Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Bacterial Chromatophores: Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Rhodospirillum: A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Photophosphorylation: The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Sepia: A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Wolinella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Radionuclide Generators: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cephalopoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.HydrocarbonsMollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Electronic Supplementary MaterialsElectromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.

The structure of chromatophores from purple photosynthetic bacteria fused with lipid-impregnated collodion films determined by near-field scanning optical microscopy. (1/166)

Lipid-impregnated collodion (nitrocellulose) films have been frequently used as a fusion substrate in the measurement and analysis of electrogenic activity in biological membranes and proteoliposomes. While the method of fusion of biological membranes or proteoliposomes with such films has found a wide application, little is known about the structures formed after the fusion. Yet, knowledge of this structure is important for the interpretation of the measured electric potential. To characterize structures formed after fusion of membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides with lipid-impregnated collodion films, we used near-field scanning optical microscopy. It is shown here that structures formed from chromatophores on the collodion film can be distinguished from the lipid-impregnated background by measuring the fluorescence originating either from endogenous fluorophores of the chromatophores or from fluorescent dyes trapped inside the chromatophores. The structures formed after fusion of chromatophores to the collodion film look like isolated (or sometimes aggregated, depending on the conditions) blisters, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 10 microm (average approximately 1 microm) and heights from 0.01 to 1 microm (average approximately 0.03 microm). These large sizes indicate that the blisters are formed by the fusion of many chromatophores. Results with dyes trapped inside chromatophores reveal that chromatophores fused with lipid-impregnated films retain a distinct internal water phase.  (+info)

Escape probability and trapping mechanism in purple bacteria: revisited. (2/166)

Despite intensive research for decades, the trapping mechanism in the core complex of purple bacteria is still under discussion. In this article, it is attempted to derive a conceptionally simple model that is consistent with all basic experimental observations and that allows definite conclusions on the trapping mechanism. Some experimental data reported in the literature are conflicting or incomplete. Therefore we repeated two already published experiments like the time-resolved fluorescence decay in LH1-only purple bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas viridis chromatophores with open and closed (Q(A)(-)) reaction centers. Furthermore, we measured fluorescence excitation spectra for both species under the two redox-conditions. These data, all measured at room temperature, were analyzed by a target analysis based on a three-state model (antenna, primary donor, and radical pair). All states were allowed to react reversibly and their decay channels were taken into consideration. This leads to seven rate constants to be determined. It turns out that a unique set of numerical values of these rate constants can be found, when further experimental constraints are met simultaneously, i.e. the ratio of the fluorescence yields in the open and closed (Q(A)(-)) states F(m)/F(o) approximately 2 and the P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics of 3-6 ns. The model allows to define and to quantify escape probabilities and the transfer equilibrium. We conclude that trapping in LH1-only purple bacteria is largely transfer-to-the-trap-limited. Furthermore, the model predicts properties of the reaction center (RC) in its native LH1-environment. Within the framework of our model, the predicted P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics are nearly indistinguishable for a hypothetically isolated RC and an antenna-RC complex, which is in contrast to published experimental data for physically isolated RCs. Therefore RC preparations may display modified kinetic properties.  (+info)

Reduction and protonation of the secondary quinone acceptor of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction center: kinetic model based on a comparison of wild-type chromatophores with mutants carrying Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. (3/166)

After the light-induced charge separation in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the electron reaches, via the tightly bound ubiquinone QA, the loosely bound ubiquinone Q(B) After two subsequent flashes of light, Q(B) is reduced to ubiquinol Q(B)H2, with a semiquinone anion Q-(B) formed as an intermediate after the first flash. We studied Q(B)H2 formation in chromatophores from Rb. sphaeroides mutants that carried Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. While Arg-L207 is 17 A away from Q(B), Arg-L217 is closer (9 A) and contacts the Q(B)-binding pocket. From the pH dependence of the charge recombination in the RC after the first flash, we estimated deltaG(AB), the free energy difference between the Q-(A)Q(B) and Q(A)Q-(B) states, and pK212, the apparent pK of Glu-L212, a residue that is only 4 A away from Q(B). As expected, the replacement of positively charged arginines by neutral isoleucines destabilized the Q-(B) state in the L217RI mutant to a larger extent than in the L207RI one. Also as expected, pK212 increased by approximately 0.4 pH units in the L207RI mutant. The value of pK212 in the L217RI mutant decreased by 0.3 pH units, contrary to expectations. The rate of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition upon the second flash, as monitored by electrometry via the accompanying changes in the membrane potential, was two times faster in the L207RI mutant than in the wild-type, but remained essentially unchanged in the L217RI mutant. To rationalize these findings, we developed and analyzed a kinetic model of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition. The model properly described the available experimental data and provided a set of quantitative kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the Q(B) turnover. The non-electrostatic, 'chemical' affinity of the QB site to protons proved to be as important for the attracting protons from the bulk, as the appropriate electrostatic potential. The mutation-caused changes in the chemical proton affinity could be estimated from the difference between the experimentally established pK2J2 shifts and the expected changes in the electrostatic potential at Glu-L212, calculable from the X-ray structure of the RC. Based on functional studies, structural data and kinetic modeling, we suggest a mechanistic scheme of the QB turnover. The detachment of the formed ubiquinol from its proximal position next to Glu-L212 is considered as the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle.  (+info)

DCCD inhibits the reactions of the iron-sulfur protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. (4/166)

N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) has been reported to inhibit proton translocation by cytochrome bc(1) and b(6)f complexes without significantly altering the rate of electron transport, a process referred to as decoupling. To understand the possible role of DCCD in inhibiting the protonogenic reactions of cytochrome bc(1) complex, we investigated the effect of DCCD modification on flash-induced electron transport and electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids in Rb. sphaeroides chromatophores. DCCD has two distinct effects on phase III of the electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids reflecting the electrogenic reactions of the bc(1) complex. At low concentrations, DCCD increases the magnitude of the electrogenic process because of a decrease in the permeability of the membrane, probably through inhibition of F(o)F(1). At higher concentrations (>150 microM), DCCD slows the development of phase III of the electrochromic shift from about 3 ms in control preparations to about 23 ms at 1.2 mM DCCD, without significantly changing the amplitude. DCCD treatment of chromatophores also slows down the kinetics of flash-induced reduction of both cytochromes b and c, from 1.5-2 ms in control preparations to 8-10 ms at 0.8 mM DCCD. Parallel slowing of the reduction of both cytochromes indicates that DCCD treatment modifies the reaction of QH(2) oxidation at the Q(o) site. Despite the similarity in the kinetics of both cytochromes, the onset of cytochrome c re-reduction is delayed 1-2 ms in comparison to cytochrome b reduction, indicating that DCCD inhibits the delivery of electrons from quinol to heme c(1). We conclude that DCCD treatment of chromatophores leads to modification of the rate of Q(o)H(2) oxidation by the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) as well as the donation of electrons from ISP to c(1), and we discuss the results in the context of the movement of ISP between the Q(o) site and cytochrome c(1).  (+info)

Fusion of chromatophores from photosynthetic bacteria with a supported lipid layer: characterization of the electric units. (5/166)

Direct electrometric measurements of membrane potential changes are a valuable tool for study of vectorial transfer of electrons, protons, and ions. Commonly model membrane systems are created by fusion of lipid/protein vesicles with lipid-coated thin films. We characterized the electric units resulting from this process using chromatophores from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and either a Mylar film or a planar modified gold electrode as support. Investigation of the shunting activity of the ionophore gramicidin on the flash-induced potential change demonstrates fusion of individual chromatophores to form independent 'blisters', which preserve an interior aqueous compartment. Under current-clamp conditions the photovoltage follows the change of the membrane potential of the individual blisters.  (+info)

Electrogenic proton transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers: effect of coenzyme Q(10) substitution by decylubiquinone in the Q(B) binding site. (6/166)

An electrometric technique was used to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q(10) (UQ), substitution by decylubiquinone (dQ) at the Q(B) binding site of reaction centers (UQ-RC and dQ-RC, respectively) on the electrogenic proton transfer kinetics upon Q(B) reduction in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. Unlike dQ-RC, the kinetics of the second flash-induced proton uptake in UQ-RC clearly deviated from the mono-exponential one. The activation energy (about 30 kJ/mol) and the pH profile of the kinetics in dQ-RC were similar to those in UQ-RC, with the power law approximation used in the latter case. The interpretation of the data presumed the quinone translocation between the two binding positions within the Q(B) site. It is proposed that the native isoprenyl side chain (in contrast to decyl chain) favors the equilibrium binding of neutral quinone at the redox-active 'proximal' position, but causes a higher barrier for the hydroquinone movement from 'proximal' to 'distal' position.  (+info)

Changes in the acyl lipid composition of photosynthetic bacteria grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. (7/166)

The acyl lipids and their constituent fatty acids were studied in the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, which were grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. The major lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in each bacterium. The two Rhodopseudomonas species also contained significant quantities of phosphatidylcholine. Other acyl lipids accounted for less than 10% of the total. On changing growth conditions from non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic a large increase in the relative proportion of phosphatidylglycerol was seen at the expense of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. In Rhodospirillum rubrum the fatty acids of the major phospholipids showed an increase in the proportion of palmitate and stearate and a decrease in palmitoleate and vaccenate on changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. In contrast, the exceptionally high levels (>80%) of vaccenate in individual phospholipids of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were unaffected by changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. Analysis of the lipids of chromatophores, isolated from the three bacteria, showed that these preparations were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol. The large increase in this phospholipid, seen during growth under photosynthetic conditions, appeared, therefore, to be due to a proliferation of chromatophore membranes. Possible roles for acyl lipids in the formation and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of bacteria are discussed.  (+info)

Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores. (8/166)

F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.  (+info)

Cr oxide films were produced by reactive de magnetron sputtering in Ar + O-2 + H-2. Weak anodic electrochromism was found in acidic electrolytes. A high optical transmittance and a modest voltage range for charge exchange make Cr oxide films of consi. ...
A rapidly expanding library of data from such experiments requires an interpretive method with atom-level chemical accuracy. However, despite prolonged efforts to develop an all-encompassing theory for describing vibrational solvatochromism and electrochromism as well as dynamic fluctuations of instantaneous vibrational frequencies, purely empirical and highly approximate theoretical models have often been used to interpret experimental results. They are, in many cases, based on the simple assumption that the vibrational frequency of an IR reporter is solely dictated by electric potential or field distribution around the vibrational chromophore. Such simplified description of vibrational solvatochromism generally referred to as vibrational Stark effect theory has been considered to be quite appealing and, even in some cases, e.g., carbonyl stretch modes in amide, ester, ketone, and carbonate compounds or proteins, it works quantitatively well, which makes it highly useful in determining the ...
Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Dispersions of electrically conductive particles useful for preparing electrically conductive, essentially ionically isolative composite layers having electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Composite layers can be used in laminates for electrochromic displays where an ionically conductive layer is in contact with electrochromic material. Such displays comprise means for applying an electrical potential across the interface of the ionically conductive layer and the electrochromic material to generate an electrochromic effect at the interface. Electrochromic materials can be provided in the laminates as layers between the ionically conductive layer and the composite layer of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Alternatively, the electrochromic material can be incorporated in the conductive particles in the polymer matrix, e.g. as titanium dioxide coated with antimony tin oxide coated with polyaniline dispersed in an light transmitting polymer
To better understand how pigment granules themselves absorb or scatter light, a model chromatophore containing a 5 µm cube of densely packed pigment granules was constructed in silico (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(i,ii)). Reflectins have an index of refraction as high as 1.59 [28], which provide important guidance in defining the model parameters. The amount of reflected light from the pigment granules packed within the cube was calculated using FDTD simulations (Lumerical, FDTD Solutions) [14]. FDTD Solutions is a complete Maxwell solver providing numerical solutions for three-dimensional electromagnetic fields and was used to determine the role of pigment refractive index and granular structure on chromatophore absorbance over a wide frequency range. Pigment refractive index within the simulated chromatophores was varied from 1.33 to 1.65 (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(iii)). Our comparison between the simulation and experimentally measured reflectivity ...
The inventive electrochromic mirror may be used in a vehicle rearview mirror assembly having a light source positioned behind the electrochromic mirror for selectively projecting light through the mirror. The electrochromic mirror includes front and rear spaced elements each having front and rear surfaces and being sealably bonded together in a spaced-apart relationship to define a chamber, a layer of transparent conductive material disposed on the rear surface of the front element, an electrochromic material is contained within the chamber, and a second electrode overlies the front surface of the rear element in contact with the electrochromic material. The second electrode includes a layer of reflective material and a partially transmissive coating of and is disposed over substantially all of the front surface of the rear element. The second electrode further includes a region in front of the light source that is at least partially transmissive.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
Electrochromic devices are described having a layer of electrochromic material, e.g. WO3, in contact with a layer of organic electrolyte resin, with electrode means for changing electrochromic properties of the device by electric field means. The electrolyte resin layer comprises a hydrophilic layer of homopolymer of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) and in some preferred embodiments may further comprise a thinner layer of less hydrophilic electrolyte resin between the homopolymer and electrochromic layers.
The three oxidation states of Co in a molecular cobaloxime were used to realise an electrochromic device displaying the red, yellow, blue (RYB) set of subtractive primary colours. A facile method for the lithographic patterning of a several micrometre thick indium tin oxide (ITO) mesoporous layer was develop
Frustules in short or long filaments, sometimes free, oblong, separated by foramina and united by setae crossing each other near their insertion. Valves convex, concave or plane, usually elliptical, sometimes nearly circular. From each valve extend two setae, one on each side, which cross the setae of the opposing valve. Setae robust or slender, variable in length, with or without spines, punctate or transversely striated, often hollow. Chromatophores of various kinds, either laminate, single, on the wall of the zone, double, one on each valve, or granular and more or less numerous, either on the wall of the cell or scattered through the cell and the setae. Pyrenoids occasionally found. Spores occur in some species with more or less equal and convex valves, sometimes furnished with spines or with the setae of the parent cell attached. All species are marine or occur in saline water. Gran classifies the genus according to the chromatophores. The variation in number and form of the chromatophores ...
An electrochromic display composed of a transparent electroconductive membrane, an electrochromic membrane, an ion-exchange membrane and a counter electrode in a laminated structure. The ion-exchange membrane is a bipolar ion-exchange membrane composed of at least one cation-exchange membrane layer having cation-exchange groups and at least one anion-exchange membrane layer containing anion-exchange groups in a laminated structure. The electrochromic display has a superior response speed, contrast and resolving power as well as a long service life.
Electrochromic coating solutions are prepared by reacting a transition metal with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and an organic acid. The resulting transition metal-peroxy acid product is esterified by reacting with lower carbon alcohols to produce a peroxyester-transition metal derivative. This derivative in solution in lower carbon alcohols provides a working solution into which a substrate having a conductive surface is preferably dipped and removed at a rate sufficient to give a coating of a desired thickness over the conductive surface. Spray or spin coating can be used to apply the coating to the conductive surface of the substrate. The coating is then dried and is externally fired in an oven to complete the necessary reactions to yield an electrochromic oxide coating having exceptional electrochromic properties.
The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of a novel hybrid electrochromic coating material with superior performance in terms of transparency, electrochromic contrast, coloration efficiency, and adhesion, for a use in electrochromic devices for applications where a high transparency is required in the bleached state.
An electrochromic device comprises an ion conductive layer containing an electrochromic polymer that has a bipyridine ion pair structure and a metallocene structure and/or a dihydroxyphenaizine struct
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switchi
A novel edge design for a laminated electrochromic device containing an ion-conducting material layer prone to moisture gain or loss disposed between first and second substrates is disclosed. The device is characterized by a continuous nub on its circumferential edge which is aligned with the ion-conducting material interface between the substrates forming the device. The nub can be used to interlock with a peripheral edge seal.
The intergovernmental agreement on the large-scale project of the Turkish Stream gas system construction came into force last month," Putin said.. "Implementation of this project in practice will make possible to scale up natural gas supplies to Turkey and increase its transit potential," he added.. Bilateral cooperation in energy sphere is "genuinely strategic," the Russian president noted. Turkey is ranked second by procurements of gas from Russia. Good prospects are in place to deepen industrial cooperation in metals industry, automotive sector and production of agricultural machinery, Putin added.. ...
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
An electrochromic window assembly includes a security system for monitoring breakage of the electrochromic window assembly. Control circuitry is connected to the electrochromic window assembly for monitoring an electrical characteristic of one or more conductive coatings within the electrochromic window assembly, such as electrical resistance. Upon detecting a change in the electrical resistance, such as that caused by a break in one or more conductive coating, an alarm signal is generated and is sent to an alarm trigger circuit for activating an alarm. A method for monitoring penetration or breakage of an electrochromic window assembly is also provided, which method involves applying electrical activation to an electrochromic assembly and monitoring for a change in an electrical characteristic based on the applied electrical potential. Electrochromic window assemblies incorporating security alarm features in accordance with the present invention are particularly useful in automobile applications.
0036]In one embodiment, the electrochromic composition including the aromatic component and optional branching component and additional aromatic component may be provided in a form in which the hydrolyzable groups are already hydrolyzed. Alternatively the electrochromic composition may be reacted with water to hydrolyze the hydrolyzable groups present in the aromatic component and, if present, the branching component and the additional aromatic component. Prior to the reaction with water, the electrochromic composition is typically dispersed in an organic solvent. In one embodiment of the present invention, the organic solvent is a ketone, e.g. methyl isobutyl ketone, though any suitable organic solvent known by those skilled in the art may be utilized. The organic solvent may act as a carrier for the electrochromic composition and is typically unreactive. The reaction with water is a hydrolysis reaction; i.e., the water reacts with the hydrolyzable groups bonded to the silicon-based group in ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that "Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.". https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called "Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes" (see link below), ...
Page contains details about SWCNT thin film transistor/PEDOT:PSS electrochromic cell-based electrochromic display pixel . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
An improved electrochromic rearview mirror for motor vehicles, the mirror incorporating an information display area by removing a portion of a reflective and conductive layer on the inside (third) surface of the back glass element of a dimming portion of the rearview mirror and aligning a display device with this information display area. The portion removed is laser ablated to leave lines devoid of reflective material separated by lines of the reflective material. The remaining lines of reflective material are in electrical contact with the remaining reflective and conductive layer on the third surface. The reflective layer forms an integral electrode in contact with the electrochromic media, and may be a single layer of a highly reflective material or may comprise a series of coatings where the outer coating is a highly reflecting material. The other electrode on the inside (second) surface of the front glass is a transparent electrode which also contacts the electrochromic media inside the mirror
Bizouarn, Tania, Leonid A Sazanov, Sébastien Aubourg, and Julie Jackson. "Estimation of the H+/H- Ratio of the Reaction Catalysed by the Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase in Chromatophores from over-Expressing Strains of Rhodospirillum Rubrum and in Liposomes Inlaid with the Purified Bovine Enzyme." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics 1273, no. 1 (1996): 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(95)00125-5 ...
Electrochromic nickel oxide films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a Ni target in gas mixtures of Ar and O2. When electrochemically cycled in 0.1 N KOH solution, large reversible changes in visible absorption were obtained within the first 10 bleach/color cycles. Films which showed the greatest changes in optical properties and charge capacity were produced within a narrow range of oxygen flow rates. The coloration efficiency was found to be insensitive to the sputtering conditions and stoichiometry, with a value of 34+-4 cm2C-1 at 550 nm. This indicates that microstructure and charge capacity determine the absorption coefficient. The reaction rate was found to depend on the concentration of OH- in the electrolyte, indicating that OH- diffusion in the electrolyte limits the rate of reaction.. ...
Electrochromic compounds capable of reversibly attenuating the transmittance of the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum are provided. These compounds exhibit an energy difference between the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) energy and the highest doubly occupied molecular orbital (HDOMO) energy (ESOMO−EHDOMO) of less than about 3.6 eV. In addition, these compounds have a transition moment of the configuration made up of the HDOMO and SOMO that is
The use of super-thin layers of inexpensive electrochromic polymers to generate sharp colors that can be quickly changed may lead to a less expensive
Page contains details about example of electrochromic dye-modified nanoparticles/electrolyte . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Comparison of permeant ion uptake and carotenoid band shift as methods for determining the membrane potential in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroide
Biochemical Physiology of a Respiration-Deficient Mutant of the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: Nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria ge
Smiejan, A., Wilkinson, K.J., Rossier, C. 2003. Cd bioaccumulation by a gram negative freshwater bacterium (Rhodospirillum rubrum). Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 701-706. ...
Some isomeric phosphaphenalenes Phosphaphenalenes are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing phosphorus with molecular formula C 12H 9P, related to the phenalene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, C 13H 10. Phosphaphenalene can exist in a number of isomers depending on where in the ring system the phosphorus atom is placed. The phosphorus atom in these molecules has unusual properties, in particular changing its affinity as an electron acceptor when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. This makes phosphaphenalenes useful in optoelectronic applications such as temperature-dependent luminescence and electrochromism (reversibly changes colour when electricity is applied). Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José (2017). "An insight on the aromatic changes in closed shell icosagen, tetrel, and pnictogen phenalenyl derivatives". Struct. Chem. 28 (2): 345-355. doi:10.1007/s11224-016-0882-y. Hindenberg, Philip; Romero-Nieto, Carlos (2016). ...
The United States Electrochromic Glass Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional and in-d - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
1BLU: Crystal structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum: evolutionary and mechanistic inferences for [3/4Fe-4S] ferredoxins.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q01194 (RP54_RHOSH), RNA polymerase sigma-54 factor. Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides)
AT A GLANCE Organization: Gentex Web Site: www.gentex.com Headquarters: Zeeland, Michigan Description: Gentex develops advanced electro-optical products (electronic devices combining photoelectric sensors and related electronic circuitry). They are the worlds leading supplier of electrochromic, automatic dimming rearview mirrors for the automotive industry. They came to Perforce looking for a defect tracking solution and now use Helix ALM to comply with Automotive SPICE.
Ive owned the 2019 Moment DW for a few months now. The design offers almost twice as many features than most one person tents. Double walls, two doors, two vestibules and only two stakes needed to set up. The flawless construction quality is what I have grown to expect from Tarptent dating back to their early years. I upgraded the arch pole from aluminum to carbon fiber. I also had them seam-seal the shelter for an additional nominal fee. My Moment weighs 34 oz. I know there are lighter and heavier single person shelters and Ive owned my share of them. I mostly purchased the Moment for its unique features and design. These days I mostly got solo canoe trips until the waterways start freezing and then switch over to winter gear. Then my preferred shelter of choice is a tarp with a bivy. So I was quite impressed that another cool feature on the Moment is the rain fly can be set up alone. Unlike a typical tarp though which needs trees or hiking poles and a bunch of stakes to set up. The Moment ...
Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which
1. Ribosomal RNA was extracted from lysates of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides without prior isolation of ribosomes. 2. The composition of this RNA was investigated by using gradient centrifugation, showing that the proportion present as 23s component depended on the method of extraction. 3. The highest proportion of 23s component was found when cells were disrupted by ultrasonic treatment in the presence of ribonuclease inhibitors. 4. The results indicated that a ribonuclease is active in the cell lysate; this could account for the previous report (Lessie, 1965) that ribosomes of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides do not contain a 23s component.. ...
0136] [1] Zhang Xuping, Zhang Haokang, Li Qing, and Luo Hongli, "An All-Solid-State Inorganic Electrochromic Display of WO3 and NiO Films with LiNbO3 Ion Conductor" IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 21, NO. 5, MAY 2000. [0137] [2] C. O. Avellaneda, D. F. Vieira, A. Al-Kahlout, E. R. Leite, A. Pawlicka, M. A. Aegerter, "Solid-state electrochromic devices with Nb2O5:Mo thin film and gelatin-based electrolyte", Electrochimica Acta (2007), doi:10.1016/j. electacta.2007.05.065 [0138] [3] S. Papaefthimiou, G. Leftheriotis, P. Yianoulis, "Study of electrochromic cells incorporating WO3, MoO3, WO3--MoO3 and V2O5 coatings", Thin Solid Films, vol. 343-344, 183-186, 1999 [0139] [4] C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, "Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications", Solar Energy vol. 63, n° 4, 199-216, 1998. [0140] [5] C. G. Granqvist, "Hand book of inorganic electrocromic materials", Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002. [0141] [6] R. Gordon, S. Barry, J. Barton, R. ...
A DNA-directed coupled transcription-translation system has been developed in cell-free extracts from the facultative phototroph, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. The in vitro protein synthesizing system was active when prepared from either aerobically or anaerobically grown cells. Optimal activity was dependent upon use of extracts prepared freshly from early exponential phase cells, the method of cell breakage, and the length of preincubation of the extract (S-30), as well as the concentrations of S-30, DNA template, and cations. The cell-free system was used to study the physical and biochemical characterization of an enzymatically active form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase which was synthesized and assembled in vitro from cloned R. sphaeroides DNA. The predominant enzymatically active oligomeric form of the in vitro synthesized and assembled RuBP carboxylase was a tetramer-hexamer, and assembly of the monomeric subunits to form active enzyme was dependent on the presence of a minimum ...
The nucleotide sequence was determined of a 8775-base-pair region of DNA cloned from the photosynthetic non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. It contains a cluster of five genes encoding F1-ATPase subunits. The genes are arranged in the same order as F1 genes in the Escherichia coli unc operon. However, as in the related organism Rhodopseudomonas blastica, neither genes for components of F0, the membrane sector of ATP synthase, nor a homologue of the E. coli uncI gene are associated with this locus, as they are in E. coli.. ...
Insane in the Chromatophores from Backyard Brains on Vimeo.. The folks at Backyard Brains, a DIY-neurobiology project, made these pigment-producing cells in a dead squid pulse to the base beats of Cypress Hills "Insane in the Brain." Go watch that thing right now.. Done? Wowed? Prepare to be more wowed: They did it by exploiting the fact that electrical current is key to both the actions of cells and the playing of mp3s. These pigmented cells, called chromatophores, are surrounded by muscle cells, and its by flexing these muscles that the squid reveals its colorful spots. By hooked up the nerve that sends the flexing orders to the wire of a set of earbuds, they got these amazing results.. Heres their description of how music made the muscles pulse:. ...
Richardson, Thomas J, Klaus von Rottkay, Jonathan L Slack, Franck Michalak, and Michael D Rubin. "Tungsten-Vanadium Oxide Sputtered Films for Electrochromic Devices." Electrochemical Society: Molecular Functions of Electroactive Thin Films. Vol. 98-26. Boston, MA, 1998. LBNL-42381. ...
Looking for online definition of photophosphorylation in the Medical Dictionary? photophosphorylation explanation free. What is photophosphorylation? Meaning of photophosphorylation medical term. What does photophosphorylation mean?
The electropolymerization of o-aminophenol is markedly different from that of aniline and other aniline derivatives owing to the ease of generation of radical cations from the oxidation of the monomer. The growth of poly-o-aminophenol (POAP) therefore proceeds mainly through the reactions between the growing polymer and oxidized monomer molecules. The polymer matrix of POAP consists of both oxidized (quinonoid) and reduced (N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine) repeating monomer units. The polymer is dark brown when it is oxidized at potentials greater than 0.13 V (vs. SCE), and light yellow when it is reduced at potentials lower than - 0.042 V. The polymer under potentiodynamic polarization can also give rise to a completely colourless intermediate oxidation state that is made up of an equal number of oxidized and reduced units. Except for good colour retention in the oxidized state, POAP is unsatisfactory in electrochromic applications owing to rate limitation in the heterogeneous charge-transfer step. ...
Three dithienylpyrroles (1-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-pyrrole (MPS), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-pyrrole (MPO), and 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-pyrrol-1-yl)benzonitrile (ANIL)) were synthesized and their corresponding polydithienylpyrroles (PSNS) were electrosynthesized using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical studies indicated that poly(1-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-pyrrole) (PMPS) film was green, dark green, and brown in the neutral, oxidation, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The incorporation of a MPS unit into the PSNS backbone gave rise to a darker color than those of the MPO and ANIL units in the highly oxidized state. The PMPS film showed higher ΔTmax (54.47% at 940 nm) than those of the PMPO (43.87% at 890 nm) and PANIL (44.63% at 950 nm) films in an ionic liquid solution. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) employing PMPS, PMPO, and PANIL as anodic layers and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethypropylenedioxy)thiophene)(PProDOT-Et2) as a
Name: Rhodobacter sphaeroides (van Niel 1944) Imhoff et al. 1984. Category: Species. Proposed as: comb. nov.. Basonym: Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides van Niel 1944 (Approved Lists 1980) Etymology: sphae.ro.ides Gr. fem. n. sphaîra, sphere, globe; Gr. adj. suff. -oides, ressembling, similar; from Gr. suff. -eides, resembling, similar; from Gr. neut. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure; N.L. adj. sphaeroides, spherical Gender: masculine Type strains: 2.4.1; ATCC 17023; ATH 2.4.1.; CCUG 31486; CECT 300; CIP 60.6; DSM 158; IFO 12203; JCM 6121; LMG 2827; NBRC 12203; Van Niels ATH 2.4.1 See detailed strain information at ...
Looking for Albinism, ocular? Find out information about Albinism, ocular. The state of having colorless chromatophores, which results in the absence of pigmentation in animals that are normally pigmented. A hereditary, metabolic... Explanation of Albinism, ocular
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
The chromatophores are extremely abundant, and can be differentiated into three types, small disc shaped bodies in the upper part of the stratum spongiosum 1-5 μm across, a middle layer of irregular spheroid to ovoid cells, with a granular interior made up of two types of granules (smaller irregular sub-spherical granules and larger rounded granules), and a lower layer comprising larger smooth surfaced ovoid cells with prominant lateral processes. These are interpretted as being different types of chromatophores based upon comparison with living Snakes, with an upper layer of iridophores (reflective, irridescent cells), a middle layer of xanthophores (cells contianing yellow carotenoid pigments) and erythrophores (cells contianing orange pteridine pigments), and a base layer comprising melanophores (cells with black or dark brown melanin pigments ...
Electrochromic films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide were made by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The optical properties were investigated in detail by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry, using a multiple-sample approach. The W-oxide film was modeled as a homogeneous isotropic layer, whereas the Ni-oxide film was modeled as an anisotropic layer with the optical axis perpendicular to the surface. Parametric models of the two layers were then used to derive complex refractive index in the 300-1700 nm range, film thickness, and surface roughness. A band gap of 3.15 eV was found for the W-oxide film, using a Tauc-Lorentz parameterization. For the Ni-oxide film, taken to have direct optical transitions, band gaps along the optical axis, perpendicular to it, and in an isotropic intermediate layer at the bottom of the film were found to be ...
There are two modes with this electrochromic compound: Transparent and Colored. That implies that the non-transparent mode is still not 100% opaque, which would be insufficient to operate as a shutter. You would require 100% opacity for this to behave as some kind of organic shutter…who knows if that is what this will lead to.. The more interesting implication of the organic compound is…could it lead to organic dynamic color filters? Imagine a camera that had 100% fill factor for all three color channels, or potentially any number of color channels, or RGB+L (luminance), all with high transmittance and more sensitivity than a Foveon. Thats what I think of when I hear "electrochromic"…a better future alternative to full color fill factor sensors than a Canon (or Sony, or Aptina, …) version of the Foveon.. ...
The one point I lost that I did not think was fair was on an unknown organism we had to test & identify which I did very well I thought. I was proud of myself because I had been having a little trouble with the microscope during those assignments but it all came together for me that evening also lucky because that was my night for a scope test-a test so the teacher would know that I knew what I was doing-I was dead on or so I thought till I got my data sheet and lost a point because I had identified Staphylococcus epidermidis although the tube my teacher handed allegedly contained Rhodospirillum rubrum. The professor had even looked at my slide so knew my answer based on the data in front of me was correct but the tube said no so I lost a point....I suppose something along the way must have been contaminated but it makes me more apprehensive for our finals which will be a couple of weeks of dealing with unknowns ...
An information recording medium includes an insulating member, first and second electrodes formed in one plane of the insulating member, and a conductive layer having an electrochromic material providing continuity with the first and second electrodes. A gap between the first and second electrodes is insulated.
A display comprises spaced first and second electrodes, and a plurality of electrochromic nanoparticles disposed between the electrodes, each of the nanoparticles having an electron-rich state and an electron-depleted state, the two states differing in at least one optical characteristic. Upon injection of charge from one of the electrodes, the nanoparticles switch between their electron-rich and electron-depleted states, thus changing an optical characteristic of the display.
Lobsters molts or shed their shell in order to grow. It takes about 20 molts over a 5-7 year span for a lobster to reach adulthood. Before shedding the old shell, a paper-thin shell is formed under the old shell. When the old shell is shed, the lobster is then a new shell, or soft shell lobster. They must hide in the ocean rocks and cavities until the shell hardens into a new protection of red armor cladding. Many people prefer to eat the soft shell lobster because it is sweeter and requires no tools to crack them open. The green substance under the carapace is called tomalley and contains the liver and pancreas of the lobster. The tomalley acts as a natural filter to prevent contaminants from entering the lobster. Most lobsters are actually green/brown with a tinge of orange on the underbelly, but they turn red when steamed or boiled. The various color pigments (chromatophores) are masked except for the astaxanthin, which is the background red pigment. Sometimes you may see a rare blue, ...
Gottstein, J. und Scheer, Hugo (1983): Long-wavelength-absorbing forms of bacteriochlorophyll a in solutions of Triton X-100. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 80: S. 1887-1892 ...
Reslewic S, Zhou SG, Place M, Zhang YP, Briska A, Goldstein S, Churas C, Runnheim R, Forrest D, Lim A, et al. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2005 ;71:5511-5522. ...
A display system includes a printed display formed on a substrate and a printed battery in electrical communication with the printed display. The printed display provides power to the printed display. Since both the display and battery are printed, the resulting display system is extremely thin and the manufacture thereof is reliable and inexpensive. The display system contemplates various types of printed displays such as an electrochromic display, a thermochromic display, an electroluminescent display, or an electrophoretic display.
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Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Rhodospirillum rubrum, Gram-negative, purple nonsulfur prokaryote (bacterium). R. rubrum is a purple-colored Proteobacterium from the family Rhodospirillaceae. Its colour comes from carotenoid pigments, rhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin. It is a spiral-shaped bacterium that has polar flagella and can live both anaerobically and aerobically. Under anaerobic growth conditions (without oxygen) it can photosynthesize using light (phototroph). As a phototroph, R. rubrum can grow autotrophically or heterotrophically. Photosynthesis by R. rubrum differs from that of plants, it does not have chlorophyll a, but bacteriochlorophyll. The carotenoids also help gather light energy for photosynthesis. Under aerobic growth conditions (with oxygen) it is called a chemotroph. R. rubrum is considered both heterotrophic and autotrophic. It is found in mud, pond water, and sewage samples. Magnification: x2,600 when shortest - Stock Image C032/2107
The endosymbiotic theory states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as symbioses between separate single-celled organisms. According to this theory, mitochondria and plastids (e.g.chloroplasts), and possibly other organelles, represent formerly free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as an endosymbiont. Molecular and biochemical evidence suggest that the mitochondrion developed from proteobacteria and the chloroplast from cyanobacteria.. The usual way to distinguish organelles from endosymbionts is by their reduced genome sizes. As an endosymbiont evolves into an organelle, most of their genes are transferred to the host cell genome. The host cell and organelle need to develop a transport mechanism that enables transfer back of the protein products needed by the organelle but now manufactured by the cell. However, using the example of the freshwater amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, which contains chromatophores found to be evolved from cyanobacteria, it is ...
What is the difference between Oxidative phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation? Electron transfer drives ATP production in oxidative phosphorylation but...
In 2013, then-Rice physicist Alejandro Manjavacas found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the family of molecules that perylene belongs to, with just a few carbon rings should produce visible plasmons. There are dozens of PAHs, all of which contain rings of carbon atoms that are decorated with hydrogen atoms.. Waves of energy that can interact with and harvest energy from passing light depending on their frequency, plasmons are a rhythmic movement in the sea of electrons that constantly flow across the surface of conductive nanoparticles. Building off Manjavacas work, the researchers were able to work out that the PAH plasmons were highly sensitive to charge, leading them to the conclusion they could be easily utilised for electrochromic glass.. "Dr Halas learned that one of the major hurdles in the electrochromic device industry was making a window that could be clear in one state and completely black in another," study co-lead author Grant Stec said. "We set out to do that and ...
Sage Electrochromics has shipped its first large order of energy-saving, variable-tint glass from its $150 million Faribault, Minn., factory thats ramping up toward full production.. The new plant allows Sage, a unit of Paris-based building products giant Saint-Gobain, to produce larger-sized, lower-cost electrochromic glass for major commercial buildings. Electrochromic glass changes tint with the flip of a switch to reduce solar radiation. Sages first large order was shipped to Argonne National Labs Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility, which is under construction outside of Chicago, the company said last week. The labs south-facing wall will have more than 2,000 square feet of SageGlass that controls glare and heat gain, the company said.. The new, larger factory next to Sages Faribault headquarters was completed last year. The market for smart glass is expected to grow eightfold to nearly $700 million by 2020. Sages technology offers energy savings on lighting, heating and ...
Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC ® 17029D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain ATH 2.4.9 TypeStrain=False Application: Biotechnology
NADP Transhydrogenase: An enzyme present in the mitochondrial membrane of animals and in microorganisms. In the presence of energy (ATP) it catalyzes reversibly the reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes. EC 1.6.1.1.
Rambabu Sydam, Melepurath Deepa, S.M. Shivaprasad and A.K. Srivastava , A WO3-poly(butyl viologen) layer-by-layer film/ruthenium purple film based electrochromic device switching by 1 volt application, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 132, 148 - 161 (2015 ...
The discovery of semi-conducting and conducting organic materials has opened new possibilities for electronic devices and systems. Applications, previously unattainable for conventional electronics, have become possible thanks to the development of conjugated polymers. Conjugated polymers that are both ion- and electron conducting, allow for electrochemical doping and de-doping via reversible processes as long as both forms of conduction remain available. Doping causes rearrangement of the -system along the polymer backbone, and creates new states in the optical band gap, resulting in an increased electronic conductivity and also control of the color (electrochromism). Doping can also occur by charge injection at a metal - semiconducting polymer interface. Electrochemical electronic devices and solid state devices based on these two types of doping are now beginning to enter the market.. This thesis deals with organic based-devices whose working mechanism involves electrolytes. After ...
Large collection of high quality biology pictures, photos, images, illustrations, diagrams and posters on marine biology, cell biology, microbiology... for educational purposes.. ...
A 2D network [Zn4(OH)2(5-NO2-1,3-BDC)2(5-NO2-1,3-HBDC)2(ppene)2]n underwent a highly selective [2+2] photodimerization reaction upon UV irradiation. The coordination polymer retains its single crystallinity after photoreaction.
... bacterial chromatophores MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117 - cell nucleus MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117.550 - macronucleus ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.360 - chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284 ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.180.290 - flagella MeSH A11.284.180.290.835 - sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284. ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial ...
Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm. This ... If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
These may include iridophores, leucophores, chromatophores and (in some species) photophores. Chromatophores are colored ... It is not certain whether bioluminescence is actually of epithelial origin or if it is a bacterial production.[28] ... Two chromatophores are present on each side of the mantle. Centre: Ventral, dorsal and side views of a more advanced paralarva ... An equatorial circulet of seven large yellow-brown chromatophores is present on the mantle. Posteriorly the expanded vanes of ...
Bacterial small RNAs have been identified as components of many regulatory networks. Twenty sRNAs were experimentally ... These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ... Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most pivotal organisms in the study of bacterial photosynthesis. It requires no unusual ... Mank, Nils N.; Berghoff, Bork A.; Hermanns, Yannick N.; Klug, Gabriele (2012-10-02). "Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis ...
... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... revealed that chromatophores underwent a drastic genome shrinkage. Chromatophores contained genes that were accountable for ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... Thus, these chromatophores were found to be non-functional for organelle-specific purposes when compared to mitochondria and ...
However, these remains are not impressions per se, but outlines formed from bacterial growth. In one case, a true impression of ... Other chromatophore structures (such as iridiophores, xanthophores, and erythrophores) affect coloration in extant reptiles but ... Unique conditions permitted the preservation of these outlines, which probably consist of bacterial mats, not the remains of ... Thus, due to the unknown presence of these chromatophores, YORYM 1993.338, could have been countershaded, green, or various ...
Nonbloodsucking leeches, such as Erpobdella punctata, are host to three bacterial symbionts, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and ... Some rhynchobdellids have the ability to change colour dramatically by moving pigment in chromatophore cells; this process is ... In Hirudo medicinalis, these supplementary factors are produced by an obligatory symbiotic relationship with two bacterial ...
"Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. 1987. PMID 3153178.. Unknown parameter ,last૧=. ignored ( ... "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie (Vienna, Austria ... "Chromatophore systems in teleosts and cephalopods: a levels oriented analysis of convergent systems". Brain, behavior and ... "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Res. 13 (5): 300-19. 2000. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2000 ...
Chromatophores come in a variety of types based on the color they correspond to. Chromatophore types include xanthophores ( ... Gastroenteritis, caused by bacterial or protozoan (especially Cryptosporidium) infection brought on by such things as ... Their color is derived from pigment-containing cells known as chromatophores. These cells are responsible for an array of ...
Schulten's team modeled the structure and function of a Purple bacteria's chromatophore, one of the simplest living examples of ... transfer and spin exchange contributing to the magnetic field dependence of the primary photochemical reaction of bacterial ...
Instead, the colour of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain ... even anti-bacterial/viral properties for protection against pathogens. The ducts of the mucous gland appear as cylindrical ... chameleons and flounders may be able to change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores ...
Many cyanobacteria even display the circadian rhythms that were once thought to exist only in eukaryotic cells (see bacterial ... Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (March 2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... Archean Eon Bacterial phyla, other major lineages of Bacteria Biofertilizer Biodiesel Cyanobiont Cyanotoxin Endosymbiotic ... ISBN 978-0-08-087782-2. Kerfeld CA, Heinhorst S, Cannon GC (2010). "Bacterial microcompartments". Annual Review of Microbiology ...
Bacterial shell disease was first described in Penaeus and Callinectes sapidus by Cook and Lofton (1973). Hasson K.W., D.V. ... a red tail due to the expansion of the red chromatophores. Mortality during this phase can be as high as 95%. The acute phase ... such as bacterial shell disease. In general pathognomonic histopathological lesions are the first step in confirmatory ...
Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around 850 ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes, chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... The ribosomes in chloroplasts are similar to bacterial ribosomes. Because so many chloroplast genes have been moved to the ...
While for G3 the interaction between the leucophores and chromatophores (case 5) is used to produce solutions around the best ... processes that has been used as the basis for a metaheuristic framework now includes such diverse processes as bacterial ... the interaction between chromatophores and iridophores) to produce a new solutions. These two cases are used as a global search ... the interaction between Iridophores and chromatophores) to produces a new solutions) as a local search. ...
Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes Moore MJ, Soltis PS ... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. ISSN 1471-2164. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host.[23] Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes,[9] chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ... About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in Paulinella is from the chromatophore, compared with 11-14% from the chloroplast in plants. ... Chloroplast ribosomes Comparison of a chloroplast ribosome (green) and a bacterial ribosome (yellow). Important features common ...
ISBN 0-8151-3762-1. Stulberg DL, Penrod MA, Blatny RA; Penrod; Blatny (2002). "Common bacterial skin infections". Am Fam ... chromatophore nevus of Naegeli) Netherton syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease) Neurofibromatosis ...
PPases are present in bacterial, plant and animal cells and cell organelles. Membrane bound PPases... ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). The membrane bound PPase ...
"Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Chromatophores" was a major or minor topic ... "Bacterial Chromatophores" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bacterial Chromatophores". ...
Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device: Detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens. Pigment ... 10 This approach exploits the ability of living chromatophores to respond to many active substances such as bacterial toxins; ... A bioluminescence assay method has been developed8 in which the AK is extracted from the bacterial cell and ADP is added in ... It is based on the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present within a bacterial cell; however, the amount of ATP present ...
Kell, D.B. (1983) Dielectric properties of bacterial chromatophores. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 11, 405-415. ... On the functional unit of energy coupling in photophosphorylation by bacterial chromatophores. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 308- ... Mukamolova, G.V., Kaprelyants, A.S., Young, D.I., Young, M. & Kell, D.B. (1998) A bacterial cytokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95 ... Phillips, M.K., Rhodes-Roberts, M.E. & Kell, D.B. (1984) The anti-bacterial action of Tinopal AN. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 1999- ...
Absorption Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores. Kuntz, I. D., Loach, P. A. & Calvin, M., Jan 1 1964, In : Biophysical Journal. ... Recombination frequencies of proximal markers in bacterial conjugation. Wu, T. T., Oct 1967, In : Journal of Theoretical ... A COMPARISON OF DECAY KINETICS OF PHOTO‐PRODUCED ABSORBANCE, EPR, AND LUMINESCENCE CHANGES IN CHROMATOPHORES OF RHODOSPIRRILLUM ...
Mukamolova, G. V., Kaprelyants, A. S., Young, D. I., Young, M. & Kell, D. B. (1998). A bacterial cytokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... photophosphorylation by chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata N22. Biochem. J. 212, 25-30. [ abstract ] ... Fuqua, C., Winans S.C. & Greenberg, E.P. (1996). Census and consensus in bacterial ecosystems: The LuxR-LuxI family of quorum- ... In Bacterial Energy Transduction (ed. C. J. Anthony), pp. 429-490. Academic Press, London. ...
H+ motors that rotate bacterial flagella; (2) H+ that allow accumulation of metabolites in the bacterial cell; (3) Na+ , K+ - ... When CoQH2 is oxidized, two H+ ions are released to the periplasm or inside the chromatophore (Fig. 2.4). The electron accepted ... That is why in this section only a short description of the bacterial bc1 complex will be given. The bc1 complex comprises ... This process is oriented in the direction of the cytoplasmic surface of a bacterial membrane. An electron was shown to cross 35 ...
... chromatophores. Despite the highly curved nature of the chromatophore membrane and lack of direct support, the resolution was ... ATP-synthase (ATPase); chromatophores; high-speed AFM; light-harvesting 2 (LH2); native curved membranes; RC-LH1-PufX; ... Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy ... 4 more authors) (2016) Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic ...
Clayton RK, Arnold W (1961) Absorption spectra of bacterial chromatophores at temperatures from 300 K to 1 K. Biochim Biophys ...
Isolation and characterization of bound ion-sulfur proteins from bacterial photosynthetic membranes. I. Ferredoxins III and IV ... Evidence for a glutamine synthetase-chromatophore association in the phototroph Rhodospirillum rubrum: purification, properties ... Isolation and characterization of bound ion-sulfur proteins from bacterial photosynthetic membranes. II. Succinate ...
RK Clayton, WR Sistrom and WS Zaugg (1965) The role of reaction centers in photochemical activities of bacterial chromatophores ... RK Clayton (1962) Primary reactions in bacterial photosynthesis. I. Nature oflight-induced absorption changes in chromatophores ... WW Parson (1978) The bacterial reaction center. In: J Amesz (ed) Photosynthesis, pp 43-61. ElsevierGoogle Scholar ... G Feher, JP Allen, MY Okamura and DC Rees (1989) Structure and function of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. Nature ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
... and chromatophores exhibit certain strongly enhanced lines under illumination, a result of photochemically induced dynamic ... Wavelength and Time Dependence Solid-state NMR spectra of quinone-reduced photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RCs) ... Studies of Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers: ... Studies of Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers: Wavelength and ...
Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm. This ... If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if its partially removed, it is called a ...
Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their ... This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to ...
In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).) * Clone Cells [M0004604]. A ... Chromatophores [M0004384]. The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse ... Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color ...
... bacterial chromatophores MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117 - cell nucleus MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117.550 - macronucleus ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.360 - chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284 ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.180.290 - flagella MeSH A11.284.180.290.835 - sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284. ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial ...
Electron transfer, proton translocation, and A T P synthesis in bacterial chromatophores. Curr . Top. Bioenergetics 12:197-257 ... 18 MATERIALS A N D METHODS 1. Growth and maintainance of bacterial strains. The R. capsulatus bacterial strains used in this ... 19) have noted that a common motif of purple bacterial L H Bchl-binding sites is the amino acid sequence A l a / G l y - X - X ... Conserved domains in bacterial regulatory proteins that respond to environmental stimuli. Cell 49: 579-581. 95. Schmidhauser, T ...
Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Fractionation. *Cell Membrane. *Chlorophyll/biosynthesis. *Chromatium/cytology. *Electron ...
BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES. CROMATOFOROS BACTERIANOS. CROMATÓFOROS BACTERIANOS. BASE PAIR MISMATCH. DISPARIDAD DE PAR BASE. ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Chromatophore use Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromosome use ... Bacterial Skin Diseases use Skin Diseases, Bacterial Bacterial Small Ribosomal Subunits use Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Concept use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiological Concepts use Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomenon use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiology use Bacterial Physiological ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Chromatophore use Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromosome use ... Bacterial Skin Diseases use Skin Diseases, Bacterial Bacterial Small Ribosomal Subunits use Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Concept use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiological Concepts use Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomenon use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiology use Bacterial Physiological ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Chromatophore use Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromosome use ... Bacterial Skin Diseases use Skin Diseases, Bacterial Bacterial Small Ribosomal Subunits use Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Concept use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiological Concepts use Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomenon use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiology use Bacterial Physiological ...
17918394 - The role of environmental and spatial factors for the composition of aquatic bacterial .... 2861944 - Control of ... chromatophore movements in dermal chromatic units of blue damselfish--i. the.... Publication Detail: Type: Comparative Study; ...
Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Nucleus. *Cytoplasmic Vesicles. *Endoplasmic Reticulum. *Golgi Apparatus. *Magnetosomes. * ...
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently use the classical phage lysis assays for the confirmed identification of these bacterial pathogens 2-4 . (jove.com)
  • To study the role of this fragment in bacterial cytochrome bc(1) complex, Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants expressing His-tagged cytochrome bc(1) complexes with deletion or single- or multiple-alanine substitution at various positions of this fragment (residues 96-107) were generated and characterized. (duke.edu)
  • Sequence alignment of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) of cytochrome bc(1) complex from various sources reveals that bacterial ISPs contain an extra fragment. (duke.edu)
  • DNA sequence analysis to estimate the time of the chromatophore / cyanobacteria divergence (and thus the endosymbiosis event ) places it in the range of 60 million years ago - a mere blink compared to the billion years since the ancestors of chloroplasts entered their host cell. (gaselectricity.in)
  • Both PSI and PSII of plants and cyanobacteria belong to the PRC superfamily, but they are more complex than the purple bacterial members. (tcdb.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that the chromatophores originated from marine α-cyanobacteria from the Prochlorococcus / Synechococcus clade. (plos.org)
  • More recently, the AFM has proven the unique tool for studying the supramolecular assembly of the bacterial photosynthetic unit ( 9 - 12 ) and has provided a solid basis for the understanding of the ensemble function of the photosynthetic proteins ( 4 , 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Remaining genes in the chromatophore suggest a strong metabolic interdependence with the amoebal nucleocytoplasm. (plos.org)
  • We suspect that they may also have inherited bacterial redox control systems to regulate these genes. (jfallen.org)
  • Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/ ), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. (genetics.org)
  • Other authors propose that ER/Golgi-mediated targeting represents a derived evolutionary feature, and that the translocon complexes evolved gradually from simpler transporters that already existed on bacterial genomes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The bacterial form of the recA gene is present in eukaryotic genomes because they were acquired via EGT in conjunction with the uptake of the mitochondrion and plastid [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes Moore MJ, Soltis PS, Bell CD, Burleigh JG, Soltis DE (2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has previously been shown that neither the Paulinella host cell nor the chromatophores are related to the eukaryotic lineage containing primary plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is likely that the origin of the chromatophore is one or two orders of magnitude more recent than the establishment of the primary plastids of plants and algae. (plos.org)
  • The leucophores and iridophores (both structural elements of coloration) provide an adaptive base layer in the dermal tissue, whereas the chromatophores, located above them, impart an active colour change through areal expansion [ 11 , 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This research will be critical for a better understanding of how integration of chromatophore physiology into the biological networks of the host cell is accomplished, and -in more general- will provide insights into mechanisms that eukaryotic cells employ to take control over a bacterial endosymbiont and that might be important early events in the evolution of an organelle. (hhu.de)
  • Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We demonstrate that several major eukaryotic lineages have lost the bacterial recombinases (including Opisthokonta and Excavata), whereas others have retained them (Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida and the SAR-supergroups). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Molecular imaging of glycan chains couples cell-wall polysaccharide architecture to bacterial cell morphology. (imagine-imaginglife.com)
  • Apart from the urease tests, there are a number of other methods used to diagnose stomach infection (histological examination, bacterial culture , molecular biology techniques) [2,3,12- (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we seek to understand, with molecular and atomistic fidelity, two such machines: the cellulosome and the chemosensory array, which underlie the phenomena of bacterial plant fiber degradation and chemotaxis respectively. (uiuc.edu)
  • In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. (genetics.org)
  • This combination allowed researchers to visualize the complex between the ribosome and a protein-conducting channel that directs proteins into and across membranes for both a mammalian system (reported here ) and a bacterial system (reported here ). (uiuc.edu)
  • In addition, high-potential iron-sulfur protein was not detected in the chromatophores. (meta.org)
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. extracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical examples include: coccus (spherical) bacillus (rod-like) spiral(DNA-like) filamentous (elongated) Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is significant variation in chromatophore shape among species. (uiuc.edu)
  • Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Currently, there is an explosive amount of biofilm research, most of it with the ultimate aims of biofilm prevention, control, or eradication.The present investigation was aimed to study the cell signaling principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms , totally 54 bacterial isolates were made out of 20 seaweed species. (gilroypheromones.com)
  • Metabolic reconstructions from recently obtained genomic and transcriptomic data imply an intricate metabolic entanglement of host and chromatophore and allowed us to make specific predictions about many metabolites that seem to be exchanged between host and chromatophore. (hhu.de)
  • In this sense, the chemosensory array functions as a bacterial brain, transforming sensory input into motile output. (uiuc.edu)
  • After overnight growth of the cultivated bacterium in the presence of the specific phage, the formation of plaques (bacterial lysis) provides a positive identification of the bacterial target. (jove.com)
  • Indeed, fluorescence microscopy has been used in high throughput screening of bacterial mutants for defects in colonization 17 , 18 , and is less laborious than other methods, including sonication 22 , 25-27 and individual nematode dissection 28 , 29 . (jove.com)
  • Prior to the start of each trial, 20 ebonyshells and 20 brook trout were assayed by primary bacterial culture as previously described (Starliper 2001, Starliper et al. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Simulations of the bacterial ribosome-channel complex, among the largest ever performed, further revealed the steps in the direction process. (uiuc.edu)