Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB CDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Bacteria, AerobicNeutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.OsteomyelitisNasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

Immune response to bacteria in seminiferous epithelium. (1/878)

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B cells are essential for moderating the inflammatory response and controlling bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of vaccination against Chlamydophila abortus infection. (2/878)

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The effects of individual PCB congeners on the soil bacterial community structure and the abundance of biphenyl dioxygenase genes. (3/878)

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Fine-needle aspiration may replace skin biopsy for the collection of material for experimental infection of mice with Mycobacterium leprae and Lacazia loboi. (4/878)

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Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. (5/878)

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TNF-alpha is a key regulator of MUC1, an anti-inflammatory molecule, during airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (6/878)

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BCG vaccination in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) infected by the pulmonary route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (7/878)

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A novel immunoregulatory function for IL-23: Inhibition of IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma production. (8/878)

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Bacterial contamination of blood products is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Due to their storage at 20 to 24°C, platelets are responsible for most of the cases of blood component-associated sepsis (1, 6, 11). Recently, Nadkarni et al. (12) have reported the use of universal primers and probes to estimate the total bacterial load in clinical samples. To detect bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates (PCs), the DNA must be extracted as efficiently as possible and the PCR mixture must not be contaminated by DNA present in the PCR reagents. Poor efficiency of DNA extraction may restrict the sensitivity of the assay, while DNA that is contaminating PCR reagents can serve as a template in PCRs, producing false-positive results. Attempts to reduce the amount of contaminating DNA from, e.g., Taq polymerases (3, 4, 5, 7) in real-time PCR have been described previously (9, 10, 13, 15). None of these methods, however, proved very effective on low copy numbers of ...
If either beta hemolytic streptococci (in any amount) or total bacterial load of ,1e6 CFU/gram of tissue is present in the screening biopsy sample at the ulcer site, the patient should be given a single 7-day course of topical antibiotics and then redebrided and biopsied for quantitative culture. A second biopsy exceeding the limits above will result in exclusion from the study due to the high risk of local infection than may adversely affect ulcer closure ...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a potential sputum marker of airway inflammation and bacterial load. Nineteen CF patients, aged 6-18 years, were prospectively followed for 6 months with sputum sampling at every visit to the CF clinic. A total of 41 sputum samples were collected. Sputum-HBP was analysed with ELISA, neutrophil elastase activity with a chromogenic assay, and total bacterial load with RT-PCR of the 16 s rDNA gene. Data were compared to lung function parameters and airway symptoms. HBP and elastase correlated to a decrease in FEV1%predicted compared to the patients´ individual baseline pulmonary function (∆FEV1), but not to bacterial load. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for the detection of | 10% decrease in ∆FEV1 were 0.80 for HBP, 0.78 for elastase, and 0.54 for
Diet has a significant effect on pathogen infections in animals and the consumption of secondary metabolites can either enhance or mitigate infection intensity. Secondary metabolites, which are common
Antibiotics are in our meats, our vegetables, our fruits and our milk, not just our medication. The function of antibiotics is to kill bacteria. However, antibiotics are indiscriminate and kill our beneficial flora also. In fact, decreased flora counts are being passed down from generation to generation with each subsequent age having less diversity, more allergies, autism and autoimmunity.. "The more the diversity the happier we will be. The less the diversity, the more weve killed off, the less the diversity the more trouble we will get from it," says Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride. (36:12). McBride is a medical doctor, neurologist and neurosurgeon but is most well known for her GAPS protocol which heals the intestinal tract rebuilding the pathogen load relieving the person from the symptoms of autism, bipolar disorder, autoimmunity and other diseases. Antibiotics kill our beneficial bacteria as well as our pathogenic bacteria. Rebuilding the flora due to antibiotic use is vital. However the ...
Several studies have shown that persistent infections and inflammation can favour carcinogenesis. At the same time, certain types of pathogens and anti-tumour immune responses can decrease the risk of tumourigenesis or lead to cancer regression. Infectious agents and their products can orchestrate a wide range of host immune responses, through which they may positively or negatively modulate cancer development and/or progression. The factors that direct this dichotomous influence of infection-mediated immunity on carcinogenesis are not well understood. Even though not universal, several previous reports have investigated the inverse link of pathogen-induced "benign" inflammation to carcinogenesis and various other pathologies, ranging from autoimmune diseases to allergy and cancer. Several models and ideas are discussed in this review, including the impact of decreased exposure to pathogens, as well as the influence of pathogen load, the timing of infection and the type of instigated immune ...
The lung in cystic fibrosis (CF) is home to numerous pathogens that shorten the lives of patients. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the lung bacteriome following antibiotic therapy targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with CF. The study included nine children (9-18 years) with CF who were treated for their chronic or intermittent positivity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteriomes were determined in 16 pairs of sputa collected at the beginning and at the end of a course of intravenous antibiotic therapy via deep sequencing of the variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene, and the total bacterial load and selected specific pathogens were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR ...
Marker pathogen analyses with micro-IDent®plus supply data on quality and quantity of 11 periodontopathogenic species and their affiliation to so-called "bacterial complexes". The result of this pooled sample provides information on the pathogen load independent from their localization and represents the optimum basis for an individual therapy which is normally a combination of mechanical forms of therapy and adjunctive systemic or local antibiotic administration. This allows you to significantly increase the success rate of the therapy while the relapse rate is dramatically reduced ...
Intentional bacterial infections can produce efficacious antitumor responses in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. However, low overall success rates and intense side effects prevent such approaches from being employed clinically. In this work, we titered bacteria and/or the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in a set of established murine models of cancer. To interpret the experiments conducted, we considered and calibrated a tumor-effector cell recruitment model under the influence of functional tumor-associated vasculature. In this model, bacterial infections and TNFα enhanced immune activity and altered vascularization in the tumor bed. Information to predict bacterial therapy outcomes was provided by pretreatment tumor size and the underlying immune recruitment dynamics. Notably, increasing bacterial loads did not necessarily produce better long-term tumor control, suggesting that tumor sizes affected optimal bacterial loads. Short-term treatment responses were favored by high concentrations of ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
I was at the Frankfurt Motor Show last month, where REVA launched their new NXR electric city car and previewed their NXG electric sports car. I run the REVA Car Club and as a result, I also had a
If you want to shoot bigger loads and increase your load size than read this and youll learn how to up your volume by hundreds of times over.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
We found that eating some of these compounds reduced pathogen load in the bumblebees gut, which not only may help the individual bees, but likely reduced pathogen Critidia spore load in their feces, which in turn lead to a lower likelihood of transmitting the disease to other bees," Lynn Adler said, one of the co-authors. "Because plants just sit there and cant run away from things that want to eat them, they have evolved to be to be amazing chemists. They make biological compounds called secondary metabolites, which are chemicals which are not involved in growth or reproduction, to protect themselves. They are amazing in the diversity of what they can produce for protecting themselves of for protecting pollinators.. "The results may have implications for growers who depends on pollinators, who may want to think about planting pollinator friendly hedgerows and gardens containing plants that produce natural herbal remedies for some of the most common parasites that ails bees and other ...
Molecular Diagnostics Why? Detection and Diagnosis uncultivable or difficult to culture need for rapid diagnosis inadequacy of phenotypic methods (biochemical) Prognosis and management need for quantitative information (bacterial load) susceptibility testing (drug resistance) without culture - Molecular resistance testing
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was
This experimental design allowed us to compare bacterial loads in the setting of higher parenchymal effector cell numbers versus higher in vivo IFN-γ production. Both groups of recipient mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the lungs compared with the unreconstituted mice (Fig. 4C). However, TCRα−/− mice injected with iv+ donor cells showed an ∼4-fold reduction in bacterial loads, whereas the recipients of iv− donor cells showed an ∼18-fold decrease in CFU compared with the unreconstituted controls (Fig. 4C). Therefore, CD4 T cell-mediated protection against M. tuberculosis infection was associated with a higher number of CD4 T cells in the lung parenchyma rather than a higher frequency of IFNγ+ cells in the vasculature.. In this study, we demonstrate that the pulmonary CD4 T cell response against M. tuberculosis is composed of two major subsets that either enter the lung parenchyma or reside within the vasculature. The parenchymal effectors express CXCR3 and are PD-1hi/CD69hi, ...
Calculation of pathogen growth rates is important in understanding the natural history of infection and effects of therapy. However, it is often difficult to estimate pathogen growth because patients are treated immediately upon the detection of infection, leaving only one nonzero untreated reading. Previous approaches have relied on the flawed assumption that pathogen loads just prior to detection are at the assay detection threshold. We have developed a novel method for estimating the pathogen growth rate from a single reading and investigated the initial growth of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. We applied this approach to CMV viral loads measured at least weekly in 122 patients in the 3 months posttransplant. Viral growth rates were estimated by using a modeling approach that accounts for the viral load and the time since the last negative reading. Viral growth rates decreased rapidly within the first week, from 0.72/day (doubling time, ...
In ecology, disease tolerance is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA
To monitor and predict future epidemics, competent aquatic veterinarians sample, test, analyze and interpret the host health, river health, intermediate host presence, along with the pathogen load in the river system. With this information, aquatic veterinarians can manage the health of the watershed, river, and fish to minimize the impact of infectious disease. All of this ahead of time. The aquatic veterinary goal is to prevent epidemics, or at least predict them, something beyond biologists ability at this time. Veterinarians have a long and effective history of successfully managing the health of animal populations threatened by infectious disease, be they wild or domestic. Veterinarians have the appropriate knowledge and experience to sustain fish and river health. The time has come to look to veterinarians to manage river health in Montana as rivers are managed in progressive fisheries throughout the world where the economy depends on fish health and prosperity. There is a lot to learn ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
To the Editor:. The mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia, and especially the number deaths that occur soon after presentation, remains unacceptably high [1]. In 1964, Austrian and Gold [2] observed that 60% of deaths in patients with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) occurred within the first 5 days. Unfortunately, this does not appear to have changed over the subsequent five decades [3].. Different factors related to the mortality of pneumococcal disease have been described, including host factors such as age, comorbidities or immunosuppressive conditions [4], and organism-related factors such as serotype, bacterial load or viral co-infection [3, 5-7]. These factors have all been primarily identified to predict overall mortality, but information regarding the determinants of early mortality is scarce. It has been hypothesised that early deaths are more likely to be due to an inappropriate inflammatory response triggered by Streptococcus pneumoniae than to the micro-organism itself [8]. Thus, ...
MichaelXYs links at least indicate that the bacterial load in the air is relatively small. (And after all, why wouldnt it - most bacteria dont produce spores specifically meant for airborne spreading as far as I know) I thought fungal spores, on the other hand, wouldve been much more common in the air, but at least quick googling* gave me values ranging from 50 to 500 CFU/m3, which is quite close to the amount of bacteria ...
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
Jay Reatard, punk rocker, dies at 29; George Bissell, Newport Beach architect, dies at 82; Reva Mikles Graziadio, Pepperdine University benefactor, dies at 87; Jan C. Gabriel, radio announcer, dies at 69
The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several genes was examined. Bacterial load was assessed based on the presence of 16S rRNA and correlated with gene expression, and the levels of specific antibodies in the blood were measured 50 days post-infection. Separately, both H2O2 and F. psychrophilum influenced gene expression, and pre-treatment with H2O2 influenced the response to infection with F. psychrophilum. Pre-treatment with H2O2 also affected correlation between gene regulation and pathogen load for several genes. A delay in antibody production in H2O2-treated fish in the early phase of infection was indicated, but H2O2 exposure did not affect antibody levels 50 days post-infection. An increasing amount of F. psychrophilum 16S rRNA was found in ...
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusions are used to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic. Despite improvements in donor screening and laboratory testing, a small risk of viral, bacterial, or protozoal contamination of platelets remains. There is also an ongoing risk from newly emerging blood transfusion-transmitted infections for which laboratory tests may not be available at the time of initial outbreak.One solution to reduce the risk of blood transfusion-transmitted infections from platelet transfusion is photochemical pathogen reduction, in which pathogens are either inactivated or significantly depleted in number, thereby reducing the chance of transmission. This process might offer additional benefits, including platelet shelf-life extension, and negate the requirement for gamma-irradiation of platelets. Although current pathogen-reduction technologies have been proven to reduce pathogen load in platelet concentrates, a number of published clinical studies have raised ...
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00525, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00521, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
This partially reverts commit 69a95fdec15c9e2db6e70fda32b5f5d0f7395ac4. Keep building it, but dont symlink it Change-Id: Iff9d545ddec91e360cbd11aa32ca422fd5b92608 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
If the calculated bearing load F obtained when using the above information is found to fulfill the requirements for the basic dynamic load rating C, i.e. the load is constant in magnitude and direction and acts radially on a radial bearing or axially and centrically on a thrust bearing, then P = F and the load may be inserted directly in the life equations ...
I am designing a solution for load balancing. I have two routers to two separate ISPs. I have set up 2 static routes in EIGRP to 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 to the next hope addresses which are the routers...
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous microorganism widely distributed in aquatic environments and can cause Legionellosis in humans. A promising approach to detect viable cells in water samples involves the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in combination with photoactivatable DNA intercalator propidium monoazide (PMA). However, the PMA efficiency could be different depending on the experimental conditions used. The aim of this study was to compare two PMA exposure protocols: (A) directly on the membrane filter or (B) in liquid after filter washing. The overall PMA-induced qPCR means reductions in heat-killed L. pneumophila cells were 2.42 and 1.91 log units for exposure protocols A and B, respectively. A comparison between the results obtained reveals that filter exposure allows a higher PMA-qPCR signal reduction to be reached, mainly at low concentrations (p < 0.05). This confirms the potential use of this method to quantify L. pneumophila in water with low contamination.
Meet the Great Gerbil The Great Gerbil of Central Asia is not much like the little gerbils found in American pet stores. This bad boy can get as long as 13 inches head to tail, about the size of a prairie dog or large black rat. It holds a similar ecological niche as the prairie…
This section provides useful information about Triphala and research studies to improve our overall understanding of a disorder or a specific Triphala.
A study published in Food Microbiology has found that raw milk aged cheeses are relatively safe. The low pH, water content, and high salt levels make the cheese inhospitable to pathogenic bacteria.
Part 4 of a review of the different types of flavored cheeses. Here, cheeses with herbs, spice and flowers. THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is an online gourmet food magazine and website with 1000+ product reviews including gourmet cheeses. Sign up for the Top Pick Of The Week best product recommendation.
Cheeses of Sweden Article -   Cheeses of Sweden Adelost Blue Adelost Blue is a variety of blue cheese that is produced much like the well known Bleu dAugverne cheese.
1 Exon boundaries are consolidated whenever possible at the gene level. Assays denoted with a 1 indicate assays in which consolidating at the gene level is not possible. For these assays the exon location shown is related to the specific RefSeq listed in the results table ...
... which is made of around 3 million separate bacterial genes. By learning bacteria genes, their individual shapes can be known, ... load. ...
Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... A number of studies have reported associations between pathogen load in an area and human behavior. Higher pathogen load is ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ... Bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms. It can be difficult to distinguish which is the cause ...
In general, they do not carry as much pollen load as bees, but they are capable of moving pollen over greater distances.[55] ... Caterpillars are also affected by a range of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, and only a small percentage of the butterfly ...
In carpet, organic load such as invisible dust and cellulose are food sources. After water damage to a building, mold grows in ... The area should be surveyed for odors indicating mold or bacterial growth, moisture sources, such as stagnant water or leaking ...
Factors such as the viral load in the mother's milk complicate breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers.[55][56] ... bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection and necrotizing enterocolitis.[112][113] Breastfeeding may protect ...
If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of some sort, that label is released in proportion to the amount of cell lysis. ...
Bacterial or viral[edit]. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... A number of studies have reported associations between pathogen load in an area and human behavior. Higher pathogen load is ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ...
Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, bringing the two ... While release of vesicles has been demonstrated as a general response to stress conditions, the process of loading cargo ... Salyers, A.A. & Whitt, D.D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, DC: ASM Press. ISBN 1- ... Wooldridge K (editor) (2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic ...
Madhaiyan, K.; Sridhar, R.; Sundarrajan, S.; Venugopal, J. R.; Ramakrishna, S. (2013). "Vitamin B12 Loaded Polycaprolactone ... or intestinal bacterial overgrowth are present. Low levels of serum vitamin B12 may be caused by other factors than B12 ... a drug-loaded polycaprolactone fiber that is prepared as an electrospun nanofiber can release hundreds of micrograms of ...
Pascual AM, Martínez-Bisbal MC, Boscá I, et al (July 2007). "Axonal loss is progressive and partly dissociated from lesion load ...
The amino acid loaded onto the tRNA by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, to form aminoacyl-tRNA, is covalently bonded to the 3'- ... "Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-38. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC ... they can be loaded on Ago and act through RNAi pathways,[35][37][40] participate in the formation of stress granules,[41] ... "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding". Science. 332 (6032): 981-4. Bibcode ...
"Association between high aflatoxin B1 levels and high viral load in HIV-positive people". World Mycotoxin Journal. 6 (3): 255- ... Bacterial. toxins. Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani * ... and exposure to it is associated with an increased viral load in HIV positive individuals.[26][27] ...
Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of naturally occurring bacterial flora in the vagina. Bacterial ... In case of valvular heart disease in pregnancy, the maternal physiological changes in pregnancy confer additional load on the ... Bacterial vaginosis from National Health Service, UK. Page last reviewed: 03/10/2013 ...
... triggering load rejection mechanisms that protect the lines connected to the dam.[3] According to the School of Electrical ... the chance of people contracting bacterial infections increased, and that doctors had seen during the blackouts "surges in ...
A diagram of a propane smoker, loaded with country style ribs and pork loin in foil. ... which slow bacterial growth. Other antimicrobials in wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other organic acids, ...
Pure ammonia cycling is not as quick nor does it allow as higher bio-load stocking of the aged filter media method.[4] ... Higher water temperatures, greater dissolved oxygen and bacterial seeding from an established tank may cut down the time ... during which the aquarist provides an ammonia source for the development of the nitrifying bacterial colony. Nitrifying ...
α-Helices under axial tensile deformation, a characteristic loading condition that appears in many alpha-helix-rich filaments ... Toke, Orsolya (2005). "Antimicrobial peptides: new candidates in the fight against bacterial infections". Biopolymers. 80 (6): ...
Asphyxia from cabin breach, trauma from dynamic load environment as orbiter broke up[71]. ... of five Enterobacter bugandensis bacterial strains, none pathogenic to humans, that microorganisms on ISS should be carefully ...
... and loaded it into a cafeteria drink dispenser. Eight employees drank some of the contaminated water. The incident was ... resulting in replacement of all hydrogen atoms in the bacterial proteins and DNA with the deuterium isotope.[34][36] ...
During the entire landing phase, the vehicle acts autonomously, based on pre-loaded software and parameters.[27] The EDL system ... an estimated 20,000 to 40,000 heat-resistant bacterial spores were on Curiosity at launch, and as much as 1,000 times that ...
The severity and clinical course of Angiostrongylus disease depends significantly on the ingested load of third-stage larvae,[ ... and negative bacterial cultures. Presence of a significantly decreased glucose on CSF analysis is an indicator of severe ... cantonensis infection has a theoretic risk of precipitating a neurologic crisis by releasing an overwhelming load of antigens ... the treatment with antihelminthics is demonstrably safe and may have significant benefit for patients with high parasite loads ...
"When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition". PLoS ... Erythromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[2] This includes respiratory tract ... By binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequent structure and function processes ... It is in the macrolide family of antibiotics and works by decreasing bacterial protein production.[2] ...
Schueler, Thomas R. "Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. ... are commonly used as a bacterial indicator of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface ... The 10 top-ranked rivers transport 88-95% of the global load into the sea. ... can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage.[38] Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and ...
The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing ... Margolin W (January 2000). "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". ...
Inflammation of the valves can be caused by infective endocarditis, usually a bacterial infection but can sometimes be caused ... and external loading as the constraints. The motion of the heart valves is used as a boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes ...
IUDs that contain gold or silver also exist.[21][34] Other shapes of IUD include the so-called U-shaped IUDs, such as the Load ... whose poor design caused bacterial infection and led to thousands of lawsuits. Although the Dalkon shield was removed from the ...
To date a large range of bacterial strains or communities from diverse genera have been reported to be able to colonize mineral ... Abrasion by water, ice, and wind processes loaded with sediment can have tremendous cutting power, as is amply demonstrated by ... It was also recently evidenced that bacterial communities can impact mineral stability leading to the release of inorganic ...
... is a part of many bacterial defense molecules. Most β-lactam antibiotics, including the penicillins, cephalosporins and ... Sulfur vat from which railroad cars are loaded, Freeport Sulphur Co., Hoskins Mound, Texas (1943) ... sulfites absorb oxygen and inhibit aerobic bacterial growth that otherwise would turn ethanol into acetic acid, souring the ...
A direct pulp cap procedure is used when bacterial decay has reached the pulpal chamber, causing inflammation and threatening ... Once youve enabled JavaScript you can try loading this page again.. Thank you. ...
It could be a yeast infection or bacterial or it could just be a normal part of their cycle. If just mated it could be a little ... In your experience have you ever loaded a sow onto a stock trailer to earlier induce their estrous cycle? I have one sow who ... The bone structure of pigs is designed to take heavy loads. What is important is the footing. Pigs on ice are not funny, at ... This makes a great treat to train and lead them such as when were moving them between fields, sorting and loading. You might ...
Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad-range (universal) probe and primers set Mangala A Nadkarni, F. ...
Bacterial colony counts during vaginal surgery. Abstract: Objective: To describe the bacterial types and colony counts present ... Using a hand-held tensiometer, progressive tensile load was then applied to these sutures along the axis of the vagina until ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were obtained immediately before and throughout the surgical cases at preselected time ... Conclusions: Any future interventions designed to minimize bacterial colony counts should focus on the first 30 to 90 minutes ...
With horizontal load- In the crown region, maximum von Mises stress was observed in both the cast post and fiber post. Within ... Swab samples were obtained from dental plaque and tonsils to identify the bacterial flora. Identification methods included ... Results: von Mises stress in an intact tooth was concentrated in the crown near the cingulum under oblique load and on the ... When considering the stress pattern, maximum stress was observed in the cervical region of the crown and in the area of load ...
As I reported before DB Ritchie reported in the biofilm a bacterial cross section which varies and concentrates fluoride and ... Like Loading.... Related. This entry was posted in Health and Medicine, SciBlogs, science, Science and Society and tagged ...
Abdominal sepsis represents the hosts systemic inflammatory response to bacterial or yeast peritonitis. In the event of ... Source control encompasses all measures undertaken to eliminate the source of infection, reduce the bacterial inoculum and ... The initial aim of the surgical treatment of peritonitis is the elimination of bacterial contamination and inflammatory ... Abdominal sepsis represents the hosts systemic inflammatory response to bacterial or yeast peritonitis. ...
Soap & Water: A daily shower with warm water and mild soap reduces the skins bacterial load and helps with wound healing. It ...
Er:YAG Laser versus Sharp Debridement in Management of Chronic Wounds: Effects on Pain and Bacterial Load. Wound repair and ... and post-debridement bacterial loads and patient preference. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (12 patients in Group 1, plus 10 ... The percentage of patients who had a bacterial load in the Low/Negative category increased from 27.3% to 59.1% immediately ... there was a sustained decrease in bacterial load one-week post-laser debridement, as compared with no sustained decrease one- ...
... oil against bacterial and Candida spp. isolates from clinical specimens. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 58(3), pp. 139- ... B-defensin genomic copy number is associated with HIV load and immune reconstitution in sub-Saharan Africans. The Journal of ...
Column filtration is an adequate method to reduce the pollutant load which makes it possible to have a rate of abatement of 97 ... Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of liquid hospital effluents have demonstrated that they are loaded with organic ... performance of the RS and CS filtration systems in terms of germ reduction allows a major decontamination of the bacterial load ... Column filtration is an adequate method to reduce the pollutant load which makes it possible to have a rate of abatement of 97 ...
Bacterial Conjunctivitis. *Bacterial Pharyngitis (not Strep Throat). *Beginning of Chronic Headache. *Behçets Syndrome ...
Bacterial metabolism of bile acids promotes generation of peripheral regulatory T cells A segregated cortical stream for ... receptor to orient polarity 28-day intraocular pressure reduction with a single dose of brimonidine tartrate-loaded ... Bacterial superglue enables easy development of efficient virus-like particle based vaccines A reservoir of mature cavity ... A conserved bacterial protein induces pancreatic beta cell expansion during zebrafish development ARID1A loss impairs enhancer- ...
Bacterial , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidoreductases - metabolism , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases - metabolism , Humans , Bacterial ... Full Text Virtual screening of peptide and peptidomimetic fragments targeted to inhibit bacterial dithiol oxidase DsbA ... Bacterial pneumonia , Medical care, Cost of , Health care , Myocardial infarction , Heart , Heart attacks , Cognitive ability ... Bacterial infections , Fragments , Antimicrobial agents , Peptide inhibitors , Medical screening , Screening , Side effects , ...
In particular embodiments, the vector is selected from a DNA vector, a RNA vector, a viral vector, a bacterial vector, a ... were loaded with the Calcium binding indicator dye Fluo-4. B cells were then challenged with the indicated 426c.TM4ΔV1-3 gp140 ... were loaded with the Calcium binding indicator dye Fluo-4. B cells were then challenged with the indicated 426c.TM4ΔV1-3 gp140 ...
Twelve mobile dental implants were retrieved from 10 smokers after 3 to 10 years of functional loading. Before implant removal ... The roughness of the surface can increase surface area and hence may increase the bacterial colonization. Roughness also ... Studies44,45 have shown that after initial bacterial colonization, supragingival plaque formation developed faster on roughened ... Differences in implant surface topographies may influence bacterial adsorption.43 Physical and chemical factors can affect the ...
The structure and function of these bacterial biofilms are influenced both by bacterial interactions and host factors. ... Equal expression of β-actin as internal standard was to identify the same protein loading. As shown in Figure 1D-E, ... architecture and identifying its bacterial architects are pressing goals in current periodontal research. Filifactor alocis ( ... β-actin is used as the Lazertinib purchase internal loading control. (E) Histogram showing the relative expression levels of ...
Markers were loaded in lanes 1, 7, 13, and 20 of each 20-lane gel. After the samples were loaded, the restriction products were ... Bacterial strains.A total of 246 samples were included in this work (Table 1). Of these, 47 were duplicate cultures of some ... Bacterial DNA preparation.Bacteria were plated on tryptocasein soy (TCS) agar, and one colony was grown overnight with shaking ... Molecular serotyping methods have recently been proposed as ways of determining the antigenic compositions of bacterial strains ...
There are loads of situations in life once we feel a great deal discouraged which is totally ordinary. Additionally, it helps ... A portion of these would incorporate acanthosis nigricans, bacterial diseases, contagious contaminations, unfavorably ... Finding loads of individuals feel misery or mellow sorrow in some particular situations and conditions. A ton of things can ... false declarations and get such high expectations that some pill or drink is going to simply dissolve off the load. In the ...
The extended-release tablets are used to treat women with vaginal infections (bacterial vaginosis). ... Nidazol is used to treat bacterial infections in different areas of the body. ... Attachment of the particle to receptors is only optimal when the bacteria are loaded with antibodies (IgG) and/or activated ... Surgeons with above-median operative work loads in the previous study devoted 67 percent more time to professional activities ...
Like amastigote Leishmania, the bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetti (the aetiologic agent of Q fever) replicates within an ... were used as a loading control [24]. ...
An effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Many women suffer from recurring bacterial vaginosis - an imbalance in the ... It will load necessary Cookies, Youtube and Matomo Analytics. More details in our privacy policy and our imprint. ...
Bacterial infections , L-arginine , Nitric oxide , Phagocytosis , L-valine , phagocytosis , nitric oxide , NITRIC-OXIDE ... Bacterial , Corynebacteria , Physiological aspects , Branched chain amino acids , Breeding , Chain branching , Amino acids , ... Full Text Exogenous L-valine promotes phagocytosis to kill multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens ... SYNTHASE , STREPTOCOCCUS-AGALACTIAE , ESCHERICHIA-COLI , ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE , IMMUNOLOGY , bacterial infections , ...
It was loaded with food coloring and I simply threw it out. Every OTC in the drug store is loaded with this stuff, and I dont ... 1) is the meat in the video ground up/minced? I am aware about the possible bacterial presence in store-brought minced meat, ... and you simply cant get an Rx for yourself or your pet that is not loaded with unnecessary and harmful ingredients. Recently ...
... higher viral load. Prostatitis can be transferred the patient and parents. Adverse effects when treated with broad-spectrum ... usually the result of birth feeding problems of infancy bacteremia bacterial meningitis in this endeavor by providing an escape ...
  • As an added convenience, the ZymoPURE II Plasmid Midiprep kit contains colored buffers that permit error-free visualization and identification of complete bacterial cell lysis and neutralization. (zymoresearch.com)
  • The cephalosporin-transammidase interaction prevents the formation of these bonds, thus generating weak areas within the peptidoglycanic structure that lead to cell lysis and the consequent death of the bacterial cell. (termsreign.ga)
  • Using an unsubstantiated hypothesis to question the safety of vaccination and the ethical behavior of those governmental agencies and scientists who advocate for vaccination could lead to widespread rejection of vaccines and inevitable increases in incidence of serious infectious diseases like measles, whooping cough, and Hib bacterial meningitis. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • The Animal Service Administration Center serves as the focal point for managing all bird testing, both for release of product serials and new product development and the Biological Production Center gave Lohmann the space needed to expand production of bacterial vaccines by at least five times the previous capacity. (provisioneronline.com)
  • We therefore unequivocally establish that DM contributes directly to peptide association through formation of a peptide-loading complex between DM and empty Class II MHC. (statescale.ml)
  • The goal of this experiment was to identify the early responsive genes activated by the 22 amino acid peptide of bacterial flagellin (flg22) in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells that are involved in the initial responses important for plant innate immunity. (omicsdi.org)
  • A direct pulp cap procedure is used when bacterial decay has reached the pulpal chamber, causing inflammation and threatening the survival of the tooth, or because of accidental entry into the pulpal chamber via a dental drill. (patientconnect365.com)
  • Relaxation in atrial and ventricular myocardium: activation decay and different load sensitivity. (termsreign.cf)
  • Alternatively,numerous bacterial strains have been created (DIAL strains) that keep exactly the same plasmid at unique steady state copy numbers (Kittleson et PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048438 al. (pkcinhibitor.com)
  • Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. (nappilynigeriangirl.com)
  • a href="reversible_adsorption.html" title="Reversible adsorption">reversible to irreversible attachment as well as phage affinity for phage receptor molecules found on the bacterial surface. (archaealviruses.org)
  • a href="reversible_adsorption.html">reversible adsorption is a function of virion affinity for phage receptors found on bacterial surfaces. (archaealviruses.org)
  • Rates of transition from reversible to irreversible adsorption are also a function of phage properties in combination, presumably, with bacterial properties. (archaealviruses.org)
  • The contribution of rates of transition from reversible to irreversible adsorption, if indeed such transitions occur, are only noticeable at sufficiently high bacterial densities that all other contributions to phage adsorption rates are of extremely short duration. (archaealviruses.org)
  • Furthermore, both rising temperatures and phosphorus loading stimulated the maximum biomass built up by the phytoplankton community. (storysteel.gq)
  • Air purifiers are becoming increasingly capable of eliminating a greater number of bacterial, virus, and DNA damaging particulates through the use of ultra violet lighting technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of liquid hospital effluents have demonstrated that they are loaded with organic and inorganic pollutants then discharged into the sewerage networks without treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • 2002. CJFAS also describes using a cation column to minimize the organic load. (uvm.edu)
  • Column filtration is an adequate method to reduce the pollutant load which makes it possible to have a rate of abatement of 97% and 79% by filtering the pollutant material using sawdust of catia and red sawdust, respectively, with a filter bed height equal to 13 cm. (hindawi.com)
  • Green tea also protected against the movement of endotoxin - the toxic bacterial component - out of their guts and into the bloodstream. (organica.co.za)
  • A bacterial method for the nitrogen isotopic analysis of nitrate in seawater and freshwater. (uvm.edu)
  • Once priming is complete, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is loaded into the DNA and replication begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loads of good content, extensive article that gives all the necessary information. (edu.au)
  • It's loaded with nutrients and antioxidants, it improves brain function and reduces the risk of cancer. (organica.co.za)
  • A daily shower with warm water and mild soap reduces the skin's bacterial load and helps with wound healing. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Twelve mobile dental implants were retrieved from 10 smokers after 3 to 10 years of functional loading. (allenpress.com)
  • With horizontal load- In the crown region, maximum von Mises stress was observed in both the cast post and fiber post. (jidonline.com)
  • 1)Stress distribution is similar between cast post and fiber post during vertical load. (jidonline.com)
  • Superfoods load a big punch of nutrition in a small crunch. (hellodox.com)
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) usually occurs as a result of diseases or conditions in the intestines that hinder the body from absorbing proper nutrients. (bonsecours.com)