible to infection than TLR4 KO mice. (
  • With the knowledge of the different functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of this small RNA during infection and the associated bacterial signaling pathways, we can gain new targets for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies,' said the senior study author Professor Cynthia Sharma, the Chair for Molecular Infection Biology II at Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg. (
  • We will identify all P. multocida outer membrane, surface exposed and secreted proteins expressed during natural infection, or under conditions which mimic natural infection, by a global proteomics approach. (
  • In recent years, with the continuous development of nanotechnology, various types of nanocarriers that respond to the infection microenvironment, targeting specific bacterial targets, and targeting infected cells, and so on, are gradually being used in the delivery of antibacterial agents to increase the concentration of drugs at the site of infection and reduce the side effects of drugs in normal tissues. (
  • A recent study by Johns Hopkins Medicine shows that blocking a specific protein in a biological pathway may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and keep the virus from misdirecting the immune system against healthy cells and organs. (
  • The invention also provides methods for the detection, prevention and treatment of pathological conditions resulting from bacterial infection. (
  • 8. The isolated nucleic acid of claim 5, wherein the S. pneumoniae surface protein provides protective immunity against an infection by S. pneumoniae. (
  • The researchers found that generating a mutation in a key part of the outer membrane transporter that N. gonorrhoeae uses to hijack human immunity proteins and strip them of metals could help to prevent gonorrhea infection. (
  • These findings have implications for the role of outer membrane protein diversity in persistent H. pylori infection. (
  • Triple co-culture and perfusion bioreactor for studying the interaction between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and neutrophils: A novel 3D tissue model for bacterial infection and immunity. (
  • The study , recently published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology , showed that a specific combination of bacterial extracts known as OM-85 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing the virus's ability to attach to lung cells. (
  • This study is unique because it is the first time researchers have targeted the receptor - the lock - with a bacterial extract and shown it protects against infection with live virus. (
  • Helicobacter pylori is among the commonest causes of bacterial an infection in people, and it kinds biofilms on human gastric mucosal epithelium in addition to on in vitro abiotic surfaces. (
  • Previous studies have shown these proteins to be responsible for invoking an inflammatory response during infection. (
  • The envelope contains structures (spike proteins) for attaching to human cells during infection. (
  • HADDOCK consistently ranks at the top of protein prediction experiments and is one of the best programs available for molecular docking. (
  • Umbrella sampling and coarse-grained molecular dynamics were employed to calculate the potentials of mean force (PMF) for a variety of restrained relative orientations of two NanC proteins as the separation of their centres of mass was varied. (
  • Determine the main bacterial molecular targets of polyphenols and their potential mechanism of action. (
  • The molecular determinants necessary and sufficient for recognition of its specific DNA target are contained in the C-domain (H-NSctd) of nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. (
  • This evolutionary tinkering -constructing a new molecular machine from existing parts -inside the ancestral bacterium is in line with Jacob's proposition for the evolution of new cellular functions, which states that new pieces of cellular machinery arise ad hoc , often cobbled together from pieces (proteins) already available in other guises. (
  • Class III bacteriocins are secreted by bacterial proprotein translocases, with a molecular weight greater than 30 ku and good heat resistance. (
  • Molecular identification of environmental isolates using 16s rrna gene is very important when accurate and decisive bacterial identification is required. (
  • As a Visiting Fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Sriram Subramaniam, I helped pioneer cutting-edge cryo-electron microscopy techniques alongside molecular and biochemical methods to investigate the molecular architecture of receptor complexes involved in directed bacterial movement, or chemotaxis. (
  • In both cases, the correction factor that corresponds to the phylogenetic position of both the point at which the protein runs as a high-molecular-weight aggregate on size exclusion chromatography (Fig BB in S1 Text), indicating that it takes on this oligomeric state in its protonated form (neutral chromophore) or phenolate form (anionic chromophore). (
  • Disinfectants break the molecular bonds of the phospholipid bilayer either by oxidation reaction or through binding actions that make the membrane more permeable, such as in the case of ammonium compounds. (
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie partitioning, I investigate translation of trans-membrane proteins and complex assembly at the subcellular level. (
  • Biological membranes form the interface between cells and their environment. (
  • The peptidisc method is rapid and cost-effective, and it may emerge as a universal tool for high-throughput stabilization of membrane proteins to advance modern biological studies. (
  • Therefore, membrane proteins are under-represented in biological research compared to the water-soluble ones, even though roughly one quarter of a cell's proteins are membrane proteins. (
  • The secretion of proteins across biological membranes is in most cases mediated by translocation machinery recognising a specific sequence tag or motif in the protein to be secreted. (
  • Siderophore-dependent iron uptake systems act as gates in the bacterial envelope and could be used in a "Trojan horse" strategy, in which the conjugation of an antibiotic to a siderophore could significantly increase the biological activity of the antibiotic, by enhancing its transport into the bacterium. (
  • The biological significance of CSE-induced alterations to the membrane proteome is currently under investigation. (
  • The research in our laboratory focuses on elucidating the structure and function of protein complexes involved in complex biological processes. (
  • M embrane proteins have an important role in many biological processes, including the transport of matter, energy conversion, communication and the interaction of cells with their environment. (
  • Additionally, as outlined below, they have low possibility to cross biological membranes, further reducing their potential bioavailability. (
  • Where such agents are able to cross biological membranes, they may result in toxicity leading to possible adverse impacts on the local environment. (
  • As such, consideration of the ability of substances to cross such biological membranes is prudent as part of assessment of environmental safety. (
  • The transferrin binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB constitute the outer membrane receptor complex responsible for binding transferrin, extracting the tightly bound iron from the host-derived molecule, and transporting iron into the periplasmic space of this Gram-negative bacterium. (
  • Once iron is transported across the outer membrane, ferric binding protein A (FbpA) moves the iron across the periplasmic space and initiates the process of transport into the bacterial cytosol. (
  • Using the SUPREX technique for assessing the thermodynamic stability of protein-ligand complexes, we report herein the first direct measurement of periplasmic FbpA binding to the outer membrane protein TbpA. (
  • Structure of the periplasmic component of a bacterial drug efflux pump. (
  • How can also shown with mucus into the tm architecture abc transporters provide for body membranes that come into smaller micelles presumably by three types described. (
  • To overcome host nutritional immunity efforts, N. gonorrhoeae deploys TonB-dependent transporters (TdTs) to its outer membrane to bind to host nutritional immunity proteins and strip them of their metals. (
  • Some are induced, including those encoding an acid phosphatase, cation transporters, outer membrane proteins, and enzymes that modify LPS. (
  • One strain that exhibited high susceptibility carried a deletion of tolC, a gene that encodes the outer membrane component of multiple tripartite multidrug transporters. (
  • This is a case where humans make their own antibiotic in the form a protein that acts like a detergent," says MacMicking, an immunologist at Yale University. (
  • Fortunately, humans have a number of complement proteins, including factor H, that regulate the APC, keep it in check and therefore, protect normal cells from damage by MACs. (
  • We present an overview of bacterial non-classical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. (
  • Autodisplay enables the surface display of functional proteins or enzymes, that contain inorganic prosthetic groups, e.g. iron-sulfur groups, flavins or porphyrins as well. (
  • Other abundant proteins in the toga included enzymes to degrade polysaccharides like xylanases, maltodextrin glucosidase and β-xylosidase. (
  • In these processes enzymes, catalysts are involved, we heard about the big protein synthesis machine, the ribosome by Ada Yonath and Tom Steitz today. (
  • We do have membrane anchored proteases which limit their activity to the two-dimensional surface of a vessel for instance, all the clotting enzymes of that kind do that cofactor binding. (
  • Lactams inhibit the penicillinbinding proteins, enzymes also. (
  • The 6S RNA binds to RNA polymerase and regulates transcription, tmRNA has functions in protein synthesis, including the recycling of stalled ribosomes, 4.5S RNA regulates signal recognition particle (SRP), which is required for the secretion of proteins and RNase P is involved in maturing tRNAs. (
  • Rather than inhibiting a specific bacterial protein or process, in this case bacterial proteins involved in protein synthesis, RECCE 327 can overcome potential bacterial mutations through its universal mechanism of action. (
  • CryoSPARC: algorithms for rapid reactivation of protein synthesis in parasites with the full consensus refined state 2 (A), the multibody refined map), EMD-11437-additional map 1 or half map 1. (
  • This study evaluated the effects of AlcH and FlaH on gas production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient disappearance, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community using an artificial rumen system (RUSITEC) fed a high-grain diet. (
  • Studies in vitro and/or in infected animals suggest that triclabendazole and its active metabolites (sulfoxide and sulfone) are absorbed by the tegument of the immature and mature worms, leading to a decrease of the resting membrane potential and inhibition of tubulin function and protein and enzyme synthesis. (
  • Well, I speak about the life and death of proteins, this is the life cycle of proteins, protein synthesis, protein folding and protein degradation. (
  • Cipronatin, like other quinolones, inhibits DNA gyrase, but its bactericidal effects are not completely reversible by inhibitors of protein or RNA synthesis. (
  • When supplemented with proprietary accessory proteins, ATP, and an energy regenerating system, these extracts sustain the synthesis of target proteins from DNA templates for up to 6 hours without the need to remove inhibitory by products. (
  • Small-scale synthesis also helps to avoid protein aggregation into inclusion bodies, a typical problem for bacterial expression systems. (
  • Additionally, expression of proteins in vitro enables synthesis of toxic proteins that can not be produced in live cells. (
  • As a consequence, many (human) diseases, with cystic fibrosis as the best-known example, are caused by mutations in membrane transport proteins. (
  • Phylogeny as a Guide to Structure and Function of Membrane Transport Proteins. (
  • 2020) Inter-membrane association of the Sec and BAM translocons for bacterial outer-membrane biogenesis. (
  • Deficiency of this component prevents formation of membrane attack complexes. (
  • 2021) In situ imaging of bacterial outer membrane projections and associated protein complexes using electron cryo-tomography. (
  • These complexes aggregate to form pore-like structures in the membrane which allow ions such as potassium to leak through from the cytoplasm to the external environment. (
  • This will yield a better understanding of the structure of a cell's membrane and how it interacts with the environment. (
  • They shuttle the RNA-laden fat globules through their outer membranes into the cytoplasm , a cell's factory floor. (
  • This organization stems in part from the localization of proteins within the cell's interior. (
  • Some of these proteins also have known roles in the cytoplasm, which means they could be so-called "moon-lightning" proteins having more than one function. (
  • The large nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane to separate it from the cytoplasm. (
  • Cytoplasm contains cytosol made up of proteins, ions and water. (
  • Despite their heterogeneity, all classic prion diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormal isoform of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ), which predominantly accumulates in the central nervous system ( 1 ). (
  • Pigs were vaccinated with recombinant RlpB and VacJ, outer membrane proteins with important contributions to cellular function and viability. (
  • The cellular and bacterial mechanisms underlying these observations are being explored. (
  • However, we also show that the apparently non-classically secreted proteins are still distinguished from cellular proteins by properties such as amino acid composition, secondary structure and disordered regions. (
  • The ribosomes decipher the strands' coded instructions and churn out new SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein bits of incomparable purity by the bucketful -- it's like a cellular protein factory," Pulendran said. (
  • Diversification of the AlpB Outer Membrane Protein of Helicobacter pylori Affects Biofilm Formation and Cellular Adhesion. (
  • 50] Umrekar TR, Cohen E, Drobniƒç T, Gonzalez-Rodriguez N, Beeby M . (2021) CryoEM of bacterial secretion systems: A primer for microbiologists. (
  • Ho, B. T., Dong, T. G. & Mekalanos, J. J. A view to a kill: the bacterial type VI secretion system. (
  • Filloux A, Hachani A and Bleves S (2008) The bacterial type VI secretion machine: yet another player for protein transport across membranes. (
  • Prion diseases are neurodegenerative conditions associated with a misfolded and infectious protein, scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ). (
  • This includes the opacity (Opa) proteins which are responsible for the opaque colony phenotyle caused by tight junctions between adjacent Neisseria, and are also responsible for tight adherence to host cells. (
  • 1] Neisseria gonorrhoeae can produce one or several Opa proteins. (
  • Phase variation of Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and the effects of bacterial transformation. (
  • Before killing Salmonella, the detergent-like protein APOL3 (green) must get through the bacteria's protective outer membrane (red), as shown in the cross sections above. (
  • The team found that the interferon gamma alarm signal could prevent Salmonella from taking over human cells, but the researchers didn't know which proteins came to the rescue. (
  • We demonstrate the application of PIITA to data generated via our wet-lab approach on a Salmonella typhimurium outer membrane extract and compare these results to bottom-up analysis. (
  • To evaluate its safety and immunogenicity the recombinant protein was purified for the immunization of human volunteers. (
  • Though high antibody titers to the recombinant proteins and increased interferon-γ producing cells were found in subunit vaccinated animals, the pigs were not protected from developing systemic disease. (
  • Shop Glutamate/aspartate import solute-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Glutamate/aspartate import solute-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. (
  • Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available. (
  • Jose J (2006) Autodisplay: efficient bacterial surface display of recombinant proteins. (
  • 2017). . (
  • These mutations alter the sequence of protein building blocks, resulting in an abnormally short protein that, if produced, is likely broken down quickly. (
  • Although mutations continued to accumulate in the bacterial genome during the chronic phase, the rate of substitutions dropped considerably after the initial four-week period. (
  • It's an essential function, so the mutations can't change the protein too much. (
  • The PrlA (SecY) and PrlG (SecE) suppressors are compromised in their ability to proofread, allowing export of proteins with mutations, or even complete deletions, of the signal sequence. (
  • In a Prl suppressor strain the mutant protein would be exported to the periplasm due to loss of ability to reject non-secretory proteins from the pathway. (
  • We aim to construct a system for directed delivery of proteins into cells by outer membrane vesicle (OMV) protein secretion. (
  • In particular, these features reflected the local organization of the intervening lipids between the two interacting proteins. (
  • Unlike the nanodisc, which requires scaffold proteins of different lengths and precise amounts of matching lipids, reconstitution of detergent solubilized proteins in peptidisc only requires a short amphipathic bi-helical peptide (NSP r ) and no extra lipids. (
  • SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is an enveloped virus, meaning that its genetic material is packed inside an outer layer (envelope) of proteins and lipids. (
  • He and his colleagues found that Pectobacterium cells have a receptor - dubbed FusA - specially adapted to grab the iron from ferrodoxin proteins. (
  • Ligand delivery by haem carrier proteins: the binding of Serratia marcescens haemophore to its outer membrane receptor is mediated by two distinct peptide regions. (
  • Previous animal studies revealed that vaccination with siderophore receptor proteins protects against UTI. (
  • Abstract: The translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is a membrane protein located on the outer mitochondrial membrane. (
  • The susceptibility of bacterial membranes to AMP-induced damages was independent of the ompU-mediated AMP resistance. (
  • Therefore, it is necessary to develop a targeted antibiotic delivery system to improve drug delivery behavior, in order to delay the generation of bacterial drug resistance. (
  • UvrB/uvrC motif, UvrB interaction domain, Type III restriction enzyme, Ultra-violet resistance protein B, Helicase conserved C-terminal domain [Interproscan]. (
  • Serum resistance in Haemophilus parasuis pressure SC096 has been proven to be depending on expression of the outer membrane protein P2 (OmpP2) and lack of the ompP2 gene leads to considerably better sensitivity to each porcine and rabbit sera. (
  • Why Have Small Multidrug Resistance Proteins Not Evolved into Fused, Internally Duplicated Structures? (
  • In vivo Trp-scanning of the Small Multidrug Resistance protein EmrE confirms anti-parallel 3D structure models. (
  • Tripartite multidrug efflux systems contribute to bacterial resistance to protamine differently from the Tat system. (
  • The dynamics of PV of meningococcal Opa proteins is unknown. (
  • The ETS is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. (
  • Wagner F, Kunz TC, Chowdhury SR, Thiede B, Fraunholz M, Eger D, Kozjak-Pavlovic V . Armadillo repeat-containing protein 1 is a dual localization protein associated with mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging complex. (
  • Mitofusins are outer membrane proteins essential for mitochondrial fusion. (
  • Swab Collection and Transport Devices Swab or Double Swab in Amies Agar Gel Use for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture and fungal culture. (
  • Viotic Ear Drops combine the anti-fungal and anti -bacterial properties of dioquinol with the anti-inflammdtory activity of flurnetasone pivalate. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterium and the most common cause of invasive bacterial disease (such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis and Otitis media) in infants and young children. (
  • To date only ~200 unique membrane protein structures have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. (
  • We are interested in determining the 3D structures of bacterial outer membrane proteins by X-ray crystallography. (
  • N. gonorrhoeae evades humoral immune recognition by undergoing extensive variation of its surface structures, including its type IV pili, opacity-associated (Opa) proteins, and lipooligosaccharide. (
  • W. Franklin, J. Krise, J.J. Stevens, J.S.G. Slusky, Redesigning OmpA Loops Using Canonical Outer Membrane Protein Loop Structures. (
  • Together the structures of AlgK and AlgE suggest a novel mechanism for polysaccharide export across the outer membrane. (
  • Such proteins, exemplified by channels of the FadL family, transport their substrates according to a lateral diffusion mechanism. (
  • they also uncover a novel protein secretion mechanism, highlighting the ubiquitous connection between secretion and bacterial motility. (
  • In order to allow easy protein fusions we designed and created a new protein fusion assembly standard, RFC44 , that provides the basis of a solution to a biobrick-friendly protein fusion mechanism that supports the current favorite assembly standard 10 (RFC10) and hence allows utilization of most of the current biobricks database. (
  • The mechanism(s) that contribute to the bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. (
  • It is based on the secretion mechanism of the autotransporters, a family of proteins that was discovered by Joachim Jose and co-workers during his time at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biology in Tübingen. (
  • Daptomycin mechanism of action on Gram positive plasma membrane. (
  • Polymixin mechanism of action on Gram negative outer and plasma membrane. (
  • The complement system is a group of proteins that work together to destroy foreign invaders, trigger inflammation, and remove debris from cells and tissues. (
  • Complement component 8 combines with several other complement proteins to form the membrane attack complex (MAC), which inserts itself in the outer membrane of bacterial cells. (
  • Endotoxins from intact bacterial cells can be ingested by alveolar macrophages, a process that increases their toxicity. (
  • In addition, a recent study demonstrated that both TLR4 and TLR2 mRNA and protein are upregulated after stimulation of A549 cells (human lung epithelial cells) with K. pneumoniae 12 . (
  • I attended a Systems biology meeting ESF 2008 where Ron Weiss explained how he used a bacterial to manipulate eukaryotic cells. (
  • Synthetic biology offers the potential to engineer these mechanisms for human benefit, for example, the injection of toxic cocktails of proteins into cancerous cells or the replacement of proteins missing as a result of genetic defects [3]. (
  • These proteins are subject to phase variation and are usually found on cells from colonies possessing a unique opaque phenotype called O+. (
  • Moreover, the dielectric properties of single viruses, bacterial cells and bacterial endospores have been measured, and we analyzed the effect of environmental humidity in their dielectric response. (
  • While scientists knew that cells could attack bacterial membranes, this study uncovers what appears to be the first example of a protective intracellular protein with detergent-like action. (
  • A signal called interferon gamma, for instance, cranks up protein production in non-immune cells that compose our tissues and organs. (
  • The key to one possibility - blocking a protein that enables the virus to turn the immune system against healthy cells - has been identified in a recent study by a team of Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers. (
  • However, MACs also can arise on the membranes of healthy cells. (
  • In a series of experiments, Brodsky and his colleagues used normal human blood serum and three subunits of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to discover exactly how the virus activates the APC, hijacks the immune system and endangers normal cells. (
  • Like its close cousin DNA , RNA is a string of chemical units representing, similarly to letters of the alphabet, the genetic code that all living cells use as instructions for producing their component proteins. (
  • At that time (the mid 1980s) life scientists regarded bacterial cells as highly disordered systems. (
  • Eiec are highly invasive, and they use adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. (
  • Bacterial cells were disrupted by sonication and centrifuged at 5000 X g to remove whole cells. (
  • Bacterial cells are protected by a bi-layer of phospholipids . (
  • Researchers at RPI have developed a prototype hydrocarbon-based membrane for use in AE fuel cells and electrolyzers. (
  • The C8B gene provides instructions for making one piece, the beta subunit, of a protein complex called complement component 8. (
  • Selected proteins for subunit vaccination should be widespread, highly conserved, and surface exposed. (
  • Results Two candidate proteins for subunit vaccination (RlpB and VacJ) against G. parasuis were identified using random mutagenesis and an in vitro organ culture system. (
  • This complex creates a hole (pore) in the membrane, which kills the bacterium. (
  • The latest research, funded by the Medical Research Council, provides experimental proofs for the model proposed before and shows how, once the subunits have been assembled, the new pilus is secreted from inside the FimD protein to the exterior, via a pore, across the outer bacterial membrane. (
  • Although it is not yet clear how, researchers know that this bacterial fusion event is linked to Chlamydia's pathogenicity-its ability to cause disease in the host. (
  • Such adaptation through gene expression can radically change bacterial physiology and pathogenicity. (
  • Generally, sRNAs can bind to protein targets and modify the function of the bound protein. (
  • Some proteins readily bind to the surfaces of membranes with positive curvature and others to membranes with negative curvature. (
  • Surprisingly, loss of babA by phase variation or gene conversion is not dependent on the capacity of BabA protein to bind Leb, which suggests that it may have other, unrecognized functions. (
  • Davies' team has just published a paper showing how cephalosporins bind and inactivate a gonococcal protein dubbed penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). (
  • 2009). Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall. (
  • J. Budiardjo, A.I. Ikujuni, E. Firlar, A. Cordova, J.T. Kaelber, J.S.G. Slusky, High yield preparation of outer-membrane protein efflux pumps by in vitro refolding is concentration dependent. (
  • They exhibit a single N-terminal hydrophobic sequence that may serve as the cleavable membrane-targeting signal sequence. (
  • This latter function is critical and relies on a class of proteins that are embedded within the membrane and are also hydrophobic. (
  • The hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins is however inconvenient for biochemical studies which usually take place in water-based solutions. (
  • Called the "peptidisc", the method uses multiple copies of a unique peptide - a short sequence of the building blocks of protein - that had been redesigned to have optimal hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. (
  • Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) created a 3D computer simulation tool to assess the behavior/interaction of a hydrophobic membrane material with waste/feed water particles to assist membrane manufacturers/end-users in identifying a high performing membrane filtration/separation system. (
  • Recently Howell's lab, with the help of SBGrid programs Phenix and CCP4, among others, solved the structure of AlgK, a protein required for P. aeruginosa to produce alginate, the polysaccharide that forms the bacterial biofilm inside the lung. (
  • 4. The isolated nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein the S. pneumoniae surface protein elicits an immune response. (
  • andc) an RNA of a) or b), wherein U is substituted for T;wherein the isolated nucleic acid encodes a S. pneumoniae surface protein. (