Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Dictionaries, ChemicalPhonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.ReadingTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.ThiophenesCommunity-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Serving Size: A reference measure of food used to identify the calorie and nutrient content in a particular amount of that food. It is defined by an authoritative source, such as the Food Guide Pyramid devised by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. It is different from PORTION SIZE, which is the amount of food one chooses to eat at a single meal.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Cookbooks as Topic: Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Curcuma: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.PolysaccharidesPolysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/1416)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/1416)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis. (3/1416)

To evaluate the role of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in conferring protective immunity against plague, six yop loci from Yersinia pestis were individually amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified and injected into mice. Most Yop-vaccinated animals succumbed to infection with either wild-type encapsulated Y. pestis or a virulent, nonencapsulated isogenic variant. Vaccination with YpkA significantly prolonged mean survival time but did not increase overall survival of mice infected with the nonencapsulated strain. The only significant protection against death was observed in YopD-vaccinated mice challenged with the nonencapsulated strain.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (4/1416)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (5/1416)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Phagocytosis of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (6/1416)

Capsulated bacteria exhibit serum (complement) resistance and resistance to phagocytosis, which result in disseminated infections. Vibrio cholerae O139 strains possess a thin capsule and have been found to be partially serum resistant in a previous study. In the present study, compared to a standard capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which showed total resistance to killing by phagocytosis, V. cholerae O139 strains were shown to be only partially resistant, with most strains showing <40% survival. These findings may explain the relative rarity of V. cholerae O139 bacteremia in cholera caused by this organism.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of surface components of Streptococcus gallolytics (S. bovis) strains of differing virulence isolated from pigeons. (7/1416)

Virulence of Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. bovis) strains isolated from pigeons is associated with the presence of the extracellular proteins A, T1, T2 and T3. Based on the presence or absence of these proteins, six supernatant-phenotypes are distinguished. Experimental infection studies have indicated that strains belonging to the A-T1, A+T1, A+T2 and A+T3 groups are highly virulent for pigeons, strains belonging to the A-T3 groups are moderately virulent and A-T2 strains are of low virulence. In this study the surface structure of 15 pigeon S. gallolyticus strains representing high, moderate and low virulence supernatant-phenotypes was examined by electron microscopy. The presence of capsular material was determined by transmission electron microscopy after polycationic ferritin labelling and immunostabilization. Capsules from cells labelled with polycationic ferritin were usually thicker than those from cells exposed to antiserum. The capsule of the virulent strains had a regular, continuous appearance whilst irregularity of the capsule was a characteristic of the low virulence A-T2 strains. Negative staining revealed the presence of fimbriae in all strains belonging to the high virulence A-T1, A+T1, A+T2 and A+T3 supernatant groups and in one strain of the moderately virulent A-T3 group. The fimbriae were thin, flexible structures with a diameter of approximately 3-4 nm and a length of up to 700 nm. Fimbriae as described above were absent in two other A-T3 strains examined and in the low virulence A-T2 strains. Results from this study indicate that morphological differences in surface structure exist among virulent and low virulence pigeon S. gallolyticus strains, and that the capsule and/or fimbriae are possibly involved in virulence.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: the capsule protects against phagocytosis and is an important virulence factor. (8/1416)

To study the role of the capsule of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in virulence, we generated two isogenic mutants disturbed in capsule production. For that purpose, we first cloned and characterized a major part of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) locus of S. suis serotype 2. Based on the established sequence, 14 open reading frames (ORFs), designated Orf2Z, Orf2Y, Orf2X, and Cps2A to Cps2K, were identified. Twelve ORFs belonged to a single transcriptional unit. The gene products of 11 of these ORFs showed similarity to proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis of other gram-positive microorganisms. Nonencapsulated isogenic mutants were generated in the cps2B and cps2EF genes by insertional mutagenesis. In contrast to the wild-type S. suis serotype 2 strain, the nonencapsulated strains were highly sensitive to ingestion by porcine alveolar lung macrophages in vitro. More importantly, the nonencapsulated mutant strains were completely avirulent in young germfree pigs after intranasal inoculation. These observations indicate that the capsule of S. suis serotype 2 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of S. suis serotype 2 infections.  (+info)

*Bacterial capsule

"bacterial capsule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Encyclopædia Britannica [Capsules and Slime Layers]. Daffé, M.; Etienne, G ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...

*Group B streptococcal infection

GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides). GBS are subclassified into 10 ... The GBS capsule is probably the key virulence factor because it helps GBS escape from the host defence mechanisms interfering ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the main cause of bacterial infections in ... IAPs have been considered to be associated with the emergence of resistant bacterial strains and with an increase in the ...

*Streptococcus agalactiae

GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysacharide). The species is subclassified into ten ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the major cause of several bacterial infections ... GBS is the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infection in the baby during gestation and after delivery with significant ... "A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta". J Exp Med 210. 210: 1265-1281. ...

*Heinrich Albert Johne

He contributed to the literature of actinomycosis and trichinosis and discovered a method of staining bacterial capsules. He ...

*Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection

So humoral immunity in forms of IgG and complement proteins is the human immune system's response against bacterial capsules. ... These include common human pathogens with bacterial capsules (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Neisseria ... meningitidis, E. coli, Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Capsules made of ...

*Streptococcus pyogenes

A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... In addition, the capsule and several factors embedded in the cell wall, including M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F ( ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ... S. pyogenes can also cause disease in the form of postinfectious "nonpyogenic" (not associated with local bacterial ...

*Slime layer

A bacterial capsule is similar, but is an organized structure that does not wash off as easily as slime layers. Biofilm " ... "Bacterial Glycocalyx - Capsule & Slime Layer". www.scienceprofonline.com. Retrieved 2016-02-04. "The Microbial World :: A look ... It may permit bacterial colonies to survive chemical sterilization with chlorine, iodine, and other chemicals, leaving ... a separate and highly organised glycoprotein layer surrounding many bacterial cells. The function of the slime layer is to ...

*Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

The bacterial capsule sugars, a characteristic of these pathogens, are linked to CRM197, a nontoxic recombinant variant of ... Prevnar (PCV7) is a heptavalent vaccine, meaning that it contains the cell capsule sugars of seven serotypes of the bacteria S ... "CDC - ABCs: Surveillance Reports main page - Active Bacterial Core surveillance". Allen, Arthur (2007-06-21). "What if a ...

*Isotype (immunology)

... bacterial capsule, viral capsid) and activation of complement cascade. As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell ... Acton, R. T., Barton, J. C. (2016). "Selective Subnormal IgG1 in 54 Adult Index Patients with Frequent or Severe Bacterial ... IgA1 has a longer hinge region which increases its sensitivity to bacterial proteases. Therefore, this subclass dominates the ... Chen, J, Boes, M (1998). "A critical role of natural immunoglobulin M in immediate defense against systemic bacterial infection ...

*Quellung reaction

Quellung is the German word for "swelling" and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules ... is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ... As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because ... If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. ...

*CPS operon

Wzc - a tyrosine kinase found in the bacterial inner membrane. Participates in polymerization of capsule polysaccharides. Wzx ... The capsule biosynthesis, or CPS operon is a section of the genome present in some Escherichia coli which regulates the ... production of polysaccharides which make up the bacterial capsule. These polysaccharides help protect the bacteria from harsh ... The CPS operon is likely transcriptionally regulated by the Rcs (regulation of capsule synthesis) proteins. Reduced levels of ...

*Hershey-Chase experiment

... although they contained no DNA and were simply the remains of the original bacterial capsule. They concluded that the protein ... Using a high speed blender they were able to force the bacteriophages from the bacterial cells after adsorption. The lack of ... However no specific conclusions can be made regarding whether material that is sulfur-free enters the bacterial cell after ... ISBN 0-465-09138-5. Berk V, Cate JH; Cate (June 2007). "Insights into protein biosynthesis from structures of bacterial ...

*Viral envelope

Adenoviridae Papillomaviridae Picornaviridae Bacterial capsule Cell envelope "CHAPTER #11: VIRUSES". Retrieved 2008-11-07. "The ...

*List of MeSH codes (D09)

... bacterial capsules MeSH D09.698.718.220 --- bambermycins MeSH D09.698.718.450 --- lipopolysaccharides MeSH D09.698.718.450.500 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.616.200 --- bacterial capsules MeSH D23.050.161.616.525 --- lipopolysaccharides MeSH D23.050.161.616 ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D23.050.161.050 --- adhesins, bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.050.040 --- adhesins, escherichia coli ...

*Superantigen

The genes that regulate SAg expression also regulate mechanisms of immune evasion such as M protein and Bacterial capsule ... This also implicates SAgs in the progression of sepsis in patients with bacterial infections. Diabetes mellitus Eczema Guttate ... effect of the activity of the endotoxin and the SAg result in effects more deleterious that those seen in a typical bacterial ...

*Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria

... a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide. Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) ... "Bacterial Defense against Phagocytosis". Pearson H (1977). "Sickle cell anemia and severe infections due to encapsulated ... The smooth surface and negative charge of the exterior capsule limits the ability of phagocytes to counteract the bacteria ... Wong W, Powars D, Chan L, Hiti A, Johnson C, Overturf G (1992). "Polysaccharide encapsulated bacterial infection in sickle cell ...

*Vaginitis

"Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized ... Prevention of bacterial vaginosis includes healthy diets and behaviors as well as minimizing stress as all these factors can ... "Bacterial Vaginosis." Gale: Contemporary Women's Issues. HealthyWomen, Dec. 2010. Web. April 7, 2011. Kissinger, P; Adamski, A ... Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads ...

*Malabsorption

Enteroscopy for enteropathy and jejunal aspirate and culture for bacterial overgrowth Capsule Endoscopy is able to visualise ... Glucose hydrogen breath test for bacterial overgrowth Lactose hydrogen breath test for lactose intolerance Sugar probes or 51Cr ... D-xylose absorption test for mucosal disease or bacterial overgrowth. Normal in pancreatic insufficiency. Bile salt breath test ... Antibiotic therapy to treat Small Bowel Bacterial overgrowth. Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help reducing ...

*Günther Friedländer

Penbritin - Antibiotics for the penicillin family intended for treating bacterial infection, administered as a capsule. In 1966 ...

*Antimicrobial peptides

"Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides", Infection and Immunity, 72 (12): 7107-7114, ... bacterial infections, IV Telaprevir, Hepatitis C, oral cyclic peptide Telavancin, bacterial infection, IV Vancomycin, bacterial ... bacterial infections, IV Daptomycin, bacterial infections, IV Enfuvirtide, HIV, subcutaneous injection Oritavancin, bacterial ... Therefore, the outmost leaflets of the bilayer which is exposed to the outside of the bacterial membranes are more attractive ...

*Transduction (genetics)

The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. This bacterial material ... bacterial genome)genome,(1 phage in 10.000 ones carry the donor genome). In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA ... both bacterial and mammalian cells). When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial ... If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, ...

*Frederick Griffith

Griffith also reported transformation of serological type-bacterial antigenicity-distinct from presence or absence of a capsule ... Pneumococci has two general forms-rough (R) and smooth (S). The S form is more virulent, and bears a capsule, which is a ... However, the R form, lacking a capsule-its outer surface being cell wall-is relatively avirulent, and does not cause pneumonia ... In January 1928 he reported what is now known as Griffith's Experiment, the first widely accepted demonstrations of bacterial ...

*Polysaccharide

This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ... and has been shown to be important for adhesion and invasion during bacterial infection. Polysaccharides with unprotected ...

*Virulence factor

Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...

*Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

These bacterial pathogens cause a thinning of cervical mucus and allow bacteria from the vagina into the uterus and fallopian ... CT of the abdomen with IV contrast may show subtle enhancement of the liver capsule, but this may be missed by radiologists if ... This may be due to infectious bacteria bypassing pelvic structures on the way to the liver capsule.[citation needed] Fitz-Hugh- ... Occasionally, this inflammation can cause scar tissue to form on Glisson's capsule, a thin layer of connective tissue ...
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This capsule type medical device system includes: a position detection device 4 which detects the position within the living body of a capsule type medical device 2 which can be ingested to within the living body; an electrode 5 which is provided in the vicinity of the outer surface of the capsule type medical device 2 , and which applies an electrical stimulus to living body tissue; and a control device 6 which controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 ; and the control device 6 controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 based upon positional information which is detected by the position detection device 4.
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for "swelling" and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Over 100 million UTIs occur annually throughout the world, including more than 7 million cases in U.S. adolescents and adults. UTIs in younger children are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality than in older children and adults. During UTI, UPEC exists in both intracellular and extracellular spaces. Infection is initiated by adherence to the apical bladder epithelium and then invading this layer of cells. Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). After maturation of IBCs, UPEC disperses away from the IBC and exits the infected cells. Extracellular UPEC must then re-adhere, initiating the invasion and intracellular propagation phases again. Bacterial-epithelial interactions incite a strong inflammatory response through which the UPEC must persist. One persistence factor is the K
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Diversity of the polysaccharide capsule in Streptococcus pneumoniae-main surface antigen and the target of the currently used pneumococcal vaccines-constitutes a major obstacle in eliminating pneumococcal disease. Such diversity is genetically encoded by almost 100 variants of the capsule biosynthesis locus, cps. However, the evolutionary dynamics of the capsule remains not fully understood. Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial isolates, we found cps to be an evolutionary hotspot with elevated substitution and recombination rates. These rates were a consequence of relaxed purifying selection and positive, diversifying selection acting at this locus, supporting the hypothesis that the capsule has an increased potential to generate novel diversity compared with the rest of the genome. Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression and hence the bacteriums ability to cause disease. Using a novel, capsule-centered
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a class of polysaccharides that includes hyaluronan, heparin and chondroitin, are essential macromolecules in mammals. GAGs have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the synthesis of defined, homogeneous, or customized GAGs has been quite restricted. Chemoenzymatic syntheses harnessing microbial glycosyltransferases (synthases that naturally produce the extracellular bacterial capsules) in reactions with artificial and natural substrates have been employed to create a variety of new carbohydrates in recent years. Work towards the generation of new polysaccharide species, specifically-tagged probes, chimeric polymers, sulfated oligosaccharides, scaffold- and liposome-coating derivatives will be presented. These ...
Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. (A) M3 GAS express more capsule than M1 (n = 5 strains/group); however, capsule levels in M
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The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
The role of the polysaccharide capsule is well established in UPEC virulence. The prototypical group 2 capsule provides protection against phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing (23, 24), contributes to immune evasion via molecular mimicry (33), and can also mask other surface-associated antigens (39). Group 2 capsule biosynthesis is controlled by a conserved export and assembly mechanism (16, 17, 19-22), suggesting that the expression of all group 2 capsules may be regulated by the same factors, hence providing an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents.. We first examined a collection of 126 complete E. coli genomes to gain a better understanding of the distribution of the group 2 capsule types. We found that the majority of phylogroup B2 (75%; 33/44) and D (75%; 3/4) strains possess intact region I and III capsular export and assembly genes but carry an array of region II genes that encode different capsular K types. All 10 of the ST95 strains in our 126-strain ...
Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni capsular loci reveals multiple mechanisms for the generation of structural diversity and the ability to form complex heptoses: Mol.Microbiol.
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
Petri dish culture of a yeastlike organism (fungus), Rhodotorula sp, known as a red yeast to the production of a carotenoid pigment. This Fungus is a saprophytic organism, meaning that it acquires nutrition from dead or decaying tissue, either plant or animal. As a food spoilage organism it can contaminate domestic & industrial food. Rhodotorula sp appears in two forms, capsulated & noncapsulated. The noncapsulated variety is seen here. The capsulated version produces a slimy mucilage, the surface becoming smooth & shiny. Its function is uncertain, but in pathogenic species it is associated with increased virulence. - Stock Image B250/0197
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Host defense mechanisms can counteract the antiphagocytic bacterial capsule. Unlike classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway is not antibody-mediated and can easily overwhelm encapsulated bacteria. It is triggered by the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b and the attachment of C3b to MAMPs (Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns), such as the capsular polysaccharides. The C3b molecules osponsize the pathogen, facilitating its phagocytosis and intravascular clearance. Furthermore, the complement cascade leads to the formation of proteolytic C3and C5 convertases and the terminal membrane attack complex, which lyses the pathogen. However, a potentially fatal drawback from lysing the pathogen is the release of endotoxic lipopolysaccharides, which elicit an out-of-control immune response. [2 ...
The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein.
van Alphen, Loek, Caugant, Dominique A, Duim, Birgitta, ORourke, Maria and Bowler, Lucas (1997) Differences in genetic diversity of noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae from various diseases. Microbiology, 143 (4). pp. 1423-1431. Full text not available from this repository ...
Pathogenic meningococci have obtained a 24?kb capsule synthesis isle (and alleles in meningococcal isolates was retained for everyone serogroups except serogroup Electronic that includes a synthetic requirement of UDP-GalNAc. inhabitants2,3 but invades the web host from time to time, leading to meningitis4 and septicaemia. In both and connections with host cellular material are modulated with the glycome in the bacterial surface area which include the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) as well as the glycosylation position of the sort IV pilin5. Meningococci are recognized from gonococci by the current presence of a capsule polysaccharide synthesis (isle includes a lower G/C-content compared to the primary meningococcal genome in keeping with acquisition via horizontally gene TMC353121 IC50 transfer (HGT) by recombination6. The overall organisation from the isle is as comes after: Area A is in charge of the formation of the capsule polymer; Area B (and which really is a homologue of the transcription ...
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Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids it to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Autor: Hicke, H. G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999; Keywords: biotechnology|br/|membrane reactors|br/|membrane-bound enzymes|br/|microporous and porous membranes|br/|polysaccharide synthesis|br/|photo-grafted membranes|br/|chromatography; Titel: Novel enzyme-membrane reactor for polysaccharide synthesis
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Currently, Dr. Chen is seeking to decipher the molecular evolution of the emergence of CRE. CRE have been described as nightmare bacteria , and been classified as an urgent threat by CDC. CRE have increased over the past decade and grown resistance to even the most powerful antibiotics. The worldwide dissemination of CRE is predominately associated with a single K. pneumoniae clone, ST258. Using the whole genomic analysis, Dr. Chen and his colleagues have revealed that the ST258 is a hybrid strain that originated as a large chromosomal recombination. Meanwhile, this superclone is under significantly diversification, primarily due to the recombination of antigen encoded capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) region and plasmid acquisition. Thus far, they have sequenced over 300 CRE isolates, including the first two completely closed ST258 genomes; and have completely characterized over 50 carbapenem-resistant plasmids ...
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article{934d5e3b-3125-4a8e-9594-9c88d7695cb4, abstract = {Low-density polethylene disks with smooth or course surfaces were implanted in the abdominal wall of rats, and the tissue response was evaluated after 1, 6, or 12 weeks. Cell damage was detected by two different methods. Cells with increased membrane permeability could be identified using fluorescence microscopy by injection of propidium iodide prior to the killing of the rats. Second, cell death was verified by detection of DNA fragmentation. At 1 week a considerable number of the interfacial cells was stained with propidium iodide. Propidium-iodide-positive cells also were enriched at the edges of the disks irrespective of surface texture. The numbers of positive interfacial cells decreased markedly over time. Cells with DNA fragmentation initially displayed a scattered distribution; at later time points they appeared mainly in the outer portion of the enveloping capsule. The reactive capsule was thicker for the smooth surface, and ...
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The genetic organization and sequences of the group II capsule gene cluster of Aeromonas hydrophila PPD134/91 have been determined previously. The purified capsular polysaccharides can increase the ability of avirulent strain PPD35/85 to survive in naive tilapia serum but have no inhibitory effect on the adhesion of PPD134/91 to carp epithelial cells. In this study, the presence of group II capsules among 33 randomly chosen A. hydrophila strains was examined by electron microscopy and genetic analysis. Ten strains were found to produce group II capsules. A PCR detection system was developed to identify two types of group II capsules (IIA and IIB) based on their genetic organization in the region II gene clusters. Group IIA capsules in the authors' collection of A. hydrophila strains are mainly found in the O : 18 and O : 34 serogroups, while group IIB capsules are found in the O : 21 and O : 27 serogroups. The presence of group II capsules in A. hydrophila strongly correlates with the serum and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of Streptococcus suis capsular types in 1996.. AU - Higgins, Robert. AU - Gottschalk, M.. PY - 1997/5/1. Y1 - 1997/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031135593&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031135593&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 9167881. AN - SCOPUS:0031135593. VL - 38. JO - Canadian Veterinary Journal. JF - Canadian Veterinary Journal. SN - 0008-5286. IS - 5. ER - ...
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Haemophilus influenzae type b HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B (HIB) VACCINES FOR AUSTRALIAN CHILDREN: INFORMATION FOR IMMUNISATION PROVIDERS Disease and epidemiology Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is
A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of cases of H. influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was high (36.7% during 1997-2009), and pneumococcus was the most common etiologic agent (57% in 2009 ...
On Dec 22, 1987, the first conjugate vaccine was licensed by the FDA for the prevention of infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. This vaccine is a conjugate of H influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide and diphtheria toxoid and is officially designated as Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (diphtheria toxoid-conjugate). The purpose of this statement is to provide background information, perspective, and recommendations for the use of this product.. BACKGROUND. H influenzae type b is a major cause of serious infections in infants and children, about 30% of which occur in children 18 months of age and older.1,2 American licensure of the "first-generation" vaccines, the Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccines or "plain" capsular polysaccharide vaccines (often referred to as PRP), was based on a field trial conducted in Finland.3 In this study which started in 1975, 48,977 children 3 to 71 months of age received a polysaccharide vaccine similar to those that were later licensed in the United ...
Learn more about Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine at Portsmouth Regional Hospital What Is Hib Disease?What Is the Hib Vaccine?Who Should Be Vaccinated and When?What...

Bacterial capsule - WikipediaBacterial capsule - Wikipedia

A bacterial capsule has a semi-ridged border that follows the contour of the cell. The capsule excludes India Ink when dyed. A ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_capsule

Bacterial capsule | Define Bacterial capsule at Dictionary.comBacterial capsule | Define Bacterial capsule at Dictionary.com

Bacterial capsule definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... bacterial capsule in Medicine Expand. bacterial capsule n. A mucopolysaccharide outer shell enveloping certain bacteria. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/bacterial-capsule

WikiPremed MCAT Course - Bacterial CapsuleWikiPremed MCAT Course - Bacterial Capsule

The WikiPremed MCAT Course is an open access, comprehensive learning program for college physics, chemistry, biology, and organic chemistry within a unified, spiraling curriculum.
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Bacterial capsules as vehicles for biotechnological applicationsBacterial capsules as vehicles for biotechnological applications

Some bacterial species have small internal protein capsules in which certain reactions take place. These compartments, termed ... You are here: Home , Science and Society , News , Bacterial capsules as vehicles for biotechnol... ... encapsulins, act as bacterial semiorganelles.. Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Biotecnología of the CSIC (CNB-CSIC), in ...
more infohttp://www.cnb.csic.es/index.php/en/science-society/news/item/1472-capsulas-bacterianas-como-vehiculos-para-aplicaciones-biotecnologicas

Bacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT CourseBacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT Course

The topic under discussion here is Bacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT Course ...
more infohttp://www.wikipremed.com/classic/mcat_course.php?code=0402020200000000

Bacterial capsule - WikipediaBacterial capsule - Wikipedia

"bacterial capsule" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary Encyclopædia Britannica [Capsules and Slime Layers]. Daffé, M.; Etienne, G ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_capsule

3-(2,6-difluorobenzamido)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl) thiophene-2-carboxylic acid inhibits E.coli UT189 bacterial capsule biogenesis -...3-(2,6-difluorobenzamido)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl) thiophene-2-carboxylic acid inhibits E.coli UT189 bacterial capsule biogenesis -...

Capsules are an attractive target because of new insights into the roles of bacterial K capsules in UPEC virulence during UTI. ... One persistence factor is the K type polysaccharide capsule. Capsule protects against phagocytosis, complement action, and ... Recent studies have also revealed that capsule along with fibrous protein assemblies is a key part of the IBC formation. ... assay to screen 335,740 compounds from the MLSMR library and identified 1,767 hits that inhibited K1 bacterial capsule ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143534/

Bacterial capsuleBacterial capsule

Capsule and slime layer are sometimes summarized under the term glycocalyx. A bacterial capsule has a semi-ridged border that ... Bacterial capsule. Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the ... In some times capsules are appeared as very thin under light microscope that capsules are known as micro capsules. ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
more infohttps://readtiger.com/wkp/en/Bacterial_capsule

PDF] Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia...PDF] Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia...

... as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and ... Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen ... Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia ... inproceedings{Mulye2014DelineatingTI, title={Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Delineating-the-Importance-of-Serum-Opsonins-and-in-Mulye-Bechill/12553d26ddf9aa4d8b2c5f663031a3c0535c24c0

Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery | SpringerLinkFabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery | SpringerLink

... was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The ... Bacterial cellulose Capsule Dissolution profiles Membrane controlled matrix This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained ... Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-017-1202-4

Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients | Nature MedicineGenomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients | Nature Medicine

Patients in intensive care units administered a bacterial probiotic had an elevated risk of bloodstream infection due to the ... Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients. *Idan Yelin ... Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients. Nat Med 25, ... 1: Genomic evidence for L. rhamnosus transmission from probiotic capsule to the blood of patients.. ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0626-9?error=cookies_not_supported&code=f0d7e22d-6fb9-4bda-83e2-d8fe01c2687a

Dr Clarks Bacterial Fighting Recipe 440mg 120 capsulesDr Clark's Bacterial Fighting Recipe 440mg 120 capsules

Suggested Use: Adults and children 4 or more years of age: 3 capsules 5 times a day or as directed. Take along with 6 capsules ... One serving size of 3 capsules provides: Epazote Aerial Parts 255mg, Reishi Mushroom 255mg, Boneset Aerial Parts 240mg, ... Eucapyptus Leaf 210mg, Burdock Root 210mg, Birch Bark 150mg, Gelatin capsule. ... Empty Gelatin Capsules (100 Caps). 6.24 Reishi Mushroom 425mg (100 Capsules). 17.17 Royal Flora Soil Based Probiotics 450mg ( ...
more infohttps://www.the-natural-choice.co.uk/Dr-Clarks-Bacterial-Fighting-Recipe-440mg-120-Capsules.html

Bacterial Glycocalyx - Capsule & Slime LayerBacterial Glycocalyx - Capsule & Slime Layer

Capsule. The glycocalyx is considered a capsule when the polysaccharides are more firmly attached to the cell wall. Capsules ... The adhesive power of capsules is also a major factor in the initiation of some bacterial diseases.. ... Bacterial Cell Wall. Prokaryotic eubacteria (bacteria) have a cell wall made of a unique substance called peptidoglycan. The ... The bacterial cell wall and materials adhering to its surface are the main ways in which we differentiate one species or strain ...
more infohttp://www.scienceprofonline.com/cell-biology/bacterial-glycocalyx-capsule-slime-layer.html

Attachment and Invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to Host Cells Is Related to Surface Hydrophobicity, Bacterial Cell Size and...Attachment and Invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to Host Cells Is Related to Surface Hydrophobicity, Bacterial Cell Size and...

However, removal of either serogroup B capsule or LOS sialylation in strain NMB-CDC increased bacterial attachment to host ... In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determinant affecting both bacterial attachment to and ... Although the level of inhibition of attachment by capsule was different between these strains, the regulation of the capsule ... It was proposed that the increase in surface area without changing the amount of anchored glycolipid capsule in the outer ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055798

Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in | proLékaře.czAutophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in | proLékaře.cz

Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in Download PDF České ... Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in ... In bacterial pathogens, the capsule protects the cell form opsonophagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. The mechanisms ... In bacterial pathogens, the capsule protects the cell form opsonophagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. The mechanisms ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-genetics/2015-9/autophosphorylation-of-the-bacterial-tyrosine-kinase-cpsd-connects-capsule-synthesis-with-the-cell-cycle-in-55908

PolysaccharidePolysaccharide

This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby ... Bacterial capsule polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in the bacterial "lifestyle". They serve as a barrier between the cell wall and ... a recent focus of research by several groups and it has been shown to be important for adhesion and invasion during bacterial ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Polysaccharide.html

Research explorer toolResearch explorer tool

Bacterial Capsules: A Route for Polysaccharide Engineering Roberts, I., & Taylor, C. (2005). Bacterial Capsules: A Route for ... Taylor, C., & Roberts, I. S. (2010). Regulation of capsule expression. In . M. Wilson (Ed.), Bacterial Adhesion to Host Tissues ... Taylor, C., & Roberts, I. S. (2010). Regulation of capsule expression. In . M. Wilson (Ed.), Bacterial Adhesion to Host Tissues ... Roberts, I., & Taylor, C. (2005). Bacterial Capsules: A Route for Polysaccharide Engineering. In Handbook of Carbohydrate ...
more infohttps://www.napier.ac.uk/research-and-innovation/research-search?q=A+&fv=BE7C946393454607AD2CC3D91E65303F~School+of+Applied+Sciences%7C235A2CAF60FE4EF18E8582C32510E292~Immunology+and+infection%7C235A2CAF60FE4EF18E8582C32510E292~Applied+microbiology&tab=6

Clare TaylorClare Taylor

Bacterial Capsules: A Route for Polysaccharide Engineering Roberts, I., & Taylor, C. (2005). Bacterial Capsules: A Route for ... Roberts, I., & Taylor, C. (2005). Bacterial Capsules: A Route for Polysaccharide Engineering. In Handbook of Carbohydrate ... In W. Russell, & H. Herwald (Eds.), Concepts in Bacterial Virulence; Contributions to Microbiology, 55-66. Basel,: Karger ... In W. Russell, & H. Herwald (Eds.), Concepts in Bacterial Virulence; Contributions to Microbiology, 55-66. Basel,: Karger ...
more infohttps://www.napier.ac.uk/people/clare-taylor

Lymphatic system Flashcards by Caleb Shelton | BrainscapeLymphatic system Flashcards by Caleb Shelton | Brainscape

pierces bacterial capsule 31 What are natural killer cells? next line of defense, lymphocytes that release perforin to look for ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lymphatic-system-1584774/packs/3025234

Antiphagocytic activity of streptococcal M protein: selective binding of complement control protein factor H | PNASAntiphagocytic activity of streptococcal M protein: selective binding of complement control protein factor H | PNAS

Bacterial strategies for overcoming host innate and adaptive immune responses. Mathias W. Hornef, Mary Jo Wick, Mikael Rhen, ... Antibody orientation at bacterial surfaces is related to invasive infection. Pontus Nordenfelt, Sofia Waldemarson, Adam Linder ... Staphylococcal Ecb Protein and Host Complement Regulator Factor H Enhance Functions of Each Other in Bacterial Immune Evasion ... Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/85/5/1657/tab-article-info

Polysaccharide - New World EncyclopediaPolysaccharide - New World Encyclopedia

This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby ... Bacterial capsule polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Bacterial polysaccharides represent a diverse range of macromolecules that include peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharides, capsules ... Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455455. ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Polysaccharide

Innate Immunity Flashcards by Kaitlyn Hastings | BrainscapeInnate Immunity Flashcards by Kaitlyn Hastings | Brainscape

How do bacterial capsules affect phagocytosis? Capsules make bacteria hard to eat because it prevents process from starting ( ... Escape before fusion, avoid altogether (capsule is slippery), prevent fusion of phagosome and lysosome, withstand the process ( ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/innate-immunity-4176173/packs/6276891

Olaya Rendueles-Garcia - Group : Molecular microbial evolution & ecology | Research - Institut PasteurOlaya Rendueles-Garcia - Group : Molecular microbial evolution & ecology | Research - Institut Pasteur

The bacterial capsule. Our main axis of research is the study of the bacterial capsule. Extracellular capsules constitute the ... Quantify the short-term fitness and metabolic costs of capsule production.. *Understand how capsules affect bacterial ... Bacterial co-evolution. We are also interested in the social interactions taking place within communities. We want to determine ... We aim to provide a global overview, across time scales, on the role of the capsule and how it affects the short, mid and long ...
more infohttps://research.pasteur.fr/en/team/group-olaya-rendueles-garcia/

Bacterial infections of urinary tract Archives - 1mg CapsulesBacterial infections of urinary tract Archives - 1mg Capsules

Gotta go all the time! This is the technical name for the problem we are going to discuss now. Frequent urination has become a silent struggle for many, few times it becomes embarrassing too. Approximately, 24 million people in the world are affected by this problem. It is a bothersome issue especially for women and people over 45 years old.. ...
more infohttps://www.1mg.com/articles/tag/bacterial-infections-of-urinary-tract/
  • Specific investigations have shown that K capsule contributes to multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including IBC formation. (nih.gov)
  • This study showed that BC is a promising alternative to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials. (springer.com)
  • It usually consists of polysaccharides , but can be composed of other materials such as polypeptide D-glutamic acid in B. anthracis , and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsule is found most commonly among gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (in some strains) Neisseria meningitidis Klebsiella pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella[citation needed] However, some gram-positive bacteria may also have a capsule: Bacillus megaterium for example, synthesizes a capsule composed of polypeptide and polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Export of the capsule across the plasma membrane occurs by a Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway, analogous to Group 1 CPS biosynthesis in Escherichia coli [ 8 , 9 ] ( Fig 1B ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Bogner RH, Szweijkowski JP, Houston AP (2000) Release of morphine sulfate from compounded slow-release capsules: the effect of formulation on release. (springer.com)
  • the capsule appears as a clear halo around the bacterium as the ink can't penetrate the capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maneval's capsule stain: the capsule appears as a clear halo between the pink-stained bacterium and the bluish-grey stained background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of the causative bacterium from another individual, colonization, invasion of mucosal epithelium resulting in bacteremia, haematogenous dissemination, invasion of the blood-brain barrier and, finally, the occurrence of inflammatory changes within the subarachnoid space consequent upon bacterial multiplication within the central nervous system (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the main cause of bacterial infections in newborns, such as septicemia, pneumonia, and meningitis, which can lead to death or long-term after effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some bacterial species have small internal protein capsules in which certain reactions take place. (csic.es)
  • Capsules too small to be seen with an ordinary microscope, such as the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, are called microcapsules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have also revealed that capsule along with fibrous protein assemblies is a key part of the IBC formation. (nih.gov)
  • Ahmad N, Amin MCIM, Mahali SM, Ismail I, Chuang VTG (2014) Biocompatible and mucoadhesive bacterial cellulose-g-poly (acrylic acid) hydrogels for oral protein delivery. (springer.com)
  • This finding further opens a new view of the function of BY-kinases in the bacterial cell notably in localizing protein complexes in subcellular regions over the cell cycle. (prolekare.cz)
  • The bacterial cell wall and materials adhering to its surface are the main ways in which we differentiate one species or strain from another. (scienceprofonline.com)
  • We aim to provide a global overview, across time scales, on the role of the capsule and how it affects the short, mid and long term genome evolution of a species. (pasteur.fr)
  • This will allow us to make predictions about the capsule-related factors influencing genetic exchanges across cells and the evolutionary outcomes of multi-species communities under different environmental conditions. (pasteur.fr)
  • The capsule plays a major role in both colonization and persistence of S . pneumoniae in the infected host due to its ability to form a shield that prevents antibodies and complement components from interacting with their receptors on the host phagocytic cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • The capsule-which can be found in both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria -is different to the second lipid membrane - bacterial outer membrane , which contains lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins and is found only in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms allowing the bacterial cell to maintain this protective capsule during cell growth and division remain unknown. (prolekare.cz)
  • Studying the role of BY-kinase represents thus an interesting approach to decipher the mechanisms of capsule synthesis and export. (prolekare.cz)
  • Model the interplay between capsules and genetic exchange mechanisms, by building on an individual-based model (IBM), previously developed. (pasteur.fr)
  • Temperate phages have been shown to carry adaptive traits that increase the fitness of their bacterial host. (pasteur.fr)
  • When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless and appears as a ring, or halo, around the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, capsules also play a critical role in the environment because they protect the cells from physical and chemical stresses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Determine the role of capsules in genetic transfer and the long-term evolution of genomes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Indeed, CpsD captures the capsule assembly machinery at the site of division, but we also show that CpsD coordinates capsule production with the cell cycle by interacting with the chromosome segregation system. (prolekare.cz)
  • Quantify the short-term fitness and metabolic costs of capsule production. (pasteur.fr)
  • [ citation needed ] Immunity to one capsule type does not result in immunity to the other types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BC capsule shells were studied for drug release using an USP type-I dissolution apparatus. (springer.com)
  • Capsules have a gummy, sticky consistency and provide protection as well as adhesion to solid surfaces and to nutrients in the environment. (scienceprofonline.com)
  • Of those hits, 59 were confirmed as active in a dose-responsive manner, and eight compounds were shown in secondary assays to specifically inhibit capsule formation. (nih.gov)
  • Made using only the active ingredients and a capsule. (the-natural-choice.co.uk)
  • Irrespective of the drying method and the thickness of the BC sheet, the capsule shells displayed an immediate drug release profile. (springer.com)