Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

Immune response to bacteria in seminiferous epithelium. (1/878)

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B cells are essential for moderating the inflammatory response and controlling bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of vaccination against Chlamydophila abortus infection. (2/878)

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The effects of individual PCB congeners on the soil bacterial community structure and the abundance of biphenyl dioxygenase genes. (3/878)

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Fine-needle aspiration may replace skin biopsy for the collection of material for experimental infection of mice with Mycobacterium leprae and Lacazia loboi. (4/878)

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Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. (5/878)

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TNF-alpha is a key regulator of MUC1, an anti-inflammatory molecule, during airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (6/878)

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BCG vaccination in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) infected by the pulmonary route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (7/878)

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A novel immunoregulatory function for IL-23: Inhibition of IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma production. (8/878)

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A streams total bacterial load is calculated by multiplying the bacterial concentration, determined as described above, by the total volume of water that flows past a point on the streams bank per unit of time (bacteria/volume X volume/time = bacteria/time). The concept of bacterial load might be imagined by thinking of a person sitting on the streams bank with a clipboard, counting individual viable bacteria as they passed by. After a whole day of observation, they would know the streams bacterial load, expressed as the number of viable bacteria that went by in a days time. As noted below, the concept of bacterial load is critical to the calculations that are required for a Total Maximum Daily Load project. The Importance of Monitoring. Most people are surprised to discover the degree to which treated wastewater may contribute to stream flow in a heavily urbanized area. Especially during times of low rainfall, essentially 100% of the flow in some of our local creeks and bayous may be ...
Bacterial contamination of blood products is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Due to their storage at 20 to 24°C, platelets are responsible for most of the cases of blood component-associated sepsis (1, 6, 11). Recently, Nadkarni et al. (12) have reported the use of universal primers and probes to estimate the total bacterial load in clinical samples. To detect bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates (PCs), the DNA must be extracted as efficiently as possible and the PCR mixture must not be contaminated by DNA present in the PCR reagents. Poor efficiency of DNA extraction may restrict the sensitivity of the assay, while DNA that is contaminating PCR reagents can serve as a template in PCRs, producing false-positive results. Attempts to reduce the amount of contaminating DNA from, e.g., Taq polymerases (3, 4, 5, 7) in real-time PCR have been described previously (9, 10, 13, 15). None of these methods, however, proved very effective on low copy numbers of ...
If either beta hemolytic streptococci (in any amount) or total bacterial load of ,1e6 CFU/gram of tissue is present in the screening biopsy sample at the ulcer site, the patient should be given a single 7-day course of topical antibiotics and then redebrided and biopsied for quantitative culture. A second biopsy exceeding the limits above will result in exclusion from the study due to the high risk of local infection than may adversely affect ulcer closure ...
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a potential sputum marker of airway inflammation and bacterial load. Nineteen CF patients, aged 6-18 years, were prospectively followed for 6 months with sputum sampling at every visit to the CF clinic. A total of 41 sputum samples were collected. Sputum-HBP was analysed with ELISA, neutrophil elastase activity with a chromogenic assay, and total bacterial load with RT-PCR of the 16 s rDNA gene. Data were compared to lung function parameters and airway symptoms. HBP and elastase correlated to a decrease in FEV1%predicted compared to the patients´ individual baseline pulmonary function (∆FEV1), but not to bacterial load. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for the detection of | 10% decrease in ∆FEV1 were 0.80 for HBP, 0.78 for elastase, and 0.54 for
Diet has a significant effect on pathogen infections in animals and the consumption of secondary metabolites can either enhance or mitigate infection intensity. Secondary metabolites, which are common
Antibiotics are in our meats, our vegetables, our fruits and our milk, not just our medication. The function of antibiotics is to kill bacteria. However, antibiotics are indiscriminate and kill our beneficial flora also. In fact, decreased flora counts are being passed down from generation to generation with each subsequent age having less diversity, more allergies, autism and autoimmunity.. The more the diversity the happier we will be. The less the diversity, the more weve killed off, the less the diversity the more trouble we will get from it, says Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride. (36:12). McBride is a medical doctor, neurologist and neurosurgeon but is most well known for her GAPS protocol which heals the intestinal tract rebuilding the pathogen load relieving the person from the symptoms of autism, bipolar disorder, autoimmunity and other diseases. Antibiotics kill our beneficial bacteria as well as our pathogenic bacteria. Rebuilding the flora due to antibiotic use is vital. However the ...
Several studies have shown that persistent infections and inflammation can favour carcinogenesis. At the same time, certain types of pathogens and anti-tumour immune responses can decrease the risk of tumourigenesis or lead to cancer regression. Infectious agents and their products can orchestrate a wide range of host immune responses, through which they may positively or negatively modulate cancer development and/or progression. The factors that direct this dichotomous influence of infection-mediated immunity on carcinogenesis are not well understood. Even though not universal, several previous reports have investigated the inverse link of pathogen-induced benign inflammation to carcinogenesis and various other pathologies, ranging from autoimmune diseases to allergy and cancer. Several models and ideas are discussed in this review, including the impact of decreased exposure to pathogens, as well as the influence of pathogen load, the timing of infection and the type of instigated immune ...
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Odilia Wijburg is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Measuring Bacterial Load and Immune Responses in Mice Infected with Listeria monocytogenes
The lung in cystic fibrosis (CF) is home to numerous pathogens that shorten the lives of patients. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the lung bacteriome following antibiotic therapy targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with CF. The study included nine children (9-18 years) with CF who were treated for their chronic or intermittent positivity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteriomes were determined in 16 pairs of sputa collected at the beginning and at the end of a course of intravenous antibiotic therapy via deep sequencing of the variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene, and the total bacterial load and selected specific pathogens were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR ...
Marker pathogen analyses with micro-IDent®plus supply data on quality and quantity of 11 periodontopathogenic species and their affiliation to so-called bacterial complexes. The result of this pooled sample provides information on the pathogen load independent from their localization and represents the optimum basis for an individual therapy which is normally a combination of mechanical forms of therapy and adjunctive systemic or local antibiotic administration. This allows you to significantly increase the success rate of the therapy while the relapse rate is dramatically reduced ...
Intentional bacterial infections can produce efficacious antitumor responses in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. However, low overall success rates and intense side effects prevent such approaches from being employed clinically. In this work, we titered bacteria and/or the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in a set of established murine models of cancer. To interpret the experiments conducted, we considered and calibrated a tumor-effector cell recruitment model under the influence of functional tumor-associated vasculature. In this model, bacterial infections and TNFα enhanced immune activity and altered vascularization in the tumor bed. Information to predict bacterial therapy outcomes was provided by pretreatment tumor size and the underlying immune recruitment dynamics. Notably, increasing bacterial loads did not necessarily produce better long-term tumor control, suggesting that tumor sizes affected optimal bacterial loads. Short-term treatment responses were favored by high concentrations of ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
I was at the Frankfurt Motor Show last month, where REVA launched their new NXR electric city car and previewed their NXG electric sports car. I run the REVA Car Club and as a result, I also had a
If you want to shoot bigger loads and increase your load size than read this and youll learn how to up your volume by hundreds of times over.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Evaluation of the direct relationship between bacterial load on contaminated stainless steel surgical instruments and the holding time prior to disinfection and also to analyse the
We found that eating some of these compounds reduced pathogen load in the bumblebees gut, which not only may help the individual bees, but likely reduced pathogen Critidia spore load in their feces, which in turn lead to a lower likelihood of transmitting the disease to other bees, Lynn Adler said, one of the co-authors. Because plants just sit there and cant run away from things that want to eat them, they have evolved to be to be amazing chemists. They make biological compounds called secondary metabolites, which are chemicals which are not involved in growth or reproduction, to protect themselves. They are amazing in the diversity of what they can produce for protecting themselves of for protecting pollinators.. The results may have implications for growers who depends on pollinators, who may want to think about planting pollinator friendly hedgerows and gardens containing plants that produce natural herbal remedies for some of the most common parasites that ails bees and other ...
When the companys fully automated GreenLight® 930 is used, the vials can be batch loaded onto the 48-position carousel, or individually loaded at any time during the units continuous mode. As bacteria in the test sample multiply and respire, they consume oxygen. The change in oxygen is used to calculate the milks colony forming units per milliliter. (Bacterial load is calculated in the PC and stored to a secure data base ...
Molecular Diagnostics Why? Detection and Diagnosis uncultivable or difficult to culture need for rapid diagnosis inadequacy of phenotypic methods (biochemical) Prognosis and management need for quantitative information (bacterial load) susceptibility testing (drug resistance) without culture - Molecular resistance testing
In some sources I found a period of 4 weeks to be sufficient. In the last 3 weeks, I have not used PPIor any natural product, except the olive oil (You Said that olive oil is fine), that could reduce bacterial load. Do You think the stool test will be reliable in this case ...
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial load and inflammatory response in sputum of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency patients with COPD. AU - Balbi, Bruno. AU - Sangiorgi, Claudia. AU - Gnemmi, Isabella. AU - Ferrarotti, Ilaria. AU - Vallese, Davide. AU - Paracchini, Elena. AU - Delle Donne, Lorena. AU - Corda, Luciano. AU - Baderna, Paolo. AU - Corsico, Angelo. AU - Carone, Mauro. AU - Brun, Paola. AU - Cappello, Francesco. AU - Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm. AU - Ruggeri, Paolo. AU - Mumby, Sharon. AU - Adcock, Ian M. AU - Caramori, Gaetano. AU - Di Stefano, Antonino. PY - 2019/8/21. Y1 - 2019/8/21. N2 - BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation may drive the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), but the relationship between airway microbiota and inflammation has not been investigated. METHODS: We studied 21 non-treated AATD (AATD-noT) patients, 20 AATD-COPD patients under augmentation therapy (AATD-AT), 20 cigarette smoke-associated COPD patients, 20 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Viable Bacterial Load Is Key to Azithromycin Treatment Failure in Rectally Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Women (FemCure). AU - Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.. AU - Wolffs, Petra F. G.. AU - de Vries, Henry J. C.. AU - Götz, Hannelore M.. AU - Janssen, Kevin. AU - Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.. PY - 2019/9/13. Y1 - 2019/9/13. UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85072234660&origin=inward. UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31107956. U2 - 10.1093/infdis/jiz267. DO - 10.1093/infdis/jiz267. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31107956. VL - 220. SP - 1389. EP - 1390. JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases. JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases. SN - 0022-1899. IS - 8. ER - ...
This experimental design allowed us to compare bacterial loads in the setting of higher parenchymal effector cell numbers versus higher in vivo IFN-γ production. Both groups of recipient mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the lungs compared with the unreconstituted mice (Fig. 4C). However, TCRα−/− mice injected with iv+ donor cells showed an ∼4-fold reduction in bacterial loads, whereas the recipients of iv− donor cells showed an ∼18-fold decrease in CFU compared with the unreconstituted controls (Fig. 4C). Therefore, CD4 T cell-mediated protection against M. tuberculosis infection was associated with a higher number of CD4 T cells in the lung parenchyma rather than a higher frequency of IFNγ+ cells in the vasculature.. In this study, we demonstrate that the pulmonary CD4 T cell response against M. tuberculosis is composed of two major subsets that either enter the lung parenchyma or reside within the vasculature. The parenchymal effectors express CXCR3 and are PD-1hi/CD69hi, ...
Calculation of pathogen growth rates is important in understanding the natural history of infection and effects of therapy. However, it is often difficult to estimate pathogen growth because patients are treated immediately upon the detection of infection, leaving only one nonzero untreated reading. Previous approaches have relied on the flawed assumption that pathogen loads just prior to detection are at the assay detection threshold. We have developed a novel method for estimating the pathogen growth rate from a single reading and investigated the initial growth of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. We applied this approach to CMV viral loads measured at least weekly in 122 patients in the 3 months posttransplant. Viral growth rates were estimated by using a modeling approach that accounts for the viral load and the time since the last negative reading. Viral growth rates decreased rapidly within the first week, from 0.72/day (doubling time, ...
In ecology, disease tolerance is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA
To monitor and predict future epidemics, competent aquatic veterinarians sample, test, analyze and interpret the host health, river health, intermediate host presence, along with the pathogen load in the river system. With this information, aquatic veterinarians can manage the health of the watershed, river, and fish to minimize the impact of infectious disease. All of this ahead of time. The aquatic veterinary goal is to prevent epidemics, or at least predict them, something beyond biologists ability at this time. Veterinarians have a long and effective history of successfully managing the health of animal populations threatened by infectious disease, be they wild or domestic. Veterinarians have the appropriate knowledge and experience to sustain fish and river health. The time has come to look to veterinarians to manage river health in Montana as rivers are managed in progressive fisheries throughout the world where the economy depends on fish health and prosperity. There is a lot to learn ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
To the Editor:. The mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia, and especially the number deaths that occur soon after presentation, remains unacceptably high [1]. In 1964, Austrian and Gold [2] observed that 60% of deaths in patients with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) occurred within the first 5 days. Unfortunately, this does not appear to have changed over the subsequent five decades [3].. Different factors related to the mortality of pneumococcal disease have been described, including host factors such as age, comorbidities or immunosuppressive conditions [4], and organism-related factors such as serotype, bacterial load or viral co-infection [3, 5-7]. These factors have all been primarily identified to predict overall mortality, but information regarding the determinants of early mortality is scarce. It has been hypothesised that early deaths are more likely to be due to an inappropriate inflammatory response triggered by Streptococcus pneumoniae than to the micro-organism itself [8]. Thus, ...
MichaelXYs links at least indicate that the bacterial load in the air is relatively small. (And after all, why wouldnt it - most bacteria dont produce spores specifically meant for airborne spreading as far as I know) I thought fungal spores, on the other hand, wouldve been much more common in the air, but at least quick googling* gave me values ranging from 50 to 500 CFU/m3, which is quite close to the amount of bacteria ...
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
Jay Reatard, punk rocker, dies at 29; George Bissell, Newport Beach architect, dies at 82; Reva Mikles Graziadio, Pepperdine University benefactor, dies at 87; Jan C. Gabriel, radio announcer, dies at 69
The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several genes was examined. Bacterial load was assessed based on the presence of 16S rRNA and correlated with gene expression, and the levels of specific antibodies in the blood were measured 50 days post-infection. Separately, both H2O2 and F. psychrophilum influenced gene expression, and pre-treatment with H2O2 influenced the response to infection with F. psychrophilum. Pre-treatment with H2O2 also affected correlation between gene regulation and pathogen load for several genes. A delay in antibody production in H2O2-treated fish in the early phase of infection was indicated, but H2O2 exposure did not affect antibody levels 50 days post-infection. An increasing amount of F. psychrophilum 16S rRNA was found in ...
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusions are used to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic. Despite improvements in donor screening and laboratory testing, a small risk of viral, bacterial, or protozoal contamination of platelets remains. There is also an ongoing risk from newly emerging blood transfusion-transmitted infections for which laboratory tests may not be available at the time of initial outbreak.One solution to reduce the risk of blood transfusion-transmitted infections from platelet transfusion is photochemical pathogen reduction, in which pathogens are either inactivated or significantly depleted in number, thereby reducing the chance of transmission. This process might offer additional benefits, including platelet shelf-life extension, and negate the requirement for gamma-irradiation of platelets. Although current pathogen-reduction technologies have been proven to reduce pathogen load in platelet concentrates, a number of published clinical studies have raised ...
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00525, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00521, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
This partially reverts commit 69a95fdec15c9e2db6e70fda32b5f5d0f7395ac4. Keep building it, but dont symlink it Change-Id: Iff9d545ddec91e360cbd11aa32ca422fd5b92608 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
Home − Products − Discovery & Translational Research − PCR/qPCR/dPCR − qPCR Assays & Instruments − mRNA/IncRNA qPCR Assays & Panels ...
새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
Shop Triphala liquid extract, a traditional Ayurvedic digestive formula to balance detoxification and digestion, assist in natural internal cleansing, gently maintain regularity, nourish and rejuvenate the tissues, and support healthy digestion and absorp
If the calculated bearing load F obtained when using the above information is found to fulfill the requirements for the basic dynamic load rating C, i.e. the load is constant in magnitude and direction and acts radially on a radial bearing or axially and centrically on a thrust bearing, then P = F and the load may be inserted directly in the life equations ...
I am designing a solution for load balancing. I have two routers to two separate ISPs. I have set up 2 static routes in EIGRP to 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 to the next hope addresses which are the routers...
The MR1 recognition was independent of bacterial load. MR1 deficient mice had impaired early phase mucosal cytokine production ... This might be a mechanism used to avoid bacterial immune evasion during bacterial infections. The MR1 protein is capable of ... binding to molecules derived from bacterial riboflavin biosynthesis, and then present them to MAIT for activation. MR1 is ...
Rivault, C.; Cloarec, A.; Guyader, A. Le (1993). "Bacterial load of cockroaches in relation to urban environment". Epidemiology ... bacterial or viral infections. Although some insects are polyphagous, many are restricted to one specific crop, or group of ... bacterial or viral infections they transmit. Plants have their own defences against these attacks but these may be overwhelmed ...
Rivault, C.; Cloarec, A.; Guyader, A. Le (1993). "Bacterial load of cockroaches in relation to urban environment". Epidemiology ...
"Structural basis for substrate loading in bacterial RNA polymerase". Nature. 448 (7150): 163-8. arXiv:0707.3064. Bibcode: ... Streptolydigin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, but not eukaryotic RNA polymerase. It has antibacterial activity against a ... August 2005). "Inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase by streptolydigin: stabilization of a straight-bridge-helix active-center ... August 2005). "Inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase by streptolydigin: stabilization of a straight-bridge-helix active-center ...
... to reduce the bacterial load in one's nose and skin; and to clean and disinfect those things in the house that people regularly ... Bacterial sepsis occurs with most (75%) of cases of invasive MRSA infection. In 2009, there were an estimated 463,017 ... However, along with similar bacterial species that can colonize and act symbiotically, they can cause disease if they begin to ... "FDA Approves Teflaro for Bacterial Infections". Schentag JJ, Hyatt JM, Carr JR, Paladino JA, Birmingham MC, Zimmer GS, Cumbo TJ ...
Cianfanelli FR, Monlezun L, Coulthurst SJ (January 2016). "Aim, Load, Fire: The Type VI Secretion System, a Bacterial ... is a phenomenon where a bacterial cell may deliver a polymorphic toxin molecule into neighbouring bacterial cells upon direct ... This change in gene expression leads to increased biofilm formation in the bacterial population through a phenomenon now known ... Christie PJ, Whitaker N, González-Rivera C (August 2014). "Mechanism and structure of the bacterial type IV secretion systems ...
Cianfanelli FR, Monlezun L, Coulthurst SJ (January 2016). "Aim, Load, Fire: The Type VI Secretion System, a Bacterial ... All characterized bacterial-targeting T6SS proteins act as toxins, either by killing or preventing the growth of target cells. ... It is believed to span from the inner membrane to the outer membrane of the Gram negative bacterial cell envelope, forming a ... The T6SS of Vibrio cholerae has a dual role, being able to target both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. At least one substrate ...
Capsaicin reduces the bacterial load when something can not be refrigerated. In Mesoamerica, the capsaicin spice was also used ...
In a recent study, a saline hygiene solution preserved with pure hypochlorous acid was shown to reduce the bacterial load ... "Reduction in bacterial load using hypochlorous acid hygiene solution on ocular skin". Clinical Ophthalmology. 11: 707-714. doi: ... During bacterial genome replication, the origin of replication (oriC in E. coli) binds to proteins that are associated with the ... Recently it has been proposed that bacterial inactivation by HOCl is the result of inhibition of DNA replication. When bacteria ...
Boix-Amorós A, Collado MC, Mira A (2016). "Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human ... Bacterial communities of human colostrum have been reported as being more diverse than those found in mature milk. The three ... Specific bacterial genera have been shown to be associated with variation in levels of milk macronutrients such as lactose, ... The milk's bacterial communities were generally complex. Among the hundreds of operational taxonomic units detected in the milk ...
2010-11-17). "Procalcitonin reflects bacteremia and bacterial load in urosepsis syndrome: a prospective observational study". ... Blood procalcitonin levels can help confirm bacterial meningitis and. if negative, can effectively rule out bacterial ... Bacterial infections induce a universal increase in the CALC-1 gene expression and a release of PCT (>1 μg/mL). Expression of ... It can also be of use in determining viral meningitis versus bacterial meningitis. These findings are the result of a 2018 ...
The microbial load and bacterial composition also vary with the age of the host fly. Feeding is a key determinant of the ... For instance the exact pH of the food can kill certain bacterial species. In general, the type of food used by the fly affects ... Old flies have a reduced ability to fight infections and this may also relate to the bacterial members of the microbiota. In ... Staubach F, Baines JF, Künzel S, Bik EM, Petrov DA (2013). "Host species and environmental effects on bacterial communities ...
Chao, Lin; Guttman, David S. (26 August 2010). "A Model for Damage Load and Its Implications for the Evolution of Bacterial ... Rang, Camilla U.; Peng, Annie Y.; Chao, Lin (8 November 2011). "Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial Aging and Rejuvenation". Current ...
The high bacterial load in the mouth means that ulcers may become secondarily infected. Cytotoxic drugs administered during ... Bacterial processes leading to ulceration can be caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) and Treponema pallidum ( ... as saliva usually lubricates the mucous membrane and controls bacterial levels) and epithelial atrophy (thinning, e.g., after ... syphilis).[citation needed] Opportunistic activity by combinations of otherwise normal bacterial flora, such as aerobic ...
"Microscopical investigations of nisin-loaded nanoliposomes prepared by Mozafari method and their bacterial targeting". Micron ( ... A liposome can be hence loaded with hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic molecules. To deliver the molecules to a site of action, the ...
"Impact of different tongue cleaning methods on the bacterial load of the tongue dorsum". Archives of Oral Biology. 53 Suppl 1: ...
"Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria". Naturwissenschaften. 100 (2 ... have shown that removing or restricting access to the uropygial gland typically results in a higher bacterial parasite load on ... "Comparative analysis of time spent grooming by birds in relation to parasite load" (PDF). Behaviour. 131 (3): 171-187. doi: ... the plumage, though not necessarily of feather-degrading bacterial species. Preen oil may play a part in protecting at least ...
Early (primary and secondary) yaws lesions have a higher bacterial load, thus are more infectious. Both papillomas and ulcers ...
"Diversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge promotes functional resistance following toxic shock loading". ... They have the advantage that they are relatively easy to maintain and are resilient to shock loads that often occur in smaller ... Mathematics For Wastewater Operators Archived 2012-09-07 at the Wayback Machine "Code of Practice, Flows and Loads-2, British ...
"Diversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge promotes functional resistance following toxic shock loading". ...
"Defining the Stoichiometry and Cargo Load of Viral and Bacterial Nanoparticles by Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry". Journal of the ...
"Characterization of bacterial communities in four freshwater lakes differing in nutrient load and food web structure". FEMS ... Also in medicine and human biology bacterial barcodes are used, e.g. to investigate the microbiome and bacterial colonization ... Universal 16S bacterial primers have been used successfully to isolate cyanobacterial rDNA from environmental samples, but they ... also recover many bacterial sequences. The use of cyanobacteria-specific or phyto-specific 16S markers is commonly used for ...
... the protective effect was associated with lower bacterial load and lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. TNF-α, ... DP2−/- mice are also highly resistant to the gram (-) bacterial sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture; ...
"When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition". PLOS ... By binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequent structure and function processes ... Erythromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes respiratory tract ... It is in the macrolide family of antibiotics and works by decreasing bacterial protein production. Erythromycin was first ...
Biological monitor (spore test) where bacterial spores are placed in strips or envelops along with the instruments. This method ... Process indicators; where the load has reached a certain temperature, the indicators change their colour. Dry heat ... bacterial and mycotic) is the basic criteria sterilisation. Sterilisation process consists of Autoclaving where moist heat ... glutaraldehyde for 10 hours in order to kill bacterial spores. However, this method does not destroy hepatitis viruses and ...
Feathers in humid environments have a greater bacterial load, and humid environments are more suitable for microbial growth; ...
Preparing hides begins by curing them with salt to prevent putrefaction of the collagen from bacterial growth during the time ... adding to the national health problem load. Chromium is not solely responsible for these diseases. Methylisothiazolinone, which ... In modern tanning, these enzymes are purified agents, and the process no longer requires bacterial fermentation (as from dung- ... To prevent damage of the skin by bacterial growth during the soaking period, biocides, typically dithiocarbamates, may be used ...
... and this current is carried along tiny wires made of bacterial appendages called bacterial nano-wires. This network of bacteria ... Scientists showed that bacteria could load electrons onto and discharge electrons from microscopic particles of magnetite. ... Bacterial bio-batteries have great potential in that they can generate electricity rather than just storing it and also that ... Lemon battery Paper battery Sugar battery List of battery types Bioelectrochemical reactor Shewanella oneidensis Bacterial ...
Chemical antimicrobials may be used by the clinician to help reduce the bacterial load in the diseased pocket. "Among the ... Monocytic hyperresponsiveness to bacterial antigen is a biological mechanism that links periodontal disease and diabetes. ... Recent research has suggested that epithelial lining ulceration in chronic periodontal pockets are due to systemic bacterial ... The research shows that a direct application of hydrogen peroxide gel killed virtually all of the bacterial biofilm, was ...
The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... glycemic-load diets have been found to have different degrees of effect on acne severity.[7][53][54] Multiple randomized ... These reinforced the idea amongst dermatologists that bacterial growth on the skin plays an important role in causing acne.[179 ... such as bacterial resistance.[194] Oral and topical probiotics are under evaluation as treatments for acne.[195] Probiotics may ...
The candidal load in the mouth can be reduced by improving oral hygiene measures, such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ...
The distinctive odor of feces is due to bacterial action. Gut flora produces compounds such as indole, skatole, and thiols ( ... load and turd.). ...
Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... whereby ships loaded with cargo when they reached the Seaway were not tested because their ballast water tanks were empty. ... Citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the invasive Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Because of the impacts of this ... "Successful Biological Invasion despite a Severe Genetic Load". PLoS ONE. 2 (9): e868. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..868Z. doi:10.1371 ...
... family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... Another complex, the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex, and the RAD51 paralogs cooperate to load RAD51 onto ssDNA coated with RPA to ...
In the 1980s, Cuban scientists developed a vaccine against a strain of bacterial meningitis B, which eliminated what had been a ... Cuban doctors at home have experienced an increased work-load to cover for the doctors abroad, although there is no evidence ...
The combination of bacterial load and ability to multiply is the basis for the microbes' ability to cause massive infection. ... Gas gangrene (also known as clostridial myonecrosis[1] and myonecrosis[2]) is a bacterial infection that produces gas in ... and the distribution of bacterial toxins. Massive infection is likely to result in death from a combination of system-wide ...
Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in ... a high glycemic load, and high glycemic index diet.[20] Wine and whole-grained bread may decrease the risk of gallstones.[21] ... "Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men". Gut. 54 (6): 823-828. ...
A diagram of a propane smoker, loaded with country style ribs and pork loin in foil. ... which slow bacterial growth. Other antimicrobials in wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other organic acids, ...
Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[193] The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... "W.H.O. Gives Swine Flu a Less Loaded, More Scientific Name". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012 ... Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[31][32] ... Flu symptoms that improve but then relapse with a high fever and severe cough (can be bacterial pneumonia) ...
If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of some sort, that label is released in proportion to the amount of cell lysis. ...
This is the same as for Swingover Milking Parlours as described below except that the cups are loaded on the udder from the ... Listeria is a bacterial disease associated with unpasteurised milk, and can affect some cheeses made in traditional ways. ... Proper sanitation practices help to reduce the rate of bacterial contamination, and pasteurization greatly decreases the amount ... Brucellosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans by dairy products and direct animal contact. Brucellosis has been ...
This is sometimes called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with the amino acid. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can ... Protein biosynthesis: translation (bacterial, archaeal, eukaryotic). Proteins. Initiation factor. Bacterial. *PIF-1 ...
Inflammation of the valves can be caused by infective endocarditis, usually a bacterial infection but can sometimes be caused ... and external loading as the constraints. The motion of the heart valves is used as a boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes ...
It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell, e.g., erythroid ...
The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ...
They may feel relatively well, with a low CRP and white cell count, despite extensive bacterial load". www.rcpe.ac.uk, S. 153 ... these patients often lack the classical symptoms and signs of bacterial invasion. ...
... appear healthy there is constant low level inflammatory response facilitated by the host to manage the constant bacterial load ... This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ... Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm ... Bacterial transportation: Bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ...
The severity and clinical course of Angiostrongylus disease depends significantly on the ingested load of third-stage larvae,[ ... and negative bacterial cultures. Presence of a significantly decreased glucose on CSF analysis is an indicator of severe ... cantonensis infection has a theoretic risk of precipitating a neurologic crisis by releasing an overwhelming load of antigens ... the treatment with antihelminthics is demonstrably safe and may have significant benefit for patients with high parasite loads ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... easing work load on the heart. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders (congestive heart ...
Common bacterial genera include Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Bacillus, and fungal genera include ... Limits for Microbial load for clean room as per US FDA and EU Guidelines for pharmaceutical products ...
After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the ... Gomez, A.M.; =Yannarell, A.C.; Sims, G.K.; Cadavid-Resterpoa, G.; Herrera, C.X.M. (2011). "Characterization of bacterial ... If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load. The weighing process can assemble statistics ... a scale or weighbridge may weigh waste collection vehicles on arrival and personnel may inspect loads for wastes that do not ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... easing work load on the heart. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders (congestive heart ...
... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... release of vesicles has been demonstrated as a general response to stress conditions, the process of loading cargo proteins ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
Salvage chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy is given without curative intent, but simply to decrease tumor load and ... "Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy". The Cochrane ...
... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Meanwhile, for antibiotics with low volume distribution (vancomycin, teicoplanin, colistin), loading dose is required to ... Sepsis is an inflammatory immune response triggered by an infection.[3][4] Bacterial infections are the most common cause, but ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial but may be fungal or viral.[21] Gram-positive bacteria were the primary ...
It was noted that the patients used in this study had a L. loa microfilarial load of greater than 3,000 per ml of blood. ... Drawbacks to using Doxycycline include bacterial resistance and patient compliance because of a longer treatment regimen and ... Though microfilarial load is a major risk factor to post-Ivermectin SAE, three main hypotheses have been proposed for the ... The effect is exacerbated when there are high L. loa microfilarial loads however, and microfilariae can be observed in the ...
... and bacterial infections may cause transient vertigo if it involves the inner ear, as may chemical insults (e.g., ... actually increasing their total inert gas loading. This is often found to provoke inner ear decompression sickness, as the ear ...
Bacterial or viral[edit]. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... A number of studies have reported associations between pathogen load in an area and human behavior. Higher pathogen load is ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ...
Mass loading and fate of linear and cyclic siloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant in Greece. Environmental Science and ... bacterial) or chemical processes. The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. ...
... and airway inflammation has been related to bacterial load and type. The relationsh … ... Airway bacterial load and FEV1 decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 ... and airway inflammation has been related to bacterial load and type. The relationship between bacterial colonization, airway ... Rising airway bacterial load and species changes are associated with greater airway inflammation and accelerated decline in ...
We describe an infection-based screen that identified chemicals that inhibit bacterial efflux pump activity and show that these ... compounds bind to and block the activity of bacterial efflux pumps. ... A cell-based infection assay identifies efflux pump modulators that reduce bacterial intracellular load. Fig 5. EPMs block ...
No comments were found for EZ-ATP: on-line monitoring of bacterial and pathogen load in water. Be the first to comment! ... EZ-ATP: on-line monitoring of bacterial and pathogen load in water. 0 ... EZ-ATP® is capable of measuring the total ATP portions of any type of bacterial microorganism present in the water sample, such ... The analyzer can be used in various application fields where sudden changes in bacterial and pathogen levels are critical, or ...
... bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of ... The median bacterial load was 106 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and ... The median bacterial load was 106 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and ... Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific ...
Tipping, M.J., Delalez, N.J., Lim, R., Berry, R.M., and Armitage, J.P. (2013) Load-dependent assembly of the bacterial ... Load-sensitive coupling of proton translocation and torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor. ... Load-sensitive coupling of proton translocation and torque generation in the bacterial flagellar motor. Molecular Microbiology ... Minamino, T., Imada, K., and Namba, K. (2008) Molecular motors of the bacterial flagella. Curr Opin Struct Biol 18: 693-701.. * ...
... solution preserved with pure HOCl acid reduced the bacterial load significantly without altering the diversity of bacterial ... To examine the magnitude of bacterial load reduction on the surface of the periocular skin 20 minutes after application of a ... Total microbial colonies were counted and each unique colony morphology was processed to identify the bacterial species and to ... The quantitative data demonstrated a ,99% reduction in the staphylococcal load on the surface of the skin 20 minutes following ...
Bacterial load and defective monocyte-derived macrophage bacterial phagocytosis in biomass-smoke COPD. Baishakhi Ghosh, Akshay ... Higher bacterial load of SP, HI, and PA were observed in BMS-COPD. Increased PPBs load in BMS-exposed subjects was ... Bacterial load and defective monocyte-derived macrophage bacterial phagocytosis in biomass-smoke COPD ... Bacterial load and defective monocyte-derived macrophage bacterial phagocytosis in biomass-smoke COPD ...
In our previous study, we demonstrated that the gentamicin-loaded nanotubes could dramatically inhibit bacterial adhesion and ... were selected to investigate the bacterial adhesion at 6 h and biofilm formation at 24, 48, and 72 h on the HACC-loaded ... Titania nanotubes with various diameters (80, 120, 160, and 200 nm) and 200 nm length were loaded with 2 mg of HACC using a ... We found that NT-H could significantly inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on its surface compared with Smooth Ti ...
... and so one might expect that the MBL assay is an underestimate of bacterial load. However, the baseline median bacterial load ... A biphasic decline in bacterial load was observed for liquid and solid culture and the MBL assay with a node at day 3 (Fig. 2 ... Bacterial load during the first 14 days of treatment: linear mixed-effects modeling using splines (splines allow for estimating ... The MBL assay provides early information on the rate of decline in bacterial load and has technical advantages over culture in ...
... of this study was to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on mucosal changes and colonic bacterial ... independent of luminal bacterial load. Further studies should be focused on effect of azithromycin on the role of bacterial ... Effect of Azithromycin on Acute Inflammatory Lesions and Colonic Bacterial Load in a Murine Model of Experimental Colitis. ... The manuscript "Effect of Azithromycin on Acute Inflammatory Lesions and Colonic Bacterial Load in A Murine model of ...
Antibacterial activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 infected in CBA/J mouse assessed as decrease in bacterial ... load in bladder at 700 ug/kg, po administered on day 3 postinfection daily for 3 days measured on day 9 post-inoculation. ...
... S ... A total of 21 rabbits were studied divided into two groups; A: high-load peritonitis; and B: normal load peritonitis. After a ... increased tissue bacterial growth and reduced apoptosis of lymphocytes and monocytes. Peritonitis with low bacterial leaking is ... Peritonitis is the prototype of polymicrobial sepsis with kinetics of bacterial growth differing from those of other infections ...
On the other hand, no significant effect was noticed when increasing the bacterial cellulose content in the composites. ... Bacterial Cellulose Reinforced Flax Fibre Composites: Effect of Nanocellulose Loading on Composite Properties p.1063 ... Bacterial Cellulose Reinforced Flax Fibre Composites: Effect of Nanocellulose Loading on Composite Properties. ... M. Fortea-Verdejo et al., "Bacterial Cellulose Reinforced Flax Fibre Composites: Effect of Nanocellulose Loading on Composite ...
The urogenital cell load was significantly higher than the anal cell load (median 3.6 log10). The anal cell load was ... Standardisation is necessary in urogenital and extragenital Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial load determination by quantitative ... Standardisation is necessary in urogenital and extragenital Chlamydia trachomatis bacterial load determination by quantitative ... In this study we demonstrate the inappropriateness of normalising the CT load for the human cell load using molecular ...
Effects of household washing on bacterial load and removal of Escherichia coli from lettuce and "ready-to-eat" salads. Uhlig, ... Effects of household washing on bacterial load and removal of Escherichia coli from lettuce and ready-to-eat salads}, url = { ... In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of household washing to reduce the bacterial content. Romaine lettuce and ready-to- ... In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of household washing to reduce the bacterial content. Romaine lettuce and ready-to- ...
a The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on the size and ... The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on the size and ... The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on the size and ... Nikolakakis S, Dierckens K, Bossier P, Adriaens D. Effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on growth and ...
... and 5.7-fold higher bacterial load than mice fed HFD-P (P = 0.004). There was no difference in bacterial load between mice fed ... Bacterial inoculation, survival, and bacterial load.Mice were infected i.v. in the tail vein with 0.2 ml S. aureus LS-1 ... Bacterial Infections. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load during Septic ... 2A). Bacterial load 6 days after i.v. inoculation mirrored the survival data, as mice fed HFD-S for 8 weeks had a 3.5-fold ...
Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria).. P ... Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). ... Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). ... Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). ...
Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Inorganic-Organic Composite Microparticles To Treat Bacterial Lung Infection Frederic Tewes 1, 2, * Julien ... Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Inorganic-Organic Composite Microparticles To Treat Bacterial Lung Infection. Molecular Pharmaceutics, ...
Multicentre trials for decontamination of fine-lumen PTFE tubes loaded with bacterial endospores by low and atmospheric ... round robin tests with Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores loaded with 0.3% BSA were done. All in all ...
A Comparison of the Effect of Anolyte and Effective Microorganisms® (Kyusei EMTM) on the Faecal Bacterial Loads in the Water ... Both Anolyte and EM effectively reduced faecal bacterial loads in pig manure. EM positively affected pig growth but this was ... The methodologies followed as assaying techniques employed in the evaluation of faecal bacterial loads in pig manure as well as ... Comparison of the Effect of Anolyte and Effective Microorganisms on the Faecal Bacterial Loads in the Water and on Fish ...
The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on the size and ... Nikolakakis S, Dierckens K, Bossier P, Adriaens D. Effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on growth and ... Effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on growth and shape of early larval European seabass (Dicentrarchus ... "Effects of Antibiotic-induced Differences in Bacterial Load on Growth and Shape of Early Larval European Seabass (Dicentrarchus ...
Effectiveness of a New Formulation of 5% Povidone Iodine at Reducing the Ocular Bacterial Load of Patients Undergoing Cataract ... Effectiveness of a New Formulation of 5% Povidone Iodine at Reducing the Ocular Bacterial Load of Patients Undergoing Cataract ... Bacterial counts were carried out on all swab samples. PI effectiveness was determined by comparing baseline bacterial counts ... Povidone Iodine at Reducing the Ocular Bacterial Load of Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ...
Fluorescence Imaging and Delayed Healing are the Only Significant Predictors of Bacterial Loads ,10,000 CFU/G: Data From 350 ...
Evaluation of the direct relationship between bacterial load on contaminated stainless steel surgical instruments and the ... Evaluation of holding time and bacterial load. Then we have established the correlation of bacterial load and holding time. The ... The results showed that the bacterial load varies according to the procedure used (Table 1). The bacterial load varies from the ... Results: In the first 6 h, the bacterial load did not showed any changes. It was absolutely the same as it was before the 6 h. ...
Kanamycin loaded lipid modified DNA-Nanoparticles with superior bacterial growth inhibition. Lisa Strudel; Jose Hurst; Jan ... Kanamycin loaded lipid modified DNA-Nanoparticles with superior bacterial growth inhibition You will receive an email whenever ... Kanamycin loaded lipid modified DNA-Nanoparticles with superior bacterial growth inhibition. . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. ... Furthermore, kanamycin loaded NPs, as well as the free drug, were dropped on rat and pig corneas. After different incubation ...
The predictions suggested that the time to 3-log-unit bacterial kill for a 480-mg loading dose was reduced to half of that for ... loading dose in critically ill patients and to explore the bacterial kill following the use of different dosing regimens ... A loading dose would therefore be beneficial. The aim of this study was to evaluate CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics following ... and prediction of bacterial kill.. @article{Mohamed2012ApplicationOA, title={Application of a loading dose of colistin ...
Analysis of bacterial load was performed by combining quantification of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers by qPCR with microscopy and ... Bacterial biofilms on ureteral stents have rarely been investigated, and no cultivation-independent data are available on the ... Short-term (3-6 weeks) ureteral stenting is associated with a low load of viable and visible bacteria in ureteral stent ... Next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region revealed presence of different urotypes, distinct bacterial ...
Resource limited estimation of HIV-1 viral load from CD4 cell count using coupled bacterial foraging/jumping frogs algorithm. ... Viral load (VL) testing is highly important for detection of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in AIDS patients. However, ... The proposed approach for HIV-1 viral load estimation appears to be efficient and useful as a low cost strategy for VL testing ... The objective of this work is to estimate the HIV-1 viral load from CD4 cell count using an hybrid artificial intelligence ...
16S bacterial load assay. DNA was isolated from mouse fecal pellets by using the Qiagen DNeasy PowerSoil Kit (Qiagen), ... M.-C.P. performed and analyzed bacterial load assays. B.C., D.S.G., and M.E.C. provided reagents and contributed to scientific ... Nadkarni, M. A., Martin, F. E., Jacques, N. A. & Hunter, N. Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad- ... Consistent with microbial transfer, we observed increased fecal bacterial load from colonic stool of AB and GF mice recipients ...
  • There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The anal cell load was significantly higher in men with- than without anal CT infection (median 4.5 versus 3.9 respectively). (bmj.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate how the differences in dietary fat composition affect survival and bacterial load after experimental septic infection and neutrophil function in uninfected mice. (asm.org)
  • We found that, after S. aureus infection, mice fed a polyunsaturated high-fat diet (HFD-P) for 8 weeks had increased survival and decreased bacterial load during sepsis compared with mice fed a saturated high-fat diet (HFD-S), similar to mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, polyunsaturated dietary fat increased both survival and efficiency of bacterial clearance during septic S. aureus infection. (asm.org)
  • The objective of this work is to estimate the HIV-1 viral load from CD4 cell count using an hybrid artificial intelligence technique known as the coupled bacterial foraging/jumping frogs optimization algorithm and the three dimensional mathematical model of HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with persistent bacterial infection and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the respiratory tract [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many bacterial species show increasing resistance to antibiotics, and there is therefore a need for robust biomarkers to monitor airway inflammation and infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The humoral response, resulting in the production of antimicrobial peptides in response to bacterial or fungal infection, relies mainly on Toll and imd signal transduction pathways, both of which are highly homologous to pathways in mammalian immunity (reviewed in K imbrell and B eutler 2001 ). (genetics.org)
  • Conclusions Hyperglycaemia promotes respiratory S aureus infection, and metformin modifies glucose flux across the airway epithelium to limit hyperglycaemia-induced bacterial growth. (bmj.com)
  • The infection was not identified, but the statement said John contracted the 'harmful and unusual bacterial infection' during his South American tour, which ended in Chile on April 10. (haaretz.com)
  • Co-infection resulted in high bacterial loads early in the infection (within the first 5 days) that could cause host mortality. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Our study shows that co-infection may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the often-observed high variance in parasite load and shedding rates, and should thus be taken into consideration for disease management and control. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Further, using self-bioluminescent bacterial reporters allowed quantification of the progression of infection within the whole animal of the same individuals at a fine temporal scale (daily) and significantly reduced the number of animals used (by 85%) compared with experiments that do not use in vivo techniques. (cf.ac.uk)
  • 25(OH)D-loaded liposomes further demonstrated promising effects regarding prevention of Pseudomonas infection in human bronchial epithelial cells. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • can also result from subacute bacterial endocarditis, a chronic infection of damaged heart valves. (britannica.com)
  • is the increased risk of bacterial endocarditis (inflammation of the heart lining as a result of bacterial infection). (britannica.com)
  • Awareness and knowledge is important for any bacterial infection treatment. (slideshare.net)
  • Any bacterial infection treatment method must be multifaceted. (slideshare.net)
  • Finally on the internet I came across details of excellent bacterial vaginosis natural cures which relieved me from the infection once and for all. (slideshare.net)
  • Such alteration of behavioral components was unlikely to be caused by exaggerated neuroimmune activation, by an impaired host defense to the infection, or due to a dysregulated corticosterone response, because both strains of mice displayed similar neuroimmune responses, bacterial titers, and plasma corticosterone profiles throughout the course of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LAFAYETTE, La. - A Texas woman who ate raw oysters from a market off the coast of Louisiana died from a flesh-eating bacterial infection, health officials said. (kare11.com)
  • Initially, doctors told LeBlanc she had Vibriosis, a bacterial infection which causes around 80,000 illnesses and 100 deaths each year in the United States, according to the Center for Disease Control . (kare11.com)
  • Peritonitis is the prototype of polymicrobial sepsis with kinetics of bacterial growth differing from those of other infections leading to sepsis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both Neisseria gonorrhoeae-co-infections and reported anal intercourse significantly increased the human cell load in anal samples. (bmj.com)
  • Neutrophils play an important role in the defense against bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • The risk for urinary tract infections (UTIs), which may lead to pyelonephritis and urosepsis [ 5 ], is potentiated in the presence of medical devices that provide a surface for bacterial biofilm formation [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whatever the reasons you refuse vaccines, and you have every legal right to do so, you need to take alternative steps to protect your loved ones from common viral and bacterial infections . (vitalitymagazine.com)
  • A nanoparticle wrapped in a red blood cell membrane can remove toxins from the body and could be used to fight bacterial infections, according to research published today in Nature Nanotechnology . (technologyreview.com)
  • If the drug can achieve regulatory approval, says Zhang, the major application would be the treatment of bacterial infections, especially those involving antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (technologyreview.com)
  • This is one of the ideas behind a relatively new approach to treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, called anti-virulence therapy . (technologyreview.com)
  • Calcifediol-loaded liposomes for local treatment of pulmonary bacterial infections. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • The influence of vitamin D3 and its metabolites calcifediol (25(OH)D) and calcitriol on immune regulation and inflammation is well described, and raises the question of potential benefit against bacterial infections. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • However, males succumbed to oral bacterial infections to which females were resistant, with female guts containing a higher number of proliferating cells, suggesting a trade-off between gut plasticity and/or repair mechanisms, and old age pathology in females. (elifesciences.org)
  • The invention further relates to the field of vaccines against microbial infections and especially bacterial vaccines, in particular to pneumococcal vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This might be a mechanism used to avoid bacterial immune evasion during bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The damage they do results both from the direct injury they cause to the plants and from the indirect consequences of the fungal, bacterial or viral infections they transmit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria have been isolated from the lower airway of stable COPD patients, and airway inflammation has been related to bacterial load and type. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of bacterial load was performed by combining quantification of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers by qPCR with microscopy and cultivation-dependent analysis methods, which revealed that ureteral stent biofilms mostly contain low numbers of bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria identified in biofilms by microscopy had mostly morphogenic similarities to gram-positive bacteria, in few cases to Lactobacillus and Corynebacterium , while sequencing showed many additional bacterial genera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Short-term (3-6 weeks) ureteral stenting is associated with a low load of viable and visible bacteria in ureteral stent encrustations, which may be different from long-term stenting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The coupled bacterial foraging/jumping frogs optimization procedure is a mathematical procedure which combines the decision making capabilities of the E.Coli bacteria and frogs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IgA directly binds to commensal bacteria together with the mucous layer to prevent bacteria from breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier, and also assists in the expulsion of bacterial components that have intruded the epithelial barrier 20 . (nature.com)
  • Women may get bacterial vaginosis when the balance of normal bacteria in their vagina becomes disrupted.It is common and various activities seem to increase the. (aidsmap.com)
  • Bacterial enzymatic complex for the digestion of fatty organic substances.it contains a pull of specifically selected enzymes and bacteria to degrade and digest fat from animal origin. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Salmonella are Gram negative bacteria that have gained importance not only as a threat to public health worldwide but also as a model for studying the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria load of VRE bacteremia will be measured via established real-time PCR. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The outcome and the association of bacteria load of VRE bacteremia will be analyzed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Published Dec. 18, 2017 in Nature Genetics, a team led by researchers at Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) have exploited a catalog of bacterial genomes to identify and characterize candidate genes that aid bacteria in adapting to plant environments, specifically genes involved in bacterial root colonization. (eurekalert.org)
  • Standard microbiota methods developed for analysis of high bacterial load specimens (e.g. stool) may require modification when bacterial load is low, as background contamination derived from sterile laboratory reagents and kits can dominate sequence data when few bacteria are present. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An emergent property of the combination of a liquid crystal and bacteria is that at about a 0.1 percent-by-volume bacterial concentration we start to see a collective response from the bacteria," said Aronson. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increased bacterial concentration increases the velocity of the bacteria and configurations in areas with higher bacteria population change more rapidly than in areas with fewer bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because some biological substances like mucus and cell membranes are sometimes liquid crystals, this research may produce knowledge of how these biological substances interact with bacteria and might provide insight on diseases due to bacterial penetration in mucus. (eurekalert.org)
  • From the study, it is clear that bacteria load in greywater was generally high. (ac.ke)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (CD), eucalyptus leaf extract grapefruit seed (ELEGS), seed extract grapefruit pulp (SEGP) on reducing the load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, and total coliforms in guinea pig carcasses (Cavia porcellus). (edu.pe)
  • All treatments were effective in reducing the load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in relation to the control group (T1). (edu.pe)
  • FEV1 decline was greater in subjects who exhibited a change in the colonizing bacterial type compared with those with persistence of a single bacterial species over the study period (p = 0.017). (nih.gov)
  • Rising airway bacterial load and species changes are associated with greater airway inflammation and accelerated decline in FEV1. (nih.gov)
  • Total microbial colonies were counted and each unique colony morphology was processed to identify the bacterial species and to determine the susceptibility profile to 15 selected antibiotics. (dovepress.com)
  • Prior to treatment, 194 unique bacterial isolates belonging to 33 different species were recovered. (dovepress.com)
  • Twenty minutes after treatment, 138 unique bacterial isolates belonging to 26 different species were identified. (dovepress.com)
  • The application of a saline hygiene solution preserved with pure HOCl acid reduced the bacterial load significantly without altering the diversity of bacterial species remaining on the skin under the lower eyelid. (dovepress.com)
  • Lower airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic bacterial species (PPBs) is associated with defective bacterial phagocytosis, in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and alveolar macrophages, from tobacco-smoke associated COPD (S-COPD) subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • While richness of bacterial species was higher upstream, at the bathing sites, the diversity dropped, and the bacterial community was dominated by few phyla. (journosdiary.com)
  • There is a world within each of us, a living, evolving ecological system of 500 to 1,000 species of microbes, a ''bacterial nation'' in the words of Dr. Jeffrey I. Gordon, a microbiologist at Washington University in St. Louis. (nytimes.com)
  • Bai Y, Patil SN, Bowden SD, Poulter S, Pan J, Salmond GPC, Welch M, Huck WTS, Abell C. Intra-Species Bacterial Quorum Sensing Studied at Single Cell Level in a Double Droplet Trapping System. (mdpi.com)
  • Whereas 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing quantifies relative abundances of bacterial taxa, variation in total bacterial load between samples restricts its ability to reflect absolute concentrations of individual bacterial species. (cdc.gov)
  • We inferred bacterial concentrations by taking the product of species relative abundance (assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and bacterial load (measured by broad-range 16S rRNA gene qPCR). (cdc.gov)
  • Do You Stand a Greater Chance of Contacting Bacterial Vaginosis BV? (slideshare.net)
  • Out of sheer embarrassment many women do nothing to treat bacterial vaginosis BV as it is popularly known. (slideshare.net)
  • The treatment options for Vaginosis range from conventional medicines to bacterial vaginosis natural cures. (slideshare.net)
  • This bad or harmful bacterium is the primary cause of bacterial vaginosis. (slideshare.net)
  • The most common symptoms of bacterial vaginosis is watery, gray or whitish vaginal discharge with a fishy odor. (slideshare.net)
  • The basic symptom of bacterial vaginosis is a fishy smelling milky discharge from the vagina which is white or grey in color. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. method which is a safe and sure remedy is bacterial vaginosis natural cures. (slideshare.net)
  • We analyzed 1,320 samples from 20 women with a history of frequent bacterial vaginosis who self-collected vaginal swabs daily over 60 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Sputum-HBP was analysed with ELISA, neutrophil elastase activity with a chromogenic assay, and total bacterial load with RT-PCR of the 16 s rDNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We sought to determine the accuracy of an inferred measure of bacterial concentration using total bacterial load and relative abundance. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives Pathogen load has been linked to disease severity in patients infected with HIV, resulting in international standards to adequately and reproducibly quantify load. (bmj.com)
  • The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies using the enteric bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium showed that growth in a ground-based space flight analog bioreactor, termed the rotating wall vessel (RWV), induced global genotypic and phenotypic changes in this organism ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, three different treatment groups of laboratory mice were infected with the gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the respiratory bacterial pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica lux+ or co-infected with both parasites. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on mucosal changes and colonic bacterial load in a murine model of colitis. (springer.com)
  • We documented the anti-inflammatory effect of azithromycin in a murine model of acute colitis, suggesting that effects were targeted to oxidative burst and on mucosal/bacterial interface, independent of luminal bacterial load. (springer.com)
  • Culture-independent sequencing methods are increasingly used to investigate the microbiota associated with human mucosal surfaces, including sites that have low bacterial load in healthy individuals (e.g. the lungs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) load has been inconsistently linked to disease severity since extensive differences exist in quantification methods (14 methods in 28 articles). (bmj.com)
  • For in silico removal of reagent contaminants, a pipeline was used which combines the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in V3-4 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets with bacterial DNA quantification based on qPCR targeting of the V3 segment of the 16S rRNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The unique combination of these ingredients help it fight off fungal acne, bacterial acne, redness, bumps we get on skin from tight clothing and leggings. (etsy.com)
  • Effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life and bacterial and viral loads in hard-shelled clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). (asm.org)
  • Viral load (VL) testing is highly important for detection of antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in AIDS patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, due to the cost and availability of viral load testing instruments, VL testing is not being performed in many developing and underdeveloped countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, a method for estimating the HIV-1 viral load from CD4 cell counts, using a hybrid artificial intelligence technique is proposed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, the average correlation value between the actual and estimated HIV-1 viral load was found to be 0.99. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The total time for estimation of HIV-1 viral load was 15.22 seconds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proposed approach for HIV-1 viral load estimation appears to be efficient and useful as a low cost strategy for VL testing in resource limited settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effective HIV treatment results in a fall in viral loadAn undetectable viral load is the aim of HIV treatment.People who are taking effective HIV treatment. (aidsmap.com)
  • Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, it is unknown whether inter-individual variation results from a continuum of different prevalent and rare bacterial compositions or whether individual gut microbiota gather around some stable communities that can be associated with health and well-being. (nature.com)
  • Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. (nih.gov)
  • This review discusses methodological issues inherent to analysis of low bacterial load specimens and recommends strategies for successful respiratory microbiota studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microbiota studies that include low bacterial load specimens require additional tests to ensure that background contamination does not bias the results or interpretation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further research is needed to define optimal methods for analysing the microbiota in low bacterial load specimens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The potential for large variation in microbial density between different specimen types prompts consideration of how bacterial load may affect microbiota studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The review highlights the importance of residual bacterial DNA as a source of background contamination in sterile laboratory reagents and kits, discusses how this contamination can dominate the microbiota profiles of low bacterial load specimens, and reviews current strategies for overcoming this limitation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Why is bacterial load an important consideration when performing microbiota sequencing? (biomedcentral.com)
  • An inverse power relationship exists between the number of bacterial genomes used to prepare sequencing libraries and the proportion of erroneous reads present in microbiota sequence data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This relationship was clearly demonstrated by studies that used microbiota sequencing to analyze pure bacterial cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relationship between bacterial colonization, airway inflammation, and lung function decline remains uncertain. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies should be focused on effect of azithromycin on the role of bacterial biofilm in perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a potential sputum marker of airway inflammation and bacterial load. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate if HBP levels in sputum from children with CF can be used as a biomarker for pulmonary inflammation and bacterial load. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, bacterial clearance was enhanced in IFN-γ −/− mice, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. (jimmunol.org)
  • Diabetic (db/db) mice infected with S aureus exhibited a higher bacterial load in their airways than control mice after 2 days and metformin treatment reversed this effect. (bmj.com)
  • A comprehensive histopathological analysis revealed that C3HeB/FeJ mice develop three morphologically distinct lesion types in the lung that differ with respect to cellular composition, degree of immunopathology and control of bacterial replication. (biologists.org)
  • Mice displaying predominantly the fulminant necrotizing alveolitis lesion type had significantly higher pulmonary bacterial loads and displayed rapid and severe immunopathology characterized by increased mortality, highlighting the pathological role of an uncontrolled granulocytic response in the lung. (biologists.org)
  • Clinical score (0-5) and histopathologic score (0-30) were used to assess inflammatory changes, and colon washings were used to determine changes in bacterial load. (springer.com)
  • Thus, we analyzed the presence of pathogens and quantitative changes in bacterial load using a molecular method to compare the effectiveness of the antibiotic regimens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our previous study, we demonstrated that the gentamicin-loaded nanotubes could dramatically inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on implant surfaces. (mdpi.com)
  • We found that NT-H could significantly inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on its surface compared with Smooth Ti, and the NT-H with 160 nm and 200 nm diameters had stronger antibacterial activity because of the extended HACC release time of NT-H with larger diameters. (mdpi.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report on the inhibition of biofilm formation and eradication of formed biofilms by ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes. (dovepress.com)
  • PPBs load in induced sputum and MDMs phagocytic activity were determined using qPCR and fluorimetry respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • We evaluated the use of the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay, for measuring viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, in comparison with solid agar and liquid culture. (asm.org)
  • Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum bacterial load has routinely been performed using solid culture ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • have used semiquantitative culture, and demonstrate the relationship between high bacterial load and mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This image depicts a phylogenetic tree of over 3,800 high quality and non-redundant bacterial genomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bacterial growth was identified in all subjects, with an initial count of 107.47(0.91) cfu ml-1 rising to 107.93(0.81) cfu ml-1 at the end of the study (p = 0.019). (nih.gov)
  • Tissue bacterial growth was estimated after death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Experimental peritonitis with enormous bacterial leaking from the gut is accompanied by reduced survival, increased tissue bacterial growth and reduced apoptosis of lymphocytes and monocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Effects of antibiotic-induced differences in bacterial load on growth and shape of early larval European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. (ugent.be)
  • Also in the second approach, we could see less bacterial growth in Kan-NP treated corneas compare to kanamycin. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bacterial DNA in serum and the levels of endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin -1β, -6, -8, -12, -10, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide were assessed at baseline (time 1) and at the end of treatment (time 2). (openarchives.gr)
  • In a prospective, consecutive cohort we investigated bacterial growth in samples from 40 eyes in 39 consecutive individuals subjected to vitrectomy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The number of eyes with positive bacterial growth in conjunctival samples decreased from 33 to 18 after irrigation with CHX ( P = 0.0023). (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of those might be fermented broccoli ( Brassica oleracea ) residue, which has effects on the growth performance, harmful bacterial loads and meat antioxidation of free-range broilers. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Recent research, conducted by Liu et al in 2018, has looked at the effects of fermented broccoli on free-range broilers' growth performance, bacterial loads and meat quality (oxidative status). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 4 hours on average) Sadly, the Human body is one of the most optimal places for bacterial growth. (answers.com)
  • What are the Factors that promote bacterial growth in foods? (answers.com)
  • What are the conditions that contribute to bacterial growth? (answers.com)
  • What are the conditions for bacterial growth? (answers.com)
  • No. In fact, the sugar may promote bacterial growth. (answers.com)
  • However, culture methods do not allow accurate assessments of bacterial load changes because of the suppressive effect of the antibiotic on bacterial growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region revealed presence of different urotypes, distinct bacterial communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HBP and elastase correlated to a decrease in FEV 1 %predicted compared to the patients´ individual baseline pulmonary function (∆FEV 1 ), but not to bacterial load. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Bacterial pathogens" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Wastewater is usually treated in activated sludge systems, which allow for the removal of high organic loads but results in the ineffective elimination of pathogens [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It was suggested that the significant decreases in potentially harmful bacterial loads may be caused by the organic acids, probiotics, flavonoids and vitamins in fermented broccoli. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The MBL assay provides early information on the rate of decline in bacterial load and has technical advantages over culture in either form. (asm.org)
  • We recently described the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay, based on 16S rRNA, observing that MBL declined biphasically in response to treatment ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The median bacterial load was 10 6 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative-PCR targeting the HLA-gene quantified human cell load. (bmj.com)
  • We find that genetic variation in many of the genes is associated with immune response phenotypes, including bacterial load and immune gene expression. (genetics.org)
  • The influence of IFN-γ gene deletion on a range of processes known to be involved in bacterial meningitis pathogenesis was examined. (jimmunol.org)
  • Compared with baseline samples, PI application resulted in a significant 97.8% reduction in mean bacterial numbers for the lid margin (p=0.007), with counts falling from 1.3 x10 3 cfu/ml to 30cfu/ml, and a significant 100% reduction in numbers for the conjunctiva samples, where counts fell from 1.7 x 10 2 cfu/ml to 0 (p=0.01). (arvojournals.org)
  • 0.001) with a significantly higher mean bacterial load (p ≤ 0.001). (bmj.com)
  • Animal models that better reflect the heterogeneity of lesion types found in humans will permit more realistic modeling of drug penetration into solid caseous necrotic lesions and drug efficacy testing against metabolically distinct bacterial subpopulations. (biologists.org)
  • Application of a loading dose of colistin methanesulfonate in critically ill patients: population pharmacokinetics, protein binding, and prediction of bacterial kill. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Another complex, RecFOR, loads RecA onto ssDNA coated with single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) at a gapped DNA substrate ( 36 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The MR1 protein is capable of binding to molecules derived from bacterial riboflavin biosynthesis, and then present them to MAIT for activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial biofilms on ureteral stents have rarely been investigated, and no cultivation-independent data are available on the microbiome of the encrustations on the stents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The range of methods currently used to process DNA from low bacterial load specimens, and the strategies used to identify and exclude background contamination are also discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We assessed the effects of time from hospitalization and culture source on bacterial susceptibility profiles. (cambridge.org)
  • Increasing resistance correlated with increasing time from hospitalization for all bacterial groups, with 7 days in hospital representing the best time point for dichotomizing susceptibility rates rather than 48 hours. (cambridge.org)
  • Differences include normalisation for human cell load due to CT's intracellular nature, despite the inability to distinguish inflammatory cells from epithelial cells with molecular techniques. (bmj.com)
  • In this study we demonstrate the inappropriateness of normalising the CT load for the human cell load using molecular techniques, as the presence of inflammatory cells cannot be excluded. (bmj.com)
  • To date, little is known about the composition and abundance of the bacterial communities present on ureteral stents and their role in health and disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Part I contains papers on the chemical composition and biological properties of bacterial amphiphiles. (elsevier.com)
  • We genotyped 741 patients with microbiologically-proven meningococcal disease and correlated MBL2 genotype with plasma bacterial load of N. meningitidis with blood samples taken during hospital admission. (cdc.gov)
  • A higher MP bacterial load in throat secretions at diagnosis was associated with more advanced respiratory disease in patients, but MP genotype did not influence disease severity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This study aims to determine whether MP bacterial load and genotype are associated with disease severity, to characterize oropharyngeal isolates of MP obtained during an outbreak in 2005-2006 in an urban area of Southern Sweden, and to compare these results with clinical data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial colonization in COPD is an important factor in disease progression. (nih.gov)
  • Ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes can restore ciprofloxacin activity against resistant S. aureus isolates. (dovepress.com)
  • We also examined the association between load of PPBs with phagocytic activity of MDMs and lung function. (ersjournals.com)
  • Increased load of PPBs in airways of BMS-COPD subjects is inversely associated with defective bacterial phagocytosis and lung function. (ersjournals.com)
  • The manuscript "Effect of Azithromycin on Acute Inflammatory Lesions and Colonic Bacterial Load in A Murine model of Experimental Colitis" has been approved by all authors. (springer.com)
  • Experimental results show that, compared with the standard dynamic routing schemes, the proposed scheme has shorter transmission delay, lower packet error ratio, QoS cloud routing loading, and QoS cloud route request overhead. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood and lavage fluid (injection site) were collected for microbiological plate count and for real-time PCR of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though several studies have conducted to find the possible mortality predictors, but none has used bacterial load as a marker. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The urogenital cell load was significantly higher than the anal cell load (median 3.6 log10). (bmj.com)
  • The median values of bacterial load for QD, BID, and TID groups at visit 1 were 1.4 × 10 6 , 8.2 × 10 5 , and 5.4 × 10 5 copies/μL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FEV1 decline was related to this increase in airway bacterial load (r = 0.59, p = 0.001). (nih.gov)
  • This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. (mdpi.com)
  • treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, polymorphisms in autosomal genes encoding recognition and signaling proteins (but not antimicrobial peptides) associate consistently with bacterial load phenotypes, suggesting that not all functional classes of immune-related genes harbor equally influential genetic variation. (genetics.org)
  • distinguished by different adhesions proteins) or bacterial load in airway secretions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • He has >35 years experience of bacterial physiology and bioenergetics, in particular O2-, CO- and NO-reactive proteins, and has published >300 papers (h=48, 2013). (indigo.ca)
  • Several proteins are known to either help RecA load onto different DNA substrates or regulate the stability of the RecA-DNA filament (reviewed in reference 12 ). (asm.org)
  • To begin to test this idea, the dependence of proteins known to be important for RecA loading and stability was tested for two recA (Con) mutants. (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, a variant of the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm was proposed by Tan et al. (hindawi.com)
  • 16 ] proposed the bacterial colony optimization algorithm based on bacterial chemotaxis. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to strengthen the mobile Internet mobility management and cloud platform resources utilization, optimizing the cloud routing efficiency is established, based on opportunistic bacterial foraging bionics, and puts forward a chemotaxis perception of collaborative optimization QoS (Quality of Services) cloud routing mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • The cloud routing mechanism is based on bacterial opportunity to feed and bacterial motility and to establish the data transmission and forwarding of the bacterial population behavior characteristics. (hindawi.com)
  • Such biomarkers could prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics that promote development of bacterial resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-synonymous mutations were detected in isolates that maintained phenotypic ciprofloxacin resistance against ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomal preparation II. (dovepress.com)
  • Both Anolyte and EM effectively reduced faecal bacterial loads in pig manure. (teraganix.com)
  • It was shown in the literature that fish produced in faecal bacterial contaminated water may be detrimentally affected by the occurrence of faecal Streptococcus belonging to the Lancefield Group D in tissues and organs of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss ( Walbaum, 1792) (Boomker et al. (teraganix.com)
  • For the comparability of the antimicrobial efficacy of two low-temperature plasma setups in fine-lumen polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes, independent of performer, round robin tests with Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores loaded with 0.3% BSA were done. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Acoustic trapping can remove bacterial spores from water, according to a new set of experiments funded by the U.S. Army. (technologyreview.com)
  • Any bacterial spores in the water are then subjected to three forces: buoyancy/gravity, the drag of the fluid as flows along and the acoustic pressure from the standing wave. (technologyreview.com)
  • Preoperative disinfection of the eye and surrounding area with the new preparation of PI, packaged in single unit doses, significantly reduced the bacterial flora present on the lid margins and conjunctival sac. (arvojournals.org)
  • Preoperative preparation with CHX significantly reduced the bacterial load in the conjunctival samples subsequently leading to very low inoculation rates in recovered vitreous samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this webinar, John Kempf describes how to prevent vascular bacterial diseases with organic practices. (slideshare.net)
  • Both kanamycin alone and the loaded Kan-NPs were able to significantly decrease the amount of E.coli colonies compared to the vehicle control treated corneas. (arvojournals.org)
  • Taken together, our findings show that (1) loss of PKR could alter E. coli -induced sickness behaviors and (2) this was unlikely to be due to exacerbated neuroimmune activation, (3) elevated bacterial load, or (4) dysregulation in the corticosterone response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists in Israel have uncovered a chemical suicide signalling pathway that turns E. coli into the bacterial equivalent of lemmings, a discovery which could lead to a new generation of powerful antibiotics. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • We evaluated the bacterial diversity and load before and after this single antibacterial measure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During Kumbh Mela in 2015, microbial diversity dropped by nearly 37.5% while bacterial load increased by about 130-fold at five bathing sites in Nashik from where samples were collected prior to and during the event. (journosdiary.com)
  • B acterial populations in the river undergo huge loss in diversity but a steep increase in bacterial load when millions of people bathe at designated bathing sites during Kumbh Mela, a team of researchers has found. (journosdiary.com)
  • The loss in microbial diversity was nearly 37.5% while the increase in bacterial load was about 130-fold during the event. (journosdiary.com)
  • Besides changes in bacterial diversity and load, the study found an increase in infectious diseases and drug-resistant microbe genes in the river water samples collected during the Mela. (journosdiary.com)
  • In all, 25 bacterial phyla were recorded and seven phyla (including Firmicutes) contributed to about 99% of the total bacterial diversity before the event. (journosdiary.com)
  • Though the diversity reduced, the bacterial load increased 130-fold in samples collected during the event. (journosdiary.com)
  • Two ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomal formulations were prepared by thin-film hydration method, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by agar dilution method, against ciprofloxacin-resistant and biofilm-forming isolates (n=24). (dovepress.com)
  • Much is known about the differences in the chemical, but not the bacterial, constituents of these products. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The anal cell load is significantly higher in CT-positive men than in women. (bmj.com)
  • Mean MP loads were significantly higher in 24 hospitalized patients than in 21 outpatients (1600 vs. 170 genomic equivalents/μL, p = 0.009). (beds.ac.uk)
  • After the introduction of PAA and GS, although the superhydrophilicity cannot be achieved, the results of platelet adhesion, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activity, hemolysis rate, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) showed that the blood compatibility was improved, and the blood compatibility was further enhanced after zinc ion loading. (hindawi.com)