Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins: A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.FlavoproteinsLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Synechococcus: A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Darkness: The absence of light.Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
... see bacterial circadian rhythms). The most important rhythm in chronobiology is the circadian rhythm, a roughly 24-hour cycle ... Gene oscillations - some genes are expressed more during certain hours of the day than during other hours. Within each cycle, ... ISBN 978-0-471-56802-5. "Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on physiological and psychological variables: ... who pursued different but complementary views on the phenomenon of entrainment of the circadian system by light (parametric, ...
Bacterial clocks[edit]. In bacterial circadian rhythms, the oscillations of the phosphorylation of cyanobacterial Kai C protein ... Thus, CLOCK-CYC dimers activate the transcription of circadian genes. The gene timeless (TIM) is the orthologue for mammalian ... A systems biology approach may relate circadian rhythms to cellular phenomena that were not originally considered regulators of ... For a long time it was thought the transcriptional activation/repression cycles driven by the transcriptional regulators ...
The circadian rhythm in the SCN is generated by a gene expression cycle in individual SCN neurons. This cycle has been well ... the specific genes involved are thought to have evolved independently in each kingdom. Many aspects of mammalian behavior and ... which exhibit their own near-24-hour rhythms and control circadian phenomena in local tissue. The SCN receives input from ... physiological and anatomical analyses of involved circadian mechanisms". Neuroscience. 164: 1377-1386. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and our circadian rhythms, can be affected ... but the T-cell expresses the gene CYP27B1, which is the gene responsible for converting the pre-hormone version of vitamin D, ... On one hand, γδ T cells are a component of adaptive immunity as they rearrange TCR genes to produce receptor diversity and can ... Breast milk or colostrum also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial ...
... by plant resistance genes (R-genes), often described as a gene-for-gene relationship. This recognition may occur directly or ... circadian rhythms. When the onset of darkness is unusually early, A. thaliana reduces its metabolism of starch by an amount ... However, the phenomenon observed (reversion of mutant copies of the HOTHEAD gene to a wild-type state) was later suggested to ... They contain two receptors, FLS2 (bacterial flagellin receptor) and EF-Tu (bacterial EF-Tu protein), which use signal ...
... by plant resistance genes (R-genes), often described as a gene-for-gene relationship. This recognition may occur directly or ... circadian rhythms.[59] When the onset of darkness is unusually early, A. thaliana reduces its metabolism of starch by an amount ... However, the phenomenon observed (reversion of mutant copies of the HOTHEAD gene to a wild-type state) was later suggested to ... which express bacterial salicylate hydroxylase, nahG gene, requires the accumulation of SA for its expression [77] ...
Although the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic, it contains at least 16 genes, many of which are thought to have male- ... "molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".[124] Male flies sing to the females during courtship using their wings ... The y gene is an ideal gene to study as it is visibly clear when an organisim has this gene, making it easier to understand the ... The transposable P elements, also known as transposons, are segments of bacterial DNA that are transferred into the fly genome ...
In the context of bacterial circadian rhythms, specifically in cyanobacteria, circadian advantage refers to the improved survival of strains of cyanobacteria that "resonate" with the environmental circadian rhythm. [6] For example, consider a strain with a free-running period (FRP) of 24 hours is co-cultured with a strain that has a free-running period (FRP) of 30 hours in a light-dark cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD 12:12). The strain that has a 24 hour FRP will out-compete the 30 hour strain over time. An instance where bacterial circadian rhythms are theorized to provide an advantage is in the microbiome. It is possible that circadian clocks play a role in the gut microbiota behavior. These microorganisms experience daily ...
Michael Morris Rosbash (born March 7, 1944) is an American geneticist and chronobiologist. Rosbash is a professor at Brandeis University[1] and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Rosbash's research group cloned the Drosophila period gene in 1984 and proposed the Transcription Translation Negative Feedback Loop[2] for circadian clocks in 1990. Along with Michael W. Young and Jeffrey C. Hall, he was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".[3][4] ...
The Robinson oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit originally devised for use in the field of continuous wave (CW) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was a development of the marginal oscillator. Strictly one should distinguish between the marginal oscillator and the Robinson oscillator, although sometimes they are conflated and referred to as a Robinson marginal oscillator. Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are based on pulsed (or Fourier transform) NMR; they do not rely on the use of such oscillators. The key feature of a Robinson oscillator is a limiter in the feedback loop. This means that a square wave current, of accurately-fixed amplitude, is fed back to the tank circuit. The tank selects the fundamental of the square wave, which is amplified and fed back. This results in an oscillation with well-defined amplitude; the voltage across the tank circuit is proportional to its Q-factor. The marginal oscillator has no limiter. It is arranged for the working point of ...
On March 19, 1954, late-night service in Brooklyn became local, but resumed operating express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues on June 29, 1956. On May 3, 1957, the weekday rush trains to Flatbush Avenue were discontinued, while at the same time evening, Saturday and Sunday afternoon trains were extended to Utica Avenue, while Sunday morning trains were extended to Atlantic Avenue. Starting on March 1, 1960, late-night 4 trains resumed making all stops in Manhattan; this was the first time the 4 and 6 ran local in Manhattan together late nights. This arrangement ended on October 17, 1965, when the 4 went back express in Manhattan late nights. Beginning on April 8, 1960, nearly all AM rush hour 4 trains ran to Flatbush Avenue, and PM rush hour 4 trains alternated between Flatbush and Utica Avenues. During weekday evenings and late nights 4 trains also went to Flatbush Avenue, making all stops in Brooklyn.[4] As a result of the opening of the main portion of the Chrystie Street Connection ...
From August 28, 1989, to July 13, 1990, reruns of the first four seasons of Perfect Strangers aired on ABC's daytime program block. Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution (former sister company to series production company Lorimar Television) distributed the series for broadcast television syndication from September 1990 to September 1997. USA Network aired reruns of the show from September 1997 to September 11, 1998. The WB 100+ carried the series from September 17, 2001 to December 2002.. The series aired on Nick at Nite, first with a 6-episode marathon on July 14, 2000, and then a special airing in November 2000; the series aired regularly in late nights from February 3 to September 20, 2003. TV Land aired reruns from August 2, 2002 to September 28, 2002 and January 3 to February 1, 2003, as part of its now-defunct "TV Land Kitschen" weekend late night block, though special episodes aired on the channel in December 2000, April and December 2001, December 2002, January and December ...
Ut Deerten künnt Antikörper (Antiseren) wunnen warrn, de as Heelmiddel för ünnerscheedliche Saken bruukt warrt. En wichtig Bispeel dorför is de Anwennen as passiven Empstoff.. Bi eenige Krankheiten warrt Antikörper therapeutisch as Intravenöse Immunglobulingaven (IVIG) insett. Butendem warrt sünnere monoklonale Antikörpers siet jüngerer Tiet in de Medizin as Heelmiddel insett. De Anwennensrebeden sünd vör allen de Hämatologie un de Onkologie. Dorblangen warrt se ok to'n Behanneln vun Autoimmunkrankheiten bruukt as Multiple Skleroos oder Rheumatoide Arthritis (RA). Dorbi kennt disse Antikörpers pro-inflammatorische Zytokine as IL-1 oder TNF-a. Antikörpers gegen den B-Zell-Böverflachenmarker CD20 kennt blots naive (d.h. de noch keen Antigen kennt hebbt) un Gedächtnis-B-Zellen, man keen Plasmazellen (CD20neg). Liekers is ok disse Therapie teemlich spoodriek. De Antikörpers stellt dormit en Heelmiddelklass dor, de to'n eersten mol in de Laag is, nipp un nau in de sweren Vörgäng ...
Ut Deerten künnt Antikörper (Antiseren) wunnen warrn, de as Heelmiddel för ünnerscheedliche Saken bruukt warrt. En wichtig Bispeel dorför is de Anwennen as passiven Empstoff. Bi eenige Krankheiten warrt Antikörper therapeutisch as Intravenöse Immunglobulingaven (IVIG) insett. Butendem warrt sünnere monoklonale Antikörpers siet jüngerer Tiet in de Medizin as Heelmiddel insett. De Anwennensrebeden sünd vör allen de Hämatologie un de Onkologie. Dorblangen warrt se ok to'n Behanneln vun Autoimmunkrankheiten bruukt as Multiple Skleroos oder Rheumatoide Arthritis (RA). Dorbi kennt disse Antikörpers pro-inflammatorische Zytokine as IL-1 oder TNF-a. Antikörpers gegen den B-Zell-Böverflachenmarker CD20 kennt blots naive (d. h. de noch keen Antigen kennt hebbt) un Gedächtnis-B-Zellen, man keen Plasmazellen (CD20neg). Liekers is ok disse Therapie teemlich spoodriek. De Antikörpers stellt dormit en Heelmiddelklass dor, de to'n eersten mol in de Laag is, nipp un nau in de sweren Vörgäng ...
In the context of bacterial circadian rhythms, specifically in cyanobacteria, circadian advantage refers to the improved survival of strains of cyanobacteria that "resonate" with the environmental circadian rhythm. [6] For example, consider a strain with a free-running period (FRP) of 24 hours is co-cultured with a strain that has a free-running period (FRP) of 30 hours in a light-dark cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD 12:12). The strain that has a 24 hour FRP will out-compete the 30 hour strain over time. An instance where bacterial circadian rhythms are theorized to provide an advantage is in the microbiome. It is possible that circadian clocks play a role in the gut microbiota behavior. These microorganisms experience daily ...
Till Roenneberg, a chronobiologist in Munich, has mapped the circadian rhythms of more than 200,000 people.[2] Biological processes, including sleep-wake patterns, that display an oscillation of about 24 hours are called circadian rhythms. According to Roenneberg, the distribution of circadian rhythms spans from the very early to the very late chronotypes, similarly to how height varies from short to tall.[3] As circadian rhythm is independent of the number of hours of sleep a person needs, Roenneberg calculates the rhythm based on the midpoint of the sleep period.[4] A person who goes to bed at midnight and rises at 8 thus has the same chronotype as a person who goes to bed at 1 a.m. and rises at 7; the midpoint of sleep is 4 a.m. for both of these individuals. People with early chronotypes will usually not be able to ...
... is a sleep pattern that is not adjusted (entrained) to the 24-hour cycle in nature nor to any artificial cycle. It occurs as the sleep disorder non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder or artificially as part of experiments used in the study of circadian and other rhythms in biology. Study subjects are shielded from all time cues, often by a constant light protocol, by a constant dark protocol or by the use of light/dark conditions to which the organism cannot entrain such as the ultrashort protocol of one hour dark and two hours light. Also, limited amounts of food may be made available at short intervals so as to avoid entrainment to mealtimes. Subjects are thus forced to live by their internal circadian "clocks". The individual's or animal's circadian phase can be known only by the monitoring of some kind of output of the circadian system, the internal "body ...
... (1994) is the first in a series of made-for-TV movies for Universal Television's Action Pack based on the popular feature film Midnight Run. Christopher McDonald takes over the role of bounty hunter Jack Walsh, originated in the first film by Robert De Niro. Another Midnight Run was followed by two more made-for-TV sequels, Midnight Runaround and Midnight Run for Your Life. Jack Walsh (McDonald) is hired by bail bondsman Eddie Moscone (Dan Hedaya) to bring in Bernie Abbot (Jeffrey Tambor) and Helen Bishop (Cathy Moriarty), a husband and wife team of con artists. Moscone also brings in rival bounty hunter Marvin Dorfler (Ed O'Ross) to work with Jack, with the agreement that they will split the money; however, both men are planning to double cross each other. Christopher McDonald: Jack Walsh Jeffrey Tambor: Bernie Abbot Cathy Moriarty: Helen Bishop Ed O'Ross: Marvin Dorfler John Fleck: Jerry Geisler Dan Hedaya: Eddie Moscone Sam Shamshak: Lester Weems Midnight Run 2: Another ...
After some time (usually around three months, depending on the individual), differences between the old and new culture become apparent and may create anxiety. Excitement may eventually give way to unpleasant feelings of frustration and anger as one continues to experience unfavorable events that may be perceived as strange and offensive to one's cultural attitude. Language barriers, stark differences in public hygiene, traffic safety, food accessibility and quality may heighten the sense of disconnection from the surroundings.[5] While being transferred into a different environment puts special pressure on communication skills, there are practical difficulties to overcome, such as circadian rhythm disruption that often leads to insomnia and daylight drowsiness; adaptation of gut flora to different bacteria levels and concentrations in food and water; difficulty in seeking treatment for illness, as medicines may have different names from the native country's and the same ...
... presently broadcasts 38 hours of locally produced newscasts each week (with six hours on weekdays, and four hours each on Saturdays and Sundays); in addition, the station produces the hour-long entertainment and lifestyle program Charlotte Today, which airs weekday mornings at 11:00 a.m.. After a promising start under Turner's watch, the news department was severely hamstrung by Group W's bargain-basement approach to running the station. Group W immediately dropped the station's weekend evening newscasts, and moved the 11 p.m. newscast to 12:30 a.m. before canceling it altogether in 1981. The early evening newscast was shifted between the 5:30 and 6 p.m. timeslots until the fall of 1982, when it was canceled as well. For the remainder of Group W's ownership, the station's only remaining local news programming consisted of a half-hour newscast at noon, hourly cut-ins, five-minute local inserts during Today, a weekly magazine program and occasional specials.. After Renaissance Broadcasting ...
The hypothalamus coordinates hormonal and behavioural phenomena, including food intake, energy expenditure and circadian ... The guts prodigious bacterial population, called the microbiota, processes what remains by fermentation and sends the results ... If this team can build a picture of the dysregulation-the epigenetic marks on genes that alter neuronal development that lead ... One of the most surprising-and we think potentially significant-findings was the epigenetic impact of three diets: a natural ...
... see bacterial circadian rhythms). The most important rhythm in chronobiology is the circadian rhythm, a roughly 24-hour cycle ... Gene oscillations - some genes are expressed more during certain hours of the day than during other hours. Within each cycle, ... ISBN 978-0-471-56802-5. "Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on physiological and psychological variables: ... who pursued different but complementary views on the phenomenon of entrainment of the circadian system by light (parametric, ...
... fungal and bacterial clock proteins. In bacterial circadian rhythms, the oscillations of the phosphorylation of cyanobacterial ... Thus, CLOCK-CYC dimers activate the transcription of circadian genes. The gene timeless (TIM) is the orthologue for mammalian ... A systems biology approach may relate circadian rhythms to cellular phenomena that were not originally considered regulators of ... For a long time it was thought the transcriptional activation/repression cycles driven by the transcriptional regulators ...
... of the oscillations by light-dark cycles and for a number of human physiological disorders related to circadian rhythms, such ... we combine p-values across subsets of genes, grouped using gene ontology. An attractive property of this approach is the ... The medical literature gives a physiological explanation of this phenomena. We shall present a purely geometrical one. [Back To ... Title: Periodic chirality inversions propagating on bacterial flagella. [Back To Top] Mathematical Biology Seminar Time: Wedn ...
Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence Reporters ... Developmental Biology, Issue 79, Eukaryota, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, C. elegans, cell culture, ... are associated with gene activation should only be found at genes and gene regulatory sequences in the cell type where the gene ... DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems ...
C) Mutants defective in certain genes (in this case, a gene called Fat) show a swirling pattern of prehairs (red), which, while ... Some of the most obvious examples are provided by rhythmic behaviors: cell cycle and circadian rhythms, respiration and ... demonstrated that substantial intrinsic noise exists in bacterial gene expression. Since this landmark study many groups have ... These phenomena involve dynamical processes that can be superficially compared to the execution of a program by a computer, yet ...
... or circadian rhythm). ... This phenomenon is likely to be relevant to human health ... We use computational approaches, bacterial, yeast, human cell culture and mouse models in our research. We train students to ... We combine molecular and DNA sequencing approaches to understand what organisms, genes and potential functions are present in a ... Until recently it was thought that all ribosomes within one organism were identical. However, mass spectrometry analysis ...
McClung CA: Circadian genes, rhythms and the biology of mood disorders. Pharmacol Ther. 2007, 114: 222-232.PubMedPubMed Central ... It is thought that alterations in sleep as a result of lifestyle or medical factors act as a moderator for inflammatory ... Bacterial translocation indicates the presence of "leaky gut" or an increased permeability of the gut wall or loosening of the ... Sleep is one of the most widely observed phenomena in multi-cellular organisms [191] and is recognized to play a vital ...
These rhythmic changes are referred to as circadian rhythms.. The period of a rhythm is the time that elapses between ... In gene activation, blue light stimulates transcription and translation, leading to the accumulation of gene products that are ... Ethylene affects the mRNA transcript levels of numerous genes, including those that encode cellulase and genes related to ... This phenomenon was first demonstrated in germinating seeds, but was also observed in relation to stem and leaf growth, as well ...
... indicating that the rhythms are driven by a functional circadian clock. However, the metabolic rhythm damped within three to ... Methods: Mice with a floxed GC-A gene were bred to Rip-CreTG mice, thereby deleting GC-A selectively in β-cells (β GC-A KO). ... Several genes affecting color synthesis and pigment cell development have been previously described, but the color loci on the ... Despite this under physiological, ND conditions, fasted and fed insulin levels, glucose-induced insulin secretion, glucose ...
Analysis of host candidate genes points towards circadian rhythms as an important trait, whose host genetic- and/or microbial ... from gene to protein level, is higher than that of other genes. The rhythmic expression of these genes might be an evolutionary ... The high polymorphism found at these genes, thought to be promoted and maintained by pathogen-mediated selection, contrasts ... Metabolic responses can be either adaptive or maladaptive across the spectrum of both physiological and non-physiological ...
... circadian) rhythms to occur (ONeill & Reddy 2011, ONeill et al., 2011). (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing ... demonstrating that the transcription and translation of genes, or even the presence of DNA in the cell, are not necessary for ... and started thinking how to employ them to study circadian phenomena that prior research has already shown occured at higher ... SWEENEY, B. M. (1974) A physiological model for circadian rhythms from the Acetabularia rhythm paradoxes. Int. J. Chronobiol. 2 ...
... known as the circadian rhythm. This rhythm controls what hormones are released and when, it controls our wake sleep rhythm and ... revealing multiple gene loci in known pathways of hypertension as well as some novel genes with no known link to hypertension ... when working properly signals what physiological processes happen during the day and at night. When you think about it, it is a ... Epigenetic phenomena, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of ...
... which not only for use during surgery are to hand power the blood supplying the inner layer called the circadian rhythm, that ... The aforementioned thought embarrassed me, considering the functional role of renal disease daniels dale r abrahamson and ... Cardiac arrest accounts for a high oxygen demand can be used where a phenomena seen in zebrafish ivics raz the major ... Part threepreparing to begin byin vivo labeling of apical membrane the interaction between six and dachshund genes is highly ...
... or whether stressful events transform routine circadian rhythms. It is my selection of fetching purchase 160mg kamagra super ... Physiological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi gene regulation during heat-shock. In this account, the SECs (composed of ... in reply to secondary administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Phenomenon et al. The immunoglobulin ... The atypical saying of mitogenic genes may promote entry and advance of neurons into the cubicle pattern by virtue of an raise ...
Can be exposed to double-stranded RNAi (infusion, injection or through bacterial ingestion) to disable individual genes.. - Can ... Also used to examine genetics of circadian rhythm, sensory function, locomotor activity, courtship, pain and learning and ... Administration of Molecules Affecting Gene Expression:- Transient gene knockdown to characterise function of poorly annotated ... Physiological Functions of the Cerebral Cortex. *Anatomical Features of the Human Cortex:. - It is 2-3mm thick and formed from ...
In Drosophila, the small ventral lateral neurons (sLNvs) are primary pacemakers that control circadian rhythms. Circadian ... genes is suppressed upon PQ exposure causing increased sensitivity to Gram-negative bacterial infection. This work provides a ... However, how these phenomena are coordinated to form functional organs is poorly understood. This study shows that cell ... It is suggested that mtDNA CN might be a suitable biomarker for physiological robustness. These findings likely extend to other ...
... photoreceptors and circadian rhythms, the lens and liver enzymes. What this approach does provide is a robust means of ... Leptin (ob gene) of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103:10092-7. [PubMed] ... Genes Dev. 2001;15:1998-2009. [PubMed]. *Rubin LP, Kovacs CS, De Paepe ME, Tsai SW, Torday JS, Kronenberg HM. Arrested ... Emergent phenomena and the secrets of life. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104:1844-6. [PubMed] ...
Tomita J, Nakajima M, Kondo T, Iwasaki H. No transcription-translation feedback in circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation. ... we frequently think of cellular functions as being determined by circuits of interacting genes and proteins. These chemical ... Bet-hedging and epigenetic inheritance in bacterial cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4393-8. [PubMed] ... Together, these techniques allow researchers to characterize epigenetic states, identify new dynamic phenomena, analyse ...
STEM CELL AND GENE THERAPY FOR HEART FAILURE Leslie W. Miller, M.D., University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA ... REGULATION OF INTESTINAL GENES BY AN ORAL PEPTIDE REDUCES SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND ATHEROGENESIS. Mohamad Navab, Ph.D., David ... ZHANG S PHENOMENON (HIS ELECTROGRAM ALTERNANS) AND A NEW MODEL OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE DUAL PATHWAY CONDUCTION Youhua Zhang, M ... CARDIORENAL SYNDROME: NOT AS STRAIGHT FORWARD AS WE USED TO THINK Amir Kazory, M.D., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, ...
... we thought that this omission might have been due to imperfect sequence coverage, as the GmTCS1 gene product is relatively ... including entrainment of circadian rhythms and sexual development (25, 30), suggesting possible roles for these fungal ... The repeat-induced point mutation phenomenon in N. crassa likely limited the expansion of its genome via duplication (51). Thus ... Stimulus response coupling in bacterial chemotaxis: receptor dimers in signalling arrays. Mol. Microbiol. 30:459-466. ...
a) Circadian rhythms of three kai genes in a Synechocystis cyanobacterial strain (data from ref. 27). (b) Periodic binding of ... The next example involves circadian oscillations of gene expression in cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are the only bacterial ... Physiological processes in living cells exhibit a wide range of dynamical behavior, ranging from stable steady states [e.g., ... In the general N-species case, the same phenomenon occurs, with the symbolic dynamics obeying the following rules: * If the ...
He has been particularly intrigued by one transcription factor known as NRSF, which is thought to control up to 1,800 genes in ... their actions are finely tuned to the diurnal changes in photosynthesis and the circadian rhythms of the plant.. Some of the ... horizontal gene transfer in fungi "Prior to this weve believed that fungi were generally confined to vertical gene transfer or ... may use iodine as a bacterial population control measure. it also uptakes short chain fatty acids from the bacterial ...
... and/or function of the translated genes will provide new insight into the action of the circadian clock on animal metabolism. ... Impairment of this rhythm has been show to lead to diverse pathologies including metabolic syndrome. At present, it is supposed ... They are thought to act as chromatin linkers with exquisite specificity for certain pairs of DNA fibres. However, the ... SMC complexes also play key roles during other aspects of genome function such as the control of gene expression and the repair ...
Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual ... Here, we use gene expression profiling to identify genes that may mediate the observed susceptibility of wntD mutants to lethal ... Deletion of the gene encoding the secreted bacterial effect or Salmonella leucine-rich (PslrP)changes an acute and lethal ... The physiological response of the fly was modified further by Eiger, insulin, Wnt inhibitor of dorsal (WntD) and nitric oxide ( ...
  • The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" and dies, "day", meaning "approximately a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term circadian derives from the Latin circa (about) diem (a day), since when taken away from external cues (such as environmental light), they do not run to exactly 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • To explore these questions, we use whole genome sequencing of closely related strains to understand the evolutionary, ecological and epidemiological dynamics of bacterial pathogens, which will inform effective, more targeted public health interventions. (albany.edu)
  • That contrast is now underscored by the publication of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2000, which sorely lacks an algorithm to convert genes into phenotypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hundreds of variants associated with complex diseases have been found in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), yet most of these variants explain only a modest amount of the observed heritability, a phenomenon known as "missing heritability. (prolekare.cz)
  • Genome-wide transcriptome, metabolome and proteome studies have improved our understanding of circadian regulation. (salk.edu)
  • Employing the tools of bioinformatics, we have characterized TCS signaling candidate genes in the genome of Oryza sativa L. subsp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Gene oscillations - some genes are expressed more during certain hours of the day than during other hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, redox oscillations as demonstrated by peroxiredoxin rhythms have now been seen in multiple distant kingdoms of life (eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea), covering the evolutionary tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earlier work has shown that oscillations in protein concentrations or gene expression levels are related to the presence of at least one negative feedback loop in the regulatory network. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, these results underscore the critical role played by HDs of multiple subclasses in inducing the unique genetic programs of individual mesodermal cells, and in coordinating the gene regulatory networks directing mesoderm development. (jove.com)
  • The genetic reporter assay is a well-established and powerful tool for dissecting the relationship between DNA sequences and their gene regulatory activities. (jove.com)
  • Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. (jove.com)
  • Together, these techniques allow researchers to characterize epigenetic states, identify new dynamic phenomena, analyse biochemical interactions within circuits, and elucidate the physiological function of genetic circuits, all at the single-cell level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • I propose to explore the genetic basis of sex-specific fitness in a model organism in both laboratory and natural conditions and to test whether those genes identified as having sexually antagonistic effects can help explain the incidence of human diseases that display sexual dimorphism in prevalence, age of onset or severity. (europa.eu)
  • Moreover, since UV radiation can give rise to genetic mutations when cells divide, it is thought that the circadian clock limits the amount of DNA damage that occurs during daytime. (elifesciences.org)
  • As they tend to cluster in families, these diseases are thought to involve genetic factors in addition to environmental ones. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pleiotropic genetic effects are also thought to play an important role in evolution, reflecting functional and developmental relationships among traits. (prolekare.cz)
  • We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. (stanford.edu)
  • Later on, the scientific approach to medicine led to discovery of the genetic and physiological basis of disease development, how the course of disease varies from one patient to another, and the length of treatment needed to cure curable conditions. (bolognamedicina.it)
  • Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe the engineering of novel light-gated Ca\(^{2+}\)-permeant and K\(^{+}\)-specific channels by fusing a bacterial photoactivated adenylyl cyclase to cyclic nucleotide-gated channels with high permeability for Ca\(^{2+}\) or for K\(^{+}\), respectively. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • And this is exactly what they discovered in both cases - there was a clear circadian rhythm of peroxiredoxins state-switching both in cultured red blood cells (above right) and in the cultured Ostreococcus tauri (below). (coturnix.org)
  • Electroporation of the chick embryonic neural tube has many advantages such as being quick and efficient for the expression of foreign genes into neuronal cells. (jove.com)
  • They additionally alter leucocyte mRNA gene expression of some immune markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, inflammatory gene expression secondary to antidepressant therapy has been examined, with lowered levels of IL-1β and macrophage inhibiting factors seen after treatment, changes which were not associated with treatment response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, there is the 'noisy' view of the cell we get whenever we actually look at cells: squishy, dynamic, and heterogeneous populations whose morphologies, gene expression patterns, and differentiated states differ from one another, even when environment and genotype are fixed ( Fig1b ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Movies also complement new single-cell Q-PCR approaches, which enable analysis of expression of multiple genes in individual cells, but, because they require lysis of the cell, do not permit tracking of expression dynamics 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Movies alone permit one to determine the "trajectories" of gene expression levels in individual living cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One potential drawback of movies, is that, for a particular process under study, many genes, and their expression levels, may be important, but most studies presently follow the dynamics of only a few genes at a time due to the lack of distinguishable reporters. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Theoretical studies of these oscillatory systems ( 9 - 12 ) describe the dynamics of the relevant variables (usually protein concentrations or gene expression levels) using differential equations. (pnas.org)
  • Slow responses take place over the course of hours and days and depend on gene expression pathways, whereas rapid responses take place within minutes. (aftau.org)
  • The greatest fluctuation in gene expression of both partners occurred as the day began. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have begun to find evidence of strong diel rhythms in gene expression and immune response by the cells of the mammalian gut ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The roles played by alterations in gene expression in enabling eurytherms to adjust to these two temporally distinct patterns of thermal stress are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • We used cDNA microarray analysis to examine changes in gene expression in a eurythermal fish, Austrofundulus limnaeus , subjected to long-term acclimation to constant temperatures of 20, 26 and 37°C and to environmentally realistic daily fluctuations in temperature between 20°C and 37°C. Our data reveal major differences between the transcriptional responses in the liver made during acclimation to constant temperatures and in response to daily temperature fluctuations. (biologists.org)
  • The gene expression response of molecular chaperones is also different between constant and fluctuating temperatures. (biologists.org)
  • A number of transcripts that encode for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing organic osmolytes have gene expression patterns that indicate a possible role for these `chemical chaperones' during acclimation to chronic high temperatures and daily temperature cycling. (biologists.org)
  • The variable effect of temperature on the expression of genes with daily rhythms of expression indicates that there is a complex interaction between the temperature cycle and daily rhythmicity in gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • The most notable of these hypotheses is the possibility that the high mobility group b1 (HMGB1) protein, which plays key roles in the assembly of transcription initiation and enhanceosome complexes, may act as a compensatory modulator of transcription in response to temperature, and thus as a global gene expression temperature sensor. (biologists.org)
  • Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and 'circadian locomotor output cycles kaput' (CLOCK) activate expression of many transcripts including the period ( Per1 , Per2 , and Per3 ) and cryptochrome ( Cry1 and Cry2 ) genes, whose protein products (PERs and CRYs) inhibit CLOCK and BMAL1, resulting in rhythmic expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Among the nda genes, expression of nda 1, but not nda 2, is dependent on light and circadian regulation, suggesting separate roles in photosynthesis-associated and other respiratory NADH oxidation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Further, we examine sequence polymorphisms (SNPs) between LG/J and SM/J as well as differential expression of positional candidate genes in these regions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Using this model, we show that liver-specific AMPK activation reprograms lipid metabolism, reduces liver steatosis, decreases expression of inflammation and fibrosis genes, and leads to significant therapeutic benefits in the context of diet-induced obesity. (salk.edu)
  • CCSP lung gene expression was significantly higher in healthy animals than in animals with chronic RAO. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Transcriptional profiling indicated that the expression of specific genes was altered by MnSOD in a manner opposite to their pattern during normal aging, revealing a set of candidate biomarkers of aging enriched for carbohydrate metabolism and electron transport genes and suggesting a true delay in physiological aging, rather than a novel phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increased sensitivity of this system was exploited to assay the effects of moderate MnSOD over-expression on mortality rates, metabolic rates, stress-resistance, and global patterns of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is seemingly incompatible with the importance of gene expression. (cshlpress.com)
  • To examine this possibility, we first carried out a new round of screening in search of genes with V1-enriched expression among macaque neocortical areas and found that the 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) 1B receptor mRNA is usually highly enriched in V1. (bioinbrief.com)
  • Supported by these previous studies, we wanted to understand the functional meaning of V1-specific expression of the two 5-HT receptor genes. (bioinbrief.com)
  • Altogether, our results suggest the importance of the serotonergic system in modulating the behavior Mocetinostat ic50 of V1 neurons, and that the V1-enriched expression of the two 5-HT receptor genes should provide a basis for the functional specialization of the primate V1. (bioinbrief.com)
  • This knowledge is leveraged for behavioural interventions that optimize daily rhythms, the timing of drug delivery and the targeting of clock components to prevent or treat chronic diseases. (salk.edu)
  • The circadian rhythm can further be broken down into routine cycles during the 24-hour day: Diurnal, which describes organisms active during daytime Nocturnal, which describes organisms active in the night Crepuscular, which describes animals primarily active during the dawn and dusk hours (ex: white-tailed deer, some bats) While circadian rhythms are defined as endogenously regulated, other biological cycles may be regulated by exogenous signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these thermal effects have such major consequences for cellular function, organisms typically manifest extensive evolutionary adaptations that establish distinct thermal optima and limits for physiological function, as well as capacities for altering the phenotype in response to changes in temperature that occur during the lifetime of an organism, e.g. on time scales from minutes to seasons. (biologists.org)
  • Circadian rhythms were monitored in pulmonary artery segments and endothelial cells isolated from mPer2luciferase transgenic mice in presence of an inflammatory stimuli (LPS). (sld.cu)
  • 1989). Considering the enhanced expressions of 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptor genes in V1, it is likely that the two 5-HT receptors play important functions in modulating neurotransmission in V1. (bioinbrief.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ndc 1 affiliates with cyanobacterial type II NADH dehydrogenase genes, suggesting that this gene entered the eukaryotic cell via the chloroplast progenitor. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Research by Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey investigators shows the targeting of a binding protein of mutant p53 known as Rac1 could lead to new therapeutic strategies for patients whose cancer carries mutations in the p53 gene. (cshlpress.com)
  • Scientists at OMRF have discovered how mutations in one specific gene can cause two distinct and rare diseases. (cshlpress.com)
  • The researchers found circadian function decays with ageing in normal mice, and that boosting SIRT1 levels in the brain could prevent this decay, presenting possibilities in developing treatments for ageing diseases. (where-to-float.com)
  • The paper's researchers, based at Rice University and the University of California at Davis, have published previously on the phenomenon of "entrainment" in plants. (where-to-float.com)
  • Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered the current view of water is not as clear as we thought. (jyi.org)
  • Researchers at London's Moorfields Eye Hospital have made the world's first attempt at using gene therapy to treat a visual disorder. (jyi.org)
  • gene regulatory network that controls the activity of a positive feedback circuit on BMP signaling, involving the tumor necrosis factor alpha homolog eiger . (sdbonline.org)
  • In bacterial systems, the typical machinery, such as that of Escherichia coli Env Z protein (an osmosensor), consists of a membrane-localized HK that senses the input signal and a response regulator (RR) that contains a conserved regulatory domain. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Distinguishing between physiological and evolutionary adaptation, he notes, "Natural selection may be operative in securing protective adjustments … [that] help us to explain the marked imperfections of most pathological adaptations as contrasted with the perfection of physiological adjustments. (isemph.org)
  • We use computational approaches, bacterial, yeast, human cell culture and mouse models in our research. (albany.edu)
  • Functional analysis of the hemK gene product involvement in protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity in yeast. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Strategies for enhancement of nanoparticle-driven AEC gene/drug delivery and/or amelioration of AEC nanoparticle-related cellular toxicity is an important target in the next future. (sld.cu)
  • Many other important cycles are also studied, including: Infradian rhythms, which are cycles longer than a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's now emerging is the idea that maintaining the circadian cycle is quite important in health maintenance, and if it gets broken, there's a penalty to be paid in health and perhaps in ageing. (where-to-float.com)
  • Genes important for the maintenance of membrane integrity are highly responsive to temperature change. (biologists.org)
  • One important complicating factor in the search for fitness related genes however is the existence of separate sexes - theoretical expectations and empirical data both suggest that sexually antagonistic genes are common. (europa.eu)
  • It is important to understand the normal function of the MAGEL2 gene to better understand what happens when that function is missing. (fpwr.org)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the deadliest human infection caused by bacterial strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). (evmedreview.com)
  • By engineering microbial strains to express fluorescent protein reporters for key genes one can follow the changing characteristics of individual cells over time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A few studies carried out on free-living animals under field conditions and simulated periodic and aperiodic conditions of the laboratory suggest that circadian rhythms are of adaptive value to their owners. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting integrated model will provide mechanistic explanations for the phenomena of respiratory sinus-arrhythmia and cardio-ventilatory coupling observed under normal conditions, and the loss of these properties during sepsis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This interaction makes a complex that translocates inside the nucleus and interacts with glucocorticoid responsive elements (GREs) making alterations in gene expressions at various levels in the body, but it needs longer time (hours or days). (statpearls.com)
  • Of primary importance is the prevalence of gene flow between diverging entities, which is central in most species concepts and has been widely discussed in recent years. (sdbonline.org)
  • Type II, or rotenone-insensitive, NAD(P)H dehydrogenases have been found in several bacterial species and in plant and fungal mitochondria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, microtus montanus, which has similar genes with microtus orhrogaster, doesn't release oxytocin and dopamine, so this species maintains group marriage. (psu.edu)
  • The rhythm is driven by the host's expulsion from its light-emitting organ of most of the symbiont population each day at dawn. (pnas.org)