Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Mice, Inbred C57BLLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacterial Infections and Mycoses: Infections caused by bacteria and fungi, general, specified, or unspecified.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Protein PrecursorsPeritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Mice, Inbred BALB CStreptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.MycosesPneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.OsteomyelitisPyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Mice, Inbred C3HCommon Variable Immunodeficiency: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Cilastatin: A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.PeptidoglycanBacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.ConjunctivitisEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Trichiasis: A disease of the eye in which the eyelashes abnormally turn inwards toward the eyeball producing constant irritation caused by motion of the lids.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Elafin: A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Communicable DiseasesOrthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Actinobacillus suis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. It is mainly a pathogen of PIGS, but also can infect HORSES.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases: A family of intracellular signaling kinases that were identified by their ability to signal from the activated INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTORS. Signaling from these kinases involves their interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88 and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 6.Lymphocyte Antigen 96: A secreted protein that associates with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 and is essential for receptor recognition of LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/6004)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Clindamycin plus gentamicin as expectant therapy for presumed mixed infections. (2/6004)

The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was studied prospectively in 60 patients with severe sepsis of intra-abdominal, soft tissue, female genital or oropulmonary origin. In addition, the efficacy of clindamycin (for anaerobes) plus gentamicin (for aerobic bacteria, especially coliforms) as initial empiric therapy in these patients was evaluated. Among 54 patients with cultural proof of infection, anaerobic pathogens were recovered from 52%. Nineteen patients had bacteremia; Bacteroides fragilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens, being isolated in five patients each. Infection was eradicated in 56 of the 60 patients (93%). Mortality related to sepsis was 7% in the entire group, 16% in patients with bacteremia and 2% in patients without bacteremia. Eighty-five percent of aerobic isolates tested were susceptible in vitro to either gentamicin or clindamycin; 97% of anaerobic isolates were inhibited by 5 mug/ml of clindamycin.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (3/6004)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Receptor clearance obscures the magnitude of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses in mice to endotoxin or local infections. (4/6004)

Marrow cells from mice lacking high-affinity receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; betac-/- mice) were shown to bind and internalize much less GM-CSF than cells from normal (betac+/+) mice. betac-/- mice were used to determine the effect of negligible receptor-mediated clearance on detectible GM-CSF responses to the intravenous injection of endotoxin or the intraperitoneal injection of casein plus microorganisms. Unlike the minor serum GM-CSF responses to endotoxin seen in betac+/+ mice, serum GM-CSF levels rose 30-fold to 9 ng/mL in betac-/- mice even though loss of GM-CSF in the urine was greater than in betac+/+ mice. Organs from betac-/- and betac+/+ mice had a similar capacity to produce GM-CSF in vitro, as did peritoneal cells from both types of mice when challenged in vitro by casein. However, when casein was injected intraperitoneally, betac-/- mice developed higher and more sustained levels of GM-CSF than did betac+/+ mice. The data indicated that receptor-dependent removal of GM-CSF masks the magnitude of GM-CSF responses to endotoxin and local infections. Because of this phenomenon, serum GM-CSF concentrations can be a misleading index of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of GM-CSF responses to infections.  (+info)

In vivo activities of peptidic prodrugs of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. (5/6004)

A series of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems which have excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities exhibit modest efficacies against acute lethal infections (3.8 mg/kg of body weight against Escherichia coli and 0.9 mg/kg against Staphylococcus aureus) in mice when they are administered orally. In an effort to improve the efficacies of orally administered drugs through enhanced absorption by making use of a peptide-mediated transport system, several different amino acids were added at the aminomethyl THF side chains of the carbapenem molecules. The resulting peptidic prodrugs with L-amino acids demonstrated improved efficacy after oral administration, while the D forms were less active than the parent molecules. After oral administration increased (3 to 10 times) efficacy was exhibited with the alanine-, valine-, isoleucine-, and phenylalanine-substituted prodrugs against acute lethal infections in mice. Median effective doses (ED50s) of < 1 mg/kg against infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained after the administration of single oral doses. Several of the peptidic prodrugs were efficacious against Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli infections, with ED50s of 1 to 14 mg/kg by oral administration compared with ED50s of 14 to > 32 mg/kg for the parent molecules. In general, the parent molecules demonstrated greater efficacy than the prodrugs against these same infections when the drugs were administered by the subcutaneous route. The parent molecule was detectable in the sera of mice after oral administration of the peptidic prodrugs.  (+info)

Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci. (6/6004)

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a new ketolide antimicrobial agent. (7/6004)

The in-vitro activity of HMR 3647, a novel ketolide, was investigated in comparison with those of erythromycin A, roxithromycin, clarithromycin (14-membered ring macrolides), amoxycillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin against 719 recent clinical Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic isolates and type cultures. HMR 3647 generally demonstrated greater activity than the other compounds with MIC90s of < or =0.5 mg/L, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC90 > 128 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L), Enterococcus faecium (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) and the anaerobes, Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90 = 2 mg/L) and Clostridium difficile (MIC90 = 1 mg/L). In general, an increase in the size of the inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs of HMR 3647. Additionally, the in-vitro activity of HMR 3647 was not affected by the presence of either 20 or 70% (v/v) human serum. The antichlamydial activity of HMR 3647 was generally greater than that of commonly used antichlamydial antimicrobials.  (+info)

Candidate bacterial conditions. (8/6004)

This article provides background information on bacterial diseases and discusses those that are candidates for elimination or eradication. Only one disease, neonatal tetanus, is a strong candidate for elimination. Others, including Haemophilus influenzae b infection, leprosy, diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, congenital syphilis, trachoma and syphilis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. For all these diseases, eradication/elimination is not likely because of the characteristics of the disease and limitations in the interventions.  (+info)

*Gram-negative bacterial infection

... refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E. coli. It is important ... "Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition". Mycoplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... August 2005). "Risk factors for Gram-negative bacterial infections in febrile neutropenia". Haematologica. 90 (8): 1102-9. PMID ... Cook RL, Reid G, Pond DG, Schmitt CA, Sobel JD (September 1989). "Clue cells in bacterial vaginosis: immunofluorescent ...

*Sitafloxacin

Jul 2008). "Sitafloxacin hydrate for bacterial infections". Drugs Today (Barc). 44 (7): 489-501. doi:10.1358/dot.2008.44. ... Keating GM (April 2011). "Sitafloxacin: in bacterial infections". Drugs. 71 (6): 731-44. doi:10.2165/11207380-000000000-00000. ...

*Alfred S. Evans

"Bacterial Infections of Humans". Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved 25 May 2017. Fountain, Henry (25 January 1996). " ...

*Nitrofurantoin

"Drugs for bacterial infections". Treatment guidelines from the Medical Letter. 11 (131): 65-74. July 2013. PMID 23797768. " ... Nitrofurantoin exerts greater effects on bacterial cells than mammalian cells because bacterial cells activate the drug more ... abdominal Infection in Adults and Children: Guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of ... The efficacy of nitrofurantoin in treating UTIs combined with a low rate of bacterial resistance to this agent makes it one of ...

*Skin infections and wrestling

Bacterial infections, of all skin infections, are typically the easiest to treat, using a prescribed anti-bacterial lotion or ... "Skin Infections." Wrestling Rules and Interpretations (2008): WA-15-A-18. "Bacterial Infections" About Infections. 18 Dec. 2008 ... ten percent of all time-loss injuries in wrestling are due to skin infections. Bacterial infections, or pathogens, make up the ... Skin infections and wrestling is the role of skin infections in wrestling. This is an important topic in wrestling since breaks ...

*Sudden infant death syndrome

Helicobacter pylori bacterial infections; shaken baby syndrome and other forms of child abuse; overlaying, child smothering ... Weber MA, Klein NJ, Hartley JC, Lock PE, Malone M, Sebire NJ (May 31, 2008). "Infection and sudden unexpected death in infancy ... SIDS makes up about 80% of sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). Other causes include infections, genetic disorders, and ...

*Pathogenic bacteria

Bacterial skin infections include: Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection commonly seen in children. It is ... Bacterial pneumonia is a bacterial infection of the lungs. Urinary tract infection is predominantly caused by bacteria. ... Bacterial pathogens often cause infection in specific areas of the body. Others are generalists. Bacterial vaginosis is caused ... Phage therapy can also be used to treat certain bacterial infections. Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such ...

*William Priestley (Louisiana planter)

... or bacterial infection. Elizabeth Ryland-Priestley, still seething from William's remarks, contrived to believe that William ...

*Phage therapy

For example, jazz bassist Alfred Gertler had a bacterial infection in his bones after breaking an ankle. A physician in the U.S ... "Combatting Bacterial Infection". LabNews.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-05-05. Pirisi A (2000). "Phage therapy-advantages over ... Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage ... As with antibiotic therapy and other methods of countering bacterial infections, endotoxins are released by the bacteria as ...

*Throat irritation

Bacterial infections generally require antibiotics. Home remedies for throat irritation include gargling with warm water twice ... It is inflammation of the voice box which can occur from overuse, irritation or an infection. Laryngitis can be a short term ... The majority of cases of laryngitis are due to viral infections which only last a few days. Laryngitis is often a common ... The most common cause of epiglottitis is an infection by the bacteria, H influenza. The condition may present all of a sudden ...

*Boil

Bacterial infections involving the skin". Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ... Laube S, Farrell M (2002). "Bacterial skin infection in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment". Drugs and Aging. 19 (5): 331-42 ... A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection ... "Staph Infection Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Staph Infection Diagnosis - eMedicineHealth". eMedicineHealth. Tamir J, Haik J, ...

*Macrophage polarization

"Macrophage polarization in bacterial infections." The Journal of Immunology 181.6 (2008): 3733-3739. Mackaness GB: Cellular ... resistance to infection. J Exp Med 1962,116:381-406. Krausgruber, Thomas, et al. "IRF5 promotes inflammatory macrophage ...

*Mycoplasma fermentans

doi:10.1016/0140-6736(93)92617-3. De Filippis, Ivano; McKee, Marian L. (2013). Molecular Typing in Bacterial Infections. Humana ... M. fermentans was first described by Ruiter and Wentholt in 1952 from isolate of a human genital infection, which led to the ... Investigations have focused on a possible link to it being a cofactor in HIV infection as well as fibromyalgia, Gulf War ... This new mycoplasma, dubbed M. incognitus was concerning as it could either be an opportunistic co-infection or a sexually ...

*Atopy

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Breuer K, Kapp A, Werfel T (2001). "Bacterial Infections and Atopic Dermatitis ...

*DiGeorge syndrome

Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics. Cardiac surgery is often required for congenital heart abnormalities. ... and recurrent infections. Infections are common in children due to problems with the immune system's T-cell-mediated response ... frequent infections, developmental delay, learning problems, and cleft palate. Associated conditions include kidney problems, ...

*Navel piercing

... during which time sweat and bacteria may cause infection. Bacterial infections can result in cysts. Scarring: Skin tissue ... Infection: A new piercing may take up to 6-9 months before it can be taken out, ...

*Fecal microbiota transplant

They have included bacterial blood infections, fever, exacerbation of IBD in people who also had that condition, and mild GI ... Donors must be tested for a wide array of bacterial and parasitic infections. In more than 370 published reports there has been ... Rowan, Karen (October 20, 2012). "'Poop Transplants' May Combat Bacterial Infections". LiveScience.com. Retrieved October 20, ... However using one's own original colonic flora which made them susceptible to the CDI infection in the first place obviously ...

*Helicobacter brantae

Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Helicobacter brantae at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN ... Billy Bourke; Sherman, Philip M. (2006). Bacterial Genomes and Infectious Diseases. Humana P.,U.S. ISBN 1-59745-152-5. Terio, K ...

*Pefloxacin

Bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal system. Genitourinary tract infections. Gonorrhoeae. however this indication is no ... Pefloxacin is a quinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Pefloxacin has not been approved for use in the United ... Pefloxacin has been increasingly used as a veterinary medicine to treat microbial infections. Pefloxacin is a broad-spectrum ... fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56 (14): 332-6. ...

*Logan River

Bacterial Infections of Humans:Epidemiology & Control. 1982 at pg 195. Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id= ...

*Human feces

Diarrhea is most commonly caused by a myriad of viral infections but is also often the result of bacterial toxins and sometimes ... May Combat Bacterial Infections". LiveScience.com. Retrieved 2012-10-20. Bakken, Johan S.; Borody, Thomas; Brandt, Lawrence J ... Yellowing of feces can be caused by an infection known as giardiasis, which derives its name from Giardia, an anaerobic ... Protein and fat come from the colon due to secretion, epithelial shedding and gut bacterial action. These proportions vary ...

*Helicobacter cholecystus

Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Wiley. com, 2008. Helicobacter cholecystus at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN. ... "Bacterial genomes and infectious diseases." Pediatric research 54.1 (2003): 1-7. Hau, Jann, and Steven J. Schapiro, eds. ...

*Streptococcus

... bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). However, ... "Bacterial Infection (Streptococcus) in Dogs". petmd.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. "Bacteria-Firmicutes-Bacilli- ... These infections may be noninvasive or invasive. The noninvasive infections tend to be more common and less severe. The most ... Scarlet fever is also a noninvasive infection, but has not been as common in recent years. The invasive infections caused by ...

*Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh (2008-11-21). New Strategies Combating Bacterial Infection. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9783527622948. ... Cephalosporin use is a risk factor for colonization and infection by VRE, and restriction of cephalosporin usage has been ... In the United States, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium was associated with 4% of healthcare-associated infections reported to ... Robinson, D. Ashley; Feil, Edward J.; Falush, Daniel (2010-03-16). Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. John ...

*Coral bleaching

Kushmaro, A.; Loya, Y.; Fine, M.; Rosenberg, E. (1996). "Bacterial infection and coral bleaching". Nature. 380 (6573): 396. ... bacterial infections changes in salinity herbicides extreme low tide and exposure cyanide fishing elevated sea levels due to ... The bacterial species capable of lysing V. shiloi had not been identified as of 2011. In 2010, researchers at Penn State ... and further infection was not observed. The main hypothesis for the emerged resistance is the presence of symbiotic communities ...

*Phage display

Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and so produce a phage ... Attached phage may be eluted and used to create more phage by infection of suitable bacterial hosts. The new phage constitutes ... Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and ... The N2 domain binds to the F pilus during virion infection freeing the N1 domain which then interacts with a TolA protein on ...
Severe bacterial infections are associated with mortality of about 30%. Patients with moderate to severe bacterial infections given early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment are at a lesser risk for a fatal outcome, with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 6.9. However only about 2/3 of patients worldwide are given early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. About 40% of patients treated with antibiotics are given superfluous treatment.. TREAT is a computerized decision support system for antibiotic treatment in inpatients with common bacterial infections. TREAT is based on a state of the art stochastic model of the domain (a causal probabilistic network) and uses a cost benefit model for antibiotic treatment, including costs assigned to future resistance. It was tested in a randomized controlled trial in 3 countries and shown to improve the percentage of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment while at the same time reduce hospital stay and the use of broad-spectrum ...
Finally, we focused our attention on late infections (occurring after three months post transplantation). Twenty-eight infections were recorded among 22 patients from three months to two years post transplantation. During the first year, 13 severe bacterial infections, 3 fungal infections and 3 cytomegalovirus-reactivation were recorded, while between the first and the second year, only 4 severe bacterial infections developed. The cumulative incidence of first late infection was 14% at three years (Online Supplementary Appendix Figure S2A). By univariate analysis, chronic graft-versus-host disease and the source of cells marginally affected this cumulative incidence: 10 vs. 18% at 6OO days in patients without as compared to patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.06). Other tested factors included the source of cell (11% with bone marrow vs. 22% with peripheral blood; P=0.08). Age (older vs. younger than 25 years median age), donor type (sibling vs. others), and total body ...
The Penguin Camera is located on Torgersen Island (64°46S, 64°04W), off the coast of Anvers Island and less than a mile from Palmer Station. Torgersen Island is home to a colony of Adélie penguins numbering approximately 2,500. This camera is seasonal and operates primarily from October to February, the Adélie breeding season. The camera is solar-powered and may sometimes experience brief outages due to inclement weather. School classrooms and other educational demonstrations will often take control of the camera, moving it to gain better views of the colony. ...
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Fever is the most common reason that children present to Emergency Departments. Clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of bacterial infection are often non-specific, and there is no definitive test for the accurate diagnosis of infection. The omics approaches to identifying biomarkers from the host-response to bacterial infection are promising. In this study, lipidomic analysis was carried out with plasma samples obtained from febrile children with confirmed bacterial infection (n = 20) and confirmed viral infection (n = 20). We show for the first time that bacterial and viral infection produces distinct profile in the host lipidome. Some species of glycerophosphoinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophosphatidylcholine and cholesterol sulfate were higher in the confirmed virus infected group, while some species of fatty acids, glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoserine, lactosylceramide and bilirubin were lower in the confirmed virus infected group when compared with confirmed bacterial infected group. A
A bacterial infection is an infection caused by bacteria. Bacterial infections can often be treated successfully with antibiotics.. An infection may begin as a bacterial infection. Or a bacterial infection may follow a viral infection that does not get better. When a viral infection doesnt get better for 10 days or more, or when a viral infection starts to improve and then unexpectedly gets worse, a bacterial infection may be more likely.. A bacterial infection usually affects a single area in the body, such as the sinuses, lungs, ears, or urinary tract. Common bacterial infections include sinusitis, pneumonia, strep throat, ear infections, and bladder infections. If untreated, a bacterial infection can spread to the bloodstream. This condition is called bacteremia.. ...
A bacterial infection is an infection caused by bacteria. The distinction is important because bacterial infections are often more serious than other types of infections, such as viral infections, and because bacterial infections can often be treated successfully with antibiotics.Bacterial infections may follow a viral infection that does not improve, or an infection may begin as a bacterial ...
વજાઈનામાં ઈરિટેશન, સ્વેલિંગ અથવા ઈન્ફેક્શન થવું એક સામાન્ય બાબત છે 25 થી 35 વર્ષની વયની સ્ત્રીઓમાં વજાઇનલ બેક્ટીરિયલ ઈન્ફેક્શન સૌથી વધુ થાય છે શારિરીક સંબંધો દરમિયાન હાઈજિનનું પૂરતું ધ્યાન રાખવામાં ન આવે તો સેક્સ્યુઅલી ટ્રાન્સમિટેડ ડિસીઝ થઈ શકે છે
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious bacterial infections associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of US RA patients enrolled in a large health care organization identified patients who received either TNFalpha antagonists or methotrexate (MTX). Administrative data were used to identify hospitalizations with possible bacterial infections; corresponding medical records were abstracted and reviewed by infectious disease specialists for evidence of definite infections. Proportional hazards models evaluated time-dependent infection risks associated with TNFalpha antagonists. RESULTS: Hospital medical records with claims-identified suspected bacterial infections were abstracted (n=187) among RA patients who received TNFalpha antagonists (n=2,393; observation time 3,894 person-years) or MTX (n=2,933; 4,846 person-years). Over a median followup time of 17 months, the rate of hospitalization with a
The primary endpoint is the acute serious bacterial infection rate defined as the mean number of acute serious bacterial infections per subject per year in the intent-to-treat population. Acute serious bacterial infections will include bacteremia / sepsis, bacterial meningitis, osteomyelitis / septic arthritis, bacterial pneumonia, and visceral abscess, diagnosed according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Serious Acute Bacterial Infections of the US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Guidance for Industry - Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetic Studies to Support Marketing of Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) as Replacement Therapy fo Primary Humoral Immunodeficiency, June 2008 ...
Safe drugstore To Buy Cheapest Zyvox. Generic Zyvox (linezolid) is an antibiotic medication that works to provide quick relief of bacterial infections. Generic Zyvox is most often used to treat complicated skin infections, pneumonia, and other bacterial contaminations. This trusted antibacterial medication is best known for healing severe bacterial infections that do not respond to other antibiotic medications! Generic Zyvox may also be marketed as: Zyvox, ...
Growing data suggest that antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections are common in low- and middle-income countries. This review summarises the microbiology of key bacterial syndromes encountered in West Africa and estimates the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could compromise first-line empirical treatment. We systematically searched for studies reporting on the epidemiology of bacterial infection and prevalence of AMR in West Africa within key clinical syndromes. Within each syndrome, the pooled proportion and 95% confidence interval were calculated for each pathogen-antibiotic pair using random-effects models. Among 281 full-text articles reviewed, 120 met the eligibility criteria. The majority of studies originated from Nigeria (70; 58.3%), Ghana (15; 12.5%) and Senegal (15; 12.5%). Overall, 43 studies (35.8%) focused on urinary tract infections (UTI), 38 (31.7%) on bloodstream infections (BSI), 27 (22.5%) on meningitis, 7 (5.8%) on diarrhoea and 5 (4.2%) on pneumonia. ...
Growing data suggest that antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections are common in low- and middle-income countries. This review summarises the microbiology of key bacterial syndromes encountered in West Africa and estimates the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could compromise first-line empirical treatment. We systematically searched for studies reporting on the epidemiology of bacterial infection and prevalence of AMR in West Africa within key clinical syndromes. Within each syndrome, the pooled proportion and 95% confidence interval were calculated for each pathogen-antibiotic pair using random-effects models. Among 281 full-text articles reviewed, 120 met the eligibility criteria. The majority of studies originated from Nigeria (70; 58.3%), Ghana (15; 12.5%) and Senegal (15; 12.5%). Overall, 43 studies (35.8%) focused on urinary tract infections (UTI), 38 (31.7%) on bloodstream infections (BSI), 27 (22.5%) on meningitis, 7 (5.8%) on diarrhoea and 5 (4.2%) on pneumonia. ...
Its best to check with your doctor to see whether or not your child needs the vaccine. Students who are not up-to-date will not be allowed to attend school until they are vaccinated.. Meningococcal disease is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis (inflammation of the lining covering the brain and spinal cord) and bloodstream infections such as septicemia. Symptoms of the disease include a high fever, headache, vomiting, a stiff neck and a rash. The meningococcus bacterium is treatable with antibiotics, but each year it causes approximately 2,500 infections and 300 deaths in the United States. Those who contract the disease may experience permanent brain damage, hearing loss, kidney failure, loss of arms or legs, or chronic nervous system problems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found the highest rates of meningococcal disease to be among preteens, teens, and young adults, as well as among infants with certain medical conditions. The new law targets many in ...
This study involves 106 infants (neonatal period ruled out), victims of severe bacterial infections managed from 1st january 1998 to 30 April 2001 by the four paediatric Mobile Intensive Care Unit (P.M.I.C.U.) teams AP-HP in Ile-de-France area. 46,2% of the whole infants are primary interventions (home, medical room, airport) and primary-secondary interventions (hospital emergencies) whereas 53,8% are related to secondary transports of infants who have been hospitalized and suffered from severe bacterial disorders complicating their original disease. 51% are meningitidis infections, rather due to streptococcus pneumoniae and meningococcis, associated with severe infectious purpura. 20,75% are toxic shock syndromes in patients suffering from chronic affections (sickle cell anemia), acquired or congenital immunodeficiencies ; 19,8% of the cases are severe bacterial pneumonia (staphylococcal pleuro-pneumopathies, bordetella pertussis cough) or surinfected viral infections (VRS bronchiolitis, ...
Emarsa 350 mg Injection is an antibiotic that is used alone or in combination with other medicines to treat severe bacterial infections of the blood, heart, and skin. This medicine is not recommended for use in case of a common cold, flu, or other viral infections since it is active against infections caused by bacteria only. Buy Emarsa 350 mg Injection Online. Know uses, side effects, dosage, contraindications, substitutes, benefit, interactions, purpose, drug interactions, precautions, warnings etc. Download Practo app & get your medicines home delivered.
My partner Scott and I should have been sharing our son Edward Gilis first birthday last month. But instead of having that exciting first year to celebrate and many more to look forward to, we had just 9 precious days to spend with our beautiful son.. Edward was cruelly taken from us as a result of contracting group B Strep infection at birth. On average, one newborn baby a day in the UK develops group B Strep infection. One baby a week dies from group B Strep infection. One baby a fortnight who survives the infection is left with long-term disabilities - physical, mental or both. It is the UKs most common cause of severe bacterial infection in newborn babies, and of meningitis in babies under 3 months.. Group B Strep is a normal bacterium carried by around 1/4 women, without symptoms and usually unknowingly. It can be passed from mother to baby around birth with potentially devastating consequences for the baby. But these consequences are usually preventable and thats why Ive started this ...
Kostmann disease was first described in 1956 as an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe neutropenia and onset of severe bacterial infections early in life. In his pivotal doctoral thesis, Rolf Kostmann studied 14 affected children from an inbred family from the province of Norrbotten, Sweden.
Bacterial infections are the most common cause of sepsis. If an infection cannot be prevented, rapid and effective treatment are vital to prevent sepsis.
Abstract The CDC estimates that 65-80% of clinically significant drug resistant bacterial infections are drug refractory due to a change in physiological state of pathogens associated with biofilm formation. TRL1068 is a high affinity (100 pM) native human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that disrupts biofilms by extracting a key bacterial scaffolding protein. The epitope is highly conserved in the target protein homologs across a broad spectrum of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, including all ESKAPE pathogens. The released bacteria regain sensitivity to antibiotics. Biofilm disruption has been demonstrated in vitro for Staphylococcus aureus and for several gram negative species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vivo, TRL1068 in combination with an antibiotic vs. antibiotic alone has shown statistically significant efficacy against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in two animal models (infected implants in mice and infective endocarditis in ...
Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Innovative approaches to their prevention and management are needed. New treatments have focused on discovering antibiotics but this is problematic given the rise of antimicrobial drug resistance in common bacterial pathogens. Recent attention has been placed on identifying immunomodulatory agents that enhance innate and/or adaptive immune defenses of the infected host.2 The present work by Stables et al advances this immunopharmacology paradigm as it pertains to bacterial infections.1 Their work suggests that one solution may lie within the biology of aspirin. Stables and collaborators used pharmacologic and genetic techniques to determine whether prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and signaling alters host immune responses to infections caused by either group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Through elegant human and murine studies, Stables et al found that the inhibition of the PG-synthesizing cyclooxygenase-1
Antibacterial agent delivery is of great importance in medicine and dentistry since the bacterial infections are still one of the major reasons for hospitalization and mortality. Despite of the development of technique and pharmacy, more antimicrobial agents are optimized and utilized to treat infections, and their action of principal is better understood which lay a foundation for developing strategies for infection treatment. Over the last decades, many delivery systems have been established to deliver bacterial agents and maintain a sustained activity against them. However, the bacteria are always developing and finding a way to defend themselves. A more responsive antibacterial agent delivery system, which can release the active substances on demand to match the stages of diseases, is highly desirable. Therefore, it motivates us to carry out the work to develop a multifunctional delivery system for antibacterial particle formulation and encapsulation based on the layer-by-layer self-assembly ...
In this study, we have shown that peritoneal macrophages, obtained from patients with cirrhosis and AF, and the presence of bactDNA are primed to synthesise significantly higher amounts of NO than macrophages obtained from patients without bactDNA, and this is associated with marked activation of the cytokines implicated in the type 1 immune response.. Bacterial infections are common complications in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and SBP is the most frequent and clinically relevant.1 The classical pathogenic theory of SBP suggests that bacteria of intestinal origin move across the intestinal wall,5 reaching mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs. Bacteria can then obtain access to AF, and a SBP episode may eventually develop if the local bactericidal mechanisms are insufficient to mount an adequate response.16,17. We have recently described the presence of bactDNA in patients with cirrhosis and culture negative non-neutrocytic AF, a fact that we interpret as molecular evidence of BT.6 It is ...
In fact, there is an emerging literature on the role of bacterial infections in illness and deaths in this flu, and an emerging consensus that bacterial infections are playing a bigger and more serious role than was thought at first. At the ICAAC meeting two weeks ago (more on that soon), KK Johnson et al of the Womens and Childrens Hospital of Buffalo, N.Y., along with researchers from two other institutions, described two severe and ultimately fatal infections with H1N1 complicated by community-strain MRSA. The victims were children, a 9-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy, who arrived at the emergency room several days after being seen for mild flu symptoms. Both children died of necrotizing pneumonia, one 11 days after being hospitalized and one 3 days. Cite (no link available): K.K. Johnson, H. Faden, P. Joshi, J. F. Fasanello, L. J. Hernan, B.P.Fuhrman, R.C.Welliver, J.K. Sharp and J. J. Schentag, "Two Fatal Pediatric Cases of Pandemic H1N1/09 Influenza Complicated by Community-Acquired ...
It is impossible to get rid of bacteria because they are everywhere, including our bodies that have plenty of bad and good bacteria. Infecting organisms try to survive, and to do this they must be looking for other reservoirs and cause infection there. Bacterial infections are transmitted through indirect or direct contact with the reservoir. Effective antibiotics are exceptionally important for us to survive, and that is why we must do anything possible give pathogens no chance to ruin our health ...
I went to the natropathic doctor some months in the past that found Ive Lyme with co-infections. I have started out having silver to battle the bacterial infections And that im getting other supplements and probiotics now. I ended the Deplin and started using B-Suprem by designs for overall health three weeks back. Im feeling a lot more nervous and frustrated now so I dont sense similar to the B-Supreme is sufficient methylated folate. I dont know if my troubles are from being over methylated or from your Lyme and co-bacterial infections. I dont know how to proceed. I want I had commenced with your protocol from the beginning, but undecided how to proceed now. I dont even know When the bacterial infections are even resulting in the problems. Soon after examining many your articles I am not sure if it is the infections resulting in my trouble or getting overmethylated. Do you think these issues are in excess of mythelation ...
The invention provides a method of potentiating the activity of antibacterial agents that act on bacterial cell walls, comprising the step of administering to a subject an antibacterial agent and an aminoglycoside to attain a peak concentration of at least 4 mg/l of aminoglycoside and thereafter maintaining the aminoglycoside at a concentration of up to 4 mg/l for at least 1 hour. Compositions comprising an antibacterial agent and an aminoglycoside for efficacious treatment of bacterial infection are also provided.
Bacterial infections are not an uncommon flu complication. Even during normal flu seasons, they pose a very real, even potentially fatal risk to the elderly. This year, however, there has been a spike among Americans with the H1N1 flu. And unlike most of these infections, these seem to pose a real risk to children and younger adults.. November 25, federal health officials cited this troubling spike as they urged more at risk individuals to seek out a vaccine to prevent these secondary infections.. Dr. Anne Schuchat, director of immunization and respiratory disease for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, used Denver as an example. Denver is one of ten cities her organization monitors for circulating bacteria strains. In a typical October, the city might have twenty cases of bacterial secondary infections following the flu; this October, they experienced nearly sixty, two thirds of which were in adults under sixty.. Dr. Schuchat spoke not only of this trend and the particulars of the ...
Infections that cannot be spread to others. Many common bacterial infections are not spread to others. Examples are ear, sinus, bladder, or kidney infections. Pneumonia also cannot be passed to others. Sexually transmitted diseases are usually not spread to children. But, they can be spread if there is sexual contact or shared bathing ...
Infections that cannot be spread to others. Many common bacterial infections are not spread to others. Examples are ear, sinus, bladder, or kidney infections. Pneumonia also cannot be passed to others. Sexually transmitted diseases are usually not spread to children. But, they can be spread if there is sexual contact or shared bathing ...
I am a bit overwhelmed about the information, which tests for viral & bacterial infections are advised to get done. So Ive been compiling a list...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Only one paper was found examining the significance of rigors in febrile children. Children were already judged ill enough to require hospital admission, and so may not be representative of patients presenting directly to the Emergency Department. The diagnosis of presumed bacterial infection in this paper was made on clinical grounds in some children in the absence of positive cultures. All children had blood, urine and stool cultures. No data is given in the paper as to how many children under went lumbar puncture, nor are the results of CSF cultures given. Lumbar puncture was only performed when felt to be clinically indicated. Throat swabs were not taken ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Both strategies will apply to the first 24 weeks in the trial (intervention period).. From week-24 to week-48, the choice of TB tests and the prescription of TB treatment will be left upon the decision of the investigator in both trial arms.. Inclusion time: 24 months. Follow-up: each patient will be followed 48 weeks. Statistical analysis: the primary analysis will be intention to treat. It will compare the 24-week probability of death or invasive bacterial infection between arms.. Sample size: 1050 participants. This will allow demonstration of a 40% reduction in the 24-week probability of death or invasive bacterial infection in arm 2, compared to arm 1 (α 5%; 1-β 80%). ...
British pop star Elton John has cancelled concerts scheduled in the US in April and May after a threatening bacterial infection
Bacterial diseases ; Bacterial infections--Prevention and control ; Infection in children ; Bacterial diseases in children ; Primary care (Medicine)
Antibiotics are lifesaving drugs, but overuse is leading to antibiotic resistance, one of the worlds most pressing health threats. Scientists identified 11 genetic markers in blood that accurately distinguished between viral and bacterial infections 80 to 90 percent of the time. The finding is important because physicians dont have a good way to confirm bacterial infections like pneumonia and more-often-than-not default to an antibiotic.
New approaches to diagnosing bacterial infections may one day allow the identification of pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in a matter of hours or minutes.. 0 Comments. ...
A common ear problem for outdoor, very active dogs is getting foreign objects stuck in the canal. A piece of grass, with its rough texture, can become securely lodged in the ear and irritate the tender tissue inside. Your dog will scratch his ear and shake his head in an attempt to dislodge the object. If the ear is scratched too much, and the skin is broken, a bacterial infection may result. As soon as you notice your dog showing signs of discomfort, examine the ear yourself. If you are unable to locate the source of the problem, take him to the vet. Never attempt to dig out an object yourself with an implement. If you can pull out a piece of grass with your fingers, do it. But if it looks any more complicated than that, please see a vet. ...
My 3 year CP angel has had some kind of rash in face and on tummy here and there. In December went to a Pharmacy and Pharmacist told me it is ringworm. She is a stay at home child and also no pets or sand to play with. He then gave me a cream with Repivate & Ketazol which worked wonderful. But everytime it comes back only on the face now lately. Took her to GP and he said it is either a Bacterial Infection or Eczema he then gave me pills to give her so he can see wich one it is. But he also told me if it is a bacterial infection we have a problem. What does he mean with this ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Cox on bacterial infection under skin: If you scratched hard enough to cause open sores thered be a chance of further infection, but most likely itd be a bacterial infection.
Life Science Analytics, Bacterial Infections Therapy Area Pipeline Report contains detailed information on the bacterial infections drug pipeline. This
... ! Clinacin (generic name: clindamycin; brand names include: Clindatec / Dalacin / Clinacin / Evoclin) is used to treat a wide variety of serious bacterial infections including infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, pelvis, vagina, and abdomen.
Arsanis Biosciences is developing ASN 100 for the treatment of several serious bacterial infections, using its first-in-class monoclonal antibody discovery
Im taking Ampicillin 500 mg 4x/day and am on Day 2.5 and have not seen any changes. I know docs can do cultures to assist determine the form of bacteria (lengthy story-dont want to involve docs), but I am just questioning if I am taking the correct type of antibiotic to cover an array of bacterial infections and when to expect to see some sort of recovery. (I know to take all of the medication even if I feel far better ...
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In principle, the answer is simple: a bacterial infection is caused by a bacterium, and a viral infection is caused by a virus. However, this statement is a bit too simplistic as we also need to consider other differences between these two types of infections.
Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi are trying to make you their home, hence know fully explained bacterial infections in the immune system.
What Is This Medicational Treatment And How Can It Help Your Condition Get Better? Stromectol is a form of antibiotic thats designed to help treat people suffering from a wide range of different bacterial infections. Some of these have to do with the intestinal tract. However, there are other bacterial infections Stromectol can be effectively used for.. Is Stromectol a treatment that you should use solely for the purpose of helping you to get over a bacterial infection fast? There are people who have bacterial infections where if they just give it a little time, then they would be able to get over the condition by means of letting their immune system go to work. However, the reason why they might not want to do this are plenty. Here are a few of them:. ...
Star Submitted on Saturday, January 25, 2014.. Dawn Blackmon, co-founder of Goliad Pet Adoption, said the male pit bull had had yeast, fungal and bacterial infections on his feet and severe wounds on his head, eye and neck when he was found in a ditch Saturday. ...
91073 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Platelets as immune cells in sensing bacterial infection.
There are many different types of bacterial infection treatments, which vary depending on the type of bacteria that is causing...
Many types of skin infections require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed below we have provided a brief overview of some.. Bacterial Infections of the Skin. ...
Since the skin is exposed to various elements, it can be infected by various bacterial infections. There are various treatment options available.
... is a kind of dermal condition in which the persons skin gets damaged or hurt by few harmful bacteria and can cause infections or serious diseases in a living body.
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Bacterial infections present as painful red pus filled boils seen on any part of the body. These are contagious in nature and spread by close contact.
Question: Is it safe to have sex if I have a vaginal bacterial infection? I started taking Loestrin 24 birth control about a month ago and I started to have
Question - Will the large majority of bacterial infections clear without - 2X. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
1 Answer - Posted in: diflucan, infections, bacterial infection, discharge - Answer: Go see hour doctor he can take a culture to make sure it is ...
Many of the bacterial infections that mimic Candidainfections are much more serious than a yeast infection, and common anti-fungal medications wont help.
The report provides detailed segmentation of the bacterial disease diagnostics market based on type, technique, and region. Bacteria are type of microorganism that can cause disease and such harmful bacteria are called as a pathogen.
Study Flashcards On mouse bacterial diseases at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The high cost of the four powerful medications and the high quality ingredients makes Medi-Koi a more expensive antibiotic food than the traditionally accepted and available Romet 30. one of the problems were seeing with Romet over the last few years and there are those of you who know this acutely, is that its a large pellet, and its only got one drug in it. Many fish have proceeded to die without benefit from Romet as bacterial resistance has developed ...
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The identification of cell‐to‐cell signaling inhibitors among bacteria is a novel mechanism used to control the virulence of pathogens
Bacterial infections meet their match with Generic Macrobid, an antibiotic mediation that is made to fight off and stop the spreading of bacterial infections in the body. For effective relief of bl...
Dr. Kurzweil responded: Several groups of Rx. There are a few groups of antibiotics that are commonly used for the majority of |a href="/topics/bacterial-infections" track_data="{
About 100 drugs already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for other purposes can also prevent the growth of certain bacterial
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Zithromax (Azithromycin) is an antibiotic prescribed for treatment of bacterial infections. Having an extremely long lasting effect, Zithromax (Azithromycin) is trusted and recommended by medical s...
Zithromax (Azithromycin) is an antibiotic prescribed for treatment of bacterial infections. Having an extremely long lasting effect, Zithromax (Azithromycin) is trusted and recommended by medical s...
Order generic for Amoxil antibiotic of 125mg, 250mg and 500mg dosages used to treat various bacterial infections at lowest price from daynightdrugs.com.
Biaxin is a prescription antibiotic medication licensed to treat bacterial infections. This eMedTV page provides a brief overview of Biaxin, including information on what to tell your doctor before using the drug. Bioxin is a common misspelling of Biaxin.
Teva-amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat and prevent bacterial infections. Often sold as Amoxil®, Teva-amoxicillin is often...
Zithromax is a medicine that is commonly used for the treatment of bacterial infections. As this eMedTV segment explains, the antibiotic is also used for treating certain sexually transmitted diseases. Zitromax is a common misspelling of Zithromax.
Common chemicals around us are being found to weaken the immune system, leading to increased risk of flu, colds, viral & bacterial infections.
Mefoxin is given intravenously (by IV) three to six times a day to treat or prevent bacterial infections. This eMedTV resource examines Mefoxin dosing guidelines, including details on how your dose is calculated and factors that may affect this amount.
As bacterial diseases develop resistance to antibiotics, medical resarchers rediscover an older strategy: setting one microbe to kill another.
Some children get serious bacterial infections that require hospitalization and then a long course of antibiotics to completely treat the infection. Examples of these serious infections include ruptured appendicitis (when the appendix gets inflamed and bursts, releasing bacteria into the abdomen), complicated pneumonia (when an infected pocket of pus forms either in the lung or between the lung and chest wall), and osteomyelitis (an infection of the bone).
How Much Cost Generic Zyvox Drug. Generic Zyvox (linezolid) is an antibiotic medication that works to provide quick relief of bacterial infections. Generic Zyvox is most often used to treat complicated skin infections, pneumonia, and other bacterial contaminations. This trusted antibacterial medication is best known for healing severe bacterial infections that do not respond to other antibiotic medications! Generic Zyvox may also be marketed as: Zyvox, ...
Early administration of appropriate antimicrobials has been correlated with a better prognosis in patients with bacteremia, but the optimum timing of early antibiotic administration as one of the resuscitation strategies for severe bacterial infections remains unclear. In a retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) were analyzed. Effects of different cutoffs of time to appropriate antibiotic (TtAa) administration after arrival at the ED on 28-day mortality were examined, after adjustment for independent predictors of mortality identified by multivariate regression analysis. Among 2349 patients, the mean (interquartile range) TtAa was 2.0 (|1 to 12) hours. All selected cutoffs of TtAa, ranging from 1 to 96 hours, were significantly associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.54-0.65, all P | 0.001), after adjustment of the following prognostic factors: fatal comorbidities (McCabe classification), critical illness (Pitt
Abstract: The present invention provides compounds and compositions useful for controlling bacterial biofilms as well as for controlling and/or preventing bacterial infections. The compounds of the invention are pentacyclic acid triterpenes. Methods for controlling biofilms and for controlling and/or preventing bacterial infections are also disclosed. ##STR00001# ...
There are few data on predictors of HIV progression in untreated children in resource-limited settings. Children with HIV Antibiotic Prophylaxis (CHAP) was a randomized trial comparing cotrimoxazole prophylaxis with placebo in HIV-infected Zambian children. The prognostic value of baseline characteristics was investigated using Cox models. Five hundred fourteen children aged 1 to 14 (median 5.5) years contributed 607 years follow-up (maximum 2.6 years). Half were boys, and in 67%, the mother was the primary carer; at baseline, median CD4 percentage was 11% and weight was less than third percentile in 67%. One hundred sixty-five children died (27.2 per 100 years at risk; 95% confidence interval 23.3-31.6). Low weight-for-age, CD4 percentage, hemoglobin, mother as primary carer, current malnutrition, and previous hospital admissions for respiratory tract infections or recurrent severe bacterial infections were independent predictors of poorer survival, whereas oral candidiasis predicted poorer ...
Introduction: The prevalence of cancers has been noted to be on the increase worldwide. In Africa this increase has mainly been attributed to viral infections especially mv. Lymphomas are currently the commonest childhood cancers seen in Uganda. Although chemotherapy remains the most widely used treatment modality for most childhood cancers, it is associated with bone marrow suppression, and this predisposes these children to severe bacterial infections that are fatal if not treated with appropriate antibiotics. This study was therefore set to determine the common bacterial organisms and their sensitivity patterns in children on cancer chemotherapy at the institute. Objective: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of bacteraemia among children with lymphomas initiated on cancer chemotherapy at the UCI. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study, carried out at the UCI, Mulago hospital between November 2008 and March 2009 among children with lymphomas on cancer chemotherapy. A ...
Ontario Pharmacists Now Able to Give Additional Vaccines Effective Immediately: In participating pharmacies in Ontario, pharmacists can now provide individuals five years of age and older with vaccines-many of which are travel vaccines-that help protect against the following 13 preventable diseases: • Bacille Calmette-Guérin (tuberculosis) • Haemophilus influenzae type B-known as Hib (severe bacterial infection) • Hepatitis A • Hepatitis B • Herpes zoster (shingles) • Human papillomavirus (HPV) • Japanese encephalitis • Meningococcal disease (severe illnesses like infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, as well as bloodstream infections caused by a certain bacteria) • Pneumococcal disease (range of infections from ear and sinus to pneumonia and bloodstream) • Rabies • Typhoid • Varicella (chicken pox) • Yellow fever. How does this affect your employee benefits plan? Some of the vaccines require a prescription from a primary care provider like a family ...
MTorrice writes In recent years, increasing numbers of patients worldwide have contracted severe bacterial infections that are untreatable by most available antibiotics. Some of the gravest of these infections are caused by bacteria carrying genes that confer resistance to a broad class of antibiot...
Targeting the immune system to fight cancer is not new: in 1891, New York bone sarcoma surgeon William B. Coley injected a patient with an inoperable malignant tumor with streptococcal organisms. His theory was that the resulting severe bacterial infection, erysipelas, would stimulate the immune system, shrinking the tumor. His hunch was right, and over…
Virulence factors are molecules expressed and secreted by that enable them to colonize the host, evade or inhibit the immune responses of the host, enter into or out of a host cell, and/or obtain …
Olsen Signifils was born on August 18, 2000, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Shortly after birth, he developed meningitis, a severe bacterial infection of the brain. This led to uncontrollable seizures and hydrocephalus, a build-up of water in the brain that prompts swelling. Unable to care for Olsen, his 19-year-old mother abandoned him at St. Damien Hospital.
Bacterial infections are not an easy condition to have because some of the worse kinds have the capacity to take away life if the infection is not immediately treated. There are moderate kinds of bacterial infections, and there are also worse kinds of bacterial infections. Regardless of what infection you have developed, it is necessary that you treat your infection as soon as possible to prevent spread and growth of your infection. Using amoxicillin 500mg will help you in eliminating the bacteria that has cause the infection. Amoxicillin 500mg is an antibiotic drug that is very effective in eliminating a wide range of bacterial infections. Click to continue…. ...
Chronic bacterial infections are inherently resistant to treatment. This is true even if organisms are antibiotic-sensitive, and high concentrations of drugs re...
Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection, When I was very small, I was terrified of dying and what followed afterward. I remember I often could not sleep from thinking about the big empty nothingness that lay before me, Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection australia. 200mg Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection, I was an emo back when it used to mean something.. As I got older, 20mg Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection, 10mg Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection, rather than confronting the inevitability of it all I chose to remain distracted and I stayed distracted for a long time but as I get older still I think Im finally taking those few tentative steps on my way to coming to terms with it. Perhaps through realising our own mortality we all experience the seven stages of grief stretching out over our entire lifetime, 30mg Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection. 1000mg Flagyl Cure For Vaginal Bacterial Infection, A poignant observation perhaps, but hard to ...
Bacterial infections are common in hematological malignancy. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the most prevalent causes of bacteremia in patients with hematological malignancies.. In this thesis, different aspects of CoNS in hematological malignancy have been studied in four papers:. In paper 1, CoNS blood culture isolates from patients with hematological malignancies treated at the University Hospital of Örebro from 1980 to 2009 were revaluated for the presence of reduced sensitivity to glycopeptides. A high incidence of heterogeneous-intermediate glycopeptide resistance was observed and there was a trend towards increasing incidence of this phenotype over time.. In paper 2, the colonization pattern of CoNS among patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancy was investigated. A successive homogenization and an accumulation of CoNS phenotypes mutually present in a majority of included patients were demonstrated.. In paper 3, a PCR method to determine ...
Bacterial infections are common in hematological malignancy. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the most prevalent causes of bacteremia in patients with hematological malignancies.. In this thesis, different aspects of CoNS in hematological malignancy have been studied in four papers:. In paper 1, CoNS blood culture isolates from patients with hematological malignancies treated at the University Hospital of Örebro from 1980 to 2009 were revaluated for the presence of reduced sensitivity to glycopeptides. A high incidence of heterogeneous-intermediate glycopeptide resistance was observed and there was a trend towards increasing incidence of this phenotype over time.. In paper 2, the colonization pattern of CoNS among patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancy was investigated. A successive homogenization and an accumulation of CoNS phenotypes mutually present in a majority of included patients were demonstrated.. In paper 3, a PCR method to determine ...
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as acute bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare condition that usually presents with an intermittent UTI-type picture. It is defined as recurrent urinary tract infections in men originating from a chronic infection in the prostate. Symptoms may be completely absent until there is also bladder infection, and the most troublesome problem is usually recurrent cystitis. Chronic bacterial prostatitis occurs in less than 5% of patients with prostate-related non-BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Dr. Weidner, Professor of Medicine, Department of Urology, University of Gießen, has stated: "In studies of 656 men, we seldom found chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is truly a rare disease. Most of those were E-coli." In chronic bacterial prostatitis there are bacteria in the prostate, ...
Background. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) has been used extensively for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii (also referred to as "Pneumocystis jiroveci") pneumonia (PCP) and other opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Because the efficacy of TMP-SMZ for treatment of bacterial infections is limited, it is sometimes poorly tolerated, and there is risk of emergence of drug-resistant strains associated with widespread use, we evaluated a regimen that included atovaquone and azithromycin.. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed to determine whether atovaquone-azithromycin had equivalent efficacy to TMP-SMZ for the prevention of serious bacterial infections and to compare the long-term tolerance, PCP breakthrough rates, and nonserious bacterial infection rates among HIV-infected children aged 3 months to 19 years. Children qualified for PCP prophylaxis (on the basis of Centers for Disease Control and ...
ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of urinary tract infection in neonates, with serious bacterial infections, admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum causing peritonitis, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection. It occurs almost exclusively in people with portal hypertension (increased pressure over the portal vein), usually as a result of cirrhosis of the liver. It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis (aspiration of fluid with a needle) from the abdominal cavity. If the fluid contains bacteria or large numbers of neutrophil granulocytes (>250 cells/µL) (a type of white blood cells), infection is confirmed and antibiotics are required to avoid complications. In addition to antibiotics, infusions of albumin are usually administered. Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal tenderness, and general malaise. Affected individuals may complain of abdominal pain and worsening ascites. Thirteen percent of ...
Antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of therapy in critically ill patients; however, the wide use of antibiotics has resulted in increased antimicrobial resistance and outbreaks of resistant disease. To counter this, many hospitals have instituted antimicrobial stewardship programmes as a way to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics. However, uptake of antimicrobial stewardship programmes has been variable, as many clinicians fear that they may put individual patients at risk of treatment failure. In this paper, I argue that antimicrobial stewardship programmes are indeed a form of bedside rationing, and explore the risks and benefits of such programmes for individual patients in the intensive care unit, and the critically ill population in general. Using Norman Daniels Accountability for Reasonableness as a framework for evaluating resource allocation policies, I conclude that antimicrobial stewardship programmes are an ethically sound form of bedside rationing. ...
From above study we concluded that out of 100, only 21% health care professional knows and aware about the terminology "antimicrobial stewardship" and 79% health care professional did not knew about this program. 21% health care professional who knew that ask to fill further questions in which 91% health care professional said that this program focused on accurate and justifiable use of antibiotic. 82% health care professional said that it is a core function of medical staff, 100% health care professional this program promotes rationalism of antibiotic use, 73% health care professional said that Specialist antimicrobial stewardship team limit inappropriate and excessive antibiotic use, 91% health care professional said that antimicrobial stewardship program start in every local, private and government hospitals, 86% said that pharmacist can do any betterment in this program and 78% health care professional said that pharmacist are necessary. ...
* In the news * Decreasing Clostridium difficile Infections by an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program That Reduces Moxifloxacin Use Judith Maria Wenischa, Susanne Equiluz-Brucka, Marta Fudela, Ingun Reitera, Andrea Schmidb, Erna Singerc and Andreas Chottb + Author Affiliations aDepartment of Hospital Hygiene, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria bDepartment of Pathology and Microbiology, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria cHospital Pharmacy, Wilhelminenspital,…
Learn the causes, symptoms & treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) from the worlds leading authority on natural health, Dr. Michael Murray.

How to Diagnose and Treat Bacterial Skin Infections in CatsHow to Diagnose and Treat Bacterial Skin Infections in Cats

Bacterial skin infections in cats, also known as pyoderma, can be caused by either environmental or internal factors. The staph ... infection is the most common cause of bacterial... ... How to Diagnose and Treat Bacterial Skin Infections in Cats. ... The staph infection is the most common cause of bacterial skin infections.[1] At home, you may be able to diagnose your cats ... Examine your cats skin. A bacterial skin infection can occur on any part of the cats body, including its face and nose. ...
more infohttps://www.wikihow.com/Diagnose-and-Treat-Bacterial-Skin-Infections-in-Cats

Cellulitis - cellulitis, recluse cellulitis, cellulitis infection, infection cellulitis, cellulitis infection in joint,...Cellulitis - cellulitis, recluse cellulitis, cellulitis infection, infection cellulitis, cellulitis infection in joint,...

... infection cellulitis, cellulitis infection in joint, cellulitis eye infection, cellulitis bacterial infection, cellulitis ... Cellulitis is an acute bacterial infection characterized by a red, hot, well-defined, tender area of skin. Growth and invasion ... blood culture is recommended to rule out spread of the infection. ...
more infohttp://www.health911.com/cellulitis

NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Bacterial Skin InfectionsNewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Bacterial Skin Infections

Bacterial Skin Infections. The skin is the bodys first barrier against bacteria that cause infections. Even though many ... However, bacterial skin infections can affect a small spot or may spread, affecting a large area. They can range from a ... Many types of bacterial skin infections require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the ... bacteria live on the surface of our skin, healthy skin can usually protect us from infection. ...
more infohttp://www.nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW000258&language=Chinese

Other Bacterial Skin Infections | Health Information | MedCentral Health SystemOther Bacterial Skin Infections | Health Information | MedCentral Health System

The following are other common bacterial skin infections: Infection Symptoms Treatment Erysipelas A skin infection caused by ... penicillin erythromycin Erythrasma A skin infection of the top layers of ski... ... Other Bacterial Skin Infections What are some other types of bacterial skin infections? ... Other Bacterial Skin Infections. What are some other types of bacterial skin infections?. The following are other common ...
more infohttp://www.medcentral.org/Main/StayWellProducts.aspx?iid=85_P00302

Scabies - AllStopScabies - AllStop

... break the skin and lead to secondary bacterial infections. This is commonly know as Impetigo or a staph infection. Scabies is ... This rash is infected with a secondary bacterial infection that must be treated ... Order Non-Toxic Products to treat a Scabies Skin Infection. Scabies usually begins in the bodys warm humid folds and crevices ... Scabies is the term referring to the parasitic infection of human skin by Scabies Mites. Scabies are tiny mites that burrow ...
more infohttps://allstop.com/scabies/

Pneumonia | Home | CDCPneumonia | Home | CDC

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. It is the leading cause of ... Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. Vaccines can prevent some ... You can also help prevent pneumonia and other respiratory infections by following good hygiene practices. These practices ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/index.html

Bacterial InfectionBacterial Infection

... bacterial infections can often be treated successfully with antibiotics.Bacterial infections may follow a viral infection that ... The distinction is important because bacterial infections are often more serious than other types of infections, such as viral ... or an infection may begin as a bacterial ... ... A bacterial infection is an infection caused by bacteria. ... Bacterial Infection. A bacterial infection is an infection caused by bacteria. Bacterial infections can often be treated ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/bacterial-infection

Stopping Bacterial Infections Without AntibioticsStopping Bacterial Infections Without Antibiotics

James Clark School of Engineering could prevent bacterial infections using tiny biochemical machines nanofactories that can ... "Stopping Bacterial Infections Without Antibiotics." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 28 Jan. 2010. Web.. 18 Mar. 2018. , ... Doing so would trigger the bacteria to try to form an infection before there are enough bacterial cells to do harm. This would ... New research at the A. James Clark School of Engineering could prevent bacterial infections using tiny biochemical machines ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/177374.php

Gram-negative bacterial infection - WikipediaGram-negative bacterial infection - Wikipedia

Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E. coli. It is important ... "Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition". Mycoplasma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... August 2005). "Risk factors for Gram-negative bacterial infections in febrile neutropenia". Haematologica. 90 (8): 1102-9. PMID ... Cook RL, Reid G, Pond DG, Schmitt CA, Sobel JD (September 1989). "Clue cells in bacterial vaginosis: immunofluorescent ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-negative_bacterial_infection

Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlusBacterial Infections: MedlinePlus

Learn about bacterial infections that can make you sick and how to treat them. ... Bacterial vs. Viral Infections: How Do They Differ? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Bacterial Infections (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Fasciitis, Necrotizing (National ... The primary NIH organization for research on Bacterial Infections is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/bacterialinfections.html

Bacterial InfectionsBacterial Infections

... treatment and prevention of these bacterial infectious diseases. ... Bacterial Infections. Bacteria are single-cell organisms that, ... General facts about canine bacterial infections: Leptospirosis, brucellosis, actinomycosis and nocardiosis; diagnosis, ... When infection moves deeper, for example, if it is carried deeper into body tissues on a foreign body such as a migrating grass ... Brucella canis can cause a zoonotic disease in humans, although cases of human infection are very rare. The risks of catching ...
more infohttp://www.gopetsamerica.com/dog-health/bacterial-infections.aspx

Glowing Antibiotics Reveal Bacterial Infections - Scientific AmericanGlowing Antibiotics Reveal Bacterial Infections - Scientific American

Vancomycin treated with a fluorescent dye allows real-time imaging of bacterial growth ... Glowing Antibiotics Reveal Bacterial Infections. Vancomycin treated with a fluorescent dye allows real-time imaging of ... Sometimes such infections grow for years before being diagnosed correctly.. To better spot microbes in the body, van Oosten and ... Fighting infections. Niren Murthy, a biomedical engineer at the University of California, Berkeley, says that the approach is ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/glowing-antibiotics-reveal-bacterial-infections/

Bacterial Infections and Pregnancy | DailyStrengthBacterial Infections and Pregnancy | DailyStrength

... for those who had bacterial infections during their pregnancy (in the vaginal region) what were the necessary steps that you ... I was wondering, for those who had bacterial infections during their pregnancy (in the vaginal region) what were the necessary ... I have had bacterial vaginosis or BV. Thrush, sustitis and strep b. If you think you have strep b or bv go straight to your ... i hope this helped and for any other infections u haeve u must see the doctor for the right treatment as they will not give u ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/pregnancy/discussion/bacterial-infections-and-pregnancy

German Health Minister Says Bacterial Infections DroppingGerman Health Minister Says Bacterial Infections Dropping

The German health minister has said there are reasons to hope that a bacterial outbreak that killed at least 24 people may have ... German health authorities are still trying to determine the source of the infection, weeks after the outbreak began on May 2.. ... The German health minister has said there are reasons to hope that a bacterial outbreak that killed at least 24 people may have ... Daniel Bahr, speaking on German television on June 8 said that new cases of E.coli infections were still being registered every ...
more infohttps://www.rferl.org/a/german_health_minister_says_bacterial_infections_dropping/24228243.html

Fighting Bacterial Infections with Bacteria - Scientific AmericanFighting Bacterial Infections with Bacteria - Scientific American

"Most antibiotics used to treat infections in the upper respiratory tract have an impact on the normal bacterial flora," the ... To test the idea, the researchers identified a group of 108 children with frequent ear infections between six months and six ... Paradoxically, repeated courses of antibiotics might contribute to recurrent infections in children who are prone to otitis." ... wondered whether infection-prone children might be treated simply by beefing up their own bodies first line of defense: the ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fighting-bacterial-infect/

Elizabethkingia Bacterial Infection Medical DefinitionElizabethkingia Bacterial Infection Medical Definition

Elizabethkingia rarely causes a person to become ill; however, when it does it can cause meningitis, respiratory infections or ... Common Eye Problems and Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. All. Quizzes Diet and Nutrition Quiz. Heart Disease Quiz. ... An outbreak of infection was reported in 2016 that was responsible for up to 20 deaths in Wisconsin and Michigan. Typically, ... it has caused meningitis in newborns and people with suppressed immune function as well as respiratory or blood infections in ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=194720

Bacterial Infections Clinical Research Trials | CenterWatchBacterial Infections Clinical Research Trials | CenterWatch

Bacterial Infections Clinical Research Trial Listings in Immunology Family Medicine Infections and Infectious Diseases Vaccines ... Bacterial Infections Clinical Trials. A listing of Bacterial Infections medical research trials actively recruiting patient ... New Dosages of Inflammatory Markers for the Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections of the Newborn ... You or your child may be experiencing Bacterial Conjunctivitis, commonly known as Pink eye. To see if you or your child may ...
more infohttp://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/condition/465/bacterial-infections/?page=2

Bacterial Infections Clinical Research Trials | CenterWatchBacterial Infections Clinical Research Trials | CenterWatch

Bacterial Infections Clinical Research Trial Listings in Immunology Family Medicine Infections and Infectious Diseases Vaccines ... Bacterial Infections Clinical Trials. A listing of Bacterial Infections medical research trials actively recruiting patient ... Severe bacterial infections are associated with mortality of about 30%. Patients with moderate to severe bacterial infections ... Bacterial Vaginosis/ Yeast infection Multi- Center, phase III trial, comprised of three studies , designed to test the safety ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/condition/465/bacterial-infections/?phase=3

Rapid Detection of Urinary Tract Infections via Bacterial Nuclease Activity.  - PubMed - NCBIRapid Detection of Urinary Tract Infections via Bacterial Nuclease Activity. - PubMed - NCBI

Rapid Detection of Urinary Tract Infections via Bacterial Nuclease Activity.. Flenker KS1, Burghardt EL1, Dutta N1, Burns WJ1, ... Rapid and accurate bacterial detection methods are needed for clinical diagnostic, water, and food testing applications. The ... selective detection of bacterial species. With the exception of the use of micrococcal nuclease activity to detect ... wide diversity of bacterial nucleases provides a rich source of enzymes that could be exploited as signal amplifying biomarkers ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28391960

Bacterial infectionBacterial infection

An infection may begin as a bacterial infection. Or a bacterial infection may follow a viral infection that does not get better ... A bacterial infection is an infection caused by bacteria. Bacterial infections can often be treated successfully with ... Common bacterial infections include sinusitis, pneumonia, strep throat, ear infections, and bladder infections. If untreated, a ... a bacterial infection may be more likely.. A bacterial infection usually affects a single area in the body, such as the sinuses ...
more infohttps://www.healthwise.net/missionhealth/Content/StdDocument.aspx?DOCHWID=stb117002

Bacterial Infection | Health24Bacterial Infection | Health24

Bacterial Infection. Good day doctor, another question please.. My 3 year CP angel has had some kind of rash in face and on ... Took her to GP and he said it is either a Bacterial Infection or Eczema he then gave me pills to give her so he can see wich ... But he also told me if it is a bacterial infection we have a problem. What does he mean with this??????. Thank you very much. ...
more infohttp://www.health24.com/Medical/childhood-diseases/Experts/Question/bacterial-infection-20120502

HON Mother & Child Glossary, Bacterial Infections in ChildhoodHON Mother & Child Glossary, Bacterial Infections in Childhood

The most common bacterial infections in child hood are: Catscratch, Cellulitis, Impetigo, H. Pylori, Strep throat, Tuberculosis ... Occult Bacteremia, Eye infection, Diphtheria, Pertussis (whooping cough), Diarrheal Infections, Epiglottitis ... Bacterial Infections in Childhood. Bacteria (singular bacterium) are any of a group of microscopic organisms that are ... Bacterial Infections in Childhood. Bacteria (singular bacterium ) are any of a group of microscopic organisms that are ...
more infohttp://www.hon.ch/Dossier/MotherChild/child_bacteria/child_bacteria.html

bacterial infection | Food Safety Newsbacterial infection | Food Safety News

Their work has shown that blood stem cells respond in the first few hours following infection by acquiring energy from bone ... Study details human bodys response to Salmonella infection. By News Desk on November 29, 2019. ... Every year more than 400,000 people in America get sick from infections caused by antibiotic-resistant foodborne bacteria, ... Researchers have shown how the human body fights back in response to Salmonella infections. ...
more infohttps://www.foodsafetynews.com/tag/bacterial-infection/

Bacterial Infections | IU HealthBacterial Infections | IU Health

Bacterial infections are diseases spread through tiny, one-celled organisms. Some helpful ones live naturally in our bodies. ... IU Health Infectious Diseases physicians also offer a variety of immunizations against bacterial infections. Some bacterial ... IU Health Infectious Diseases physicians also offer a variety of immunizations against bacterial infections. Some bacterial ... Bacterial infections respond well to treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotics work by targeting bacteria cells in your body. ...
more infohttps://iuhealth.org/find-medical-services/bacterial-infections

Tuberculosis - Bacterial Infections Part 1 | CourseraTuberculosis - Bacterial Infections Part 1 | Coursera

We will see how factors like agricultural practices, prior infections, smoking history, and ... ... Stories of Infection. In Module Two, we will explore six infectious diseases caused by bacteria. ... Bacterial Infections Part 1. In Module Two, we will explore six infectious diseases caused by bacteria. We will see how factors ... to the site of infection. In this way, infection with mycobacteria elicits an orchestrated immune response that surrounds the ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/stories-of-infection/tuberculosis-LXsRC
  • Medicated shampoos, like Clinical Care, and shampoos that contain benzoyl peroxide are a great way to treat and clean infected areas on cats that have mild infections. (wikihow.com)
  • If it is a mild infection, topical antibiotics and medicated shampoos may be prescribed. (wikihow.com)
  • Depending on the severity of the infection, your doctor may prescribe topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics, or both. (wikihow.com)
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