Periplasmic Proteins: Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Protein PrecursorsTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Brucella suis: A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylmuramic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.TritiumCardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectCentrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
2. Transmembrane protein channels and transporters: Transmembrane proteins extend through the lipid bilayer of the membranes; ... The cytoskeleton is found underlying the cell membrane in the cytoplasm and provides a scaffolding for membrane proteins to ... G proteins Peripheral proteins. Attached to integral membrane proteins, or associated with peripheral regions of the lipid ... Bacterial cells provide numerous examples of the diverse ways in which prokaryotic cell membranes are adapted with structures ...
The higher the MDR activity is in the cell membrane, the less Calcein is accumulated in the cytoplasm. In MDR-expressing cells ... BPs are soluble proteins located in the periplasmic space between the inner and outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Gram ... proteins involved in bacterial pathogenesis (e.g. hemolysis, heme-binding protein, and alkaline protease), heme, hydrolytic ... The binding protein ModA is in a closed conformation with substrate bound in a cleft between its two lobes and attached to the ...
... proteins on the surface of certain bacterial cells aid in their gliding motion. Many gram-negative bacteria have cell membranes ... The rough ER has ribosomes attached to it used for protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is used more for the processing of ... The cytoskeleton is found underlying the cell membrane in the cytoplasm and provides a scaffolding for membrane proteins to ... Although the concentration of membrane components in the aqueous phase is low (stable membrane components have low solubility ...
Protein HtrA2, also known as Omi, is a mitochondrially-located serine protease. The human protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial is 49kDa in size and composed of 458 amino acids. The peptide fragment of 1-31 amino acid is the mitochondrial transition sequence, fragment 32-133 amino acid is propertied, and 134-458 is the mature protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial, and its theoretical pI of this protein is 6.12.[10] HtrA2 shows similarities with DegS, a bacterial protease present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Structurally, HtrA2 is a trimeric molecule with central protease domains and a carboxy-terminal PDZ domain, which is characteristic of the HtrA family. The PDZ domain preferentially binds C-terminus of the protein substrate and modulate the proteolytic activity of the trypsin-like protease domain.[11] ...
... s are special molecules which play a very important role during oocyte maturation, in the female's ovary. During this period of time, some regions of the cytoplasm accumulate some of these cytoplasmic determinants, whose distribution is thus very heterogenic. They play a major role in the development of the embryo's organs. Each type of cell is determined by a particular determinant or group of determinants. Thus, all the organs of the future embryo are distributed and operating well thanks to the right position of the cytoplasmic determinants. The action of the determinants on the blastomeres is one of the most important ones. During the segmentation, cytoplasmic determinants are distributed among the blastomeres, at different times depending on the species and on the type of determinant. Therefore, the daughter cells resulting from the ...
... is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell. It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. Mitochondrial DNA is a main source of this extrachromosomal DNA in eukaryotes. Extrachromosomal DNA is often used in research of replication because it is easy to identify and isolate. Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found within the nucleus. It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that ...
In the United States in 1996 embryologist Jacques Cohen and others at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Science, Saint Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, New Jersey first used cytoplasmic transfer in a human assisted reproduction procedure.[8] In 1997 the first baby was born using this procedure (Emma Ott). In 2001, Cohen and others reported that 10 single babies, twins, and a quadruplet at his New Jersey clinic and a further six children in Israel had been born using his technique. Using modifications of his procedure, a baby had been born at Eastern Virginia Medical School, five children at the Lee Women's Hospital Infertility Clinic in Taichung, Taiwan.[9] twins in Naples, Italy[10] and a twins in India.[11] In total as of 2016, 30-50 children worldwide had been reported to have been born using cytoplasmic transfer.[12]. In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked a Biological Response Modifiers Advisory ...
... (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. Under vegetative conditions it delivers hydrolases, such as aminopeptidase 1 (Ape1), to the vacuole. This makes the cvt pathway the only known biosynthetic pathway to utilize the machinery of autophagy for operation. The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. Lynch-Day MA, Klionsky DJ (2010). "The Cvt pathway as a model for selective autophagy". FEBS Letters. 584 (7): 1359-66. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2010.02.013. PMC 2843786 . PMID 20146925. "The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions". Journal of Cell Science ...
... was first observed by Keith R. Porter and his student Thomas Ashford at the Rockefeller Institute. In January 1962 they reported an increased number of lysosomes in rat liver cells after the addition of glucagon, and that some displaced lysosomes towards the centre of the cell contained other cell organelles such as mitochondria. They called this autolysis after Christian de Duve and Alex B. Novikoff. However Porter and Ashford wrongly interpreted their data as lysosome formation (ignoring the pre-existing organelles). Lysosomes could not be cell organelles, but part of cytoplasm such as mitochondria, and that hydrolytic enzymes were produced by microbodies.[14] In 1963 researchers published a detailed ultrastructural description of "focal cytoplasmic degradation," which referenced a 1955 German study of injury-induced sequestration. The study recognized three ...
... describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions. The majority of calcium ions within the cell are bound to intracellular proteins, leaving a minority freely dissociated. When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. The regulation of free calcium is of ...
In the field of developmental biology, regional differentiation is the process by which different areas are identified in the development of the early embryo. The process by which the cells become specified differs between organisms. In terms of developmental commitment, a cell can either be specified or it can be determined. Specification is the first stage in differentiation. A cell that is specified can have its commitment reversed while the determined state is irreversible. There are two main types of specification: autonomous and conditional. A cell specified autonomously will develop into a specific fate based upon cytoplasmic determinants with no regard to the environment the cell is in. A cell specified conditionally will develop into a specific fate based upon other surrounding cells or morphogen gradients. Another type of specification is syncytial ...
In order to fulfill World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for AML-5, a patient must have greater than 20% blasts in the bone marrow, and of these, greater than 80% must be of the monocytic lineage. A further subclassification (M5a versus M5b) is made depending on whether the monocytic cells are predominantly monoblasts (,80%) (acute monoblastic leukemia) or a mixture of monoblasts and promonocytes (,80% blasts). Monoblasts can be distinguished by having a roughly circular nucleus, delicate lacy chromatin, and abundant, often basophilic cytoplasm. These cells may also have pseudopods. By contrast, promonocytes have a more convoluted nucleus, and their cytoplasm may contain metachromatic granules. Monoblasts are typically MPO-negative and promonocytes are MPO variable. Both monoblasts and promonocytes stain positive for non-specific esterase (NSE), however NSE may often be negative. Immunophenotypically, ...
... (also referred to as Ca2+ encoding or calcium information processing) is an intracellular signaling pathway used by many cells to transfer, process and encode external information detected by the cell. In cell physiology, external information is often converted into intracellular calcium dynamics. The concept of calcium encoding explains how Ca2+ ions act as intracellular messengers, relaying information within cells to regulate their activity. Given the ubiquity of Ca2+ ions in cell physiology, Ca2+ encoding has also been suggested as a potential tool to characterize cell physiology in health and disease. The mathematical bases of Ca2+ encoding have been pioneered by work of Joel Keizer and Hans G. Othmer on calcium modeling in the 1990s and more recently they have been revisited by Eshel Ben-Jacob, Herbert Levine and co-workers. Although elevations of ...
... is a term invented in the early 2000s by Mikhail Epstein, an American literary theorist, to refer to a new word which has not gained wide acceptance in the language. The word protologism describes one stage in the development of neologisms, at which a word is proposed, extremely new, or not established outside a very limited group of people. A protologism is coined to fill a gap in the language, with the hope of it becoming an accepted word. The term protologism is autological; it is an example of the thing it describes. Epstein coined the term by combining the Greek words protos and logos: I suggest calling such brand new words 'protologisms' (from Greek protos, meaning 'first, original' and Greek logos, meaning 'word'; cf. prototype, protoplasm). The protologism is a freshly minted word not yet widely accepted. It is a verbal prototype, which may eventually be adopted for public service or remain a whim of linguo-poetic imagination. According to Epstein, every word in use started ...
... s are neutrophils that are found in the urine, most commonly associated with urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. They derive their name from their appearance when viewed on a wet mount preparation under a microscope; the granules within their cytoplasm can be seen moving, giving them a "glittering appearance." Ringsrud. Cells in the Urine Sediment. Lab Medicine (2001 ...
உயிரணு உயிரியலில் உயிரணுக்கணிகம் அல்லது கலக்கணிகம் அல்லது குழியவுரு (Cytoplasm) என்பது உயிரணு ஒன்றின் உள்ளடக்கத்தில், உயிரணுக் கரு தவிர்ந்த மிகுதியாக உள்ள பகுதியாகும். இது உயிரணு நீர்மம் (en:Cytosol) எனும் நீர்மக் கரைசலையும் (இந்த நீர்மக் கரைசல் உயிரணு மென்சவ்விற்கு உள்ளாக இருக்கும் கூழ்மப் பொருள்), உயிரணுக்களின் உள்ளே காணப்படும் நுண்ணுறுப்புக்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய பகுதி ஆகும். இந்த ...
The cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is... Explanation of enterochromaffin cell ... Find out information about enterochromaffin cell. in biology, the unit of structure and function of which all plants and ... Ribosomes are attached to some of the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. These are the site of intensive protein synthesis ... When the cell membrane comes into contact with a suitable food, a portion of the cell cytoplasm surges forward to meet and ...
Transport of this complex molecule poses several problems to the cells due to its amphipatic nature. In this review, the ... be transported efficiently across three compartments to the cell surface. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that ... to LPS transport to the OM is discussed together with the challenges associated with this process and the solutions that cells ... The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a peculiar biological structure with a unique composition that contributes significantly ...
... but the responsible periplasmic (membrane bound? ) exonuclease is still elusive. Upon entry into the cytoplasm, the incoming ... "proteins attached to its "spike", the arrow-head. Yet Zoued et al. point out rightly by using a more neutral term that " ... a periplasmic protein, ComEA, that binds nonspecifically to double-stranded DNA; and 3. the inner membrane-bound ComEC complex ... Upon adding purified DNA to such cells, the periplasmic staining of the cells by ComEA‑mCherry coalesces into one or a few ...
... protein (MFP) associates with an outer membrane pore [27]. These systems secrete proteins directly from the cytoplasm to the ... Transport of Unfolded Proteins Across the Cytoplasmic Membrane. The ability to transport proteins across membranes is vital for ... Typically, the bacterial Tat-pathway consists of three integral membrane proteins, TatA, TatB, and TatC. In archaea and in most ... enter the periplasmic space but not the cytoplasm forming an intercellular connection of the periplasmic spaces between cells [ ...
Genetic evidence for substrate and periplasmic-binding-protein recognition by the MalF and MalG proteins, cytoplasmic membrane ... In addition to the periplasmic binding protein-dependent transporters that mediate uptake, bacterial cells also contain ABC ... C) Maltose is transported, and MBP is released after reexposure of the membrane-binding site to the cytoplasm. MBP activates ... These binding proteins have two globular domains attached by a flexible hinge, and in the ligand-bound structures, the ligand ...
The polymer selected is typically water soluble so that the protein to which it is attached does not precipitate in an aqueous ... that the ART polypeptide will be found primarily in the periplasmic space of the bacteria or the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells ... Similarly useful as host cells suitable for the present invention are bacterial cells. For example, the various strains of E. ... After stirring, the sample was concentrated in an Amicon (Beverly, Mass.) stirred cell using a cutoff membrane of 3 kDa. The ...
We observed that CagI is a predominantly membrane attached periplasmic protein partially exposed to the bacterial surface ... There is an active interest in peptides that readily cross cell membranes without the assistance of cell membrane receptors1. ... Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid- ... we describe a hot aqueous-phenol method for the isolation and purification of LPS from Gram-negative bacterial cells. This ...
The higher the MDR activity is in the cell membrane, the less Calcein is accumulated in the cytoplasm. In MDR-expressing cells ... BPs are soluble proteins located in the periplasmic space between the inner and outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Gram ... proteins involved in bacterial pathogenesis (e.g. hemolysis, heme-binding protein, and alkaline protease), heme, hydrolytic ... The binding protein ModA is in a closed conformation with substrate bound in a cleft between its two lobes and attached to the ...
2. Transmembrane protein channels and transporters: Transmembrane proteins extend through the lipid bilayer of the membranes; ... The cytoskeleton is found underlying the cell membrane in the cytoplasm and provides a scaffolding for membrane proteins to ... G proteins Peripheral proteins. Attached to integral membrane proteins, or associated with peripheral regions of the lipid ... Bacterial cells provide numerous examples of the diverse ways in which prokaryotic cell membranes are adapted with structures ...
... proteins on the surface of certain bacterial cells aid in their gliding motion. Many gram-negative bacteria have cell membranes ... The rough ER has ribosomes attached to it used for protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is used more for the processing of ... The cytoskeleton is found underlying the cell membrane in the cytoplasm and provides a scaffolding for membrane proteins to ... Although the concentration of membrane components in the aqueous phase is low (stable membrane components have low solubility ...
... and its membrane anchoring prevent the protein from reaching out of the at least 40-nm-thick Gram-positive bacterial cell wall ... 2). They are targeted to the periplasmic face of the inner or outer membranes by the lipoprotein localization machinery (Lol), ... of hydrophilic proteins to hydrophobic surfaces through the hydrophobic interaction of the attached acyl groups to the cell ... Bacterial lipid modification is suggested to be initiated at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane rather than in the cytoplasm ...
Identification of an outer membrane protein required for the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the bacterial cell surface. ... The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria consists of an inner (IM) and an outer membrane (OM) separated by an aqueous ... Cells depleted of any of these proteins have nearly identical phenotypes: (i) they have abnormal membrane structures in the ... The periplasmic protein LptA, possibly together with additional unknown partners, may work as a periplasmic LPS shuttle. ...
The membrane-spanning and ABC cassette subunits are depicted as C and D, respectively, and the periplasmic binding protein BtuF ... exemplified by the human MDR1 and MRP1 proteins, whose overexpression in tumor cells causes resistance to various cytotoxic ... the significant structural differences of the Fe-protein in its free state or when attached to the MoFe-protein of nitrogenase ... At the center of the heterotetramer, below the predicted membrane surface and therefore exposed to the cytoplasm, a giant, ...
Keywords: In-cell NMR; Nuclear magnetic resonance; Protein-protein interactions; Isotope labeling; Mammalian cells; ... Higher size beads could not enter the cytoplasm. Therefore, PvHCt likely creates local damages to the fungal membrane. While ... ZnuABC is absent in eukaryotes and plays an important role in bacterial virulence. Consequently, ZnuA, the periplasmic ... In-cell NMR is a powerful technique to investigate proteins in living human cells at atomic resolution. Ideally, when studying ...
... reductase CymA to the cell surface via a system of periplasmic and outer membrane cytochrome proteins enabled access to ... Electrical properties of bacterial outer membranes 230th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society Rosso, K. M., Yanina ... encoding a periplasmic iron sulfur protein and an integral membrane hydroquinone dehydrogenase, respectively. Biochemical in ... "stem cell"-like subpopulation (monolayer biofilm), which generates progeny cells capable of exploring the aqueous, oligotrophic ...
The top 75 protein list of nLC-ESI and nLC-MALDI data (Table III) depicts a variety of membrane-localized proteins, including ... Bacterial Cells and Chemicals-. C. glutamicum strain DM 1698 (derived from ATCC 21527) membranes were purified as described ... sites are predominantly located in the loops facing the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the extracellular or periplasmic ... Differential recovery of membrane proteins after extraction by aqueous methanol and trifluoroethanol. Proteomics 7, 1654- 1663 ...
In the case of membrane bound proteins, these can be isolated from a host cell by contacting a membrane-associated protein ... exposed briefly to the cytoplasm during translation but are rapidly secreted through the inner membrane into the periplasmic ... the gene library can be cloned into the gene for a surface membrane protein of a bacterial cell, and the resulting fusion ... First, the peptides are attached to the C-terminus of the fusion protein, resulting in the display of the library members as ...
... and other metabolites across cell membranes. Most of these transport proteins are integral membrane proteins, which remain ... More specifically, physiologically active vitamin A alcohol on the other hand is attached to a specific protein carrier with ... Therefore, it is possible and operative that membranes possess some proteins that form aqueous channel through which water can ... Both cell cytoplasm and matrix are an enlarged depository of various kinds of ions. These are highly essential for maintaining ...
... form a dimer near the periplasmic side of the membrane, separated from the adjacent aqueous phase by surface-exposed helices ... protons are translocated from the bacterial cytoplasm to the periplasmic space, generating an electrochemical gradient of ... The R. sphaeroides RC is a membrane-embedded pigment-protein complex made up of three polypeptide chains and ten cofactors ( ... 2005) Watching the components of photosynthetic bacterial membranes and their in situ organisation by atomic force microscopy. ...
Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes ... an outer membrane channel (OMF), and a periplasmic linker protein (MFP) 1-8. The RND and OMF proteins are transmembrane ... The hydrophobic transmembrane domains make the proteins insoluble in aqueous buffer. Before a transmembrane protein can be ... be used for the preparation of other large oligomeric DNA-binding proteins that may be misfolded and toxic to bacterial cells. ...
... in the bacterial cell and attached to the inner membrane of the bacterial cell. Thus, the outer membrane of the bacterial cell ... cytoplasm of E. coli cells. To confirm that the scFv proteins isolated from the library were soluble in the E. coli cytoplasm ... bacterial cell or attached to the bacterial cell wall or cell membranes. [0057] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the method ... bacterial cell are permeabilised by incubating the bacterial cell in an aqueous solution saturated with chloroform. [0029] In ...
... including the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, and peptidoglycan cell wall, including penicillin-binding and flagellar proteins ... the major outer membrane protein), LipL36, and LipL41, while Triton X-114 aqueous phase would be expected to contain soluble ... while p37 appeared to be a soluble periplasmic protein. Most of the other immunodominant proteins, including p48 and p45, were ... Expression of bacterial heat shock proteins, including leptospiral GroEL and DnaK, is upregulated at the elevated temperatures ...
... in this case the protein currently known as ... in this case the protein currently known as ... This is also true for elucidating the evolution of specific proteins, ... This is also true for elucidating the evolution of specific proteins, ... To prevent the avid partitioning of THs into the membranes of the first cells they encounter, there are specific proteins in ...
TolB is a soluble β-propeller periplasmic protein that associates with outer membrane proteins, including OmpF (Rigal et al. ... Group A colicins, which engage the Tol system and only use BtuB as an anchor to attach to the cell surface, do not elicit ... Also, unraveling additional details of how bacteriocins are transported through bacterial membranes will assist in the ... 2002) and presents it to the inner membrane protein complex BtuCD for transport into the cytoplasm (Locher and Borths, 2004). ...
Interaction network among Escherichia coli membrane proteins involved in cell division as revealed by bacterial two-hybrid ... Given the fact that MreBH is found in the cytoplasm while LytE is an extracellular protein, a model was proposed to explain the ... Rogers, H. J., H. R. Perkins, and J. B. Ward.1980 . Microbial cell walls and membranes. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y. ... cells not only are metabolically inert for PG but also constitute an area of restricted mobility for periplasmic proteins (55) ...
  • The space in between IM and OM is an aqueous compartment, the periplasm, which contains a peptidoglycan layer, a large cell polymer that surrounds the bacterial cell [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Upon entry into the periplasm, the incoming DNA is tight-ly bound and compacted by ComEA ( so tightly that ComEA overexpressed in the cytoplasm of E. coli kills the cell by sequestering the nucleoid ), and then shuttled to the ComEC inner membrane-pore complex. (asmblog.org)
  • A typical ABC transporter has four domains or subunits, two of which are hydrophobic and are predicted to span the membrane multiple times in an alpha-helical conformation and two of which bind nucleotide and are exposed to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite lacking the separation power of the IEF-SDS-PAGE system, derived techniques like the doubled SDS- ( 16 ) and 16-benzyldimethyl- n -hexadecylammonium chloride/SDS-PAGE ( 17 ) represent an improvement for hydrophobic proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The activity of the Cag-T4SS results in numerous changes in host cell biology including upregulation of cytokine expression, activation of proinflammatory pathways, cytoskeletal remodeling, and induction of oncogenic cell-signaling networks 5-8 . (jove.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the recent data on localization of PG-synthesizing enzymes in the light of what is known about PG synthesis from previous studies, and we discuss the role of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins in organizing the cell wall synthesis process. (asm.org)
  • It includes endothelial cells, astrocytes, and blood capillaries in the brain, which form the major structural component of the blood brain barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. (jove.com)
  • This minireview summarizes recent work using vanadate to stabilize the transition state for ATP hydrolysis that has provided new insight into the mechanism of action of this family of proteins. (asm.org)
  • Second, penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which mediate the final stages of PG synthesis, have been localized in various model organisms by means of immunofluorescence microscopy or green fluorescent protein fusions. (asm.org)
  • 18. The method of claim 17, wherein i) the lytic phage comprises a first binding partner on the phage coat, and ii) the polypeptide being screened for a desired activity is a fusion protein comprising a second binding partner, wherein the fusion protein comprising the second binding partner binds to the first binding partner on the lytic phage coat. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Of these three proteins, albumin is present in highest abundance but binds THs with lowest affinity, thyroxine-binding globulin is present in lowest abundance but binds THs with highest affinity, and TTR is present in intermediate abundance and binds with intermediate affinity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phasin, PhaP1, is a low molecular weight protein that binds to PHB, reducing PHB granule size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCC 6803 (thereafter referred as Synechocystis ) is one of the best systems for performing functional membrane proteomic analysis because of its unique membrane organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, Synechocystis can be easily transformed and has a homologous recombination system, enabling the further functional study of proteins identified by proteome using reverse genetics approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The potential for characterization of a membrane protein through full sequence coverage using elastase is there but is restricted to the higher abundance protein components. (mcponline.org)
  • Upon the introduction of modern mass spectrometric ionization techniques, such as MALDI ( 1 ) and ESI ( 2 ), extremely powerful and valuable tools were given to researchers for the identification and characterization of proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays. (jove.com)
  • The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. (ipfs.io)
  • Some substances (small molecules, ions) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ), can move across the plasma membrane by diffusion, which is a passive transport process. (ipfs.io)
  • Endocytosis is a pathway for internalizing solid particles ("cell eating" or phagocytosis ), small molecules and ions ("cell drinking" or pinocytosis ), and macromolecules. (ipfs.io)
  • This can include the identification, quantification and monitoring of ions, small molecules and biomolecules in studies of metabolism and biological function in human and animal cells and tissues, bacterial cells and spores, fungi and plants. (openmedscience.com)
  • The architecture of the membrane region shows how the simple bacterial ATP synthase is able to perform the same core functions as the equivalent, but more complicated, mitochondrial complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • The present invention relates to recombinant Gram-positive host cells containing a Gram-negative glycosaminoglycan synthase gene, and methods of producing glycosaminoglycans using such recombinant host cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment encodes the Pasteurella multocida chondroitin synthase of SEQ ID NO:2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • used with a different meaning by Hofmeister , 1867), plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. (ipfs.io)
  • The plasma membrane creates a small deformation inward, called an invagination, in which the substance to be transported is captured. (ipfs.io)
  • Just as material can be brought into the cell by invagination and formation of a vesicle, the membrane of a vesicle can be fused with the plasma membrane, extruding its contents to the surrounding medium. (ipfs.io)
  • That's less than the estimated average number of genes acquired via HGT over time by a small bacterial genome of, say, 1,200 genes! (asmblog.org)
  • The picture is si-milar in Vibrio - 'similar' refers to a great deal of protein homology among the numerous components in various species, despite vastly different regulatory circuits - for which the present model for competence involves 19+ genes, and, as core components: 1. (asmblog.org)
  • ABC genes are essential for many processes in the cell, and mutations in human genes cause or contribute to several human genetic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of NPs on the regulation of genes and proteins (transcriptomic and proteomic) profiles is discussed. (ubc.ca)
  • In this review, we integrate the knowledge on the last stages of PG synthesis obtained in previous studies with the new data available on localization of PG synthesis and PBPs, in both rod-shaped and coccoid cells. (asm.org)
  • The substrates are useful in conjunction with β-lactamase as reporter gene in a wide range of assays, for example to determine protein localization or bacterial resistance. (google.es)
  • Protozoans comprise a large, diverse assortment of microscopic or near-microscopic organisms that live as single cells or in simple colonies and that show no differentiation into tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In higher organisms, a division of labor has evolved in which groups of cells have differentiated into specialized tissues tissue, in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These membranes are extremely proton impermeable and enable these organisms to survive under conditions that the extracellular pH is up to 4 units below that of the cytoplasm [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability to survive as free-living organisms is unique among the invasive spirochetes and presumably reflects differential expression of proteins involved in adaptation to the environment outside the mammalian host. (asm.org)
  • Based upon these biological considerations, it is anticipated that certain leptospiral proteins expressed in cultivated organisms may or may not be expressed during infection ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Biochemistry, 34:12341-12346 ) have shown that partially purified mouse agouti protein acts as a potent antagonist of a-MSH at the MC1 receptor in B16F10 mouse melanoma cell cultures. (google.es)
  • made of DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To prevent the avid partitioning of THs into the membranes of the first cells they encounter, there are specific proteins in the blood that bind and distribute THs, thereby creating a circulating pool of sufficient size to distribute THs from their site of synthesis (the thyroid gland) via the aqueous environment of the blood stream to their sites of action, i.e., cells throughout the body ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In recent years, the application of fluorescence microscopy to the field of PG synthesis has led to an enormous increase in data on the relationship between cell wall synthesis and bacterial cell shape. (asm.org)
  • Many studies have addressed the relationship between PG synthesis and bacterial growth and cell shape by looking at changes in cell shape in mutants that lack one or several enzymes involved in the synthesis of PG or other cell wall components or by looking at the incorporation of labeled PG precursors into the cell wall (see 41 , 57 , 80 , 159 ). (asm.org)
  • The two modes of synthesis appear to be catalyzed by different protein complexes. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms of transport and assembly of this molecule at the cell surface are poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • These mechanisms of bacterial killing include the production of reactive oxygen species, cation release, biomolecule damages, ATP depletion, and membrane interaction. (ubc.ca)
  • In addition, ABC cassettes invariably possess a D loop ( 13 ) and a short polypeptide stretch (… LSGG …), which is so specific to this protein class that it is generally referred to as the "ABC signature sequence. (sciencemag.org)
  • 3. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment comprises a nucleotide sequence in accordance with SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment hybridizes to a complement of the nucleic acid segment of SEQ ID NO:1 under hybridization conditions comprising 1.8× High Phosphate Buffer (HPB) at a temperature in a range of from about 30° C. to about 45° C., followed by washing with 2×SSC/0.1% SDS at 30° C. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment is 60-99% identical to SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment encodes an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 with 0 to 20 conservative amino acid substitutions. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • NMR can be used for the observation, quantification and characterisation of ligand and drug binding to biomolecules, and for characterisation of ligand-protein, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. (openmedscience.com)
  • The nucleotide-binding domains and subunits share considerable sequence homology across the entire family ( 45 ) and assume a similar three-dimensional fold that consists of a core nucleotide-binding subdomain that is common to other ATPases and an alpha-helical subdomain that is specific to ABC proteins ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • This diversity of transported substrates is reflected in the poor sequence similarities of the membrane-spanning subunits and domains. (sciencemag.org)