The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.

The structure of chromatophores from purple photosynthetic bacteria fused with lipid-impregnated collodion films determined by near-field scanning optical microscopy. (1/166)

Lipid-impregnated collodion (nitrocellulose) films have been frequently used as a fusion substrate in the measurement and analysis of electrogenic activity in biological membranes and proteoliposomes. While the method of fusion of biological membranes or proteoliposomes with such films has found a wide application, little is known about the structures formed after the fusion. Yet, knowledge of this structure is important for the interpretation of the measured electric potential. To characterize structures formed after fusion of membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides with lipid-impregnated collodion films, we used near-field scanning optical microscopy. It is shown here that structures formed from chromatophores on the collodion film can be distinguished from the lipid-impregnated background by measuring the fluorescence originating either from endogenous fluorophores of the chromatophores or from fluorescent dyes trapped inside the chromatophores. The structures formed after fusion of chromatophores to the collodion film look like isolated (or sometimes aggregated, depending on the conditions) blisters, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 10 microm (average approximately 1 microm) and heights from 0.01 to 1 microm (average approximately 0.03 microm). These large sizes indicate that the blisters are formed by the fusion of many chromatophores. Results with dyes trapped inside chromatophores reveal that chromatophores fused with lipid-impregnated films retain a distinct internal water phase.  (+info)

Escape probability and trapping mechanism in purple bacteria: revisited. (2/166)

Despite intensive research for decades, the trapping mechanism in the core complex of purple bacteria is still under discussion. In this article, it is attempted to derive a conceptionally simple model that is consistent with all basic experimental observations and that allows definite conclusions on the trapping mechanism. Some experimental data reported in the literature are conflicting or incomplete. Therefore we repeated two already published experiments like the time-resolved fluorescence decay in LH1-only purple bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas viridis chromatophores with open and closed (Q(A)(-)) reaction centers. Furthermore, we measured fluorescence excitation spectra for both species under the two redox-conditions. These data, all measured at room temperature, were analyzed by a target analysis based on a three-state model (antenna, primary donor, and radical pair). All states were allowed to react reversibly and their decay channels were taken into consideration. This leads to seven rate constants to be determined. It turns out that a unique set of numerical values of these rate constants can be found, when further experimental constraints are met simultaneously, i.e. the ratio of the fluorescence yields in the open and closed (Q(A)(-)) states F(m)/F(o) approximately 2 and the P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics of 3-6 ns. The model allows to define and to quantify escape probabilities and the transfer equilibrium. We conclude that trapping in LH1-only purple bacteria is largely transfer-to-the-trap-limited. Furthermore, the model predicts properties of the reaction center (RC) in its native LH1-environment. Within the framework of our model, the predicted P(+)H(-)-recombination kinetics are nearly indistinguishable for a hypothetically isolated RC and an antenna-RC complex, which is in contrast to published experimental data for physically isolated RCs. Therefore RC preparations may display modified kinetic properties.  (+info)

Reduction and protonation of the secondary quinone acceptor of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction center: kinetic model based on a comparison of wild-type chromatophores with mutants carrying Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. (3/166)

After the light-induced charge separation in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the electron reaches, via the tightly bound ubiquinone QA, the loosely bound ubiquinone Q(B) After two subsequent flashes of light, Q(B) is reduced to ubiquinol Q(B)H2, with a semiquinone anion Q-(B) formed as an intermediate after the first flash. We studied Q(B)H2 formation in chromatophores from Rb. sphaeroides mutants that carried Arg-->Ile substitution at sites 207 and 217 in the L-subunit. While Arg-L207 is 17 A away from Q(B), Arg-L217 is closer (9 A) and contacts the Q(B)-binding pocket. From the pH dependence of the charge recombination in the RC after the first flash, we estimated deltaG(AB), the free energy difference between the Q-(A)Q(B) and Q(A)Q-(B) states, and pK212, the apparent pK of Glu-L212, a residue that is only 4 A away from Q(B). As expected, the replacement of positively charged arginines by neutral isoleucines destabilized the Q-(B) state in the L217RI mutant to a larger extent than in the L207RI one. Also as expected, pK212 increased by approximately 0.4 pH units in the L207RI mutant. The value of pK212 in the L217RI mutant decreased by 0.3 pH units, contrary to expectations. The rate of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition upon the second flash, as monitored by electrometry via the accompanying changes in the membrane potential, was two times faster in the L207RI mutant than in the wild-type, but remained essentially unchanged in the L217RI mutant. To rationalize these findings, we developed and analyzed a kinetic model of the Q-(A)Q-(B)-->Q(A)Q(B)H2 transition. The model properly described the available experimental data and provided a set of quantitative kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the Q(B) turnover. The non-electrostatic, 'chemical' affinity of the QB site to protons proved to be as important for the attracting protons from the bulk, as the appropriate electrostatic potential. The mutation-caused changes in the chemical proton affinity could be estimated from the difference between the experimentally established pK2J2 shifts and the expected changes in the electrostatic potential at Glu-L212, calculable from the X-ray structure of the RC. Based on functional studies, structural data and kinetic modeling, we suggest a mechanistic scheme of the QB turnover. The detachment of the formed ubiquinol from its proximal position next to Glu-L212 is considered as the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle.  (+info)

DCCD inhibits the reactions of the iron-sulfur protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. (4/166)

N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) has been reported to inhibit proton translocation by cytochrome bc(1) and b(6)f complexes without significantly altering the rate of electron transport, a process referred to as decoupling. To understand the possible role of DCCD in inhibiting the protonogenic reactions of cytochrome bc(1) complex, we investigated the effect of DCCD modification on flash-induced electron transport and electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids in Rb. sphaeroides chromatophores. DCCD has two distinct effects on phase III of the electrochromic bandshift of carotenoids reflecting the electrogenic reactions of the bc(1) complex. At low concentrations, DCCD increases the magnitude of the electrogenic process because of a decrease in the permeability of the membrane, probably through inhibition of F(o)F(1). At higher concentrations (>150 microM), DCCD slows the development of phase III of the electrochromic shift from about 3 ms in control preparations to about 23 ms at 1.2 mM DCCD, without significantly changing the amplitude. DCCD treatment of chromatophores also slows down the kinetics of flash-induced reduction of both cytochromes b and c, from 1.5-2 ms in control preparations to 8-10 ms at 0.8 mM DCCD. Parallel slowing of the reduction of both cytochromes indicates that DCCD treatment modifies the reaction of QH(2) oxidation at the Q(o) site. Despite the similarity in the kinetics of both cytochromes, the onset of cytochrome c re-reduction is delayed 1-2 ms in comparison to cytochrome b reduction, indicating that DCCD inhibits the delivery of electrons from quinol to heme c(1). We conclude that DCCD treatment of chromatophores leads to modification of the rate of Q(o)H(2) oxidation by the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) as well as the donation of electrons from ISP to c(1), and we discuss the results in the context of the movement of ISP between the Q(o) site and cytochrome c(1).  (+info)

Fusion of chromatophores from photosynthetic bacteria with a supported lipid layer: characterization of the electric units. (5/166)

Direct electrometric measurements of membrane potential changes are a valuable tool for study of vectorial transfer of electrons, protons, and ions. Commonly model membrane systems are created by fusion of lipid/protein vesicles with lipid-coated thin films. We characterized the electric units resulting from this process using chromatophores from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and either a Mylar film or a planar modified gold electrode as support. Investigation of the shunting activity of the ionophore gramicidin on the flash-induced potential change demonstrates fusion of individual chromatophores to form independent 'blisters', which preserve an interior aqueous compartment. Under current-clamp conditions the photovoltage follows the change of the membrane potential of the individual blisters.  (+info)

Electrogenic proton transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers: effect of coenzyme Q(10) substitution by decylubiquinone in the Q(B) binding site. (6/166)

An electrometric technique was used to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q(10) (UQ), substitution by decylubiquinone (dQ) at the Q(B) binding site of reaction centers (UQ-RC and dQ-RC, respectively) on the electrogenic proton transfer kinetics upon Q(B) reduction in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chromatophores. Unlike dQ-RC, the kinetics of the second flash-induced proton uptake in UQ-RC clearly deviated from the mono-exponential one. The activation energy (about 30 kJ/mol) and the pH profile of the kinetics in dQ-RC were similar to those in UQ-RC, with the power law approximation used in the latter case. The interpretation of the data presumed the quinone translocation between the two binding positions within the Q(B) site. It is proposed that the native isoprenyl side chain (in contrast to decyl chain) favors the equilibrium binding of neutral quinone at the redox-active 'proximal' position, but causes a higher barrier for the hydroquinone movement from 'proximal' to 'distal' position.  (+info)

Changes in the acyl lipid composition of photosynthetic bacteria grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. (7/166)

The acyl lipids and their constituent fatty acids were studied in the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, which were grown under photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic conditions. The major lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in each bacterium. The two Rhodopseudomonas species also contained significant quantities of phosphatidylcholine. Other acyl lipids accounted for less than 10% of the total. On changing growth conditions from non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic a large increase in the relative proportion of phosphatidylglycerol was seen at the expense of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. In Rhodospirillum rubrum the fatty acids of the major phospholipids showed an increase in the proportion of palmitate and stearate and a decrease in palmitoleate and vaccenate on changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. In contrast, the exceptionally high levels (>80%) of vaccenate in individual phospholipids of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were unaffected by changing growth conditions to photosynthetic. Analysis of the lipids of chromatophores, isolated from the three bacteria, showed that these preparations were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol. The large increase in this phospholipid, seen during growth under photosynthetic conditions, appeared, therefore, to be due to a proliferation of chromatophore membranes. Possible roles for acyl lipids in the formation and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of bacteria are discussed.  (+info)

Coupling of proton flow to ATP synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus: F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase is absent from about half of chromatophores. (8/166)

F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase (H(+)-ATP synthase, F(0)F(1)) utilizes the transmembrane protonmotive force to catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Structurally the enzyme consists of a membrane-embedded proton-translocating F(0) portion and a protruding hydrophilic F(1) part that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP. In photosynthetic purple bacteria a single turnover of the photosynthetic reaction centers (driven by a short saturating flash of light) generates protonmotive force that is sufficiently large to drive ATP synthesis. Using isolated chromatophore vesicles of Rhodobacter capsulatus, we monitored the flash induced ATP synthesis (by chemoluminescence of luciferin/luciferase) in parallel to the transmembrane charge transfer through F(0)F(1) (by following the decay of electrochromic bandshifts of intrinsic carotenoids). With the help of specific inhibitors of F(1) (efrapeptin) and of F(0) (venturicidin), we decomposed the kinetics of the total proton flow through F(0)F(1) into (i) those coupled to the ATP synthesis and (ii) the de-coupled proton escape through F(0). Taking the coupled proton flow, we calculated the H(+)/ATP ratio; it was found to be 3.3+/-0.6 at a large driving force (after one saturating flash of light) but to increase up to 5.1+/-0.9 at a smaller driving force (after a half-saturating flash). From the results obtained, we conclude that our routine chromatophore preparations contained three subsets of chromatophore vesicles. Chromatophores with coupled F(0)F(1) dominated in fresh material. Freezing/thawing or pre-illumination in the absence of ADP and P(i) led to an increase in the fraction of chromatophores with at least one de-coupled F(0)(F(1)). The disclosed fraction of chromatophores that lacked proton-conducting F(0)(F(1)) (approx. 40% of the total amount) remained constant upon these treatments.  (+info)

Cr oxide films were produced by reactive de magnetron sputtering in Ar + O-2 + H-2. Weak anodic electrochromism was found in acidic electrolytes. A high optical transmittance and a modest voltage range for charge exchange make Cr oxide films of consi. ...
A rapidly expanding library of data from such experiments requires an interpretive method with atom-level chemical accuracy. However, despite prolonged efforts to develop an all-encompassing theory for describing vibrational solvatochromism and electrochromism as well as dynamic fluctuations of instantaneous vibrational frequencies, purely empirical and highly approximate theoretical models have often been used to interpret experimental results. They are, in many cases, based on the simple assumption that the vibrational frequency of an IR reporter is solely dictated by electric potential or field distribution around the vibrational chromophore. Such simplified description of vibrational solvatochromism generally referred to as vibrational Stark effect theory has been considered to be quite appealing and, even in some cases, e.g., carbonyl stretch modes in amide, ester, ketone, and carbonate compounds or proteins, it works quantitatively well, which makes it highly useful in determining the ...
i,Structures and electrochromism of spin-coated,/i, WO,sub,3,/sub,• ,i,n,/i,H,sub,2,/sub,O ,i,and,/i, (W, Mo) O,sub,3,/sub,•,i,n,/i,H,sub,2,/sub,O ,i,thin films,/i, (1992 ...
Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Dispersions of electrically conductive particles useful for preparing electrically conductive, essentially ionically isolative composite layers having electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Composite layers can be used in laminates for electrochromic displays where an ionically conductive layer is in contact with electrochromic material. Such displays comprise means for applying an electrical potential across the interface of the ionically conductive layer and the electrochromic material to generate an electrochromic effect at the interface. Electrochromic materials can be provided in the laminates as layers between the ionically conductive layer and the composite layer of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Alternatively, the electrochromic material can be incorporated in the conductive particles in the polymer matrix, e.g. as titanium dioxide coated with antimony tin oxide coated with polyaniline dispersed in an light transmitting polymer
To better understand how pigment granules themselves absorb or scatter light, a model chromatophore containing a 5 µm cube of densely packed pigment granules was constructed in silico (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(i,ii)). Reflectins have an index of refraction as high as 1.59 [28], which provide important guidance in defining the model parameters. The amount of reflected light from the pigment granules packed within the cube was calculated using FDTD simulations (Lumerical, FDTD Solutions) [14]. FDTD Solutions is a complete Maxwell solver providing numerical solutions for three-dimensional electromagnetic fields and was used to determine the role of pigment refractive index and granular structure on chromatophore absorbance over a wide frequency range. Pigment refractive index within the simulated chromatophores was varied from 1.33 to 1.65 (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(iii)). Our comparison between the simulation and experimentally measured reflectivity ...
The inventive electrochromic mirror may be used in a vehicle rearview mirror assembly having a light source positioned behind the electrochromic mirror for selectively projecting light through the mirror. The electrochromic mirror includes front and rear spaced elements each having front and rear surfaces and being sealably bonded together in a spaced-apart relationship to define a chamber, a layer of transparent conductive material disposed on the rear surface of the front element, an electrochromic material is contained within the chamber, and a second electrode overlies the front surface of the rear element in contact with the electrochromic material. The second electrode includes a layer of reflective material and a partially transmissive coating of and is disposed over substantially all of the front surface of the rear element. The second electrode further includes a region in front of the light source that is at least partially transmissive.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
Electrochromic devices are described having a layer of electrochromic material, e.g. WO3, in contact with a layer of organic electrolyte resin, with electrode means for changing electrochromic properties of the device by electric field means. The electrolyte resin layer comprises a hydrophilic layer of homopolymer of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) and in some preferred embodiments may further comprise a thinner layer of less hydrophilic electrolyte resin between the homopolymer and electrochromic layers.
The three oxidation states of Co in a molecular cobaloxime were used to realise an electrochromic device displaying the red, yellow, blue (RYB) set of subtractive primary colours. A facile method for the lithographic patterning of a several micrometre thick indium tin oxide (ITO) mesoporous layer was develop
Frustules in short or long filaments, sometimes free, oblong, separated by foramina and united by setae crossing each other near their insertion. Valves convex, concave or plane, usually elliptical, sometimes nearly circular. From each valve extend two setae, one on each side, which cross the setae of the opposing valve. Setae robust or slender, variable in length, with or without spines, punctate or transversely striated, often hollow. Chromatophores of various kinds, either laminate, single, on the wall of the zone, double, one on each valve, or granular and more or less numerous, either on the wall of the cell or scattered through the cell and the setae. Pyrenoids occasionally found. Spores occur in some species with more or less equal and convex valves, sometimes furnished with spines or with the setae of the parent cell attached. All species are marine or occur in saline water. Gran classifies the genus according to the chromatophores. The variation in number and form of the chromatophores ...
An electrochromic display composed of a transparent electroconductive membrane, an electrochromic membrane, an ion-exchange membrane and a counter electrode in a laminated structure. The ion-exchange membrane is a bipolar ion-exchange membrane composed of at least one cation-exchange membrane layer having cation-exchange groups and at least one anion-exchange membrane layer containing anion-exchange groups in a laminated structure. The electrochromic display has a superior response speed, contrast and resolving power as well as a long service life.
Black Electrochromic Smart Film for Car Window, Tint Film(id:9402029). View product details of Black Electrochromic Smart Film for Car Window, Tint Film from Eb Glass manufacturer in EC21
Electrochromic coating solutions are prepared by reacting a transition metal with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and an organic acid. The resulting transition metal-peroxy acid product is esterified by reacting with lower carbon alcohols to produce a peroxyester-transition metal derivative. This derivative in solution in lower carbon alcohols provides a working solution into which a substrate having a conductive surface is preferably dipped and removed at a rate sufficient to give a coating of a desired thickness over the conductive surface. Spray or spin coating can be used to apply the coating to the conductive surface of the substrate. The coating is then dried and is externally fired in an oven to complete the necessary reactions to yield an electrochromic oxide coating having exceptional electrochromic properties.
The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of a novel hybrid electrochromic coating material with superior performance in terms of transparency, electrochromic contrast, coloration efficiency, and adhesion, for a use in electrochromic devices for applications where a high transparency is required in the bleached state.
An electrochromic device comprises an ion conductive layer containing an electrochromic polymer that has a bipyridine ion pair structure and a metallocene structure and/or a dihydroxyphenaizine struct
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switchi
A novel edge design for a laminated electrochromic device containing an ion-conducting material layer prone to moisture gain or loss disposed between first and second substrates is disclosed. The device is characterized by a continuous nub on its circumferential edge which is aligned with the ion-conducting material interface between the substrates forming the device. The nub can be used to interlock with a peripheral edge seal.
The intergovernmental agreement on the large-scale project of the Turkish Stream gas system construction came into force last month, Putin said.. Implementation of this project in practice will make possible to scale up natural gas supplies to Turkey and increase its transit potential, he added.. Bilateral cooperation in energy sphere is genuinely strategic, the Russian president noted. Turkey is ranked second by procurements of gas from Russia. Good prospects are in place to deepen industrial cooperation in metals industry, automotive sector and production of agricultural machinery, Putin added.. ...
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
An electrochromic window assembly includes a security system for monitoring breakage of the electrochromic window assembly. Control circuitry is connected to the electrochromic window assembly for monitoring an electrical characteristic of one or more conductive coatings within the electrochromic window assembly, such as electrical resistance. Upon detecting a change in the electrical resistance, such as that caused by a break in one or more conductive coating, an alarm signal is generated and is sent to an alarm trigger circuit for activating an alarm. A method for monitoring penetration or breakage of an electrochromic window assembly is also provided, which method involves applying electrical activation to an electrochromic assembly and monitoring for a change in an electrical characteristic based on the applied electrical potential. Electrochromic window assemblies incorporating security alarm features in accordance with the present invention are particularly useful in automobile applications.
The Nature Index tracks the affiliations of high-quality scientific articles. Updated monthly, the Nature Index presents research outputs by institution and country. Use the Nature Index to interrogate publication patterns and to benchmark research performance.
0036]In one embodiment, the electrochromic composition including the aromatic component and optional branching component and additional aromatic component may be provided in a form in which the hydrolyzable groups are already hydrolyzed. Alternatively the electrochromic composition may be reacted with water to hydrolyze the hydrolyzable groups present in the aromatic component and, if present, the branching component and the additional aromatic component. Prior to the reaction with water, the electrochromic composition is typically dispersed in an organic solvent. In one embodiment of the present invention, the organic solvent is a ketone, e.g. methyl isobutyl ketone, though any suitable organic solvent known by those skilled in the art may be utilized. The organic solvent may act as a carrier for the electrochromic composition and is typically unreactive. The reaction with water is a hydrolysis reaction; i.e., the water reacts with the hydrolyzable groups bonded to the silicon-based group in ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.. https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes (see link below), ...
Page contains details about SWCNT thin film transistor/PEDOT:PSS electrochromic cell-based electrochromic display pixel . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
An improved electrochromic rearview mirror for motor vehicles, the mirror incorporating an information display area by removing a portion of a reflective and conductive layer on the inside (third) surface of the back glass element of a dimming portion of the rearview mirror and aligning a display device with this information display area. The portion removed is laser ablated to leave lines devoid of reflective material separated by lines of the reflective material. The remaining lines of reflective material are in electrical contact with the remaining reflective and conductive layer on the third surface. The reflective layer forms an integral electrode in contact with the electrochromic media, and may be a single layer of a highly reflective material or may comprise a series of coatings where the outer coating is a highly reflecting material. The other electrode on the inside (second) surface of the front glass is a transparent electrode which also contacts the electrochromic media inside the mirror
The delta psi of R. sphaeroides, grown under high light to reduce the levels of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll, was naturally manipulated using light intensity. The relationship between delta psi and the swimming speed of free swimming populations of cells was investigated. After de-energisation by incubation in the dark there was an apparent threshold of about -13 mV which had to be overcome before functional motor rotation could resume and at -45 mV the motor saturated. Further increases in delta psi over -45 mV did not increase the free swimming velocity. However, when a chemokinetic effector was added there was an increase in swimming speed, even though the delta psi was well above saturation, indicating that the chemokinetic response is independent of normal relationship between motor rotation and delta psi.
Bizouarn, Tania, Leonid A Sazanov, Sébastien Aubourg, and Julie Jackson. Estimation of the H+/H- Ratio of the Reaction Catalysed by the Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase in Chromatophores from over-Expressing Strains of Rhodospirillum Rubrum and in Liposomes Inlaid with the Purified Bovine Enzyme. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics 1273, no. 1 (1996): 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(95)00125-5 ...
Electrochromic nickel oxide films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a Ni target in gas mixtures of Ar and O2. When electrochemically cycled in 0.1 N KOH solution, large reversible changes in visible absorption were obtained within the first 10 bleach/color cycles. Films which showed the greatest changes in optical properties and charge capacity were produced within a narrow range of oxygen flow rates. The coloration efficiency was found to be insensitive to the sputtering conditions and stoichiometry, with a value of 34+-4 cm2C-1 at 550 nm. This indicates that microstructure and charge capacity determine the absorption coefficient. The reaction rate was found to depend on the concentration of OH- in the electrolyte, indicating that OH- diffusion in the electrolyte limits the rate of reaction.. ...
Electrochromic compounds capable of reversibly attenuating the transmittance of the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum are provided. These compounds exhibit an energy difference between the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) energy and the highest doubly occupied molecular orbital (HDOMO) energy (ESOMO−EHDOMO) of less than about 3.6 eV. In addition, these compounds have a transition moment of the configuration made up of the HDOMO and SOMO that is
The use of super-thin layers of inexpensive electrochromic polymers to generate sharp colors that can be quickly changed may lead to a less expensive
Page contains details about example of electrochromic dye-modified nanoparticles/electrolyte . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Comparison of permeant ion uptake and carotenoid band shift as methods for determining the membrane potential in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroide
This dissertation presents research on two different biological systems: (1) the light-harvesting proteins in the chromatophores of purple photosynthetic bacteria, and (2) the structure and function of the Hepatitis C viroporin p7. Purple photosynthetic bacteria form membranous pseudo-organelles called chromatophores which house the photosynthetic machinery. These chromatophore structures are formed out of the cytoplasmic membrane into various species-dependent shapes, such as spheres or flat lamellar folds. AFM images show that chromatophores are densely populated by the light harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2. LH1 is always found surrounding the reaction center, forming LH1-RC core complexes, which may be elliptically-shaped monomers or S-shaped dimers depending on the species of bacteria. LH2 is a small ring-shaped complex which is produced to expand the light-harvesting capacity of the chromatophore. In addition to their role in photosynthesis, the LH2 and LH1-RC proteins may also influence ...
Biochemical Physiology of a Respiration-Deficient Mutant of the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: Nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria ge
Smiejan, A., Wilkinson, K.J., Rossier, C. 2003. Cd bioaccumulation by a gram negative freshwater bacterium (Rhodospirillum rubrum). Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 701-706. ...
Some isomeric phosphaphenalenes Phosphaphenalenes are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing phosphorus with molecular formula C 12H 9P, related to the phenalene polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, C 13H 10. Phosphaphenalene can exist in a number of isomers depending on where in the ring system the phosphorus atom is placed. The phosphorus atom in these molecules has unusual properties, in particular changing its affinity as an electron acceptor when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. This makes phosphaphenalenes useful in optoelectronic applications such as temperature-dependent luminescence and electrochromism (reversibly changes colour when electricity is applied). Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José (2017). An insight on the aromatic changes in closed shell icosagen, tetrel, and pnictogen phenalenyl derivatives. Struct. Chem. 28 (2): 345-355. doi:10.1007/s11224-016-0882-y. Hindenberg, Philip; Romero-Nieto, Carlos (2016). ...
The United States Electrochromic Glass Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional and in-d - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
1BLU: Crystal structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum: evolutionary and mechanistic inferences for [3/4Fe-4S] ferredoxins.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q01194 (RP54_RHOSH), RNA polymerase sigma-54 factor. Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides)
AT A GLANCE Organization: Gentex Web Site: www.gentex.com Headquarters: Zeeland, Michigan Description: Gentex develops advanced electro-optical products (electronic devices combining photoelectric sensors and related electronic circuitry). They are the worlds leading supplier of electrochromic, automatic dimming rearview mirrors for the automotive industry. They came to Perforce looking for a defect tracking solution and now use Helix ALM to comply with Automotive SPICE.
An electrochromic lens being developed by scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology can turn from clear to tinted in seconds at the flick of a switch.
Ive owned the 2019 Moment DW for a few months now. The design offers almost twice as many features than most one person tents. Double walls, two doors, two vestibules and only two stakes needed to set up. The flawless construction quality is what I have grown to expect from Tarptent dating back to their early years. I upgraded the arch pole from aluminum to carbon fiber. I also had them seam-seal the shelter for an additional nominal fee. My Moment weighs 34 oz. I know there are lighter and heavier single person shelters and Ive owned my share of them. I mostly purchased the Moment for its unique features and design. These days I mostly got solo canoe trips until the waterways start freezing and then switch over to winter gear. Then my preferred shelter of choice is a tarp with a bivy. So I was quite impressed that another cool feature on the Moment is the rain fly can be set up alone. Unlike a typical tarp though which needs trees or hiking poles and a bunch of stakes to set up. The Moment ...
... bacterial chromatophores MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117 - cell nucleus MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117.550 - macronucleus ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.360 - chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284 ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.180.290 - flagella MeSH A11.284.180.290.835 - sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284. ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial ...
Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ... Bacterial DNA can be located in two places: Bacterial chromosome, located in the irregularly shaped region known as the ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm. This ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
These may include iridophores, leucophores, chromatophores and (in some species) photophores. Chromatophores are colored ... It is not certain whether bioluminescence is actually of epithelial origin or if it is a bacterial production.[28] ... Two chromatophores are present on each side of the mantle. Centre: Ventral, dorsal and side views of a more advanced paralarva ... An equatorial circulet of seven large yellow-brown chromatophores is present on the mantle. Posteriorly the expanded vanes of ...
These may include iridophores, leucophores, chromatophores and (in some species) photophores. Chromatophores are colored ... The bioluminescence is produced by bacterial symbionts; the host cephalopod is able to detect the light produced by these ... Cephalopods can use chromatophores like a muscle, which is why they can change their skin hue as rapidly as they do. Coloration ... These chromatophores are found throughout the body of the octopus, however, they are controlled by the same part of the brain ...
... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... revealed that chromatophores underwent a drastic genome shrinkage. Chromatophores contained genes that were accountable for ... Angomonas deanei, a protozoan that harbours an obligate bacterial symbiont. *Hatena arenicola, a species that appears to be in ... Thus, these chromatophores were found to be non-functional for organelle-specific purposes when compared with mitochondria and ...
Bacterial small RNAs have been identified as components of many regulatory networks. Twenty sRNAs were experimentally ... These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ... Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most pivotal organisms in the study of bacterial photosynthesis. It requires no unusual ... Mank, Nils N.; Berghoff, Bork A.; Hermanns, Yannick N.; Klug, Gabriele (2012-10-02). "Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis ...
The chromatophore genome has gone through a reduction, and is now just one third the size of the genome of its closest free ... The endosymbiotic event happened about 90-140 million years ago in a bacterial species which diverged about 500 million years ... Similar genes could have made the photosynthetic species pre-equipped to accept the chromatophore. M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & ... The resulting organelle is a photosynthetic plastid that is often referred to as a 'cyanelle' or chromatophore, and is the only ...
Purple bacteria have "chromatophores", which are reaction centers found in invaginations of the cell membrane. Green sulfur ... The bacterial phylum Planctomycetes has revealed a number of compartmentalization features. The Planctomycetes cell plan ... Ryter A (January-February 1988). "Contribution of new cryomethods to a better knowledge of bacterial anatomy". Annales de ... While prokaryotes do not possess eukaryotic organelles, some do contain protein-shelled bacterial microcompartments, which are ...
Some rhynchobdellids have the ability to change colour dramatically by moving pigment in chromatophore cells; this process is ... In Hirudo medicinalis, these supplementary factors are produced by an obligatory mutualistic relationship with two bacterial ... Non-bloodsucking leeches, such as Erpobdella punctata, are host to three bacterial symbionts, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and ...
Other chromatophore structures (such as iridiophores, xanthophores, and erythrophores) affect coloration in extant reptiles but ... Unique conditions permitted the preservation of these outlines, which probably consist of bacterial mats, not the remains of ... Thus, due to the unknown presence of these chromatophores, YORYM 1993.338, could have been countershaded, green, or various ... but outlines formed from bacterial growth. In one case, a true impression of the skin was reported from a specimen of ...
However, these remains are not impressions per se, but outlines formed from bacterial growth. In one case, a true impression of ... Other chromatophore structures (such as iridiophores, xanthophores, and erythrophores) affect coloration in extant reptiles but ... Unique conditions permitted the preservation of these outlines, which probably consist of bacterial mats, not the remains of ... Other researchers noted that, while the outlines might have been sharpened and smoothed by preparers because fossil bacterial ...
Its function is to concentrate red pigment granules in epithelial chromatophores, thus affecting color change of the body ... 1040: p. 106-113 Goldsworthy, G., K. Opoku-Ware, and L. Mullen, Adipokinetic hormone enhances laminarin and bacterial ...
This color-changing function is produced by groups of red, yellow, brown, and black pigmented chromatophores above a layer of ... English abstract Nithya, M., Ambikapathy, V., Panneerselvam, A. (2011). "Effect of pharaoh's cuttlefish ink against bacterial ... Similarly to other cuttlefish, pharaoh cuttlefish use these chromatophores for camouflage and other cryptic behaviors. They ... Cephalopod size Common cuttlefish Chromatophore Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. (2012). "Sepia pharaonis". IUCN Red List of ...
"Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. 1987. PMID 3153178.. Unknown parameter ,last૧=. ignored ( ... "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie (Vienna, Austria ... "Chromatophore systems in teleosts and cephalopods: a levels oriented analysis of convergent systems". Brain, behavior and ... "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Res. 13 (5): 300-19. 2000. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2000 ...
Instead, the color of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain ... Subcutaneous fat also produces cathelicidin, which is a peptide that fights bacterial infections. The term "skin" may also ... even anti-bacterial/viral properties for protection against pathogens. The ducts of the mucous gland appear as cylindrical ... chameleons and flounders may be able to change the color of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores. ...
Schulten's team modeled the structure and function of a Purple bacteria's chromatophore, one of the simplest living examples of ... transfer and spin exchange contributing to the magnetic field dependence of the primary photochemical reaction of bacterial ...
... is divided into two groups based on shape of vegetative cells and nature of chromatophore. In the first group, ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1984.tb03611.x Honegger, R. (2018). Fossil lichens from the Lower Devonian and their bacterial and ... The zoospores are flattened cells that contain a cup- shaped green chromatophore and two flagella of equal length arising from ... The cell division of Trebouxia occurs by the cleavage of the chromatophore into two equal halves followed by the pyrenoid ...
Bacterial shell disease was first described in Penaeus and Callinectes sapidus by Cook and Lofton (1973). Hasson, KW; Lightner ... a red tail due to the expansion of the red chromatophores. Mortality during this phase can be as high as 95%. The acute phase ... such as bacterial shell disease. In general pathognomonic histopathological lesions are the first step in confirmatory ...
For bacterial transformation to take place, the recipient bacteria must be in a state of competence, which may occur in nature ... Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (March 2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... Archean Eon Bacterial phyla, other major lineages of Bacteria Biodiesel Cyanobiont Endosymbiotic theory Geological history of ... Circadian rhythms were once thought to only exist in eukaryotic cells but many cyanobacteria display a bacterial circadian ...
Antibacterial action of substances produced by lichens is related to their ability to disrupt bacterial proteins with a ... "Nature and Origin of Chromatophores in the Plant Kingdom". These new ideas can be studied today under the title of the Theory ... subsequent loss of bacterial metabolic capacity. This is possible due to the action of lichen phenolics such as usnic acid ... antibacterial action was identified in extracts of Cetraria islandica and the compounds identified as responsible for bacterial ...
Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around 850 ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes, chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... The ribosomes in chloroplasts are similar to bacterial ribosomes. Because so many chloroplast genes have been moved to the ...
Controllable chromatophores of different colours in the skin of a squid allow it to change its coloration and patterns rapidly ... Approximately 95% of the bacteria are voided each morning before the bacterial population builds up again by nightfall. Squid ... Prototype chromatophores that mimic the squid's adaptive camouflage, have been made by Bristol University researchers using an ... The skin is covered in controllable chromatophores of different colours, enabling the squid to match its coloration to its ...
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Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host.[23] Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around ... While similar to bacterial ribosomes,[9] chloroplast translation is more complex than in bacteria, so chloroplast ribosomes ... About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in Paulinella is from the chromatophore, compared with 11-14% from the chloroplast in plants. ... Chloroplast ribosomes Comparison of a chloroplast ribosome (green) and a bacterial ribosome (yellow). Important features common ...
Woese, C.R. (1987) Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev., 51, 221-271.. *Woese, C.R. and Fox, G.E. (1977) Phylogenetic structure ... Nowack, E.C., Melkonian, M. and Glockner, G. (2008) Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... gene replacement by a distant bacterial paralog and evidence that haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids are sisters. BMC Biol., 4 ...
While for G3 the interaction between the leucophores and chromatophores (case 5) is used to produce solutions around the best ... processes that has been used as the basis for a metaheuristic framework now includes such diverse processes as bacterial ... the interaction between chromatophores and iridophores) to produce a new solutions. These two cases are used as a global search ... the interaction between Iridophores and chromatophores) to produces a new solutions) as a local search. ...
Plasma membrane and chromatophore (lamellar membrane complexes that are continuous with the plasma membrane) Photosynthetic ... http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02683.x/epdf "Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy ...
Nowack EC, Melkonian M, Glöckner G (March 2008). "Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of ... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. PMC 4487195. PMID ... List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes Genome skimming ...
Non-bloodsucking leeches, such as Erpobdella punctata, are host to three bacterial symbionts, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and ... Some rhynchobdellids have the ability to change colour dramatically by moving pigment in chromatophore cells; this process is ... In Hirudo medicinalis, these supplementary factors are produced by an obligatory mutualistic relationship with two bacterial ...
ISBN 978-0-8151-3762-7. Stulberg DL, Penrod MA, Blatny RA (2002). "Common bacterial skin infections". Am Fam Physician. 66 (1 ... chromatophore nevus of Naegeli) Netherton syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease) Neurofibromatosis ...
PPases are present in bacterial, plant and animal cells and cell organelles. Membrane bound PPases... ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). The membrane bound PPase ...
"Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Chromatophores" was a major or minor topic ... "Bacterial Chromatophores" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bacterial Chromatophores". ...
Many HGT-derived bacterial genes encode proteins that fill gaps in critical chromatophore pathways/processes. Our results ... HGTs compensate for chromatophore genome reduction. Eva C. M. Nowack, Dana C. Price, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anna Singer, ... HGTs compensate for chromatophore genome reduction. Eva C. M. Nowack, Dana C. Price, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anna Singer, ... chromatophores) that are only 60-200 million years old. Chromatophore genome reduction entailed the loss of many biosynthetic ...
Fish chromatophores as cytosensors in a microscale device: Detection of environmental toxins and bacterial pathogens. Pigment ... 10 This approach exploits the ability of living chromatophores to respond to many active substances such as bacterial toxins; ... A bioluminescence assay method has been developed8 in which the AK is extracted from the bacterial cell and ADP is added in ... It is based on the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present within a bacterial cell; however, the amount of ATP present ...
ABSORPTION CHANGES IN BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES. II. A NEW CHLOROPHYLL-LIKE PIGMENT FROM THE OXIDATION OF CHROMATOPHORES FROM ...
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and ... Bacterial membrane proteins. Microbiol Sci. 1987; 4:100-5. PMID 3153178. *^ Frigaard NU. & Bryant DA. Seeing green bacteria in ... Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial and sheath cells.[32] ... The nerves that operate the chromatophores are thought to be positioned in the brain, in a similar order to the chromatophores ...
Kell, D.B. (1983) Dielectric properties of bacterial chromatophores. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 11, 405-415. ... On the functional unit of energy coupling in photophosphorylation by bacterial chromatophores. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 308- ... Mukamolova, G.V., Kaprelyants, A.S., Young, D.I., Young, M. & Kell, D.B. (1998) A bacterial cytokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95 ... Phillips, M.K., Rhodes-Roberts, M.E. & Kell, D.B. (1984) The anti-bacterial action of Tinopal AN. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 1999- ...
Absorption Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores. Kuntz, I. D., Loach, P. A. & Calvin, M., Jan 1 1964, In : Biophysical Journal. ... Recombination frequencies of proximal markers in bacterial conjugation. Wu, T. T., Oct 1967, In : Journal of Theoretical ... A COMPARISON OF DECAY KINETICS OF PHOTO‐PRODUCED ABSORBANCE, EPR, AND LUMINESCENCE CHANGES IN CHROMATOPHORES OF RHODOSPIRRILLUM ...
Mukamolova, G. V., Kaprelyants, A. S., Young, D. I., Young, M. & Kell, D. B. (1998). A bacterial cytokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... photophosphorylation by chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata N22. Biochem. J. 212, 25-30. [ abstract ] ... Fuqua, C., Winans S.C. & Greenberg, E.P. (1996). Census and consensus in bacterial ecosystems: The LuxR-LuxI family of quorum- ... In Bacterial Energy Transduction (ed. C. J. Anthony), pp. 429-490. Academic Press, London. ...
H+ motors that rotate bacterial flagella; (2) H+ that allow accumulation of metabolites in the bacterial cell; (3) Na+ , K+ - ... When CoQH2 is oxidized, two H+ ions are released to the periplasm or inside the chromatophore (Fig. 2.4). The electron accepted ... That is why in this section only a short description of the bacterial bc1 complex will be given. The bc1 complex comprises ... This process is oriented in the direction of the cytoplasmic surface of a bacterial membrane. An electron was shown to cross 35 ...
... chromatophores. Despite the highly curved nature of the chromatophore membrane and lack of direct support, the resolution was ... ATP-synthase (ATPase); chromatophores; high-speed AFM; light-harvesting 2 (LH2); native curved membranes; RC-LH1-PufX; ... Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy ... 4 more authors) (2016) Direct Imaging of Protein Organization in an Intact Bacterial Organelle Using High-Resolution Atomic ...
Clayton RK, Arnold W (1961) Absorption spectra of bacterial chromatophores at temperatures from 300 K to 1 K. Biochim Biophys ...
Isolation and characterization of bound ion-sulfur proteins from bacterial photosynthetic membranes. I. Ferredoxins III and IV ... Evidence for a glutamine synthetase-chromatophore association in the phototroph Rhodospirillum rubrum: purification, properties ... Isolation and characterization of bound ion-sulfur proteins from bacterial photosynthetic membranes. II. Succinate ...
RK Clayton, WR Sistrom and WS Zaugg (1965) The role of reaction centers in photochemical activities of bacterial chromatophores ... RK Clayton (1962) Primary reactions in bacterial photosynthesis. I. Nature oflight-induced absorption changes in chromatophores ... WW Parson (1978) The bacterial reaction center. In: J Amesz (ed) Photosynthesis, pp 43-61. ElsevierGoogle Scholar ... G Feher, JP Allen, MY Okamura and DC Rees (1989) Structure and function of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. Nature ...
Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their ... This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to ...
Salton, MR (1987). "Bacterial membrane proteins". Microbiological sciences. 4 (4): 100-5. PMID 3153178. Frigaard, NU; Bryant, ... Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
... bacterial chromatophores MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117 - cell nucleus MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.117.550 - macronucleus ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.360 - chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284 ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.180.290 - flagella MeSH A11.284.180.290.835 - sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284. ... bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial ...
... and chromatophores exhibit certain strongly enhanced lines under illumination, a result of photochemically induced dynamic ... Wavelength and Time Dependence Solid-state NMR spectra of quinone-reduced photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RCs) ... Studies of Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers: ... Studies of Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers: Wavelength and ...
In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).) * Clone Cells [M0004604]. A ... Chromatophores [M0004384]. The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse ... Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color ...
Electron transfer, proton translocation, and A T P synthesis in bacterial chromatophores. Curr . Top. Bioenergetics 12:197-257 ... 18 MATERIALS A N D METHODS 1. Growth and maintainance of bacterial strains. The R. capsulatus bacterial strains used in this ... 19) have noted that a common motif of purple bacterial L H Bchl-binding sites is the amino acid sequence A l a / G l y - X - X ... Conserved domains in bacterial regulatory proteins that respond to environmental stimuli. Cell 49: 579-581. 95. Schmidhauser, T ...
Bacterial Chromatophores. *Cell Fractionation. *Cell Membrane. *Chlorophyll/biosynthesis. *Chromatium/cytology. *Electron ...
Bacterial Chromatophores * Picosecond and microsecond pulse laser studies of exciton quenching and exciton distribution in ...
BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES. CROMATOFOROS BACTERIANOS. CROMATÓFOROS BACTERIANOS. BASE PAIR MISMATCH. DISPARIDAD DE PAR BASE. ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Chromatophore use Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromosome use ... Bacterial Skin Diseases use Skin Diseases, Bacterial Bacterial Small Ribosomal Subunits use Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Concept use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiological Concepts use Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomenon use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiology use Bacterial Physiological ...
Bacterial Capsules Bacterial Chromatophore use Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromatophores Bacterial Chromosome use ... Bacterial Skin Diseases use Skin Diseases, Bacterial Bacterial Small Ribosomal Subunits use Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Concept use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiological Concepts use Bacterial ... Bacterial Physiological Phenomenon use Bacterial Physiological Phenomena Bacterial Physiology use Bacterial Physiological ...
  • G Feher (1992) Identification and characterization of the primary donor in bacterial photosynthesis: a chronological account of an EPR/ENDOR investigation (The Bruker Lecture). (springer.com)
  • Primary reactions in bacterial photosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the chromatophore genome contains a complete set of photosynthesis genes, it lacks not only genes thought to be dispensable for an intracellular lifestyle but also genes of essential pathways for amino acid and cofactor synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the chromatophores of P. chromatophora are the only known cyanobacterial descendants besides plastids with a significantly reduced genome that confer photosynthesis to their eukaryotic host. (nih.gov)
  • The simplest such light harvesting machine is the purple bacterial photosynthetic unit (PSU), which performs anoxygenic photosynthesis and is significantly simpler and evolutionarily more primitive than its counterpart found in plants. (uiuc.edu)
  • Electronic interactions between iron and the bound semiquinones in bacterial photosynthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The Carnegie team honed in on three of the P. chromatophora transferred genes, which encode proteins involved in photosynthesis, a process localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • The quantum yield for photoxidation of the primary electron donor molecule in bacterial photosynthesis has been determined for a variety of chromatophore fractions obtained from Rhodospirillum rubrum. (northwestern.edu)
  • Functionally, the amoeba is dependent on the chromatophores for photosynthesis, and the chromatophores cannot survive as free-living cyanobacteria. (gaselectricity.in)
  • The plasma membrane of some prokaryotes contains infoldings called chromatophores that contain pigments involved in photosynthesis. (mim.one)
  • Similarly, bacterial reaction centers (RCs) together with the cytochrome b 6 f complex mediate the conversion of electromagnetic energy (light) into electrochemical energy (pmf) by transmembrane electron and proton transport during photosynthesis. (tcdb.org)
  • Chromatophores are the site for photosynthesis. (kullabs.com)
  • G Feher, JP Allen, MY Okamura and DC Rees (1989) Structure and function of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. (springer.com)
  • RK Clayton, WR Sistrom and WS Zaugg (1965) The role of reaction centers in photochemical activities of bacterial chromatophores . (springer.com)
  • Studies of Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers: Wavelength and Time Dependence Solid-state NMR spectra of quinone-reduced photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RCs) and chromatophores exhibit certain strongly enhanced lines under illumination, a result of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP). (unt.edu)
  • An electron spin echo modulation frequency analysis of P+-860 is performed in 14N chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum, and in 15N substituted reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides 2.4.1. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 2017. Mechanism of triplet energy transfer in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. (asu.edu)
  • A novel perspective on this issue is provided by the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora , which contains photosynthetic organelles (chromatophores) that are only 60-200 million years old. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, we presented evidence that photosynthetic inclusions, termed "chromatophores," present in the filose thecamoeba Paulinella chromatophora originated from an independent, more recent primary endosymbiotic event. (nih.gov)
  • Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater filose amoeba with photosynthetic endosymbionts (chromatophores) of cyanobacterial origin that are closely related to free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species (PS-clade). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paulinella chromatophora is a thecate filose amoeba of the Rhizaria that contains a photosynthetic entity of cyanobacterial origin termed chromatophore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P. chromatophora is named for its two photosynthetic "chromatophores," endosymbiotic, photosynthetic structures that bear an even more striking resemblance to free-living photosynthetic cyanobacteria than chloroplasts do. (gaselectricity.in)
  • The DNA of P. chromatophora chromatophores does not group closely with chloroplasts, but rather with another free-living cyanobacteria lineage. (gaselectricity.in)
  • The amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains nascent photosynthetic organelles of more recent evolutionary origin (∼60 Mya) termed chromatophores (CRs). (pnas.org)
  • Our study showcases P . chromatophora as an exceptional model in which to study early events in organellogenesis, and suggests that protein import into bacterial endosymbionts might be a phenomenon much more widespread than currently assumed. (pnas.org)
  • P. chromatophora harbors nascent photosynthetic organelles termed 'chromatophores' which evolved from a cyanobacterium much more recently than the plastids of plants and algae. (hhu.de)
  • The chromatophores localize to the cytoplasm of P. chromatophora and are surrounded by two envelope membranes. (hhu.de)
  • Based on the rate of pseudogene disintegration in the endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola, it was suggested that the chromatophore in P. chromatophora has a minimum age of ~60 Myr. (plos.org)
  • In contrast, the chromatophores of P . chromatophora strains FK01 and M0880/a contain between 841 and 867 protein--coding genes respectively 5 , 6 . (plos.org)
  • Surprisingly, the suggestion that the chromatophore in P . chromatophora has a minimum age of 60 Myr underwent a change in part of the subsequent literature indicating that P . chromatophora has ~60 Myr. (plos.org)
  • Their comparison with plastids and bacterial endosymbionts of invertebrates sheds light on early steps of the integration of a photosynthetic prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell. (nih.gov)
  • While gene transfer has been observed for other bacterial endosymbionts, the function of the transferred genes has been unclear, since it does not appear that the endosymbionts (in contrast to organelles) are equipped to recapture those proteins, because they do not have appropriate protein import machineries. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Results have: (1) identified previously unreported lobate tissue morphologies on the outer wall of individual coral polyps and (2) created the first surface maps of the 3D distribution and tissue density of chromatophores and algae-like dinoflagellate zooxanthellae endosymbionts. (jove.com)
  • Mitochondria are descendants of bacterial endosymbionts probably acquired before the last eukaryotic common ancestors, plastids being acquired later in evolution [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria is located in the internal (i.e. cytoplasmic) membrane and in chromatophores-intracellular vesicles that split off that membrane. (slideshare.net)
  • There are also additional proteins found in chromatophore vesicles whose structure and function are not as well understood. (uiuc.edu)
  • At least 229 nuclear genes were acquired via HGT from various bacteria, of which only 25% putatively arose through EGT from the chromatophore genome. (pnas.org)
  • In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to respond to environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Any blight disease of plants caused by bacteria, including common bacterial blight, halo blight, and fuscous blight. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Obtaining a comprehensive list of proteins imported into chromatophores, including their functions and origins, as well as understanding the pathway by which these proteins are imported, could provide insight into the mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to 'enslave' bacteria and turn them into organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Modifiable chromatophore proteins in photosynthetic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria , which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Cell wall in gram-positive bacteria are characterized by a thick peptidoglycan layer, whereas in gram-negative bacterial cells, the cell walls are characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by an outer membrane. (mim.one)
  • Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. (alchetron.com)
  • 8. (b): Transduction involves transfer of, genetic material of one bacterial cell goes to other bacterial cell by agency of bacteriophages or phages (viruses, infecting bacteria). (westvirginiaangerclass.com)
  • Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). (springer.com)
  • Morphologically, P. chromatophorachromatophores retain some of the bacterial cell wall structure of their cyanobacterial ancestors that chloroplasts have lost. (gaselectricity.in)
  • Sequence analysis indicates that several key chromatophore genes have been transferred to the host (nuclear) genome, a feature seen with mitochondria and chloroplasts as well. (gaselectricity.in)
  • DNA sequence analysis to estimate the time of the chromatophore / cyanobacteria divergence (and thus the endosymbiosis event ) places it in the range of 60 million years ago - a mere blink compared to the billion years since the ancestors of chloroplasts entered their host cell. (gaselectricity.in)
  • This variation exists despite the main constituent proteins of the chromatophore being very similar across species. (uiuc.edu)
  • The discovery that proteins of the chromatophore photosynthetic apparatus are encoded in the host genome and imported back into the cyanobacterial--derived compartment, reinforces the suggestion that the chromatophore is a bona fide primary organelle 7 . (plos.org)
  • While all chromatophores contain pigments or reflecting structures (except when there has been a genetic mutation resulting in a disorder like albinism), not all pigment containing cells are chromatophores. (bionity.com)
  • Chromatophores that contain large amounts of yellow pteridine pigments are named xanthophores and those with an excess of red/orange carotenoids termed erythrophores. (bionity.com)
  • Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • structural color, produced by refraction or scattering of light by particles in the integument, and pigmentary color, produced by pigments that are usually confined to special pigment cells (chromatophores). (biologyboom.com)
  • They set out to determine whether these proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the amoeba and whether the mature proteins became localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Using an advanced array of research techniques, they were able to determine that these three proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported into chromatophores, where they assemble together with other, internally encoded proteins into working protein complexes that are part of the photosynthetic process. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • This thecate filose amoeba hosts in its cytoplasm photosynthetic organelles of cyanobacterial origin, called chromatophores. (plos.org)
  • Chromatophores are single membrane bound sac-like thylakoids which are found freely in the cytoplasm. (kullabs.com)
  • Here we show that the impact of Muller's ratchet that leads to endosymbiont genome reduction seems to drive the fixation of horizontally acquired "compensatory" bacterial genes in the host nuclear genome. (pnas.org)
  • Compared to Synechococcus WH5701, a free-living relative of the chromatophore, only 26% of the genes were retained. (nih.gov)
  • These compartments, called chromatophores, transferred more than 30 of the original cyanobacterial genes to the nucleus of the host organism. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Whereas genome reduction and transfer of genes from bacterial to host genome have been reported to occur in other obligate bacterial endosymbioses, this report outlines the import of proteins encoded by such transferred genes into the compartment derived from the bacterial endosymbiont. (pnas.org)
  • The genome of the cyanobacteria Synechococcus WH5701, one of the closest known free--living relatives of the chromatophore with a sequenced genome, has 2917 protein--coding genes 4 . (plos.org)
  • Remaining genes in the chromatophore suggest a strong metabolic interdependence with the amoebal nucleocytoplasm. (plos.org)
  • It has previously been shown that neither the Paulinella host cell nor the chromatophores are related to the eukaryotic lineage containing primary plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, the closest relatives of the Paulinella chromatophore (the PS-clade) possess a proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), in contrast to the remaining cyanobacteria and plastids (except rhodoplasts) with the 'typical' form 1B RubisCO [ 7 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is likely that the origin of the chromatophore is one or two orders of magnitude more recent than the establishment of the primary plastids of plants and algae. (plos.org)
  • PPases are present in bacterial, plant and animal cells and cell organelles. (springer.com)
  • Using this approach, we have imaged the membrane organization of intact vesicular bacterial photosynthetic "organelles", chromatophores. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes , bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles . (alchetron.com)
  • In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred before or after the split of the chromatophore ancestor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the almost complete rDNA operon with an improved taxon sampling containing most known cyanobacterial lineages recovered the Paulinella chromatophore as sister to the complete PS-clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the RubisCO phylogeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that the Paulinella chromatophore has already undergone typical steps in the reductive evolution of an endosymbiont. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, the Paulinella chromatophore is affiliated with free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is currently debated whether the Paulinella chromatophore represents an organelle comparable to a primary plastid, or merely a stable intracellular symbiont [ 3 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, the mechanism that shuttles proteins made from the host genome into the chromatophores is distinct from the mechanism used for host / chloroplast protein shuttling. (gaselectricity.in)
  • De Leo V, Catucci L, Ventrella A, Milano F, Agostiano A, Corcelli A: Cardiolipin increases in chromatophores isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides after osmotic stress: structural and functional roles. (mirnadatabase.com)
  • When absent, the bacterial recA homologues may have been lost entirely (secondary loss of canonical mitochondria) or replaced by other eukaryotic recombinases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our data characterize the chromatophore as a photosynthetic entity that is absolutely dependent on its host for growth and survival. (nih.gov)
  • We have studied some similarities and differences between chromatophore, chloroplast and mitochondrial membrane bound PPases. (springer.com)
  • Baltscheffsky M., Pramanik A., Lundin M., Nyrén P., Baltscheffsky H. (1990) Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic Pyrophosphatases. (springer.com)
  • Chromatophore cells possess the motile pigment granules that intracellularly aggregate or disperse in response to external stimuli. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins-reflectin and crystallin-in granules. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the iron-semiquinone complex in photosynthetic bacterial cells and chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas viridis is reported. (elsevier.com)
  • The quantum yield for photooxidation of the primary electron donor molecule was also determined by direct measurement of absorbance change in the near-infrared region for washed chromatophore fractions and using an assumed molar extinction. (northwestern.edu)
  • Especially metagenomic sequencing techniques used for viral and bacterial community characterization, have been established only in recent years, and are thus still subjected to constant improvement. (jove.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of bacterial flagellar hook proteins from salmonellae and Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • This research will be critical for a better understanding of how integration of chromatophore physiology into the biological networks of the host cell is accomplished, and -in more general- will provide insights into mechanisms that eukaryotic cells employ to take control over a bacterial endosymbiont and that might be important early events in the evolution of an organelle. (hhu.de)
  • Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We demonstrate that several major eukaryotic lineages have lost the bacterial recombinases (including Opisthokonta and Excavata), whereas others have retained them (Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida and the SAR-supergroups). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The bacterial form of the recA gene is present in eukaryotic genomes because they were acquired via EGT in conjunction with the uptake of the mitochondrion and plastid [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Spectral absorption peaks of 500 nm and 675 nm, respectively, suggest that M. annularis and M. faveolata contain similar types of chlorophyll and chromatophores. (jove.com)
  • Other authors propose that ER/Golgi-mediated targeting represents a derived evolutionary feature, and that the translocon complexes evolved gradually from simpler transporters that already existed on bacterial genomes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • During the processes of both primary endosymbioses, extensive lateral gene transfer (EGT) took place: from the bacterial genomes to the nuclear genome [ 7 , 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chromatophores are pigment -containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods. (bionity.com)
  • [1] The term chromatophore was adopted later as the name for pigment bearing cells derived from the neural crest of cold-blooded vertebrates and cephalopods. (bionity.com)
  • Chromatophore cells, responsible for the pigmentation of poikilothermic animal, have shown immense potential as cell-based biosensors in the detection of a broad range of environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Previous studies have assessed chromatophore cells isolated from red Betta splendens and grey Oncorhynchus tschawytscha fish for use as a biosensor. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The objective of this study was to describe blue B. splendens chromatophore cells in tissue culture. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously established control agents. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their responses. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Chromatophore cells isolated from both blue and red B. splendens were responsive to methyl mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Grey O. tschawytscha chromatophore cells have shown responsiveness to mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blue and red B. splendens chromatophore cells were both responsive to B. cereus and both Salmonella serovars. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In conclusion, this study reports the chromatophore cells isolated from blue B. splendens in tissue culture and showed similar responsiveness to the selected chemical and bacterial environmental toxicants as chromatophore cells isolated from red and grey colored fish. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore cells used for a cell-based detection system may be isolated from different colored fish. (oregonstate.edu)
  • When light isn't available, energy is generated by breaking down carbohydrates and sugars, just as it is in animal and some bacterial cells. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • When camouflaging themselves, they use their chromatophores to change brightness and pattern according to the background they see, but their ability to match the specific color of a background may come from cells such as iridophores and leucophores that reflect light from the environment. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in eukaryotes , several antibiotics (notably the penicillins and cephalosporins ) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall only a cell membrane. (omicsgroup.org)
  • There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water . (alchetron.com)
  • There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human microbiota as there are human cells in the body, with their largest number being in the gut flora, and a large number on the skin . (alchetron.com)
  • The membrane bound PPase from Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores can synthesize PPi (inorganic pyrophosphate) at the expense of light energy (1) and has been described in some detail (2). (springer.com)
  • inhibition by nigericin of the light-induced ph change in rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the kinetics of photophosphorylation have been studied in rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Herein, we show that a DSSC system in which the organic light-harvesting dye is replaced by robust chromatophores from Rhodospirillum rubrum, together with Q and cytochrome c as electrolytes, provides band energies between consecutive interfaces that facilitate a unidirectional flow of electrons. (rutgers.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that the chromatophores originated from marine α-cyanobacteria from the Prochlorococcus / Synechococcus clade. (plos.org)
  • Molecular imaging of glycan chains couples cell-wall polysaccharide architecture to bacterial cell morphology. (imagine-imaginglife.com)
  • Chromatophore genome reduction entailed the loss of many biosynthetic pathways including those for numerous amino acids and cofactors. (pnas.org)
  • The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa . (alchetron.com)
  • In developed countries , antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. (alchetron.com)
  • It has been proven to be effective for the treatment of common bacterial infections in the ear, sinus, throat, lungs, and skin. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • To clarify metabolic capabilities of the chromatophore and its state of integration into the host, we present here the complete genome sequence of the chromatophore. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic reconstructions from recently obtained genomic and transcriptomic data imply an intricate metabolic entanglement of host and chromatophore and allowed us to make specific predictions about many metabolites that seem to be exchanged between host and chromatophore. (hhu.de)
  • Since membrane transport systems encoded on the chromatophore genome are extremely limited, insertion of nuclear-encoded solute transporters into the chromatophore envelope membranes (CrEMs) that control metabolic fluxes between the two symbiotic partners have to be postulated. (hhu.de)
  • structural studies on bacterial carotenoids and their biosynthetic implications. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Two broad types of bacterial envelopes are distinguished based on whether a species retains the Gram stain ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The leucophores and iridophores (both structural elements of coloration) provide an adaptive base layer in the dermal tissue, whereas the chromatophores, located above them, impart an active colour change through areal expansion [ 11 , 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. extracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma ) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Our analyses revealed that nuclear and chromatophore gene inventories provide highly complementary functions. (pnas.org)
  • With the help of marker-assisted selection and genetic transformation, an elite Indica rice line IR50 was obtained by pyramiding blast resistance gene Piz5 and bacterial blight resistance gene Xa21 (Narayanan et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cephalopods such as octopus have complex chromatophore organs controlled by muscles to achieve this, while vertebrates such as chameleons generate a similar effect by cell signaling . (bionity.com)
  • Unlike cold-blooded animals, mammals and birds have only one class of chromatophore-like cell type: the melanocyte . (bionity.com)
  • The data collected in this and previous studies were compiled to compare chromatophore cell responses to a broad range of environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The bacterial cell envelope is essential for viability, the environmental gatekeeper and first line of defense against external stresses. (asm.org)
  • In recent years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has brought novel molecular insights into the assembly, dynamics, and functions of bacterial cell envelopes. (asm.org)
  • Cell envelopes confer specialized functions that are important for bacterial physiology and that often are crucial to symbiosis, pathogenesis, and industry. (asm.org)
  • Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (omicsgroup.org)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (omicsgroup.org)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (omicsgroup.org)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane . (omicsgroup.org)
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (omicsgroup.org)
  • It is the outermost layer present in the bacterial cell. (kullabs.com)
  • It protects the bacterial cell from drying, harmful chemicals acids, drugs etc. (kullabs.com)
  • The bacterial PSU is organized in the form of a pseudo-spherical membrane domain of approximately 60 nm diameter called a chromatophore vesicle. (uiuc.edu)
  • A structural model of a chromatophore vesicle featuring the three main light-harvesting proteins (see below). (uiuc.edu)
  • The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following HGT and divergence of the chromatophore ancestor, diversification of the PS-clade into at least three subclades occurred. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both PSI and PSII of plants and cyanobacteria belong to the PRC superfamily, but they are more complex than the purple bacterial members. (tcdb.org)
  • Also in the works is new black bean germplasm with heat and drought tolerance and resistance to common bacterial blight , a seedborne disease--spread by splashed water--that mainly attacks the plant's leaves and pods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For years, Pastor-Corrales and his predecessors have collaborated with scientists at the University of Nebraska, North Dakota State University, Michigan State University, and elsewhere to increase bean resistance to bean common mosaic (BCM), bean common mosaic necrosis (BCMN), bean golden mosaic, anthracnose, common bacterial blight , and common bean rust (caused by the rust fungus Uromyces appendiculatus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Association of TRAP markers with resistance to common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PR9180-25C is a red-mottled breeding line selected for heat tolerance and resistance to common bacterial blight [caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This line was bred specifically for a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight [caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We are collaborating with researchers at Zamorano, a Pan-American School for Agriculture in Honduras, to develop bean varieties resistant to common bacterial blight ," says Smith. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interestingly, the process by which these proteins are transported into chromatophores may also be novel and involve transit through an organelle called the Golgi apparatus, prior to becoming localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Apart from the urease tests, there are a number of other methods used to diagnose stomach infection (histological examination, bacterial culture , molecular biology techniques) [2,3,12-19]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some species can rapidly change colour through mechanisms that translocate pigment and reorient reflective plates within chromatophores. (bionity.com)
  • There is significant variation in chromatophore shape among species. (uiuc.edu)
  • Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. (royalsocietypublishing.org)