Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Molybdoferredoxin: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.AcetyleneNitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dinitrogenase Reductase: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.EthaneAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Methionine SulfoximineMetalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Flavodoxin: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.Vanadium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gluconacetobacter: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Azoarcus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.ImidesElectron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Cyanothece: A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Darkness: The absence of light.Frankia: Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Diazooxonorleucine: An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
... which is still more reducing than the bacterial ferredoxins is implicated in the nitrogenase. Some 4Fe-4S clusters bind ... The nif system is responsible for the clusters in the enzyme nitrogenase. The suf and isc systems are more general. The yeast ... Examples include both the 8Fe and the 7Fe clusters in nitrogenase. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and the [FeFe]-hydrogenase ... The [Fe4S4] electron-transfer proteins ([Fe4S4] ferredoxins) may be further subdivided into low-potential (bacterial-type) and ...
Oxygen is bound to leghemoglobin in the root nodules that house the bacterial symbionts, and supplied at a rate that will not ... Nitrogenase is expressed under nitrogen limitation. Normally, the expression is regulated via negative feedback from the ... Diazotrophs are scattered across bacterial taxonomic groups (mostly in the Bacteria but also a couple of Archaea). Even within ... All diazotrophs contain iron-molybdenum or -vanadium nitrogenase systems. Two of the most studied systems are those of ...
This bacterial channel is considered to be a faster channel because of the ability of species to focus on more accessible ... Sims GK, Dunigan EP; Dunigan (1984). "Diurnal and seasonal variations in nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction) of rice roots". ... Predation by bacterial-feeding nematodes was shown to influence nitrogen availability and plant growth. There was also an ... Tian, C. F.; Garnerone, A.-M.; Mathieu-Demaziere, C.; Masson-Boivin, C.; Batut, J. (2012). "Plant-activated bacterial receptor ...
... post-translational regulation of nitrogenase was demonstrated. Nitrogenase is modified by an ADP-ribosylation in the arginine ... Type strain of Rhodospirillum rubrum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... Pope MR, Murrell SA, Ludden PW (1985). "Covalent modification of the iron protein of nitrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by ... Neilson AH, Nordlund S (1975). "Regulation of nitrogenase synthesis in intact cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum: inactivation of ...
Because the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for nitrogen fixation, is very sensitive to oxygen which will inhibit it ... The different metabolic end products produced by each specific bacterial species are responsible for the different tastes and ... Nitrogen fixation can be found distributed throughout nearly all bacterial lineages and physiological classes but is not a ... and due to the extreme sensitivity of the nitrogenase to oxygen. Lipophilic bacteria, a minority of bacteria with lipid ...
Two main enzymes produce hydrogen in microbes, hydrogenase and nitrogenase; Cyanothece has both enzymes. The nitrogenase fixes ... Archean Eon of Earth's prehistory Bacterial phyla, the other major lineages of domain Bacteria Biofertilizer Cyanobiont ... Interestingly, PCC 7425's nitrogenase cluster is arranged differently from the other five strains and can only fix nitrogen ... In a very energy-intensive process, nitrogenase is first synthesized and then takes N2 from the air, combining it with protons ...
In bacterial nitrogen fixation, the nitrogenase enzyme involved in the terminal step of reducing molecular nitrogen usually ... Molybdenum-bearing enzymes are by far the most common bacterial catalysts for breaking the chemical bond in atmospheric ... At least 50 molybdenum enzymes are now known in bacteria, plants, and animals, although only bacterial and cyanobacterial ... Although oxygen once promoted nitrogen fixation by making molybdenum available in water, it also directly poisons nitrogenase ...
Besides the nitrogenase enzyme, the nif genes also encode a number of regulatory proteins involved in nitrogen fixation. The ... The nif genes can be found on bacterial chromosomes, but in symbiotic bacteria they are often found on plasmids or symbiosis ... The primary enzyme encoded by the nif genes is the nitrogenase complex which is in charge of converting atmospheric nitrogen ( ... nifH, nifD, and nifK encode the nitrogenase subunits, while nifE, nifN, nifU, nifS, nifV, nifW, nifX, nifB, and nifQ encode ...
Vanadium nitrogenases are found in members of the bacterial genus Azotobacter as well as the species Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... Unlike molybdenum nitrogenase, vanadium nitrogenase can also reduce carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane and propane but both ... Vanadium nitrogenase has an α2β2Ύ2 subunit structure while molybdenum nitrogenase has an α2β2 structure. Though the structural ... Like molybdenum nitrogenase, vanadium nitrogenase is easily oxidized and is thus only active under anaerobic conditions. ...
Rosenzweig AC, Frederick CA, Lippard SJ, Nordlund P (1993). "Crystal structure of bacterial non-haem iron hydroxylase that ... Dalton, Howard; Whittenbury, Roger (August 1976). "The acetylene reduction technique as an assay for nitrogenase activity in ...
Parts of a bacterial cell. *Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator - A web-app that uses several simple algorithms to ... Zehr J, Jenkins B, Short S, Steward G (2003). "Nitrogenase gene diversity and microbial community structure: a cross-system ... Young K (2006). "The selective value of bacterial shape". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 (3): 660-703. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00001-06 . ... Cabeen M, Jacobs-Wagner C (2005). "Bacterial cell shape". Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (8): 601-10. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1205 . PMID ...
... "bacterial-type". Bacterial-type ferredoxins may in turn be subdivided into further groups, based on their sequence properties. ... a strong and specific interaction of Cp2FeFd with the molybdenum-iron protein of nitrogenase has been revealed. Homologous ... As in other bacterial ferredoxins, the [Fe4S4] unit forms a cubane-type cluster and is ligated to the protein via four Cys ... In some bacterial ferredoxins, one of the duplicated domains has lost one or more of the four conserved Cys residues. These ...
Oxygen is bound to leghemoglobin in the root nodules that house the bacterial symbionts, and supplied at a rate that will not ... All diazotrophs contain iron-molybdenum or -vanadium nitrogenase systems. Two of the most studied systems are those of ... Diazotrophs are scattered across bacterial taxonomic groups (mostly in the Bacteria but also a couple of Archaea). Even within ... Aerobes-these species require oxygen to grow, yet their nitrogenase is still debilitated if exposed to oxygen. Azotobacter ...
Azonexus fungiphilus has got the nitrogenase-gene nifH. LSPN bacterio.net/ Straininfo of Azonexus hydrophilus Chou, JH; Jiang, ... PubMed Type strain of Azonexus hydrophilus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
This allows an oxygen concentration that is low enough to allow nitrogenase to function, but high enough that it can provide ... Its function is to help provide oxygen to the respiring symbiotic bacterial cells in a manner analogous to hemoglobin ... Hemoglobin Myoglobin Phytoglobin O'Brian MR, Kirshbom PM, Maier RJ (1987). "Bacterial heme synthesis is required for expression ... the presence of oxygen in the root nodules would reduce the activity of the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase - an enzyme ...
Type strain of Beijerinckia derxii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... "Beijerinckia derxii releases plant growth regulators and amino acids in synthetic media independent of nitrogenase activity". ...
The exact chemical structure of the Nod factor that is recognised by the plant varies between bacterial species and is the ... and the legumes produce leghemoglobin to carry away any oxygen that would inhibit nitrogenase activity. Nod factors ...
"J.P. Euzéby: List of bacterial names with standing in nomenclature". Archived from the original on December 7, 2000. "Br3437 ... "nifH - Nitrogenase - Paraburkholderia nodosa - nifH gene & protein". ...
"Wheat root colonization and nitrogenase activity by Azospirillum isolates from crop plants in Korea." Canadian journal of ... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ...
They fix nitrogen from dinitrogen (N2) in the air using the enzyme nitrogenase, in order to provide the cells in the filament ... The bacterial filament can be seen as a multicellular organism with two distinct yet interdependent cell types. Such behavior ... As the Azolla-Anabaena plants grow, they accumulate fixed nitrogen due to the actions of the nitrogenase enzymes and organic ... with nitrogen for biosynthesis.[1] Nitrogenase is inactivated by oxygen, so the heterocyst must create a microanaerobic ...
There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ... In addition to fixing carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, some bacteria also fix nitrogen gas using the enzyme nitrogenase. This ... PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center for bacterial pathogens, funded by NIAID Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator-A ... Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5-5.0 micrometres in length. However, a ...
... an up-to-date electronic atlas of annotated bacterial genomes". Nucleic Acids Research 40 (D1): D599-D604. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... "Distribution of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase-like sequences amongst microbial genomes". BMC Genomics13: 162. doi:10.1186/ ...
He continues his work in the field of iron-sulfur clusters today, examining the active sites of the enzymes nitrogenase and ... "Structure and properties of a synthetic analogue of bacterial iron-sulfur proteins", Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Nitrogenase[edit]. Main article: Nitrogenase. Nitrogenase is the most important enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation. ... "Genetics of Bacterial Alginate: Alginate Genes Distribution, Organization and Biosynthesis in Bacteria". Current Genomics. 8 ... Azotobacter species have several types of nitrogenase. The basic one is molybdenum-iron nitrogenase.[43] An alternative type ... a special nitrogenase-protective protein protects nitrogenase and is involved in protecting the cells from oxygen. Mutants not ...
The nitrogenase holoenzyme of A. vinelandii has been characterised by X-ray crystallography in both ADP tetrafluoroaluminate- ... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... stabilized nitrogenase complex and its implications for signal ... "MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe- ...
The specific enzyme protected is nitrogenase, which is unable to reduce nitrogen gas in the presence of free oxygen.. ... "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its bacterial ...
Certain strains of the obligate nitrogen-fixing bacterial endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus have the necessary ... by the enzyme nitrogenase with 8H+, 8e− and 16 Mg ATP [116]. The process in G. diazotrophicus is catalyzed by nitrogenase which ... 2.2.1. G. diazotrophicus in comparison with other bacterial endophytes. Bacterial genomes vary a great deal in size ranging ... the sucrose has a positive effect on nitrogenase activity protecting nitrogenase against inhibition by oxygen [123]. Secondly, ...
CCAP 1430/3. Nitrogenase synthesis was inhibited by addition of NHX but was unaffected by elevated concentrations of O2. Upon ... If darkness exerts its effect on nitrogenase synthesis by inhibiting the synthesis of nif mRNA, it does so only after a lag of ... This delayed effect of darkness on nitrogenase synthesis could not be related to any change in RNA synthesis, in protein ... there was initially a slight decrease in the rate of synthesis of nitrogenase but after 4-5 h there was an almost complete ...
Basic Protocol 3: Bacterial Conjugation in A. brasilense. Materials * A. brasilense recipient colonies freshly grown on ... Regulation of transcription and promoter mapping of the structural genes for nitrogenase (nifHDK) of Azospirillum brasilense ... Basic Protocol 3: Bacterial Conjugation in A. brasilense. *Support Protocol 1: Preparation of E. coli Donor and Helper Strains ... Simon, R. (1984). High frequency mobilization of gram‐negative bacterial replicons by the in vitro constructed Tn5‐Mob ...
EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON NITROGENASE ACTIVITY OF DIAZOTROPHS AND TOTAL BACTERIAL POPULATION IN RICE SOIL. by Journal of Animal ... APA style: EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON NITROGENASE ACTIVITY OF DIAZOTROPHS AND TOTAL BACTERIAL POPULATION IN RICE SOIL.. (n.d.) >The ... MLA style: "EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON NITROGENASE ACTIVITY OF DIAZOTROPHS AND TOTAL BACTERIAL POPULATION IN RICE SOIL.." The Free ... Bacterial population in each concentration was determined using drop plate technique and nitrogenase activity was measured by ...
In the present study, degenerate primers targeting the nitrogenase iron protein-encoding gene (nifH) were designed and employed ... In the present study, degenerate primers targeting the nitrogenase iron protein-encoding gene (nifH) were designed and employed ... Bacterial Proteins / genetics* * Genetic Variation* * Hot Springs / microbiology* * Molecular Sequence Data * Oxidoreductases ...
Ryu C, Farag MA, Hu C et al (2004) Bacterial volatiles induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 134:1017-1026. ... Fu H, Hartmann A, Lowery RG et al (1989) Posttranslational regulatory system for nitrogenase activity in Azospirillum spp. J ... Hartmann A, Fu H, Burris RH (1986) Regulation of nitrogenase activity by ammonium chloride in Azospirillum spp. J Bacteriol 165 ... Pankievicz VCS, Do Amaral FP, Santos KFDN et al (2015) Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial ...
strain BH72, which expresses nitrogenase (nif) genes inside rice roots. They used a proteomic approach to dissect responses of ... Germaine K, Liu X, Cabellos G, Hogan J, Ryan D & Dowling DN (2006) Bacterial endophyte-enhanced phyto-remediation of the ... Hallmann J, Quadt-Hallmann A, Mahaffee WF & Kloepper JW (1997) Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol 43: ... Kloepper JW, Rodriguez-Kabana R, Zehnder GW, Murphy J, Sikora E & Fernandez C (1999) Plant root-bacterial interactions in ...
No true fungal family member has ever been found to possess Nitrogenase genes. They are exclusively bacterial. Actinomycetes ... About 100 varieties bacteria are known with one or more of the three Nitrogenase genes which can fix atmospheric N into living ... Some of these have Nitrogenase genes. They are not particularly indiscriminately mycorrhizal, however. Frankia species do form ... but this should not be generalized about all mycorrhizia without evidence that nitrogenase is present. Microbiology has several ...
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Flavodoxin); 0 (Reducing Agents); E1UOL152H7 (Iron); EC 1.18.6.1 (Nitrogenase). ... Nitrogenase reduces dinitrogen (N ) to ammonia in biological nitrogen fixation. The nitrogenase Fe protein cycle involves a ... Nitrogenase/metabolismo. Subst ncias Redutoras/metabolismo. [Mh] Termos MeSH secund rio:. Sequ ncia de Amino cidos. Azotobacter ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Reducing Agents); 3M4G523W1G (Silver); 9004-34-6 (Cellulose). ...
Nitrogenase activity in the symbiont was also verified by enzyme activity assays. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial ... Nitrogenase/qu mica. Nitrogenase/metabolismo. [Mh] Termos MeSH secund rio:. S tios de Liga o. Dom nio Catal tico. Liga es de ... 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Flavodoxin); 0 (Reducing Agents); E1UOL152H7 (Iron); EC 1.18.6.1 (Nitrogenase). ... Nitrogenase reduces dinitrogen (N ) to ammonia in biological nitrogen fixation. The nitrogenase Fe protein cycle involves a ...
Next article in issue: Role of bacterial polysaccharides in the derepression of ex-planta nitrogenase activity with rhizobia ... Next article in issue: Role of bacterial polysaccharides in the derepression of ex-planta nitrogenase activity with rhizobia ... Andrew M. Kramer, M. Maille Lyons, Fred C. Dobbs, John M. Drake, Bacterial colonization and extinction on marine aggregates: ...
Thus, 25 nifB genes were of bacterial origin (13 Proteobacteria, 8 Cyanobacteria, 2 Firmicutes, 1 Chlorobi, and 1 Chloroflexi) ... Nitrogenase. IV. Simple method of purification to homogeneity of nitrogenase components from Azotobacter vinelandii. Biochim. ... Biosynthesis of the nitrogenase active-site cofactor precursor NifB-co in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. View ORCID ProfileStefan ... Nitrogenase MoFe-protein at 1.16 A resolution: A central ligand in the FeMo-cofactor. Science 297, 1696-1700 (2002).. ...
1993) Hopanoid lipids compose the Frankia vesicle envelope, presumptive barrier of oxygen diffusion to nitrogenase. Proc Natl ... 2004) Structure and function of TolC: The bacterial exit duct for proteins and drugs. Annu Rev Biochem 73:467-489. ... 2015) Methylation at the C-2 position of hopanoids increases rigidity in native bacterial membranes. eLife doi:10.7554/eLife. ... Hopanoids as functional analogues of cholesterol in bacterial membranes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The current work on membrane proteins centers on bacterial mechanosensitive channels and ATP dependent bacterial transporters ... Of his 160 publications, 1/4 have dealt primarily with nitrogenase. This enzyme is a moving target and gives up its secrets ... A key observation, many years ago, was that nitrogenase is a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch, using ATP hydrolysis to ... The unusual structures of the nitrogenase complex, and particularly its FeMo-cofactor, now solved at about one Ångstrom ...
Hydrogenase, nitrogenase, and hydrogen metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria. Advances in Microbial Physiology 26:155-234. ... Continuous disposal of sulfate by a bacterial mutualism. Development of Industrial Microbiology 20:591-602.Google Scholar ... The structure of anaerobic bacterial communities in the hypolimnia of several Michigan lakes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology ... Anaerobic oxidation of sulphur compounds as electron donors for bacterial photosynthesis. Philosophical Transactions of the ...
Inside the nodules hypoxic environment, the bacterial enzyme nitrogenase reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Medicago ... These were then expressed in bacterial systems. Finally, the GST tagged proteins were purified. In the future, wild-type and ...
Inside the nodules hypoxic environment, the bacterial enzyme nitrogenase reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Medicago ...
The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic ... The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic ... FIGURE 2. Relative abundance of bacterial phyla in hypolith (green) and soil (red) communities as determined by pyrosequencing ... Phyla that possessed nitrogenase genes for nitrogen fixation generally also possessed pathways for nitrification. The fungi ...
... has the same fold as the Fe-containing protein of nitrogenase strengthens the connection between nitrogenase and the ABC ... A bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene that complements the human multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein gene. Nature 391:291-295. ... Bacterial signal peptide-independent protein export: HlyB-directed secretion of hemolysin. Semin. Cell Biol. 4:7-15. ... Bacterial periplasmic permeases belong to a family of transport proteins operating from Escherichia coli to humans: traffic ...
Vanadium nitrogenases are found in members of the bacterial genus Azotobacter as well as the species Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... Unlike molybdenum nitrogenase, vanadium nitrogenase can also reduce carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane and propane but both ... Vanadium nitrogenase has an α2β2Ύ2 subunit structure while molybdenum nitrogenase has an α2β2 structure. Though the structural ... Like molybdenum nitrogenase, vanadium nitrogenase is easily oxidized and is thus only active under anaerobic conditions. ...
Nitrogenase is also very sensitive to oxygen and will not function if there is too much of it in its environment. However, ... The bacterial compatability of chloroplasts and mitochondria. This is the question that drives researchers in the Voigt lab, as ... Nitrogenase requires a lot of energy to function and both chloroplasts and mitochondria already produce high amounts energy - ... They made headway in targeting nitrogenase to mitochondria and were able to express a complete NifDK tetramer - a key protein ...
Bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. The bacterial strain QAU-66 was found to be Gram negative and cocci. The ... the nitrogenase activity was observed as change in colour (translucent to blue) on the NFB medium (Dobereiner and Day, 1976). ... Bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. Bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo of ... The bacterial cells were harvested by centrifuge and suspended in 100 mL saline solution. This culture (1 mL of saline solution ...
Bacterial strains and growth conditions.The bacterial strains and plasmids used are listed in Table 1. Escherichia coli strains ... This deficiency may cause early senescence of nodules, which is reflected by lower nitrogenase activity. ... In a first step in studying the role of GSH in the growth of S. meliloti, in silico analysis of the bacterial genome (8) was ... In this scenario, bacterial γEC may have served multiple functions, including those carried on by GSH before the recruitment of ...
Here, the diazotrophic bacterial community structure across four Arctic glacier forefields was investigated using metagenomic ... In total, 70 soil metagenomes were used for taxonomic interpretation based on 185 nitrogenase (nif) sequences, extracted from ...
Liquid-chromatographic fluorescence determination of ammonia from nitrogenase reactions: a 2-min assay. Appl. Environ. ... 7). In the upper layer, the bacterial community changed much more with time. The bacterial communities in the treatment P+B and ... indicating that bacterial diversity had been successfully reestablished (Fig. 7). The bacterial communities in upper and lower ... Impact of Protists on the Activity and Structure of the Bacterial Community in a Rice Field Soil. Jun Murase, Matthias Noll, ...
  • Upon transfer of cultures of Gloeothece from light to darkness, there was initially a slight decrease in the rate of synthesis of nitrogenase but after 4-5 h there was an almost complete cessation of synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The current work on membrane proteins centers on bacterial mechanosensitive channels and ATP dependent bacterial transporters mediating translocation of transition metals and nutrients. (k-state.edu)
  • A key observation, many years ago, was that nitrogenase is a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch, using ATP hydrolysis to switch protein conformations, much as G proteins use GTP. (k-state.edu)
  • The [Fe4Selectron-transfer proteins ([Fe4Sferredoxins) may be further subdivided into low-potential (bacterial-type) and high-potential (HiPIP) ferredoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules, where it is required for the activity of bacterial nitrogenase, plant leghemoglobin, respiratory oxidases, and other Fe proteins in both organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As major components of the selectively permeable bacterial membranes, lipids , though with relatively monotonic structures compared to membrane proteins, play significant roles in biochemical activities and stress tolerance. (kenyon.edu)
  • Our analysis of 79,090 nitrogenase (nifH) PCR amplicons encoding 7,468 unique proteins from surface samples (ten DNA samples and two RNA samples) collected at ten marine locations world-wide provides the first in-depth survey of a functional bacterial gene and yield insights into the composition and diversity of the nifH gene pool in marine waters. (ku.dk)
  • Our results contributed to elucidate several new aspects in the regulation by PII proteins and also strengthened the idea that these proteins act as global regulators in the context of bacterial nitrogen metabolism. (diva-portal.org)
  • The heat-shock proteins and many important 'housekeeping' enzymes of the biosphere, such as urease, hydrogenase, and nitrogenase may all be of hydrothermal origin. (lyellcollection.org)
  • A second line of research is centered on the study of integral membrane proteins, in particular bacterial transporters and channels. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Len and coworkers developed effective anaerobic techniques for the purification of nitrogenase from C. pasteurianum , and a similar strategy allowed the purification of the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase from the same organism in his laboratory. (asm.org)
  • Len and his collaborators were able to reveal novel metalloclusters in ferredoxin, nitrogenase, and hydrogenase of C. pasteurinum , making this anaerobe a treasure trove for the discovery of new types of metalloproteins. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, degenerate primers targeting the nitrogenase iron protein-encoding gene (nifH) were designed and employed to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that underpin the distribution and diversity of nifH as a proxy for nitrogen-fixing organisms in the geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. (nih.gov)
  • Indirect insights, however, can be gained through phylogenetic studies of nitrogenase structural gene products and additional gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal-containing prosthetic groups associated with this enzyme complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • The total community DNA was extracted from the rhizosphere and analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), based on the alkaline phosphatase coding gene ( alp gene) and on the nitrogenase coding gene ( nifH gene). (mdpi.com)
  • The bacterial community of IPB-137 rhizosphere analyzed by alp gene also showed significant differences when compared to IPB-149 in both sampling times ( p ≤ 0.05). (mdpi.com)
  • Increased abundance of total and Acidobacterial lineages in low As-containing soil and the detection of several uncultured groups among nifH gene sequence in higher frequency indicated the presence of novel nifH bearing bacterial groups. (deepdyve.com)
  • The fdxN gene from Rhizobium meliloti encoding a bacterial-type ferredoxin (FdxN) was expressed in Escherichia coil under the control of the lac promoter. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A groEL mutant of E.coli, transformed with the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, failed to accumulate nitrogenase components [Govezensky et al. (nih.gov)
  • This phenotype was the result of molybdate not reaching the nitrogen-fixing nodules, since genetic complementation with a wild-type MtMOT1.2 gene or molybdate-fortification of the nutrient solution, both restored wild-type levels of growth and nitrogenase activity. (metalsym.com)
  • Our results demonstrate hesA is a novel gene specially required for nitrogen fixation and its role is related to introduction of S and Mo into the FeMo-co of nitrogenase. (peerj.com)
  • Levels of nifD transcripts in Geobacteraceae decreased more than 100-fold within 2 days after the addition of 100 μM ammonium, while levels of recA and total bacterial 16S rRNA in Geobacteraceae remained relatively constant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overcoming the inhibitory effects of excess environmental ammonium on nitrogenase synthesis or activity and preventing ammonium assimilation have been considered strategies to increase the amount of fixed nitrogen transferred from bacterial to plant partners in associative or symbiotic plant-diazotroph relationships. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Molecular techniques provide relatively new avenues for studying bacterial communities participating in the biological N cycle. (asm.org)
  • In total, 70 soil metagenomes were used for taxonomic interpretation based on 185 nitrogenase (nif) sequences, extracted from assembled contigs. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Plant evolutionary history influences the taxonomic composition of the root-associated bacterial community, but whether it can also modulate its functioning is unknown. (nature.com)
  • Within the archaea, nitrogenase has a narrow distribution and is restricted to methanogens (Euryarcheota) within the orders Methanococcales , Methanobacteriales , Methanosarcinales and has yet to be identified among members of the Crenarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, or Nanoarchaeota. (frontiersin.org)
  • Laboratory and glasshouse studies were conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysiato determine the effect of urea-N on diazotrophs (Stenotrophomonas maltophila) growth and colonization on the rice roots and the effect of inoculation on bacterial population. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This could reflect the unique colonization of each square centimeter of skin and the microstructure of bacterial populations. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • A genomic library of total DNA extracted from the fungal spores was also representative of the bacterial genome and was used to investigate the prokaryotic genome. (usda.gov)
  • The cluster analysis based on DGGE showed that plant age slightly influenced the bacterial community related to phosphate mineralization in the rhizosphere of IPB-137, although it did not affect the bacterial community related to nitrogen fixation. (mdpi.com)
  • The results suggest that bacterial ability to adapt to hyper-osmotic and salt stress is important for the bacteroid nitrogen-fixing function inside the legume nodule and provide genetic evidence supporting the suggestion that rhizobia face severe environmental changes after their release into plant cells. (apsnet.org)
  • From previous studies, the hopanoid lipids, as one of the essential components in biomembranes, contributes substantially to bacterial membrane permeability and fluidity, stress resistance, nitrogen fixation and bacterial associations with plants, etc. The study of hopanoid lipid, as one of the new and frontier research, remains lots of unknown and interesting topics to study. (kenyon.edu)
  • The scientists hope to re-engineer this machinery so that it can be transferred into a new host bacterial chassis as a first step towards transferring the machinery, and thus the ability to fix nitrogen, into plants themselves. (innovateuk.org)
  • It is estimated that 5 × 10 3 to 1 × 10 4 different bacterial ribotypes occur per g of soil ( 7 , 41). (asm.org)
  • However, the nitrogenase activity of the hesA mutant could not be restored by Klebsiella oxytoca nifQ or Escherichia coli moeB completely. (peerj.com)
  • Chen YP, Yoch DC (1987) Regulation of two nickel-requiring (inducible and constitutive) hydrogenases and their coupling to nitrogenase in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. (springer.com)
  • The overall results suggest, for the first time, that environmental factors may determine whether H 2 production in C. butyricum CWBI 1009 is mediated by the hydrogenases and/or the nitrogenase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, we reveal a convergence in the architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic membranes and implicate the biosynthetic pathways of hopanoids and other order-modulating lipids as potential targets to fight pathogenic multidrug resistance. (pnas.org)