The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.

The structure of chromatophores from purple photosynthetic bacteria fused with lipid-impregnated collodion films determined by near-field scanning optical microscopy. (1/166)

Lipid-impregnated collodion (nitrocellulose) films have been frequently used as a fusion substrate in the measurement and analysis of electrogenic activity in biological membranes and proteoliposomes. While the method of fusion of biological membranes or proteoliposomes with such films has found a wide application, little is known about the structures formed after the fusion. Yet, knowledge of this structure is important for the interpretation of the measured electric potential. To characterize structures formed after fusion of membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides with lipid-impregnated collodion films, we used near-field scanning optical microscopy. It is shown here that structures formed from chromatophores on the collodion film can be distinguished from the lipid-impregnated background by measuring the fluorescence originating either from endogenous fluorophores of the chromatophores or from fluorescent dyes trapped inside the chromatophores. The structures formed after fusion of chromatophores to the collodion film look like isolated (or sometimes aggregated, depending on the conditions) blisters, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 10 microm (average approximately 1 microm) and heights from 0.01 to 1 microm (average approximately 0.03 microm). These large sizes indicate that the blisters are formed by the fusion of many chromatophores. Results with dyes trapped inside chromatophores reveal that chromatophores fused with lipid-impregnated films retain a distinct internal water phase.  (+info)

Escape probability and trapping mechanism in purple bacteria: revisited. (2/166)

Despite intensive research for decades, the trapping mechanism in the core complex of purple bacteria is still under discussion. In this article, it is attempted to derive a conceptionally simple model that is consistent with all basic experimental observations and that allows definite conclusions on the trapping mechanism. Some experimental data reported in the literature are conflicting or incomplete. Therefore we repeated two already published experiments like the time-resolved fluorescence decay in LH1-only purple bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas viridis chromatophores with open and closed (Q(A)(-)) reaction centers. Furthermore, we measured fluorescence excitation spectra for both species under the two redox-conditions. These data, all measured at room temperature, were analyzed by a target analysis based on a three-state model (antenna, primary donor, and radical pair). All states were allowed to react reversibly and their decay channels were taken into consideration. This leads to seven rate constants to be determined. It turns out that a unique set of numerical values of these rate constants can be found, when further experimental constraints are met simultaneously, i.e. the ratio of the fluorescence yields in the open and closed (Q(A)(-)) states F(m)/F(o) approximately 2 and the P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics of 3-6 ns. The model allows to define and to quantify escape probabilities and the transfer equilibrium. We conclude that trapping in LH1-only purple bacteria is largely transfer-to-the-trap-limited. Furthermore, the model predicts properties of the reaction center (RC) in its native LH1-environment. Within the framework of our model, the predicted P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics are nearly indistinguishable for a hypothetically isolated RC and an antenna-RC complex, which is in contrast to published experimental data for physically isolated RCs. Therefore RC preparations may display modified kinetic properties.  (+info)

Reduction and protonation of the secondary quinone acceptor of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction center: kinetic model based on a comparison of wild-type chromatophores with mutants carrying Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. (3/166)

After the light-induced charge separation in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the electron reaches, via the tightly bound ubiquinone QA, the loosely bound ubiquinone Q(B) After two subsequent flashes of light, Q(B) is reduced to ubiquinol Q(B)H2, with a semiquinone anion Q-(B) formed as an intermediate after the first flash. We studied Q(B)H2 formation in chromatophores from Rb. sphaeroides mutants that carried Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. While Arg-L207 is 17 A away from Q(B), Arg-L217 is closer (9 A) and contacts the Q(B)-binding pocket. From the pH dependence of the charge recombination in the RC after the first flash, we estimated deltaG(AB), the free energy difference between the Q-(A)Q(B) and Q(A)Q-(B) states, and pK212, the apparent pK of Glu-L212, a residue that is only 4 A away from Q(B). As expected, the replacement of positively charged arginines by neutral isoleucines destabilized the Q-(B) state in the L217RI mutant to a larger extent than in the L207RI one. Also as expected, pK212 increased by approximately 0.4 pH units in the L207RI mutant. The value of pK212 in the L217RI mutant decreased by 0.3 pH units, contrary to expectations. The rate of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition upon the second flash, as monitored by electrometry via the accompanying changes in the membrane potential, was two times faster in the L207RI mutant than in the wild-type, but remained essentially unchanged in the L217RI mutant. To rationalize these findings, we developed and analyzed a kinetic model of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition. The model properly described the available experimental data and provided a set of quantitative kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the Q(B) turnover. The non-electrostatic, 'chemical' affinity of the QB site to protons proved to be as important for the attracting protons from the bulk, as the appropriate electrostatic potential. The mutation-caused changes in the chemical proton affinity could be estimated from the difference between the experimentally established pK2J2 shifts and the expected changes in the electrostatic potential at Glu-L212, calculable from the X-ray structure of the RC. Based on functional studies, structural data and kinetic modeling, we suggest a mechanistic scheme of the QB turnover. The detachment of the formed ubiquinol from its proximal position next to Glu-L212 is considered as the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle.  (+info)

DCCD inhibits the reactions of the iron-sulfur protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. (4/166)

N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) has been reported to inhibit proton translocation by cytochrome bc(1) and b(6)f complexes without significantly altering the rate of electron transport, a process referred to as decoupling. To understand the possible role of DCCD in inhibiting the protonogenic reactions of cytochrome bc(1) complex, we investigated the effect of DCCD modification on flash-induced electron transport and electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids in Rb. sphaeroides chromatophores. DCCD has two distinct effects on phase III of the electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids reflecting the electrogenic reactions of the bc(1) complex. At low concentrations, DCCD increases the magnitude of the electrogenic process because of a decrease in the permeability of the membrane, probably through inhibition of F(o)F(1). At higher concentrations (>150 microM), DCCD slows the development of phase III of the electrochromic shift from about 3 ms in control preparations to about 23 ms at 1.2 mM DCCD, without significantly changing the amplitude. DCCD treatment of chromatophores also slows down the kinetics of flash-induced reduction of both cytochromes b and c, from 1.5-2 ms in control preparations to 8-10 ms at 0.8 mM DCCD. Parallel slowing of the reduction of both cytochromes indicates that DCCD treatment modifies the reaction of QH(2) oxidation at the Q(o) site. Despite the similarity in the kinetics of both cytochromes, the onset of cytochrome c re-reduction is delayed 1-2 ms in comparison to cytochrome b reduction, indicating that DCCD inhibits the delivery of electrons from quinol to heme c(1). We conclude that DCCD treatment of chromatophores leads to modification of the rate of Q(o)H(2) oxidation by the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) as well as the donation of electrons from ISP to c(1), and we discuss the results in the context of the movement of ISP between the Q(o) site and cytochrome c(1).  (+info)

Fusion of chromatophores from photosynthetic bacteria with a supported lipid layer: characterization of the electric units. (5/166)

Direct electrometric measurements of membrane potential changes are a valuable tool for study of vectorial transfer of electrons, protons, and ions. Commonly model membrane systems are created by fusion of lipid/protein vesicles with lipid-coated thin films. We characterized the electric units resulting from this process using chromatophores from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and either a Mylar film or a planar modified gold electrode as support. Investigation of the shunting activity of the ionophore gramicidin on the flash-induced potential change demonstrates fusion of individual chromatophores to form independent 'blisters', which preserve an interior aqueous compartment. Under current-clamp conditions the photovoltage follows the change of the membrane potential of the individual blisters.  (+info)

Electrogenic proton transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers: effect of coenzyme Q(10) substitution by decylubiquinone in the Q(B) binding site. (6/166)

An electrometric technique was used to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q(10) (UQ), substitution by decylubiquinone (dQ) at the Q(B) binding site of reaction centers (UQ-RC and dQ-RC, respectively) on the electrogenic proton transfer kinetics upon Q(B) reduction in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. Unlike dQ-RC, the kinetics of the second flash-induced proton uptake in UQ-RC clearly deviated from the mono-exponential one. The activation energy (about 30 kJ/mol) and the pH profile of the kinetics in dQ-RC were similar to those in UQ-RC, with the power law approximation used in the latter case. The interpretation of the data presumed the quinone translocation between the two binding positions within the Q(B) site. It is proposed that the native isoprenyl side chain (in contrast to decyl chain) favors the equilibrium binding of neutral quinone at the redox-active 'proximal' position, but causes a higher barrier for the hydroquinone movement from 'proximal' to 'distal' position.  (+info)

Changes in the acyl lipid composition of photosynthetic bacteria grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. (7/166)

The acyl lipids and their constituent fatty acids were studied in the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, which were grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. The major lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in each bacterium. The two Rhodopseudomonas species also contained significant quantities of phosphatidylcholine. Other acyl lipids accounted for less than 10% of the total. On changing growth conditions from non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic a large increase in the relative proportion of phosphatidylglycerol was seen at the expense of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. In Rhodospirillum rubrum the fatty acids of the major phospholipids showed an increase in the proportion of palmitate and stearate and a decrease in palmitoleate and vaccenate on changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. In contrast, the exceptionally high levels (>80%) of vaccenate in individual phospholipids of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were unaffected by changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. Analysis of the lipids of chromatophores, isolated from the three bacteria, showed that these preparations were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol. The large increase in this phospholipid, seen during growth under photosynthetic conditions, appeared, therefore, to be due to a proliferation of chromatophore membranes. Possible roles for acyl lipids in the formation and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of bacteria are discussed.  (+info)

Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores. (8/166)

F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.  (+info)

Cr oxide films were produced by reactive de magnetron sputtering in Ar + O-2 + H-2. Weak anodic electrochromism was found in acidic electrolytes. A high optical transmittance and a modest voltage range for charge exchange make Cr oxide films of consi. ...
A rapidly expanding library of data from such experiments requires an interpretive method with atom-level chemical accuracy. However, despite prolonged efforts to develop an all-encompassing theory for describing vibrational solvatochromism and electrochromism as well as dynamic fluctuations of instantaneous vibrational frequencies, purely empirical and highly approximate theoretical models have often been used to interpret experimental results. They are, in many cases, based on the simple assumption that the vibrational frequency of an IR reporter is solely dictated by electric potential or field distribution around the vibrational chromophore. Such simplified description of vibrational solvatochromism generally referred to as vibrational Stark effect theory has been considered to be quite appealing and, even in some cases, e.g., carbonyl stretch modes in amide, ester, ketone, and carbonate compounds or proteins, it works quantitatively well, which makes it highly useful in determining the ...
i,Structures and electrochromism of spin-coated,/i, WO,sub,3,/sub,• ,i,n,/i,H,sub,2,/sub,O ,i,and,/i, (W, Mo) O,sub,3,/sub,•,i,n,/i,H,sub,2,/sub,O ,i,thin films,/i, (1992 ...
Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Dispersions of electrically conductive particles useful for preparing electrically conductive, essentially ionically isolative composite layers having electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Composite layers can be used in laminates for electrochromic displays where an ionically conductive layer is in contact with electrochromic material. Such displays comprise means for applying an electrical potential across the interface of the ionically conductive layer and the electrochromic material to generate an electrochromic effect at the interface. Electrochromic materials can be provided in the laminates as layers between the ionically conductive layer and the composite layer of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Alternatively, the electrochromic material can be incorporated in the conductive particles in the polymer matrix, e.g. as titanium dioxide coated with antimony tin oxide coated with polyaniline dispersed in an light transmitting polymer
To better understand how pigment granules themselves absorb or scatter light, a model chromatophore containing a 5 µm cube of densely packed pigment granules was constructed in silico (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(i,ii)). Reflectins have an index of refraction as high as 1.59 [28], which provide important guidance in defining the model parameters. The amount of reflected light from the pigment granules packed within the cube was calculated using FDTD simulations (Lumerical, FDTD Solutions) [14]. FDTD Solutions is a complete Maxwell solver providing numerical solutions for three-dimensional electromagnetic fields and was used to determine the role of pigment refractive index and granular structure on chromatophore absorbance over a wide frequency range. Pigment refractive index within the simulated chromatophores was varied from 1.33 to 1.65 (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(iii)). Our comparison between the simulation and experimentally measured reflectivity ...
The inventive electrochromic mirror may be used in a vehicle rearview mirror assembly having a light source positioned behind the electrochromic mirror for selectively projecting light through the mirror. The electrochromic mirror includes front and rear spaced elements each having front and rear surfaces and being sealably bonded together in a spaced-apart relationship to define a chamber, a layer of transparent conductive material disposed on the rear surface of the front element, an electrochromic material is contained within the chamber, and a second electrode overlies the front surface of the rear element in contact with the electrochromic material. The second electrode includes a layer of reflective material and a partially transmissive coating of and is disposed over substantially all of the front surface of the rear element. The second electrode further includes a region in front of the light source that is at least partially transmissive.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
Electrochromic devices are described having a layer of electrochromic material, e.g. WO3, in contact with a layer of organic electrolyte resin, with electrode means for changing electrochromic properties of the device by electric field means. The electrolyte resin layer comprises a hydrophilic layer of homopolymer of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) and in some preferred embodiments may further comprise a thinner layer of less hydrophilic electrolyte resin between the homopolymer and electrochromic layers.
The three oxidation states of Co in a molecular cobaloxime were used to realise an electrochromic device displaying the red, yellow, blue (RYB) set of subtractive primary colours. A facile method for the lithographic patterning of a several micrometre thick indium tin oxide (ITO) mesoporous layer was develop
Frustules in short or long filaments, sometimes free, oblong, separated by foramina and united by setae crossing each other near their insertion. Valves convex, concave or plane, usually elliptical, sometimes nearly circular. From each valve extend two setae, one on each side, which cross the setae of the opposing valve. Setae robust or slender, variable in length, with or without spines, punctate or transversely striated, often hollow. Chromatophores of various kinds, either laminate, single, on the wall of the zone, double, one on each valve, or granular and more or less numerous, either on the wall of the cell or scattered through the cell and the setae. Pyrenoids occasionally found. Spores occur in some species with more or less equal and convex valves, sometimes furnished with spines or with the setae of the parent cell attached. All species are marine or occur in saline water. Gran classifies the genus according to the chromatophores. The variation in number and form of the chromatophores ...
An electrochromic display composed of a transparent electroconductive membrane, an electrochromic membrane, an ion-exchange membrane and a counter electrode in a laminated structure. The ion-exchange membrane is a bipolar ion-exchange membrane composed of at least one cation-exchange membrane layer having cation-exchange groups and at least one anion-exchange membrane layer containing anion-exchange groups in a laminated structure. The electrochromic display has a superior response speed, contrast and resolving power as well as a long service life.
Black Electrochromic Smart Film for Car Window, Tint Film(id:9402029). View product details of Black Electrochromic Smart Film for Car Window, Tint Film from Eb Glass manufacturer in EC21
Electrochromic coating solutions are prepared by reacting a transition metal with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and an organic acid. The resulting transition metal-peroxy acid product is esterified by reacting with lower carbon alcohols to produce a peroxyester-transition metal derivative. This derivative in solution in lower carbon alcohols provides a working solution into which a substrate having a conductive surface is preferably dipped and removed at a rate sufficient to give a coating of a desired thickness over the conductive surface. Spray or spin coating can be used to apply the coating to the conductive surface of the substrate. The coating is then dried and is externally fired in an oven to complete the necessary reactions to yield an electrochromic oxide coating having exceptional electrochromic properties.
The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of a novel hybrid electrochromic coating material with superior performance in terms of transparency, electrochromic contrast, coloration efficiency, and adhesion, for a use in electrochromic devices for applications where a high transparency is required in the bleached state.
A flat type all-solid electrochromic anti-glare mirror includes a flat, transparent glass substrate, the back face of which is coated with a transparent conductive coating, an all-solid electrochromic layer, and a conductive-reflective coating. In the above, the outer surface of the conductive-reflective coating and the electrochromic layer is fully covered with a resin layer made of a material that has resistance to wetness, moisture, and corrosion and functions to block migration of ions, without the use of a sealing glass plate.
An electrochromic device comprises an ion conductive layer containing an electrochromic polymer that has a bipyridine ion pair structure and a metallocene structure and/or a dihydroxyphenaizine struct
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switchi
A novel edge design for a laminated electrochromic device containing an ion-conducting material layer prone to moisture gain or loss disposed between first and second substrates is disclosed. The device is characterized by a continuous nub on its circumferential edge which is aligned with the ion-conducting material interface between the substrates forming the device. The nub can be used to interlock with a peripheral edge seal.
The intergovernmental agreement on the large-scale project of the Turkish Stream gas system construction came into force last month, Putin said.. Implementation of this project in practice will make possible to scale up natural gas supplies to Turkey and increase its transit potential, he added.. Bilateral cooperation in energy sphere is genuinely strategic, the Russian president noted. Turkey is ranked second by procurements of gas from Russia. Good prospects are in place to deepen industrial cooperation in metals industry, automotive sector and production of agricultural machinery, Putin added.. ...
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
An electrochromic window assembly includes a security system for monitoring breakage of the electrochromic window assembly. Control circuitry is connected to the electrochromic window assembly for monitoring an electrical characteristic of one or more conductive coatings within the electrochromic window assembly, such as electrical resistance. Upon detecting a change in the electrical resistance, such as that caused by a break in one or more conductive coating, an alarm signal is generated and is sent to an alarm trigger circuit for activating an alarm. A method for monitoring penetration or breakage of an electrochromic window assembly is also provided, which method involves applying electrical activation to an electrochromic assembly and monitoring for a change in an electrical characteristic based on the applied electrical potential. Electrochromic window assemblies incorporating security alarm features in accordance with the present invention are particularly useful in automobile applications.
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0036]In one embodiment, the electrochromic composition including the aromatic component and optional branching component and additional aromatic component may be provided in a form in which the hydrolyzable groups are already hydrolyzed. Alternatively the electrochromic composition may be reacted with water to hydrolyze the hydrolyzable groups present in the aromatic component and, if present, the branching component and the additional aromatic component. Prior to the reaction with water, the electrochromic composition is typically dispersed in an organic solvent. In one embodiment of the present invention, the organic solvent is a ketone, e.g. methyl isobutyl ketone, though any suitable organic solvent known by those skilled in the art may be utilized. The organic solvent may act as a carrier for the electrochromic composition and is typically unreactive. The reaction with water is a hydrolysis reaction; i.e., the water reacts with the hydrolyzable groups bonded to the silicon-based group in ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.. https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes (see link below), ...
Page contains details about SWCNT thin film transistor/PEDOT:PSS electrochromic cell-based electrochromic display pixel . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
An improved electrochromic rearview mirror for motor vehicles, the mirror incorporating an information display area by removing a portion of a reflective and conductive layer on the inside (third) surface of the back glass element of a dimming portion of the rearview mirror and aligning a display device with this information display area. The portion removed is laser ablated to leave lines devoid of reflective material separated by lines of the reflective material. The remaining lines of reflective material are in electrical contact with the remaining reflective and conductive layer on the third surface. The reflective layer forms an integral electrode in contact with the electrochromic media, and may be a single layer of a highly reflective material or may comprise a series of coatings where the outer coating is a highly reflecting material. The other electrode on the inside (second) surface of the front glass is a transparent electrode which also contacts the electrochromic media inside the mirror
The delta psi of R. sphaeroides, grown under high light to reduce the levels of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll, was naturally manipulated using light intensity. The relationship between delta psi and the swimming speed of free swimming populations of cells was investigated. After de-energisation by incubation in the dark there was an apparent threshold of about -13 mV which had to be overcome before functional motor rotation could resume and at -45 mV the motor saturated. Further increases in delta psi over -45 mV did not increase the free swimming velocity. However, when a chemokinetic effector was added there was an increase in swimming speed, even though the delta psi was well above saturation, indicating that the chemokinetic response is independent of normal relationship between motor rotation and delta psi.
Bizouarn, Tania, Leonid A Sazanov, Sébastien Aubourg, and Julie Jackson. Estimation of the H+/H- Ratio of the Reaction Catalysed by the Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase in Chromatophores from over-Expressing Strains of Rhodospirillum Rubrum and in Liposomes Inlaid with the Purified Bovine Enzyme. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics 1273, no. 1 (1996): 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(95)00125-5 ...
Electrochromic nickel oxide films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a Ni target in gas mixtures of Ar and O2. When electrochemically cycled in 0.1 N KOH solution, large reversible changes in visible absorption were obtained within the first 10 bleach/color cycles. Films which showed the greatest changes in optical properties and charge capacity were produced within a narrow range of oxygen flow rates. The coloration efficiency was found to be insensitive to the sputtering conditions and stoichiometry, with a value of 34+-4 cm2C-1 at 550 nm. This indicates that microstructure and charge capacity determine the absorption coefficient. The reaction rate was found to depend on the concentration of OH- in the electrolyte, indicating that OH- diffusion in the electrolyte limits the rate of reaction.. ...
Electrochromic compounds capable of reversibly attenuating the transmittance of the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum are provided. These compounds exhibit an energy difference between the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) energy and the highest doubly occupied molecular orbital (HDOMO) energy (ESOMO−EHDOMO) of less than about 3.6 eV. In addition, these compounds have a transition moment of the configuration made up of the HDOMO and SOMO that is
The use of super-thin layers of inexpensive electrochromic polymers to generate sharp colors that can be quickly changed may lead to a less expensive
Page contains details about example of electrochromic dye-modified nanoparticles/electrolyte . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Comparison of permeant ion uptake and carotenoid band shift as methods for determining the membrane potential in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroide
This dissertation presents research on two different biological systems: (1) the light-harvesting proteins in the chromatophores of purple photosynthetic bacteria, and (2) the structure and function of the Hepatitis C viroporin p7. Purple photosynthetic bacteria form membranous pseudo-organelles called chromatophores which house the photosynthetic machinery. These chromatophore structures are formed out of the cytoplasmic membrane into various species-dependent shapes, such as spheres or flat lamellar folds. AFM images show that chromatophores are densely populated by the light harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2. LH1 is always found surrounding the reaction center, forming LH1-RC core complexes, which may be elliptically-shaped monomers or S-shaped dimers depending on the species of bacteria. LH2 is a small ring-shaped complex which is produced to expand the light-harvesting capacity of the chromatophore. In addition to their role in photosynthesis, the LH2 and LH1-RC proteins may also influence ...
Biochemical Physiology of a Respiration-Deficient Mutant of the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: Nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria ge
Smiejan, A., Wilkinson, K.J., Rossier, C. 2003. Cd bioaccumulation by a gram negative freshwater bacterium (Rhodospirillum rubrum). Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 701-706. ...
이현순. (1983-03). 광합성 세균에 대한 연구 I : Rhodospirillum rubrum의 Polyphosphate 생합성에 있어서 인산원에 따른 차이. 논문집, 제16집 : 자연과학편 [1983-03-01], 247-256 ...
Some isomeric phosphaphenalenes Phosphaphenalenes are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing phosphorus with molecular formula C 12H 9P, related to the phenalene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, C 13H 10. Phosphaphenalene can exist in a number of isomers depending on where in the ring system the phosphorus atom is placed. The phosphorus atom in these molecules has unusual properties, in particular changing its affinity as an electron acceptor when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. This makes phosphaphenalenes useful in optoelectronic applications such as temperature-dependent luminescence and electrochromism (reversibly changes colour when electricity is applied). Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José (2017). An insight on the aromatic changes in closed shell icosagen, tetrel, and pnictogen phenalenyl derivatives. Struct. Chem. 28 (2): 345-355. doi:10.1007/s11224-016-0882-y. Hindenberg, Philip; Romero-Nieto, Carlos (2016). ...
Copy For Citation EREN E. , Cogal G. C. , Yildiz A., ŞEN GÜRSOY S., ÖKSÜZ A. 44th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), New-Jersey, United States Of America, 21 - 25 May 2017 ...
The United States Electrochromic Glass Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional and in-d - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
1BLU: Crystal structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum: evolutionary and mechanistic inferences for [3/4Fe-4S] ferredoxins.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q01194 (RP54_RHOSH), RNA polymerase sigma-54 factor. Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides)
AT A GLANCE Organization: Gentex Web Site: www.gentex.com Headquarters: Zeeland, Michigan Description: Gentex develops advanced electro-optical products (electronic devices combining photoelectric sensors and related electronic circuitry). They are the worlds leading supplier of electrochromic, automatic dimming rearview mirrors for the automotive industry. They came to Perforce looking for a defect tracking solution and now use Helix ALM to comply with Automotive SPICE.
An electrochromic lens being developed by scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology can turn from clear to tinted in seconds at the flick of a switch.
Ive owned the 2019 Moment DW for a few months now. The design offers almost twice as many features than most one person tents. Double walls, two doors, two vestibules and only two stakes needed to set up. The flawless construction quality is what I have grown to expect from Tarptent dating back to their early years. I upgraded the arch pole from aluminum to carbon fiber. I also had them seam-seal the shelter for an additional nominal fee. My Moment weighs 34 oz. I know there are lighter and heavier single person shelters and Ive owned my share of them. I mostly purchased the Moment for its unique features and design. These days I mostly got solo canoe trips until the waterways start freezing and then switch over to winter gear. Then my preferred shelter of choice is a tarp with a bivy. So I was quite impressed that another cool feature on the Moment is the rain fly can be set up alone. Unlike a typical tarp though which needs trees or hiking poles and a bunch of stakes to set up. The Moment ...
... bacterial chromatophores MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117 - cell nucleus MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117.550 - macronucleus ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.360 - chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284 ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.180.290 - flagella MeSH A11.284.180.290.835 - sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284. ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial ...
Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ... Bacterial DNA can be located in two places: Bacterial chromosome, located in the irregularly shaped region known as the ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (movement ... the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm. This ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
These may include iridophores, leucophores, chromatophores and (in some species) photophores. Chromatophores are colored ... The bioluminescence is produced by bacterial symbionts; the host cephalopod is able to detect the light produced by these ... Cephalopods can use chromatophores like a muscle, which is why they can change their skin hue as rapidly as they do. Coloration ... When camouflaging themselves, they use their chromatophores to change brightness and pattern according to the background they ...
In fish, however, the colour of the skin are largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may ... This aids in insulation and protection from bacterial infection. The skin colour of many mammals are often due to melanin found ... Many species, such as flounders, change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores. Some ...
Bacterial small RNAs have been identified as components of many regulatory networks. Twenty sRNAs were experimentally ... These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ... Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most pivotal organisms in the study of bacterial photosynthesis. It requires no unusual ... Mank, Nils N.; Berghoff, Bork A.; Hermanns, Yannick N.; Klug, Gabriele (2012-10-02). "Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis ...
... and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial cell membranes; ... revealed that chromatophores had undergone a drastic genome shrinkage. Chromatophores contained genes that were accountable for ... Thus, these chromatophores were found to be non-functional for organelle-specific purposes when compared with mitochondria and ... Ford Doolittle, W (1998-12-01). "You are what you eat: a gene transfer ratchet could account for bacterial genes in eukaryotic ...
Purple bacteria have "chromatophores", which are reaction centers found in invaginations of the cell membrane. Green sulfur ... The bacterial phylum Planctomycetota has revealed a number of compartmentalization features. The Planctomycetota cell plan ... Ryter A (January-February 1988). "Contribution of new cryomethods to a better knowledge of bacterial anatomy". Annales de ... While prokaryotes do not possess eukaryotic organelles, some do contain protein-shelled bacterial microcompartments, which are ...
Some rhynchobdellids have the ability to change colour dramatically by moving pigment in chromatophore cells; this process is ... Non-bloodsucking leeches, such as Erpobdella octoculata, are host to morew bacterial symbionts. In addition, leeches produce ... In Hirudo medicinalis, these supplementary factors are produced by an obligatory mutualistic relationship with the bacterial ...
However, these remains are not impressions per se, but outlines formed from bacterial growth. In one case, a true impression of ... Other chromatophore structures (such as iridiophores, xanthophores, and erythrophores) affect coloration in extant reptiles but ... Unique conditions permitted the preservation of these outlines, which probably consist of bacterial mats, not the remains of ... Other researchers noted that, while the outlines might have been sharpened and smoothed by preparers because fossil bacterial ...
These chromatophores are activated by neuronal activity, so an animal can change its color just by thinking about it. The ... Since the existence of silver nanoparticles prevent bacterial adhesion (there is already bacteria existing in the hydrogel) it ... The mechanisms behind these tactics are called chromatophores, which are pigment-filled sacs that uses muscles and nerves to ... before turning on their chromatophores to accurately camouflage to their circumstances. A lot of creatures have camouflage ...
Chromatophores are color pigment changing cells that are directly stimulated by central motor neurons. They are primarily used ... Narsing Rao MP, Xiao M, Li WJ (2017). "Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications". Frontiers ... Chromatophores contract and contain vesicles that stores three different liquid pigments. Each color is indicated by the three ... The process of changing the color pigment of their skin relies on a single highly developed chromatophore cell and many muscles ...
Instead, the color of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain ... even anti-bacterial/viral properties for protection against pathogens. The ducts of the mucous gland appear as cylindrical ... chameleons and flounders may be able to change the color of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores. ...
Schulten's team modeled the structure and function of a Purple bacteria's chromatophore, one of the simplest living examples of ... transfer and spin exchange contributing to the magnetic field dependence of the primary photochemical reaction of bacterial ...
... is divided into two groups based on shape of vegetative cells and nature of chromatophore. In the first group, ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1984.tb03611.x Honegger, R. (2018). Fossil lichens from the Lower Devonian and their bacterial and ... The zoospores are flattened cells that contain a cup- shaped green chromatophore and two flagella of equal length arising from ... The cell division of Trebouxia occurs by the cleavage of the chromatophore into two equal halves followed by the pyrenoid ...
Bacterial shell disease was first described in Penaeus and Callinectes sapidus by Cook and Lofton (1973). Hasson, KW; Lightner ... a red tail due to the expansion of the red chromatophores. Mortality during this phase can be as high as 95%. The acute phase ... such as bacterial shell disease. In general pathognomonic histopathological lesions are the first step in confirmatory ...
Antibacterial action of substances produced by lichens is related to their ability to disrupt bacterial proteins with a ... "Nature and Origin of Chromatophores in the Plant Kingdom". These new ideas can be studied today under the title of the Theory ... subsequent loss of bacterial metabolic capacity. This is possible due to the action of lichen phenolics such as usnic acid ... antibacterial action was identified in extracts of Cetraria islandica and the compounds identified as responsible for bacterial ...
Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around 850 ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes, chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... The ribosomes in chloroplasts are similar to bacterial ribosomes. Because so many chloroplast genes have been moved to the ...
Controllable chromatophores of different colours in the skin of a squid allow it to change its coloration and patterns rapidly ... Approximately 95% of the bacteria are voided each morning before the bacterial population builds up again by nightfall. Squid ... Prototype chromatophores that mimic the squid's adaptive camouflage have been made by Bristol University researchers using an ... The skin is covered in controllable chromatophores of different colours, enabling the squid to match its coloration to its ...
For bacterial transformation to take place, the recipient bacteria must be in a state of competence, which may occur in nature ... Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (March 2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... Circadian rhythms were once thought to only exist in eukaryotic cells but many cyanobacteria display a bacterial circadian ... Claessen, Dennis; Rozen, Daniel E.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Van Wezel, Gilles P. (2014). "Bacterial ...
Pigmentation is determined by presentation of specific color-producing cells, called chromatophores, which absorb and/or ... they may have antimicrobial properties that protect them against bacterial and fungal infections. Salamandorone is another ...
Plasma membrane and chromatophore (lamellar membrane complexes that are continuous with the plasma membrane) Photosynthetic ... http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02683.x/epdf "Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy ...
Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (March 2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. PMC 4487195. PMID ... List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes Genome skimming ...
ISBN 978-0-8151-3762-7. Stulberg DL, Penrod MA, Blatny RA (2002). "Common bacterial skin infections". Am Fam Physician. 66 (1 ... chromatophore nevus of Naegeli) Netherton syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease) Neurofibromatosis ...
Coordinated Regulation Of Chromatophore Differentiation And Melanogenesis During The Ontogeny Of Skin Pigmentation Of Solea ... Physical Proximity May Promote Lateral Acquisition Of Bacterial Symbionts In Vesicomyid Clams. ». Plos One 8 (7): e64830. doi: ... A Tale Of Two Chitons: Is Habitat Specialisation Linked To Distinct Associated Bacterial Communities? ». Fems Microbiol Ecol 83 ...
Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Nucleus. *Cytoplasmic Vesicles. *Endoplasmic Reticulum. *Golgi Apparatus. *Lipid Droplets ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
... chromatophores. Despite the highly curved nature of the chromatophore membrane and lack of direct support, the resolution was ... ATP-synthase (ATPase); chromatophores; high-speed AFM; light-harvesting 2 (LH2); native curved membranes; RC-LH1-PufX; ... Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy ... 4 more authors) (2016) Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic ...
On the determination of the transmembrane pH difference in bacterial chromatophores using 9-aminoacridine. ...
Probing compartment-specific sphingolipids with targeted bacterial sphingomyelinases and ceramidases. J Lipid Res. 2019 11; 60( ... Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Nucleus. *Cytoplasmic Vesicles. *Endoplasmic Reticulum. *Golgi Apparatus. *Lipid Droplets ...
Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Nucleus. *Cytoplasmic Vesicles. *Endoplasmic Reticulum. *Golgi Apparatus. *Lipid Droplets ...
... and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial cell membranes; ... revealed that chromatophores had undergone a drastic genome shrinkage. Chromatophores contained genes that were accountable for ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... Thus, these chromatophores were found to be non-functional for organelle-specific purposes when compared with mitochondria and ...
Fundamental Bacterial Genetics. Blackwell Publisher, NY ISBN 0-632-04448-9. Ream, W, B. Geller, J.E. Trempy, and K. Fields. ... Conservation of the chromatophore pigment response. J. of Applied Toxicology. 6:574-581. ... Potential of the melanophore pigment response for detection of bacterial toxicity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 24: ...
Bacterial Structures. *Bacterial Capsules. *Bacterial Chromatophores. *Chromosomes, Bacterial. *Fimbriae, Bacterial. * ... "Bacterial Capsules" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Capsules" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and ... An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some ...
2010). Bacterial Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 18138-18142. 20921383 ... These proteins are peripheral proteins of the R. capsulatus chromatophore membrane. RnfC has the putative NADH-binding site of ... electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. Fno is a unique type of primary Na+ pump and ... electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. Fno is a unique type of primary Na+ pump. ...
Components of a Prokaryotic (Bacterial) Cell. A bacterial cell is composed of various components as genetic material, cell ... Chromatophores. They are another membranous structures present in some prokaryotes like cyanobacteria, etc.. They are internal ... The bacterial flagellum is differentiated into the following three parts. (i) Filament, the longest portion, extending from the ... Cell envelope is the outermost covering of protoplasm of the bacterial cell. It is known to protect the cell from mechanical ...
3 Nov 2000 Diel changes in bacterial ingestion by a mixotrophic flagellate, Cryptomonas sp., and heterotrophic nanoflagellates ... the type genus of Cryptomonadidae comprising small elliptical freshwater protozoans with two chromatophores. Cryptomonads are ...
bacterial-type flagellum basal body GO:0009425 * plasma membrane-derived chromatophore GO:0042716 ...
Here we show the use of atomic force microscopy to directly reveal a native bacterial photosynthetic membrane. This first view ... The long-range supraorganization of the bacterial photosynthetic unit: A key role for PufX. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 5197- ... Feniouk, B. A., Cherepanov, D. A., Voskoboynikova, N. E., Mulkidjanian, A. Y. & Junge, W. Chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter ... Here we show the use of atomic force microscopy to directly reveal a native bacterial photosynthetic membrane. This first view ...
F. W. R. Chaplen, Upson, R. H., Mcfadden, P. N., and Kolodziej, W., "Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device ... detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens.", Pigment Cell Res, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2002. ...
1) [20]. Open in a separate window Number 1 Putative amino acid residues involved in binding Zn2+ to bacterial cyt of cyt and ... chromatophores suspended at 40 M Bchl. metallic binding site is located in the cytoplasmic surface and is created of His and ... On the basis of EXAFS and superimposition of the 3D constructions of bacterial cyt (numbering) and two water molecules (Fig. ... and crude bacterial lysate solutions[21]AuEE-AB: Aptamer dually modified using a thiol MGL-3196 and a redox reporter + PC- ...
The captures are often taken candidly: by a medical expert examining a bacterial culture or a science student trying to suss a ...
Intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) isolated from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata cells were fused with liposomes by ... or chlorpromazine at concentrations which scarecely affected production of an extracellular nuclease as well as the bacterial ... Vesicles of lower density and higher lipid contents and larger diameter than chromatophores were obtained. Similar results were ... Respiratory and light-induced electron transport were measured in chromatophores and fused vesicles. Light-induced reaction ...
F. W. R. Chaplen, Upson, R. H., Mcfadden, P. N., and Kolodziej, W., "Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device ... detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens.", Pigment Cell Res, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2002. ...
F. W. R. Chaplen, Upson, R. H., Mcfadden, P. N., and Kolodziej, W., "Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device ... detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens.", Pigment Cell Res, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2002. ...
Coordinated Regulation Of Chromatophore Differentiation And Melanogenesis During The Ontogeny Of Skin Pigmentation Of Solea ... Physical Proximity May Promote Lateral Acquisition Of Bacterial Symbionts In Vesicomyid Clams. ». Plos One 8 (7): e64830. doi: ... A Tale Of Two Chitons: Is Habitat Specialisation Linked To Distinct Associated Bacterial Communities? ». Fems Microbiol Ecol 83 ...
F. W. R. Chaplen, Upson, R. H., Mcfadden, P. N., and Kolodziej, W., "Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device ... detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens.", Pigment Cell Res, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2002. ...
Another problem is that they may develop dropsy, which is an infection caused by a bacterial infection. ... The depth of these iridocytes and their interaction with the chromatophores determine the appearance of the fish. ...
chromatophores. Detailed Solution for Test: Biological Classification 5 - From Past 28 Years Questions - Question 22 ... In bacterial chromosomes, the nucleic acid polymers are [1996]. * A. linear DNA molecule ...
Rice, D.W. and Palmer, J.D. (2006) An exceptional horizontal gene transfer in plastids: gene replacement by a distant bacterial ... Nowack, E.C., Melkonian, M. and Glockner, G. (2008) Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... Woese, C.R. (1987) Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev., 51, 221-271.. Woese, C.R. and Fox, G.E. (1977) Phylogenetic structure ...
Members of Kingdom Protista: 1. are primarily aquatic 2. do not have membrane bound organelles 3. are all ciliated or flagellated 4. reproduce exclusively by asexual means Biological Classification Botany Practice questions, MCQs, Past Year Questions (PYQs), NCERT Questions, Question Bank, Class 11 and Class 12 Questions, NCERT Exemplar Questions and PDF Questions with answers, solutions, explanations, NCERT reference and difficulty level
By contrast, in marine fish, these chromatophores are interspersed across the flank. In addition to spatially segregated ... and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that poor antibody-mediated immune ... chromatophore differentiation, pigment amount and dispersal within melanophores varies spatially across the flank of freshwater ... from larval to juvenile stages revealed differences between marine and freshwater fish in spatial patterns of chromatophore ...
The chemical cesspool which no ai can save because it is not viral, bacterial, or fungus based as it is hard to detect on ... Last Edited by Chromatophore on 04/22/2020 10:03 AM. Coming Into Existence ...
Another reason for the team to undertake this study is to understand and find a way to shift bacterial communities to help ... Researchers in Japan have learned that squids camouflage using chromatophores similar to their fellow cephalopod family members ...
2000). Bacterial SQR is a single polypeptide with an Single Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic Sulfide apparent molecular mass of ... formation of adenosine triphosphate by chromatophores from ductase genes: implications for the evolution of anaerobic ... bacterial lineages is currently quite sparse; in time, eubac- 2002). The emerging monophyly of FeS cluster assembly terial ... ratchet could account for bacterial genes in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Trend. Genet. 14:307-311.. Lecompte, O., R. Ripp, J. C ...
1997 6-Ketocholestanol is a recoupler for mitochondria, chromatophores and cytochrome oxidase proteoliposomes ... 1982 A new method for studying bacterial chemotaxis * Chernyak B.V. * в журнале FEMS Microbiology Letters, издательство ...
  • In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this approach, we have imaged the membrane organization of intact vesicular bacterial photosynthetic "organelles", chromatophores. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Here we show the use of atomic force microscopy to directly reveal a native bacterial photosynthetic membrane. (nature.com)
  • Some species of Ceratium are red to brown in color due to photosynthetic chromatophores in their cytosol. (ontogenie.com)
  • Despite the highly curved nature of the chromatophore membrane and lack of direct support, the resolution was sufficient to identify the photosystem complexes and quantify their arrangement in the native state. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • These proteins are peripheral proteins of the R. capsulatus chromatophore membrane. (tcdb.org)
  • Results from inhibitor studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Fno activity coupled to Na + translocation is catalyzed by the Rnf complex, a membrane-bound, iron-sulfur and flavin-containing electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. (tcdb.org)
  • Flexibility and size heterogeneity of the LH1 light harvesting complex revealed by atomic force microscopy: functional significance for bacterial photosynthesis. (nature.com)
  • In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010. Potential of the melanophore pigment response for detection of bacterial toxicity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 2010. Conservation of the chromatophore pigment response. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The chromatophores, or pigment cells, on a longfin inshore squid "bubble. (popsci.com)
  • An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. (uams.edu)
  • This reaction is probably driven by the flow of H + or Na + down the ion electrochemical gradient from the outside to the inside of the bacterial cell. (tcdb.org)
  • Fischer has further established the fact that the peripheral mass, which is a hollow sphere in spherical cells, and either a hollow cylinder or barrel-shaped body in filamentous forms, must be regarded as the single chromatophore of the Cyanophyceous cell. (yourdictionary.com)
  • σύν syn "together", βίος bios "life", and γένεσις genesis "origin, birth") in his 1905 work, The nature and origins of chromatophores in the plant kingdom , and then elaborated it in his 1910 The Theory of Two Plasms as the Basis of Symbiogenesis, a New Study of the Origins of Organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptomonas definition is - the type genus of Cryptomonadidae comprising small elliptical freshwater protozoans with two chromatophores. (firebaseapp.com)
  • In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES). (bvsalud.org)
  • 10. Which of these bacteria have chromatophores? (livemcqs.com)
  • Chromatophores are pigment containing membranous extensions in the cytoplasm of bacteria. (livemcqs.com)
  • Gene transfers from diverse bacteria compensate for reductive genome evolution in the chromatophore of Paulinella chromatophora. (avcr.cz)
  • The principle of the dual inhibitor titration method for testing models of electron-transport phosphorylation is outlined, and the method is applied to the study of photophosphorylation in bacterial chromatophores. (nih.gov)
  • effect of ferredoxin on bacterial photophosphorylation. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial photosynthetic membranes, also known as chromatophores, are tightly packed with integral membrane proteins that work together to carry out photosynthesis. (illinois.edu)
  • 5. In conflict with this conclusion, the reduction of acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide (AcPdAD+) by NADH in the absence of NADP+ by bacterial membranes was earlier taken as evidence for the existence of a reduced enzyme intermediate [Fisher, R. R. & Earle, S. R. (1982) The pyridine nucleotide coenzymes, pp. 279-324, Academic Press, New York]. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • However, it is shown here that although chromatophore membranes of Rb. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases has threatened the empirical use of cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin.8,9 Microorganisms use various mechanisms to develop drug resistance, such as recombination of foreign DNA in bacterial chromosome , horizontal gene transfer and altera- tion in genetic material.10 Resistance pattern of mi- croorganisms vary from country to country, state to state, large hospital to small hospital and hospital to community. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A unique feature of phage P1 is that during lysogeny its genome is not incorporated into the bacterial chromosome as is commonly observed during lysogeny bo other bacteriophage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Restriction enzymes that can split the bacterial chromosome in a limited number of fragments (1 to 20) are required for the physical analysis of a genome (24). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial have a tightly bound three - layered cell envelope. (livemcqs.com)
  • Through recent computational modeling and simulation, it has been demonstrated that the light-harvesting complexes abundant in chromatophores induce local membrane curvature via multiple mechanisms. (illinois.edu)
  • These protein complexes assemble to generate a global curvature and sculpt the chromatophores into various cellular-scale architectures. (illinois.edu)
  • To test whether these 300 or so genes alone can sustain life, Venter and his colleagues have contemplated making an artificial bacterial chromosome containing only those genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2014. Eye-specification genes in the bacterial light organ of the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and their expression in response to symbiont cues . (ucsb.edu)
  • 2015. Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of Octopus bimaculoides . (ucsb.edu)
  • It is no longer debatable that viral, bacterial, and archaeal genomes have been forged by foreign genes for several billion years. (avcr.cz)
  • The washers (representing plasmid DNA molecules), twine (representing the bacterial chromosome of E. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5. What is the shape of a bacterial plasmid? (livemcqs.com)
  • These tetras have cells under their skin called chromatophores which contain red, yellow, and orange pigments. (tetra-fish-care.com)
  • Briefly, 100 ml NSS-washed overnight grown bacterial cells were resuspended in 10 ml of ultrapure water for 20 min to cause osmotic shock and centrifuged (10,000 × g, 5°C, 10 min) to collect the periplasmic fraction (the supernatant). (smadsignaling.com)
  • The cells are generally uninucleate and vacuolated containing numerous brown chromatophores which are called phaeoplasts. (siteprofissional.com)
  • Minamino T, Imada K, Namba K. Mechanisms of type III protein export for bacterial flagellar assembly. (labome.org)
  • spherical, tubular, and lamellar chromatophores have all been observed in different bacterial species, or with different protein constituents. (illinois.edu)
  • When parasitic or bacterial infections are on Cardinal Tetras, their scales start to separate due to the damage. (tetra-fish-care.com)
  • brand names include: Septra / Ciplin / Septrin) is a combination of two antibiotics (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. (medsone.us)
  • fluorescence change of auramine o bound to chromatophores of rhodospirillum rubrum--analysis in connection to ionic environment and ion transport. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • When a fish does not eat, the chromatophores in its skin lose color. (tetra-fish-care.com)
  • They have much brighter highlights along their many crests, and darker patterns that shift and flash with the color and shape of the chromatophores within their skin. (galactic-citizen.com)
  • pylori is the consequence of mutations located on the bacterial chromosome .45 However genetic exchanges seem to be numerous between different strains of H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasmids are extrachromosomal small circular DNA that is present in bacterial cell, apart from the genomic DNA. (livemcqs.com)