Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Haemophilus ducreyi: A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Haemophilus parasuis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS found, in the normal upper respiratory tract of SWINE.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Chancroid: Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Haemophilus parainfluenzae: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, ubiquitous in the human ORAL CAVITY and PHARYNX. It has low pathogenicity but is occasionally implicated in ENDOCARDITIS in humans.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Haemophilus somnus: A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.VietnamPolysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Limulus Test: Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.YemenPenicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
respiratory infections sinusitis bronchitis pharyngitis otitis media bacterial meningitis Salmonella, Shigella, and Listeria ... Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Genito-urinary tract infections prevent infection (prophylaxis) in ... It inhibits the third and final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis in binary fission, which ultimately leads to cell lysis ... Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, ...
... is active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus ... pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. In low-income countries, the WHO no longer recommends oily chloramphenicol as first- ... Need for the determination of chloramphenicol levels in the treatment of bacterial-purulent meningitis with chloramphenicol ... "Long-acting chloramphenicol versus intravenous ampicillin for treatment of bacterial meningitis". Lancet. 338 (8771): 862-866. ...
... the prevalence of bacterial meningitis is low. If a child has recovered and is acting normally, bacterial meningitis is very ... Implicated vaccines include measles/mumps/rubella/varicella, diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/polio/Haemophilus ... The diagnosis is arrived at by eliminating more serious causes of seizure and fever: in particular, meningitis and encephalitis ... However, in locales in which children are immunized for pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae, ...
She is best known for her development of the vaccine against bacterial meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)) with ... Rachel Schneerson is best known for her work on the vaccine for Haemophilus influenza type B, or Hib. Prior to the vaccine's ... In 1974, the two went to the Division of Bacterial Products, where Robbins was named chief, at the Bureau of Biologics within ... In 1998, Schneerson and Robbins were named heads of the Section on Bacterial Disease Pathogenesis and Immunity. The two ...
WFS can also be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, a common bacterial pathogen typically associated with meningitis ... It can also be associated with Haemophilus influenzae. Viruses may also be implicated in adrenal problems: Cytomegalovirus can ... commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterial infection leads ... In this form of meningococcal disease, meningitis generally does not occur. Low levels of blood glucose and sodium, high levels ...
... a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and epiglottitis. The techniques he and his colleague Ronald Eby invented were later ... is an American microbiologist best known for developing a vaccine that protects children from infections by Haemophilus ... "A lucky career in bacterial vaccines." (2012) Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol 8, issue 4, pp. 420-422 Clark, Thornton ... "A lucky career in bacterial vaccines." (2012) Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol 8, issue 4, pp. 420-422 Lasker ...
As a more modest example, infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of bacterial meningitis and other serious ... Vaccine burden: Miller E, Andrews N, Waight P, Taylor B (2003). "Bacterial infections, immune overload, and MMR vaccine". Arch ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2002). "Progress toward elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive ...
G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G00.0) Haemophilus meningitis (G00.1) Pneumococcal meningitis (G00.2) ... Other bacterial meningitis Meningitis due to Escherichia coli Meningitis due to Friedländer bacillus Meningitis due to ... Bacterial meningitis, unspecified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other ... Nonpyogenic meningitis (G03.1) Chronic meningitis (G03.2) Benign recurrent meningitis (Mollaret) (G03.8) Meningitis due to ...
Hib can cause bacterial meningitis and pneumonia. There was not enough research found in the review to show whether giving the ... A review into haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) and viral influenza found one good piece of research that showed the flu ... Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a specific risk of exposure and disease. Vaccination ... Salam, RA; Das, JK; Dojo Soeandy, C; Lassi, ZS; Bhutta, ZA (9 June 2015). "Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and ...
... bacterial MeSH C01.252.200.500.400 --- meningitis, escherichia coli MeSH C01.252.200.500.450 --- meningitis, haemophilus MeSH ... haemophilus infections MeSH C01.252.400.700.433.257 --- chancroid MeSH C01.252.400.700.433.615 --- meningitis, haemophilus MeSH ... meningitis, fungal MeSH C01.703.181.500.500 --- meningitis, cryptococcal MeSH C01.703.248.290 --- meningitis, cryptococcal MeSH ... subacute bacterial MeSH C01.252.354.225 --- conjunctivitis, bacterial MeSH C01.252.354.225.250 --- conjunctivitis, inclusion ...
... infections meningitis surgical prophylaxis lyme disease It is also a choice drug for treatment of bacterial meningitis caused ... and beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus and Neisseria. However, unlike ceftazidime and cefoperazone, ceftriaxone ... Ceftriaxone, sold under the trade name Rocephin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections ... van Heijenoort, J. (2001-03-01). "Formation of the glycan chains in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan". Glycobiology. 11 ...
Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)) with his colleague Rachel Schneerson. Bacterial meningitis is the leading cause of ... best known for his development of the vaccine against bacterial meningitis ( ... now used throughout the world and has led to a dramatic decline in the number of infants and children suffering from meningitis ...
... meningitis, bacterial MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.350 --- meningitis, escherichia coli MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.425 --- meningitis ... meningitis, haemophilus MeSH C10.228.228.507.280.449 --- meningitis, listeria MeSH C10.228.228.507.280.505 --- meningitis, ... meningitis, aseptic MeSH C10.228.228.507.280 --- meningitis, bacterial MeSH C10.228.228.507.280.350 --- meningitis, escherichia ... haemophilus MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.500 --- meningitis, listeria MeSH C10.228.228.180.500.750 --- meningitis, meningococcal ...
... influenzae-a cause of sepsis and bacterial meningitis in young children-and H. ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid. All ... Alternatively, Haemophilus is sometimes cultured using the "Staph streak" technique: both Staphylococcus and Haemophilus ... Members of the Haemophilus genus will not grow on blood agar plates, as all species require at least one of these blood factors ... While Haemophilus bacteria are typically small coccobacilli, they are categorized as pleomorphic bacteria because of the wide ...
With appropriate treatment the risk of death in bacterial meningitis is less than 15%. Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur ... The introduction in the late 20th century of Haemophilus vaccines led to a marked fall in cases of meningitis associated with ... In 2010 it was estimated that meningitis resulted in 420,000 deaths, excluding cryptococcal meningitis. Bacterial meningitis ... The term aseptic meningitis refers to cases of meningitis in which no bacterial infection can be demonstrated. This type of ...
2007). "Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination ... "Haemophilus influenzae". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 727. Type strain of Haemophilus influenzae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Pasteurellaceae Maurice Hilleman Hattie Alexander Hib vaccine Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis Haemophilus meningitis Trimeric ... epiglottitis and acute bacterial meningitis. On occasion, it causes cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and infectious arthritis. It is ...
... is a form of bacterial meningitis caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. It is usually (but not ... Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in 1985, Haemophilus meningitis was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in ... "Haemophilus Meningitis". Medscape. Retrieved 28 October 2014. "Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)". The History of Vaccines. ... Before the widespread use of the Hib vaccine, Haemophilus meningitis accounted for 40%-60% of all meningitis cases in children ...
EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial ... Peltola H. Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae type b disease at the beginning of the 21st century: global analysis of the disease ... Bacterial meningitis in children. Lancet. June 2003, 361 (9375): 2139-48. PMID 12826449. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13693-8.. ... Hearing loss during bacterial meningitis (PDF). Archives of Disease in Childhood. February 1997, 76 (2): 134-38. PMC 1717058. ...
2007). "Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination ... H. parainfluenzae përbën 10% të florës bakteriale të pështymës, dhe Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, dhe ... Musher DM (1996). Haemophilus Species. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al, eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical ... shfrytëzohet për izolimin in vitro të Haemophilus. Struktura e murit qelizor e Haemophilus është tipike e bacileve gram- ...
"Meningococcal meningitis". Textbookofbacteriology.net. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-01-22.. ... "Two variants among Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strains with distinct bcs4, hcsA and hcsB genes display differences in ... They also exclude bacterial viruses and most hydrophobic toxic materials such as detergents.[citation needed] Immunity to one ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified *(G00.0) Haemophilus meningitis. *(G00.1) Pneumococcal meningitis ... G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere. *(G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases ... G04.2) Bacterial meningoencephalitis and meningomyelitis, not elsewhere classified. *(G04.8) Other encephalitis, myelitis and ... It covers conditions such as meningitis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. However; neoplastic conditions, such ...
Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are easily confused with those caused by other bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae ... It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in ... As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing ... To differentiate any bacterial growth from other species a small amount of a bacterial colony is tested for oxidase, catalase ...
... meningitis can be life-threatening with rapidly developing symptoms. Bacterial meningitis is the deadliest form of this disease ... Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Swine flu is one of many diseases ... Meningitis is the swelling of the membranes around the spinal cord and brain most often caused by Viral and Bacterial infection ... Common Cold Meningitis Swine Flu Calcivirus One of the most common diseases caused by door handle bacteria is the common cold. ...
Haemophilus influenzae and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative ... as well as some forms of meningitis, throat infections, pneumonias, and sinusitis. Bacteria are known to evolve specific traits ... Bacterial morphological plasticity Ferdinand Cohn - gave first named shapes of bacteria Bacteria Picture Gallery. ... In former times, a bacterial genus Diplococcus was recognized, but it is not used anymore. A coccobacillus (plural coccobacilli ...
Less common organisms include: Haemophillus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitides. Bacterial ... Haemophilus influenzae meningitis is often associated with subdural effusions that are mistaken for subdural empyemas. These ... Surgical drainage of the abscess remains part of the standard management of bacterial brain abscesses. The location and ... Tuberculosis can produce brain abscesses that look identical to conventional bacterial abscesses on CT imaging. Surgical ...
"Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis in Adults". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 44-53. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052116. ... Interaction with Haemophilus influenzae[edit]. Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, ... S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly,[5] and of ... Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include stiff neck, fever, ...
Haemophilus meningitis is a form of bacterial meningitis caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. It is usually (but not ... Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in 1985, Haemophilus meningitis was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in ... "Haemophilus Meningitis". Medscape. Retrieved 28 October 2014. "Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)". The History of Vaccines. ... Before the widespread use of the Hib vaccine, Haemophilus meningitis accounted for 40%-60% of all meningitis cases in children ...
... influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was ... A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of ... Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi David W. McCormick. and Elizabeth M. Molyneux ... Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi. ...
... influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was ... A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of ... Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi On This Page ... Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):688- ...
Pediatric bacterial meningitis cases , 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 ... The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. Of 214 laboratory-confirmed ... There was a 98% reduction in the number of hospitalized Hib meningitis cases from Dakar Region in 2008 compared with 2002. The ... Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. ...
bacterial meningitis, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Th1/Th2 transgenic mice ... Kinetic Th1/Th2 responses of transgenic mice with bacterial meningitis induced by Haemophilus influenzae Shyi-Jou Chen Shyi-Jou ... Kinetic Th1/Th2 responses of transgenic mice with bacterial meningitis induced by Haemophilus influenzae. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ... NTHi (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae) meningitis was induced in these mice by inoculation with either a colonized (CNTHi) ...
by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Autor Failace, Luciane Hoff Wagner, Mario Bernardes ... Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using stand a rd ... en] Bacterial meningitis [en] Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [en] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age) with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine ...
Detection of bacterial pathogens in Mongolia meningitis surveillance with a new real-time PCR assay to detect Haemophilus ... Chapter 10: PCR for Detection and Characterization of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens: Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus ... Bacterial cell lysisThe first step in extracting and purifying bacterial DNA is to lyse the bacterial cell walls for maximum ... Workflow for detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens by PCR Figure 8. Workflow for detection and characterization of ...
Bacterial meningitis. Figure 2 shows the incidence of pneumococcal, meningococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in both ... Viral meningitis accounted for 1051 (73.1%) cases and bacterial meningitis for 386 (26.9%) cases. Tuberculous meningitis was ... Haemophilus meningitis. A total of 52 cases of H. influenzae meningitis were reported during the 24-year period of the study ( ... Yet it became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis (not considering tuberculous meningitis) in Bahrain, replacing H. ...
Haemophilus influenza. *Malaria. *Measles. *Meningitis (bacterial). *Maningococcemia. *Mumps. *Pertussis (whooping cough). * ...
... childhood Fig.1 Distribution of the cases with bacterial meningitis by age and pathogens Chiba ... Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, rapid diagnosis, ... Key words: bacterial meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, rapid diagnosis, childhood. ... Download "Key words: bacterial meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, rapid diagnosis, childhood" ...
RESULTS: Of the 383 children, mostly with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b or Streptococcus pneumoniae, 101 ... Bacterial meningitis: still a cause of high mortality and severe neurological morbidity in childhood. J Trop Med Paed.1995;41 : ... Dexamethasone therapy for bacterial meningitis: results of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. N Engl J Med.1988;319 ( ... Dexamethasone therapy for bacterial meningitis in children: 2- versus 4-day regimen. J Infect Dis.1994;169 (4):853- 858. ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Meningitis Child Child, Preschool Dispatch Epidemiology Haemophilus Infections Haemophilus ... Haemophilus Vaccines Hib HIV HIV Infections Humans Infant Malawi Meningitis, Bacterial Prevalence Vaccines Dispatch ... influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was ... The Active Bacterial Core surveillance -- Meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa -- Reducing Pneumonia -- OD News and Staff Notes -- ...
Acute bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children ,2 years of age are ... The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was the first such vaccine to become available. The efficacy of the ... Bacterial meningitis: the impact of vaccination CNS Drugs. 2007;21(5):355-66. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200721050-00001. ... Acute bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children ,2 years of age are ...
Bacterial answers are found in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... Haemophilus influenzae: 0.08/100,000. *Listeria monocytogenes: 0.05/100,000. Etiology and Pathophysiology. Bacterial infection ... Meningitis, Bacterial is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase ... Meningitis, Bacterial. In: Stephens MB, Golding J, Baldor RA, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 27th ed. Wolters Kluwer; ...
... is extremely resistant to infection by bacterial pathogens due to a combination of protective effects of its bony structures ( ... 3] Of these, 47% of cases were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, 34% due to Haemophilus influenzae, and 19% due to Neisseria ... Bacterial meningitis remains a very important disease worldwide. In the United States, the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis ... Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1978 through 1981. The National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance Study. JAMA. 1985 ...
Incidence of Bacterial Meningitis with Special Reference to Haemophilus influenzae Type b among Children 0-59 Months Old in the ... Epidemiology of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis in Poland: Incidence of Bacterial Meningitis with Special Reference to ... Epidemiology of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis in Poland: ... Haemophilus influenzae Type b among Children 0-59 Months Old in ...
Since the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b vaccine, other serotypes and non-typeable strains have taken ... Detection of bacterial pathogens in Mongolia meningitis surveillance with a new real-time PCR assay to detect Haemophilus ... Detection of bacterial pathogens in Mongolia meningitis surveillance with a new real-time PCR assay to detect Haemophilus ... Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in the World Health Organization African Region Using the Invasive Bacterial ...
Bacterial meningitis (elderly) Streptococcus pneumoniae . Bacterial meningitis (kids) Haemophilus influenzae type B ...
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. ... Certain vaccines can help prevent some types of bacterial meningitis: *Haemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) given to children ... Enteroviral meningitis occurs more often than bacterial meningitis and is milder. It usually occurs in the late summer and ... Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial meningitis. Antibiotics do not treat viral meningitis. But antiviral medicine may be ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been identified as 1 of the 3 most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adolescents ... encoded search term (Haemophilus%20Meningitis) and Haemophilus Meningitis What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ... Bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age in Western Australia. Med J Aust. 1991 Aug 5. 155(3):160-4. [Medline] ... Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old. J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Jun. 50(3):131-6. [Medline]. ...
Predictors of bacterial meningitis in the era after Haemophilus influenzae. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2001;155 :1301- 1306. ... Differentiating acute bacterial meningitis from acute viral meningitis among children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: a ... Prediction of bacterial meningitis in children with meningeal signs: reduction of lumbar punctures. Acta Paediatr.2001;90 :611 ... However, many excellent clinical prediction models exist to predict bacterial meningitis and could be used in conjunction with ...
Bacterial Haemophilus (Haemophilus influenzae): this type of infection is generally considered to be eliminated due to early ... Meningitis causes: Bacterial. *Haemophilus (Haemophilus influenzae): this type of infection is generally considered to be ... Bacterial meningitis, also known as spinal meningitis, is the most serious form of meningitis, and can be fatal. It is also ... Because it was viral, and not bacterial, there was nothing to be done. Bacterial meningitis can be treated by antibiotics, but ...
Haemophilus influenzae meningitis 39. In 2012, one case of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis was reported in the Gaza Strip, an ... Other types of bacterial meningitis 40. In 2012, 606 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were detected, an incidence of ... Meningitis Viral meningitis 37. In 2012, 1598 cases of viral meningitis were detected in Palestine, an incidence of 36.7 per ... Bacterial meningitis 38. In 2012, 106 cases of meningoccocal disease were detected in Palestine, an incidence of 2.4 per 100 ...
... a systematic review of randomized controlled trials involving adjuvant corticosteroids therapy in acute bacterial meningitis ... Corticosteroids for bacterial meningitis in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 13. 357(24):2441-50. [Medline] ... Dexamethasone therapy for bacterial meningitis in children: 2- versus 4-day regimen. J Infect Dis. 1994 Apr. 169(4):853-8. [ ... Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type f in an 8-year-old girl with congenital humoral immunodeficiency. Infection. 2004 ...
What is bacterial meningitis? Meaning of bacterial meningitis medical term. What does bacterial meningitis mean? ... Looking for online definition of bacterial meningitis in the Medical Dictionary? bacterial meningitis explanation free. ... bacterial meningitis meningitis caused by bacteria; common pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, ... bacterial meningitis. See MENINGITIS.. Patient discussion about bacterial meningitis. Q. i have been in contact with someone ...
  • Herd immunity, or the protection that unvaccinated individuals experience when the majority of others in their proximity are vaccinated, does help in the reduction of meningitis cases, but it does not guarantee protection from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
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