An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A reference measure of food used to identify the calorie and nutrient content in a particular amount of that food. It is defined by an authoritative source, such as the Food Guide Pyramid devised by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. It is different from PORTION SIZE, which is the amount of food one chooses to eat at a single meal.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/1416)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/1416)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis. (3/1416)

To evaluate the role of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in conferring protective immunity against plague, six yop loci from Yersinia pestis were individually amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified and injected into mice. Most Yop-vaccinated animals succumbed to infection with either wild-type encapsulated Y. pestis or a virulent, nonencapsulated isogenic variant. Vaccination with YpkA significantly prolonged mean survival time but did not increase overall survival of mice infected with the nonencapsulated strain. The only significant protection against death was observed in YopD-vaccinated mice challenged with the nonencapsulated strain.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (4/1416)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (5/1416)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Phagocytosis of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (6/1416)

Capsulated bacteria exhibit serum (complement) resistance and resistance to phagocytosis, which result in disseminated infections. Vibrio cholerae O139 strains possess a thin capsule and have been found to be partially serum resistant in a previous study. In the present study, compared to a standard capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which showed total resistance to killing by phagocytosis, V. cholerae O139 strains were shown to be only partially resistant, with most strains showing <40% survival. These findings may explain the relative rarity of V. cholerae O139 bacteremia in cholera caused by this organism.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of surface components of Streptococcus gallolytics (S. bovis) strains of differing virulence isolated from pigeons. (7/1416)

Virulence of Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. bovis) strains isolated from pigeons is associated with the presence of the extracellular proteins A, T1, T2 and T3. Based on the presence or absence of these proteins, six supernatant-phenotypes are distinguished. Experimental infection studies have indicated that strains belonging to the A-T1, A+T1, A+T2 and A+T3 groups are highly virulent for pigeons, strains belonging to the A-T3 groups are moderately virulent and A-T2 strains are of low virulence. In this study the surface structure of 15 pigeon S. gallolyticus strains representing high, moderate and low virulence supernatant-phenotypes was examined by electron microscopy. The presence of capsular material was determined by transmission electron microscopy after polycationic ferritin labelling and immunostabilization. Capsules from cells labelled with polycationic ferritin were usually thicker than those from cells exposed to antiserum. The capsule of the virulent strains had a regular, continuous appearance whilst irregularity of the capsule was a characteristic of the low virulence A-T2 strains. Negative staining revealed the presence of fimbriae in all strains belonging to the high virulence A-T1, A+T1, A+T2 and A+T3 supernatant groups and in one strain of the moderately virulent A-T3 group. The fimbriae were thin, flexible structures with a diameter of approximately 3-4 nm and a length of up to 700 nm. Fimbriae as described above were absent in two other A-T3 strains examined and in the low virulence A-T2 strains. Results from this study indicate that morphological differences in surface structure exist among virulent and low virulence pigeon S. gallolyticus strains, and that the capsule and/or fimbriae are possibly involved in virulence.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: the capsule protects against phagocytosis and is an important virulence factor. (8/1416)

To study the role of the capsule of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in virulence, we generated two isogenic mutants disturbed in capsule production. For that purpose, we first cloned and characterized a major part of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) locus of S. suis serotype 2. Based on the established sequence, 14 open reading frames (ORFs), designated Orf2Z, Orf2Y, Orf2X, and Cps2A to Cps2K, were identified. Twelve ORFs belonged to a single transcriptional unit. The gene products of 11 of these ORFs showed similarity to proteins involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis of other gram-positive microorganisms. Nonencapsulated isogenic mutants were generated in the cps2B and cps2EF genes by insertional mutagenesis. In contrast to the wild-type S. suis serotype 2 strain, the nonencapsulated strains were highly sensitive to ingestion by porcine alveolar lung macrophages in vitro. More importantly, the nonencapsulated mutant strains were completely avirulent in young germfree pigs after intranasal inoculation. These observations indicate that the capsule of S. suis serotype 2 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of S. suis serotype 2 infections.  (+info)

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Bacterial capsule definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
This capsule type medical device system includes: a position detection device 4 which detects the position within the living body of a capsule type medical device 2 which can be ingested to within the living body; an electrode 5 which is provided in the vicinity of the outer surface of the capsule type medical device 2 , and which applies an electrical stimulus to living body tissue; and a control device 6 which controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 ; and the control device 6 controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 based upon positional information which is detected by the position detection device 4.
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for swelling and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Over 100 million UTIs occur annually throughout the world, including more than 7 million cases in U.S. adolescents and adults. UTIs in younger children are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality than in older children and adults. During UTI, UPEC exists in both intracellular and extracellular spaces. Infection is initiated by adherence to the apical bladder epithelium and then invading this layer of cells. Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). After maturation of IBCs, UPEC disperses away from the IBC and exits the infected cells. Extracellular UPEC must then re-adhere, initiating the invasion and intracellular propagation phases again. Bacterial-epithelial interactions incite a strong inflammatory response through which the UPEC must persist. One persistence factor is the K
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JURNAL.pdf Analisis Pencahayaan Ruang Kelas Seminar TF 4 Presentation METABOLISME LAPORAN AKHIR PRAKTIKUM PERKEMBANGAN TUMBUHAN LENGKAP - UNSYIAH Nature of Science Reflection dukun dan penyembuh tradisional lainnya sosoantrokes.docx St Week Lab alpro Kamus ID EN Assessment of Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule in Conjunctivitis and Keratitis in vivo Neuraminidase Activity Increases in Nonencapsulated Pneumococci following Conjunctival Infection Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae Keratitis by Passive Immunization with Pneumolysin Antiserum Moxifloxacin and Cholesterol Combined Treatment of Pneumococcal Keratitis The Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Is Required for Full Virulence in Pneumococcal Endophthalmitis
Diversity of the polysaccharide capsule in Streptococcus pneumoniae-main surface antigen and the target of the currently used pneumococcal vaccines-constitutes a major obstacle in eliminating pneumococcal disease. Such diversity is genetically encoded by almost 100 variants of the capsule biosynthesis locus, cps. However, the evolutionary dynamics of the capsule remains not fully understood. Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial isolates, we found cps to be an evolutionary hotspot with elevated substitution and recombination rates. These rates were a consequence of relaxed purifying selection and positive, diversifying selection acting at this locus, supporting the hypothesis that the capsule has an increased potential to generate novel diversity compared with the rest of the genome. Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression and hence the bacteriums ability to cause disease. Using a novel, capsule-centered
Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many nosocomial and communityinfections with a diversity linked to the expression of many virulence factors. Their expression istemporally coordinated during infection by transcription factors, two- component systems but alsoregulatory RNAs called non coding RNAs (ncRNAs). A large number of potential ncRNAs waspredicted in the genome of S. aureus but their function remains unknown.The first aim of this thesis was to characterize the role of one ncRNA identified by our team,RsaA, in the regulation of bacterial virulence. Several in vitro approaches allowed todemonstrate that RsaA activates biofilm formation and inhibits the bacterial capsule synthesis,with an impact on the bacterial opsonophagocytosis and internalization into macrophages. RsaArepresses the translation of mgrA mRNA by an antisense mechanism. mgrA codes for atrancriptional regulator known to repress biofilm formation but to activate capsule synthesis. Inparallel, RsaA represses the ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a class of polysaccharides that includes hyaluronan, heparin and chondroitin, are essential macromolecules in mammals. GAGs have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the synthesis of defined, homogeneous, or customized GAGs has been quite restricted. Chemoenzymatic syntheses harnessing microbial glycosyltransferases (synthases that naturally produce the extracellular bacterial capsules) in reactions with artificial and natural substrates have been employed to create a variety of new carbohydrates in recent years. Work towards the generation of new polysaccharide species, specifically-tagged probes, chimeric polymers, sulfated oligosaccharides, scaffold- and liposome-coating derivatives will be presented. These ...
Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. (A) M3 GAS express more capsule than M1 (n = 5 strains/group); however, capsule levels in M
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Staphylococcus aureus; strain: N315; locus tag: SA_RS00935 (SA0153); symbol: capJ; product: capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein
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The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
The role of the polysaccharide capsule is well established in UPEC virulence. The prototypical group 2 capsule provides protection against phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing (23, 24), contributes to immune evasion via molecular mimicry (33), and can also mask other surface-associated antigens (39). Group 2 capsule biosynthesis is controlled by a conserved export and assembly mechanism (16, 17, 19-22), suggesting that the expression of all group 2 capsules may be regulated by the same factors, hence providing an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents.. We first examined a collection of 126 complete E. coli genomes to gain a better understanding of the distribution of the group 2 capsule types. We found that the majority of phylogroup B2 (75%; 33/44) and D (75%; 3/4) strains possess intact region I and III capsular export and assembly genes but carry an array of region II genes that encode different capsular K types. All 10 of the ST95 strains in our 126-strain ...
Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni capsular loci reveals multiple mechanisms for the generation of structural diversity and the ability to form complex heptoses: Mol.Microbiol.
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
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Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
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Petri dish culture of a yeastlike organism (fungus), Rhodotorula sp, known as a red yeast to the production of a carotenoid pigment. This Fungus is a saprophytic organism, meaning that it acquires nutrition from dead or decaying tissue, either plant or animal. As a food spoilage organism it can contaminate domestic & industrial food. Rhodotorula sp appears in two forms, capsulated & noncapsulated. The noncapsulated variety is seen here. The capsulated version produces a slimy mucilage, the surface becoming smooth & shiny. Its function is uncertain, but in pathogenic species it is associated with increased virulence. - Stock Image B250/0197
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Author: Allen Loyd V Jr, Year: 1999, Abstract: The capsule is one of the most versatile of all dosage forms. In this article, the author discusses historical considerations, contemporary use, applications/uses, preparation of capsules (filling liquids in hard-gelatin capsules, filling capsules with a semisolid mass, filling solids in hard-gelatin capsules, preparing altered-release capsules, preparing coated capsules, beaker-flask coating, dipping and spraying and cleaning and packaging extemporaneously compounded capsules), quality control
Enzyme immunoassay for the determination of IgG antibodies to Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide (PCP) in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel rkp gene clusters of Sinorhizobium meliloti involved in capsular polysaccharide production and invasion of the symbiotic nodule. T2 - The rkpK gene encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. AU - Kereszt, Attila. AU - Kiss, Erno. AU - Reuhs, Bradley L.. AU - Carlson, Russell W.. AU - Kondorosi, Ádám. AU - Putnoky, Péter. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) was shown to be required for the infection process by rhizobia that induce the formation of indeterminate nodules on the roots of leguminous host plants. In Sinorhizobium meliloti (also known as Rhizobium meliloti) Rm41, a capsular polysaccharide (KPS) analogous to the group II K antigens of Escherichia coli can replace EPS during symbiotic nodule development and serve as an attachment site for the strain-specific bacteriophage φ16-3. The rkpA to -J genes in the chromosomal rkp-1 region code for proteins that are involved in the synthesis, modification, and transfer of an ...
Child;Meningitis, Haemophilus;Haemophilus influenzae type b;Immunoglobulin Km Allotypes;Haemophilus Vaccines;Immunization;Vaccination;Bacterial Capsules;Pertussis Vaccine;Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes;Meningitis;Antibody ...
Host defense mechanisms can counteract the antiphagocytic bacterial capsule. Unlike classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway is not antibody-mediated and can easily overwhelm encapsulated bacteria. It is triggered by the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b and the attachment of C3b to MAMPs (Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns), such as the capsular polysaccharides. The C3b molecules osponsize the pathogen, facilitating its phagocytosis and intravascular clearance. Furthermore, the complement cascade leads to the formation of proteolytic C3and C5 convertases and the terminal membrane attack complex, which lyses the pathogen. However, a potentially fatal drawback from lysing the pathogen is the release of endotoxic lipopolysaccharides, which elicit an out-of-control immune response. [2 ...
The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein.
van Alphen, Loek, Caugant, Dominique A, Duim, Birgitta, ORourke, Maria and Bowler, Lucas (1997) Differences in genetic diversity of noncapsulated Haemophilus influenzae from various diseases. Microbiology, 143 (4). pp. 1423-1431. Full text not available from this repository ...
Pathogenic meningococci have obtained a 24?kb capsule synthesis isle (and alleles in meningococcal isolates was retained for everyone serogroups except serogroup Electronic that includes a synthetic requirement of UDP-GalNAc. inhabitants2,3 but invades the web host from time to time, leading to meningitis4 and septicaemia. In both and connections with host cellular material are modulated with the glycome in the bacterial surface area which include the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) as well as the glycosylation position of the sort IV pilin5. Meningococci are recognized from gonococci by the current presence of a capsule polysaccharide synthesis (isle includes a lower G/C-content compared to the primary meningococcal genome in keeping with acquisition via horizontally gene TMC353121 IC50 transfer (HGT) by recombination6. The overall organisation from the isle is as comes after: Area A is in charge of the formation of the capsule polymer; Area B (and which really is a homologue of the transcription ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Han Zheng, Shaobo Ji, Zhijie Liu, Ruiting Lan, Ying Huang, Xuemei Bai, Marcelo Gottschalk, Jianguo Xu].
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During a national surveillance program on Group B streptococci (GBS) maternal carriage and neonatal infections, a GBS strain isolated from a pregnant womans vagino-rectal swab was non typable by either serological or molecular methods. Further molecular characterization demonstrated that the strain …
Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids it to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface
The genes (cps) involved in the synthesis of the colanic acid capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli K-12 are transcriptionally regulated by numerous proteins. Two of these, RcsB and RcsC, share homology with two-component regulatory elements that respond to environmental stimuli. Osmotic shock by sucrose or NaCl transiently increased transcription of a cpsB::lacZ fusion. RcsC and RcsB were essential for osmotic induction of colanic acid synthesis. In contrast to observations in some other osmotically regulated systems, addition of glycine betaine enhanced the osmotic induction of cps::lacZ by both sucrose and NaCl but had no effect alone. ...
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Autor: Hicke, H. G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999; Keywords: biotechnology|br/|membrane reactors|br/|membrane-bound enzymes|br/|microporous and porous membranes|br/|polysaccharide synthesis|br/|photo-grafted membranes|br/|chromatography; Titel: Novel enzyme-membrane reactor for polysaccharide synthesis
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Currently, Dr. Chen is seeking to decipher the molecular evolution of the emergence of CRE. CRE have been described as nightmare bacteria , and been classified as an urgent threat by CDC. CRE have increased over the past decade and grown resistance to even the most powerful antibiotics. The worldwide dissemination of CRE is predominately associated with a single K. pneumoniae clone, ST258. Using the whole genomic analysis, Dr. Chen and his colleagues have revealed that the ST258 is a hybrid strain that originated as a large chromosomal recombination. Meanwhile, this superclone is under significantly diversification, primarily due to the recombination of antigen encoded capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) region and plasmid acquisition. Thus far, they have sequenced over 300 CRE isolates, including the first two completely closed ST258 genomes; and have completely characterized over 50 carbapenem-resistant plasmids ...
The pharmaceutical industry segment by end-user is projected to attain a largest share of overall empty drug capsule market. In terms of geography, with 43% share in 2015, North America grabbed the largest market of empty drug capsule aided by U.S. Moreover, growing pharmaceutical industry in this region is predicted to foster the growth of empty drug capsule market. Apart from this, Europe empty drug capsule market accounted for USD 248.1 Million in 2015.. Request Free Sample Report @ https://www.researchnester.com/sample-request/2/rep-id-175. Expansion of Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Industries. Robust expansion of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries in developing and developed nation on the back of positive GDP figure is believed to be the dynamic factor behind the rapid growth of empty drug capsule market. Furthermore, growing adoption of empty drug capsule on the back of absence of odor and bitterness is also believed to flourish the growth of empty drug capsule market.. Rise in ...
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article{934d5e3b-3125-4a8e-9594-9c88d7695cb4, abstract = {Low-density polethylene disks with smooth or course surfaces were implanted in the abdominal wall of rats, and the tissue response was evaluated after 1, 6, or 12 weeks. Cell damage was detected by two different methods. Cells with increased membrane permeability could be identified using fluorescence microscopy by injection of propidium iodide prior to the killing of the rats. Second, cell death was verified by detection of DNA fragmentation. At 1 week a considerable number of the interfacial cells was stained with propidium iodide. Propidium-iodide-positive cells also were enriched at the edges of the disks irrespective of surface texture. The numbers of positive interfacial cells decreased markedly over time. Cells with DNA fragmentation initially displayed a scattered distribution; at later time points they appeared mainly in the outer portion of the enveloping capsule. The reactive capsule was thicker for the smooth surface, and ...
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All isolates harbored the cylE and hylB genes and at least one pilus island. Four (4.8%) of the 83 GBS isolates did not produce a hemolytic halo around the bacterial colonies (Figure 1). CP-868596 manufacturer Concomitantly, these isolates were not able to produce the orange carotenoid pigment in Granada medium. Most of the isolates harbored PI-2a alone (n = 30, 36.1%) or in combination with PI-1 (n = 42, 50.6%). PI-2a was distributed in all capsular types. identified in this study, including the type IX and NT isolates. However, the presence of this pilus island alone or in combination with PI-1 was found mainly in capsular type Ia and V, respectively. Besides, PI-1 was also found in combination with PI-2b (n = 4, 4.8%) and all isolates belonged to capsular type III. The presence of PI-2b alone was observed in seven isolates (8.4%) and all belonged to capsular type. Ia. All isolates grouped in MTs 1 (n = 16, 19.3%), 4 (n = 8, 9.6%), 6 (n = 5, 6.0%) and 7 (n = 7, 8.4%) harbored PI-1 and PI-2a ...
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Presence of less heavily encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular type 1 in semen of healthy stallions and cervical swabs of mares suffering from metritis and comparison of virulence between heavily and less heavily encapsulated strains. (1988 ...
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The wireless motility-recording capsule, SmartPill, is an ingested one-time use electronic capsule that measures gastrointestinal luminal pressure, pH and temperature along the whole gastrointestinal tract. The pH profile and the pressure patterns define the time at which the capsule moves from the stomach to the duodenum and from the ileum to the caecum, whereas changes in temperature define the times of ingestion and expulsion. The recordings from the wireless motility capsule are sent from a radio transmitter in the capsule to a receiver carried around the waist. Wireless motility recordings have several advantages over imaging and manometry that have been used previously. Primarily the simplicity by which motility recordings are done, as well as the tolerability for the patient and limited need of assistance are valuable aspects. The wireless motility capsule provides standardized measures of transit with relevant normal values for the clinical work-up of patients with motility ...
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A bacterial capsule is similar, but is an organized structure that does not wash off as easily as slime layers. Biofilm " ... "Bacterial Glycocalyx - Capsule & Slime Layer". www.scienceprofonline.com. Retrieved 2016-02-04. "The Microbial World :: A look ... It may permit bacterial colonies to survive chemical sterilization with chlorine, iodine, and other chemicals, leaving ... a separate and highly organised glycoprotein layer surrounding many bacterial cells. The function of the slime layer is to ...
GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides). GBS are subclassified into 10 ... The GBS capsule is probably the key virulence factor because it helps GBS escape from the host defence mechanisms interfering ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the main cause of bacterial infections in ... IAPs have been considered to be associated with the emergence of resistant bacterial strains and with an increase in the ...
GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysacharide). The species is subclassified into ten ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the major cause of several bacterial infections ... GBS is the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infection in the baby during gestation and after delivery with significant ... "A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta". J Exp Med 210. 210: 1265-1281. ...
Penbritin - Antibiotics for the penicillin family intended for treating bacterial infection, administered as a capsule. In 1966 ...
He contributed to the literature of actinomycosis and trichinosis and discovered a method of staining bacterial capsules. He ...
So humoral immunity in forms of IgG and complement proteins is the human immune system's response against bacterial capsules. ... These include common human pathogens with bacterial capsules (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Neisseria ... meningitidis, E. coli, Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Capsules made of ...
"Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized ... Prevention of bacterial vaginosis includes healthy diets and behaviors as well as minimizing stress as all these factors can ... "Bacterial Vaginosis." Gale: Contemporary Women's Issues. HealthyWomen, Dec. 2010. Web. April 7, 2011. Kissinger, P; Adamski, A ... Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads ...
A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... In addition, the capsule and several factors embedded in the cell wall, including M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F ( ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ... S. pyogenes can also cause disease in the form of postinfectious "nonpyogenic" (not associated with local bacterial ...
Griffith also reported transformation of serological type-bacterial antigenicity-distinct from presence or absence of a capsule ... Pneumococci has two general forms-rough (R) and smooth (S). The S form is more virulent, and bears a capsule, which is a ... However, the R form, lacking a capsule-its outer surface being cell wall-is relatively avirulent, and does not cause pneumonia ... In January 1928 he reported what is now known as Griffith's Experiment, the first widely accepted demonstrations of bacterial ...
The bacterial capsule sugars, a characteristic of these pathogens, are linked to CRM197, a nontoxic recombinant variant of ... Prevnar (PCV7) is a heptavalent vaccine, meaning that it contains the cell capsule sugars of seven serotypes of the bacteria S ... "CDC - ABCs: Surveillance Reports main page - Active Bacterial Core surveillance". Allen, Arthur (2007-06-21). "What if a ...
The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. This bacterial material ... bacterial genome)genome,(1 phage in 10.000 ones carry the donor genome). In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA ... both bacterial and mammalian cells). When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial ... If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, ...
"Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides", Infection and Immunity, 72 (12): 7107-7114, ... bacterial infections, IV Telaprevir, Hepatitis C, oral cyclic peptide Telavancin, bacterial infection, IV Vancomycin, bacterial ... bacterial infections, IV Daptomycin, bacterial infections, IV Enfuvirtide, HIV, subcutaneous injection Oritavancin, bacterial ... Therefore, the outmost leaflets of the bilayer which is exposed to the outside of the bacterial membranes are more attractive ...
Quellung is the German word for "swelling" and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules ... is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ... As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because ... If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. ...
Enteroscopy for enteropathy and jejunal aspirate and culture for bacterial overgrowth Capsule Endoscopy is able to visualise ... Glucose hydrogen breath test for bacterial overgrowth Lactose hydrogen breath test for lactose intolerance Sugar probes or 51Cr ... D-xylose absorption test for mucosal disease or bacterial overgrowth. Normal in pancreatic insufficiency. Bile salt breath test ... Antibiotic therapy to treat Small Bowel Bacterial overgrowth. Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help reducing ...
This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby ... 5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides[edit]. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ...
Wzc - a tyrosine kinase found in the bacterial inner membrane. Participates in polymerization of capsule polysaccharides. Wzx ... The capsule biosynthesis, or CPS operon is a section of the genome present in some Escherichia coli which regulates the ... production of polysaccharides which make up the bacterial capsule. These polysaccharides help protect the bacteria from harsh ... The CPS operon is likely transcriptionally regulated by the Rcs (regulation of capsule synthesis) proteins. Reduced levels of ...
... bacterial capsule, viral capsid) and activation of complement cascade. As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell ... Acton, R. T., Barton, J. C. (2016). "Selective Subnormal IgG1 in 54 Adult Index Patients with Frequent or Severe Bacterial ... IgA1 has a longer hinge region which increases its sensitivity to bacterial proteases. Therefore, this subclass dominates the ... Chen, J, Boes, M (1998). "A critical role of natural immunoglobulin M in immediate defense against systemic bacterial infection ...
... although they contained no DNA and were simply the remains of the original bacterial capsule. They concluded that the protein ... Using a high speed blender they were able to force the bacteriophages from the bacterial cells after adsorption. The lack of ... However no specific conclusions can be made regarding whether material that is sulfur-free enters the bacterial cell after ... ISBN 0-465-09138-5. Berk V, Cate JH; Cate (June 2007). "Insights into protein biosynthesis from structures of bacterial ...
Adenoviridae Papillomaviridae Picornaviridae Bacterial capsule Cell envelope "CHAPTER #11: VIRUSES". Retrieved 2008-11-07. "The ...
... bacterial capsules MeSH D09.698.718.220 --- bambermycins MeSH D09.698.718.450 --- lipopolysaccharides MeSH D09.698.718.450.500 ...
... bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.616.200 --- bacterial capsules MeSH D23.050.161.616.525 --- lipopolysaccharides MeSH D23.050.161.616 ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D23.050.161.050 --- adhesins, bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.050.040 --- adhesins, escherichia coli ...
The genes that regulate SAg expression also regulate mechanisms of immune evasion such as M protein and Bacterial capsule ... This also implicates SAgs in the progression of sepsis in patients with bacterial infections. Diabetes mellitus Eczema Guttate ... effect of the activity of the endotoxin and the SAg result in effects more deleterious that those seen in a typical bacterial ...
... a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide. Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) ... "Bacterial Defense against Phagocytosis". Pearson H (1977). "Sickle cell anemia and severe infections due to encapsulated ... The smooth surface and negative charge of the exterior capsule limits the ability of phagocytes to counteract the bacteria ... Wong W, Powars D, Chan L, Hiti A, Johnson C, Overturf G (1992). "Polysaccharide encapsulated bacterial infection in sickle cell ...
Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
Capsules are relatively impermeable structures that cannot be stained with dyes such as India ink. They are structures that ... Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility (i.e. ... the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm. This ... If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a ...
"bacterial capsule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Encyclopædia Britannica [Capsules and Slime Layers]. Daffé, M.; Etienne, G ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
Avery was looking for a microbe that could break down the polysaccharide capsule of a deadly strain of bacterial pneumonia in ... The Bacterial Cell in its Relation to Problems of Virulence, Immunity and Chemotherapy, 1945, Harvard University Press Louis ... In 1942, before antibiotics were in general use, Dubos warned that bacterial resistance should be expected. In 1948, Dubos ... and gramicidin from the bacterium Bacillus brevis that killed or inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and tested their bacterial, ...
Both mammalian cell lines and bacterial cells remain viable and continue to replicate within the capsule membrane in order to ... The capsules were pumped through a series of vessels simulating the human GI tract to determine how well the capsules would ... Studies show that the cellular response to smaller capsules is much lesser as compared to larger capsules and in general the ... the capsules were well tolerated and there were no adverse reactions seen such as immune response to the capsules, ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ...
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, chronic bacterial prostatitis, acute (sudden) bacterial prostatitis, and ...
capsule Crypts Location Adenoid (also termed "pharyngeal tonsil"). Ciliated pseudostratified columnar (respiratory epithelium) ... or if bacterial in origin, antibiotics, e.g. amoxicillin and azithromycin. Surgical removal (tonsillectomy) may be advised if ...
... a small capsule containing the spores is put into the autoclave with the items; after the cycle the content of the capsule is ... Abel-Santos, E (editor) (2012). Bacterial Spores: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230- ... Further information: Bacterial morphological plasticity. Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... For example, a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar ...
"Isotretinoin 20mg capsules - - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-12-27.. ... bacterial infection Blood and lymphatic system *Anemia. *Increased red blood cell sedimentation rate ... "Isotretinoin 20mg capsules - - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-10.. ... "Roaccutane 20mg Soft Capsules - Summary of Product Characteristics". UK Electronic Medicines Compendium. 1 July 2015.. ...
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections.[53 ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ... Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not ...
When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... One strategy is intracellular replication, as practised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or wearing a protective capsule, which ... Gómez-Gómez L, Boller T (June 2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor ... Finlay BB, McFadden G (February 2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens". ...
"Safety Information-Xenical (orlistat) capsules". www.fda.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2016-06-18.. ... Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in ...
This includes parts (coats, capsules, cell walls, flagella, fimbriae, and toxins) of bacteria, viruses, and other ... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" ( ...
Fibrous capsule of Glisson. *Perisinusoidal space. *Liver sinusoid *Periportal space. *Portal triad ... Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome. *Whipple's. *Short bowel syndrome. *Steatorrhea. *Milroy disease ...
... es are caused by bacterial infection, parasites, or foreign substances. Bacterial infection is the most common cause.[8] ... The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall, or capsule, that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt ... They are usually caused by a bacterial infection.[8] Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection. ... symptoms indicating bacterial illness throughout the body, or a health condition causing immunosuppression.[1] People who are ...
It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills, tablets, or capsules. The drug may contain a single or multiple ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ...
Blind food challenges involve packaging the suspected allergen into a capsule, giving it to the patient, and observing the ...
Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... Supplements such as tablets, capsules, powders, and sachets containing the bacteria have been studied. However, probiotics ... In the following decades, intestinal lactic-acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as ... bacterial translocation) as a consequence of bacteremia, which can cause adverse health consequences.[5] Rarely, consumption of ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O. ...
December 13, 2002). "Evidence for Antibody-Catalyzed Ozone Formation in Bacterial Killing and Inflammation". Science. 298 (5601 ... The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O. ...
Bacterial or viral[edit]. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... such as in the capsule of a joint or the peritoneum, multiply without resistance and cause harm. ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ...
Part 1: bacterial, viral and fungal infections". Clinical Radiology. 67 (5): 484-94. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2011.10.021. PMID ... endoscopy and capsule endoscopy,[7] barium contrast imaging remains in common use because it offers the advantages of greater ... Enteroclysis compares favorably with wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis of mucosal ...
Often-utilised capsule systems were the Watson capsule and the Crosby-Kugler capsule. This method has now been largely replaced ... It is suspected that some of them may have been beneficial by providing protection against bacterial infections.[71][72] ... Until the 1970s, biopsies were obtained using metal capsules attached to a suction device. The capsule was swallowed and ... Capsule endoscopy (CE) allows identification of typical mucosal changes observed in coeliac disease but has a lower sensitivity ...
"Development of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 9 (6): 625-631. doi:10.1016/j.mib. ... "Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle". Proceedings of the National ...
Two species of lichen were sealed in a capsule and launched on a Russian Soyuz rocket. Once in orbit the capsules were opened. ... The bacterial or algal partners produce pigments that absorb sunlight in photosynthesis. There are reports dating back almost ...
The hormone may be administered orally, as capsules, tablets, or liquids. It is also available for use sublingually, or as ... and bacterial infections, and potentially in the treatment of cancer. ...
detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • regulation of cytokine secretion. • cellular response to diacyl bacterial ... TLR2 is also found in the epithelia of air passages, pulmonary alveoli, renal tubules, and the Bowman's capsules in renal ... cellular response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • detection of triacyl bacterial lipopeptide. • positive regulation of Wnt ... response to bacterial lipoprotein. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • response to toxic substance. • response to ...
... found just outside the bacterial cell wall. A distinct, gelatinous glycocalyx is called a capsule, whereas an irregular, ... The difference between a capsule and a slime layer is that in a capsule polysaccharides are firmly attached to the cell wall, ... The glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a capsule or a slime layer. Item 6 points at the glycocalyx. ... Bacterial Glycocalyx in Nature and Disease. Annual Reviews Microbiology, 1981. Vol. 35: p. 299-324 ...
For a bacterial cell to reproduce through binary fission, more than a million peptidoglycan subunits (NAM-NAG+oligopeptide) ... The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall is a crystal lattice structure formed from linear chains of two alternating ... Some antibacterial drugs such as penicillin interfere with the production of peptidoglycan by binding to bacterial enzymes ... Peptidoglycan is also involved in binary fission during bacterial cell reproduction. The peptidoglycan layer is substantially ...
a b Bacterial phyla entry in LPSN [. Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder ... Branching order of bacterial phyla (Rappe and Giovanoni, 2004). *Branching order of bacterial phyla after ARB Silva Living Tree ... List of sequenced bacterial genomes. Footnotes[edit]. *^ Past editions of Brock Biology of Microorganisms have referred to the ... When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial ...
Under most definitions, organic products do not use transgenic Bt cotton which contains a bacterial gene that codes for a plant ... the capsule and seeds sit inside the Chang'e 4 lander.[48] ...
... is also a component of the group A streptococcal extracellular capsule,[6] and is believed to play a role in ... and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, also synthesize HA, which has been shown to facilitate primary adhesion of cytokine-activated ... "Hyaluronic acid capsule is a virulence factor for mucoid group A streptococci" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (19): ... "THE HYDROLYSIS OF HYALURONIC ACID BY BACTERIAL ENZYMES". J. Exp. Med. 71 (2): 137-46. doi:10.1084/jem.71.2.137. PMC 2135078 ...
"Plant Stomata Function in Innate Immunity against Bacterial Invasion". Cell. 126 (5): 969-980. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.054. ...
Bacterial capsule definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... bacterial capsule in Medicine Expand. bacterial capsule n. A mucopolysaccharide outer shell enveloping certain bacteria. ...
The WikiPremed MCAT Course is an open access, comprehensive learning program for college physics, chemistry, biology, and organic chemistry within a unified, spiraling curriculum.
The topic under discussion here is Bacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT Course ...
Capsules are an attractive target because of new insights into the roles of bacterial K capsules in UPEC virulence during UTI. ... One persistence factor is the K type polysaccharide capsule. Capsule protects against phagocytosis, complement action, and ... Recent studies have also revealed that capsule along with fibrous protein assemblies is a key part of the IBC formation. ... assay to screen 335,740 compounds from the MLSMR library and identified 1,767 hits that inhibited K1 bacterial capsule ...
... biofilm formation and inhibits the bacterial capsule synthesis,with an impact on the bacterial opsonophagocytosis and ... ARN régulateurs de Staphylococcus aureus : Rôle de RsaA dans la formation du biofilm et de la capsule, niveaux dexpression ... In this way, RsaA enhances biofilm formation and represses capsule synthesis.The second objective was to characterize the in ... mgrA codes for atrancriptional regulator known to repress biofilm formation but to activate capsule synthesis. Inparallel, RsaA ...
A) M3 GAS express more capsule than M1 (n = 5 strains/group); however, capsule levels in M ... Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. ( ... Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology*. *Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolism*/ ... Figure 2: Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. (A) M3 GAS express more capsule than M1 (n = 5 ...
However, the evolutionary dynamics of the capsule remains not fully understood. Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial ... which was confirmed to carry a viable and structurally novel capsule. Adding to previous discoveries of other mosaic capsules ... Using a novel, capsule-centered approach, we analyzed the evolutionary history of 12 major serogroups. Such analysis revealed ... Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression ...
... that naturally produce the extracellular bacterial capsules) in reactions with artificial and natural substrates have been ...
A bacterial capsule has a semi-ridged border that follows the contour of the cell. The capsule excludes India Ink when dyed. A ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ...
Negative Stain Technique of Bacterial Capsules. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools ...
"bacterial capsule" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary Encyclopædia Britannica [Capsules and Slime Layers]. Daffé, M.; Etienne, G ... and peptidoglycan and muramic acid found in E.coli bacterial capsule. Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are ... When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
Patients in intensive care units administered a bacterial probiotic had an elevated risk of bloodstream infection due to the ... Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients. *Idan Yelin ... Genomic and epidemiological evidence of bacterial transmission from probiotic capsule to blood in ICU patients. Nat Med 25, ... 1: Genomic evidence for L. rhamnosus transmission from probiotic capsule to the blood of patients.. ...
Buy Bee Propolis Capsule,Protein Softgel,Vitamin B12 Product on Alibaba.com ... Wholesale Price Propolis Soft Gels Capsules Heart Anti Bacterial Bone Supplement - ... Wholesale Price Propolis soft gels Capsules Heart Anti Bacterial Bone Supplement. Hot sale products ... empty capsulesempty pill capsulescough capsules. vegetarian capsulesvegetable capsulesred and black capsule ...
Some bacterial species have small internal protein capsules in which certain reactions take place. These compartments, termed ... You are here: Home , Science and Society , News , Bacterial capsules as vehicles for biotechnol... ... encapsulins, act as bacterial semiorganelles.. Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Biotecnología of the CSIC (CNB-CSIC), in ...
... was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The ... Bacterial cellulose Capsule Dissolution profiles Membrane controlled matrix This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained ... Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery. ...
Cytotoxicity screening for potential Inhibitors of Bacterial Capsule Biogenesis (2). ...
Cephalexin Capsule may be prescribed for Infection-Bacterial. Cephalexin preparation information is provided by Wedgewood ... Cephalexin Capsule. Prescribed For: Dogs and Cats. May be Prescribed For: Infection-Bacterial. If you have any questions ... Infection-Bacterial. One of the dosage forms available for Cephalexin is Capsule. Wedgewood Pharmacy compounds more than 2,000 ... Cephalexin Capsule. Prescribed For: Dogs and Cats. May be Prescribed For: Infection-Bacterial. ...
Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
However, removal of either serogroup B capsule or LOS sialylation in strain NMB-CDC increased bacterial attachment to host ... In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determinant affecting both bacterial attachment to and ... Although the level of inhibition of attachment by capsule was different between these strains, the regulation of the capsule ... It was proposed that the increase in surface area without changing the amount of anchored glycolipid capsule in the outer ...
Suggested Use: Adults and children 4 or more years of age: 3 capsules 5 times a day or as directed. Take along with 6 capsules ... One serving size of 3 capsules provides: Epazote Aerial Parts 255mg, Reishi Mushroom 255mg, Boneset Aerial Parts 240mg, ... Eucapyptus Leaf 210mg, Burdock Root 210mg, Birch Bark 150mg, Gelatin capsule. ... Empty Gelatin Capsules (100 Caps). 6.24 Reishi Mushroom 425mg (100 Capsules). 17.17 Royal Flora Soil Based Probiotics 450mg ( ...
Bacterial tyrosine kinases and their cognate phosphatases are key players in the regulation of capsule assembly and thus are ... Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the bacterial capsule assembly-regulating tyrosine phosphatases ... Capsules are formed from carbohydrate polymers which are known as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and form a discrete layer that ... Capsule assembly is a potential therapeutic target and as the phosphatases are essential to this, a structural understanding of ...
Why sequence metagenome function of the Earthworm egg capsule bacterial community?. Earthworms are common soil organisms that ... Understanding the bacterial component of earthworm eggs is relevant to understanding the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the soil ... Understanding how bacterial communities produce biofuels or to remediate contaminated environments is limited due to a lack of ... The earthworm egg capsule microbial community represents the seed population for the juvenile, and then adult, organism. ...
Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in Download PDF České ... Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in ... In bacterial pathogens, the capsule protects the cell form opsonophagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. The mechanisms ... In bacterial pathogens, the capsule protects the cell form opsonophagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. The mechanisms ...
... as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and ... Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen ... Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia ... inproceedings{Mulye2014DelineatingTI, title={Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in ...
Analysis of one group of capsule-deficient variant … ... a correlation between capsule phase variation and bacterial ... 8 polysialic acid capsule showed that polysialyltransferase (PST) activity was absent in these capsule-negative variants. ... Capsule phase variation in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B by slipped-strand mispairing in the polysialyltransferase gene ( ... Analysis of one group of capsule-deficient variants indicated that the capsular polysaccharide was re-expressed at a frequency ...
Gotta go all the time! This is the technical name for the problem we are going to discuss now. Frequent urination has become a silent struggle for many, few times it becomes embarrassing too. Approximately, 24 million people in the world are affected by this problem. It is a bothersome issue especially for women and people over 45 years old.. ...
Capsule and slime layer are sometimes summarized under the term glycocalyx. A bacterial capsule has a semi-ridged border that ... Bacterial capsule. Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the ... In some times capsules are appeared as very thin under light microscope that capsules are known as micro capsules. ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
Capsule. The glycocalyx is considered a capsule when the polysaccharides are more firmly attached to the cell wall. Capsules ... The adhesive power of capsules is also a major factor in the initiation of some bacterial diseases.. ... Bacterial Cell Wall. Prokaryotic eubacteria (bacteria) have a cell wall made of a unique substance called peptidoglycan. The ... The bacterial cell wall and materials adhering to its surface are the main ways in which we differentiate one species or strain ...
What is the relationship between the presence of capsules and bacterial pathogenicity. ?. increased resistance to phagocytosis ... What is the relationship between capsules and bacterial virulence. ?. Encapsulated bacteria can escape the bodys defense ... The presence of capsules increase the pathogenicity of the bacteria. The value of a capsule to a bacterium helps the bacteria ... Can one correlate the presence of a capsule on a pathogenic species with virulence. ?. no capsule just gives sticky nature to ...
Clarks Bacterial Fighter, 440 mg 120 capsules. /shop/product/bfr120-dr-clark-s-bacterial-fighter-440-mg-120-capsules-726 29.80 ... Adults and children 4 or more years of age: 3 capsules 5 times a day or as directed. Take along with 6 capsules each of ...
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Each Capsule Contains:. *Minimum 2 billion live microorganisms per capsule (2x109 CFU/capsule), equivalent to 10 billion live ... Bio-Kult Advanced Multi-Strain Bacterial Culture Formulation- Pack of 60 Capsules ... Bio-Kult capsules can be pulled apart and the contents sprinkled onto food, mixed with a drink or swallowed whole ...
... on Wednesday said it has received approval from the US health regulator for its generic tetracycline hydrochloride capsules us ... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsule is an antibiotic used to treat many different bacterial infections of the skin, intestines, ... Strides Pharma Science gets USFDA nod for generic anti-bacterial capsules. Strides Pharma Science on Wednesday said it has ... approval from the US health regulator for its generic tetracycline hydrochloride capsules used for treatment of many bacterial ...
Bacterial strategies for overcoming host innate and adaptive immune responses. Mathias W. Hornef, Mary Jo Wick, Mikael Rhen, ... Antibody orientation at bacterial surfaces is related to invasive infection. Pontus Nordenfelt, Sofia Waldemarson, Adam Linder ... Staphylococcal Ecb Protein and Host Complement Regulator Factor H Enhance Functions of Each Other in Bacterial Immune Evasion ... Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival ...
  • One persistence factor is the K type polysaccharide capsule. (nih.gov)
  • Diversity of the polysaccharide capsule in Streptococcus pneumoniae-main surface antigen and the target of the currently used pneumococcal vaccines-constitutes a major obstacle in eliminating pneumococcal disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Capsules are an attractive target because of new insights into the roles of bacterial K capsules in UPEC virulence during UTI. (nih.gov)
  • A large number of potential ncRNAs waspredicted in the genome of S. aureus but their function remains unknown.The first aim of this thesis was to characterize the role of one ncRNA identified by our team,RsaA, in the regulation of bacterial virulence. (worldcat.org)
  • Capsule protects against phagocytosis, complement action, and antimicrobial peptide killing. (nih.gov)
  • Specific investigations have shown that K capsule contributes to multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including IBC formation. (nih.gov)
  • Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). (nih.gov)
  • Several in vitro approaches allowed todemonstrate that RsaA activates biofilm formation and inhibits the bacterial capsule synthesis,with an impact on the bacterial opsonophagocytosis and internalization into macrophages. (worldcat.org)
  • mgrA codes for atrancriptional regulator known to repress biofilm formation but to activate capsule synthesis. (worldcat.org)
  • In this way, RsaA enhances biofilm formation and represses capsule synthesis.The second objective was to characterize the in vivo expression of RNA III and RsaA, E, G, HsRNAs in samples of acute infections (cutaneous absesses), chronicle infections (cystic fibrosis)and nasal carriage. (worldcat.org)
  • Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial isolates, we found cps to be an evolutionary hotspot with elevated substitution and recombination rates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Such diversity is genetically encoded by almost 100 variants of the capsule biosynthesis locus, cps. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, expression of a single copy of full-length rocAM89 incorporated into the M3 chromosome reduced levels of capsule expression, demonstrating that the unique mutations in serotype M3 RocA underlie the heightened levels of capsule expression exhibited by strains of this serotype (Fig. 2C). (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial-epithelial interactions incite a strong inflammatory response through which the UPEC must persist. (nih.gov)
  • A truncation in the regulator RocA underlies heightened capsule expression in serotype M3 group A streptococci. (nih.gov)
  • Of those hits, 59 were confirmed as active in a dose-responsive manner, and eight compounds were shown in secondary assays to specifically inhibit capsule formation. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, we showed that overexpression of full-length RocA amplified from M89 GAS (RocAM89) (2) was sufficient to reduce capsule expression to levels similar to those in M1 GAS (Fig. 2B). (nih.gov)
  • In this program we used a cell-based assay to screen 335,740 compounds from the MLSMR library and identified 1,767 hits that inhibited K1 bacterial capsule formation. (nih.gov)
  • Using a novel, capsule-centered approach, we analyzed the evolutionary history of 12 major serogroups. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies have also revealed that capsule along with fibrous protein assemblies is a key part of the IBC formation. (nih.gov)
  • It is suitable for use as a lead compound for inhibition of K1 capsule formation. (nih.gov)
  • Pneumococcal Capsule Synthesis Locus cps as Evolutionary Hotspot with Potential to Generate Novel Serotypes by Recombination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These rates were a consequence of relaxed purifying selection and positive, diversifying selection acting at this locus, supporting the hypothesis that the capsule has an increased potential to generate novel diversity compared with the rest of the genome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Adding to previous discoveries of other mosaic capsules in densely sampled collections, these results emphasize the strong adaptive potential of the bacterium by its ability to generate novel antigenic diversity by recombination. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. (nih.gov)
  • Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression and hence the bacterium's ability to cause disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • the capsule appears as a clear halo around the bacterium as the ink can't penetrate the capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maneval's capsule stain: the capsule appears as a clear halo between the pink-stained bacterium and the bluish-grey stained background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of the causative bacterium from another individual, colonization, invasion of mucosal epithelium resulting in bacteremia, haematogenous dissemination, invasion of the blood-brain barrier and, finally, the occurrence of inflammatory changes within the subarachnoid space consequent upon bacterial multiplication within the central nervous system (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • B. anthracis , the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive sporeforming bacterium that expresses two major virulence factors, toxins and capsule. (asm.org)
  • Most capsules are hydrophilic ("water-loving") and may help the bacterium avoid desiccation (dehydration) by preventing water loss. (britannica.com)
  • One persistence factor is the K type polysaccharide capsule. (nih.gov)
  • These kinases are involved in the regulation of several cellular functions including polysaccharide capsule production. (prolekare.cz)
  • They possess a polysaccharide capsule, which is the main determinant of their pathogenicity. (medscape.com)
  • When the amorphous viscid secretion (that makes up the capsule) diffuses into the surrounding medium and remains as a loose undemarcated secretion, it is known as slime layer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsule and slime layer are sometimes summarized under the term glycocalyx . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The slime layer is not to be confused with the S-layer, a separate and highly organised glycoprotein layer surrounding many bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some bacterial species have small internal protein capsules in which certain reactions take place. (csic.es)
  • The bacterial cell wall and materials adhering to its surface are the main ways in which we differentiate one species or strain from another. (scienceprofonline.com)
  • Scientists at the premier Regional Medical Reference Centre (RMRC) at Port Blair have found that the bacterial species that causes leptospirosis is no longer socially aloof, as has been held for years. (indiatimes.com)
  • Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (bionity.com)
  • Major bacterial predators include viruses (bacteriophages) and a group of bacterial species collectively known as Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs). (asm.org)
  • Although BALOs and bacteriophages occur in the same environments and may prey on the same bacterial species, coinfection by these two agents has not been considered. (asm.org)
  • We aim to provide a global overview, across time scales, on the role of the capsule and how it affects the short, mid and long term genome evolution of a species. (pasteur.fr)
  • This will allow us to make predictions about the capsule-related factors influencing genetic exchanges across cells and the evolutionary outcomes of multi-species communities under different environmental conditions. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using other diagnostic modalities may prove helpful, such as the DNA tests that may allow for more specific delineation of bacterial species, which will allow for more specific antibiotic treatment. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. (asm.org)
  • The findings reinforce the importance of ongoing efforts to develop pneumococcal vaccines that target bacterial proteins rather than the capsule," she said. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Recent data have shown that a variety of cellular processes essential for bacterial survival and virulence are regulated by the phosphorylation of certain endogenous proteins catalyzed by specific tyrosine kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated microbial fouling on 2 molluscan egg capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) with bacterial viability staining and bacterial attachment experiments with the biofilm-forming Pseudoalteromonas sp. (int-res.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/749900/all/Gerota's_capsule. (tabers.com)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these regions affected known virulence factors, the hyaluronic acid capsule and the toxins NADase and streptolysin O. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to the rest of the sequenced emm89 population, the emergent clade-associated strains were genetically acapsular, rendering them unable to produce the hyaluronic acid capsule. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • An unusual finding of the new variant was the loss of the hyaluronic acid capsule, previously thought to be essential for causing invasive disease. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Investigators also demonstrated that capsule shedding and the antibiotic-induced bacterial death were separate processes carried out by LytA enzymes in different regions of pneumococcus. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Uncomplicated cases of bacterial vaginosis (BV) typically resolve after the standard antibiotic treatment. (medscape.com)
  • A Cochrane review found that antibiotic treatment for sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis had no effect on the rate of improvement in the women. (medscape.com)
  • 5 g suppository contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin in a base consisting of a mixture of glycerides of saturated fatty acids Clindamycin phosphate vaginal suppository (Cleocin) is an antibiotic prescribed to treat bacterial Buy 2. (liberalconspiracy.org)
  • Rifampin USP, is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin B, available as 300-mg capsules for oral administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Vancocin capsules contain the active ingredient vancomycin, which is a type of medicine called an antibiotic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Export of the capsule across the plasma membrane occurs by a Wzy-dependent polymerization pathway, analogous to Group 1 CPS biosynthesis in Escherichia coli [ 8 , 9 ] ( Fig 1B ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Analysis of the Escherichia coli K10 capsule gene cluster identified two regions, regions 1 and 3, conserved between different group III capsule gene clusters. (asm.org)
  • The genetic determinants for group I capsules map near his on the E. coli chromosome ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The genetic locus for group II capsules has been mapped near serA at 64 min on the E. coli chromosome ( 24 , 26 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • At the later stages of development these squid egg capsules become heavily colonized by algal spores. (int-res.com)
  • Could the Seres capsule of bacterial spores become the first? (xconomy.com)
  • SER-109 is a capsule containing a mix of bacterial spores from healthy human donors. (xconomy.com)
  • Predisposing factors that may contribute to development of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are listed below. (medscape.com)
  • Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • The effect of hydroxyquinoline-based gel on pessary-associated bacterial vaginosis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Harrison P. Bacterial Vaginosis Raises HIV Risk, Lowers Tenofovir Level. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence of African-American women's frustrations with chronic recurrent bacterial vaginosis. (medscape.com)
  • I have Bacterial vaginosis(BV) and I'm also 5 weeks pregnant is it safe to take clindamycin 300mg twice a day for 7 days? (healthtap.com)
  • How ling does clindamycin for bacterial vaginosis take to work? (healthtap.com)
  • Is it ok to take the metronidazole first then after 2days the clindamycin for my bacterial vaginosis? (healthtap.com)
  • The treatment for bacterial vaginosis is Metronidazole for 7 days. (healthtap.com)
  • After how many days can I have sex after taking my metronidazole and clindamycin for my bacterial vaginosis? (healthtap.com)
  • I wanted to know is clindamycin hlc 300 mg used to treat bacterial vaginosis? (healthtap.com)
  • Can clindamycin HCl 300 mg capsule be use for bacterial vaginosis bv? (healthtap.com)
  • Yes Clindamycin 300mg twice daily for 7 days is an effective alternative to Metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis caused by gardnerella vaginalis. (healthtap.com)
  • Would swapping from clindamycin cream to an oral anti biotic for bacterial vaginosis disrupt the treatment? (healthtap.com)
  • My doctor prescribed me clindamycin 2% 7 day cream for bacterial vaginosis while pregnant. (healthtap.com)
  • Clindamycin cream is effective in bacterial vaginosis. (healthtap.com)
  • Is clindamycin a good treatment for bacterial vaginosis? (healthtap.com)
  • PGA is also very poorly immunogenic, and bacilli, such as Bacillus anthracis , that are covered by a capsule of PGA do not elicit anticapsule antibodies in the host ( 4 , 14 , 32 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). (asm.org)
  • Jipa IM, Stoica-Guzun A, Stroescu M (2012) Controlled release of sorbic acid from bacterial cellulose based mono and multilayer antimicrobial films. (springer.com)
  • A great body of evidence indicates that the electrostatic interaction between antimicrobial peptides and the negatively charged bacterial membranes is critical for bacterial killing ( 21 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei Capsule Exacerbates Respiratory Melioidosis but Does Not Afford Protection against Antimicrobial Signaling or Bacterial Killing in Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Working in the laboratory, researchers showed for the first time that pneumococci responded to antimicrobial peptides secreted by epithelial cells by activating LytA, which leads to capsule removal but not bacterial death. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Working in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia, researchers reported that LytA and antimicrobial peptides both contributed to capsule removal. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Are clindamycin capsules a good treatment for cellulitis of the leg after a broken leg? (drugs.com)
  • The rigid structure of peptidoglycan gives the bacterial cell shape, surrounds the plasma membrane and provides prokaryotes with protection from their environment. (scienceprofonline.com)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (bionity.com)
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan (poly- N -acetylglucosamine and N -acetylmuramic acid), which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane . (bionity.com)
  • One serving size of 3 capsules provides: Epazote Aerial Parts 255mg, Reishi Mushroom 255mg, Boneset Aerial Parts 240mg, Eucapyptus Leaf 210mg, Burdock Root 210mg, Birch Bark 150mg, Gelatin capsule. (the-natural-choice.co.uk)
  • The empty hard gelatin capsule shells contain FD&C Blue #1, D&C Red #28, titanium dioxide, gelatin and sodium lauryl sulphate. (nih.gov)
  • Avoid administration of LAIV within 2 weeks before or 48 hours after oseltamivir phosphate capsules use, unless medically indicated. (nih.gov)
  • A description of the bacterial capsule and how it provides a survival advantage to some pathogens. (brainmass.com)
  • Some of these traits are involved in virulence or bacterial survival under stress conditions. (pasteur.fr)
  • The majority of antibacterial vaccines currently target the capsule to trigger the protective immune response," said senior author Elaine Tuomanen, M.D., chair of the St. Jude Department of Infectious Diseases. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Except for gonorrhea, treatment should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. (drugs.com)
  • When present, bacterial capsules are the outermost structure of the bacterial surface. (asm.org)
  • The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies. (duke.edu)
  • The B. anthracis capsule is composed of poly-γ- d -glutamate and is covalently linked to the peptidoglycan ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Immunity to one capsule type does not result in immunity to the other types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reducing ends of some group I capsules are associated with lipid A-core of lipopolysaccharide, although this association is not essential for surface expression ( 20 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • The toxin genes are carried on a 186-kb plasmid, pXO1, and the capsule synthetic operon ( capBCAD ) is carried on a 90-kb plasmid, pXO2. (asm.org)
  • Antibody Responses to Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Diphtheria Toxin Induced by Conjugates of Oligosaccharides of the Type b Capsule with the Nontoxic Protein CRM",Infect. (patentgenius.com)
  • Immunogens Consisting of Oligosaccharides from the Capsule of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Coupled to Diphtheria Toxoid or the Toxin Protein CRM197",J. Clin. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the human pathogenStreptococcus pneumoniae, the BY-kinase CpsD localizes at the division site and participates in the proper assembly of the capsule. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • Recent studies have also revealed that capsule along with fibrous protein assemblies is a key part of the IBC formation. (nih.gov)
  • The capsule plays a major role in both colonization and persistence of S . pneumoniae in the infected host due to its ability to form a shield that prevents antibodies and complement components from interacting with their receptors on the host phagocytic cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition, the capsule prevents bacterial death caused by bactericidal serum factors. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. (springer.com)
  • Because most capsules are so tightly packed, they are difficult to stain because most standard stains cannot adhere to the capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsules also help cells adhere to surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such bacterial modulation of host gene expression may be essential to sustain asymptomatic bacterial carriage by ensuring that potentially destructive immune activation will not occur. (jci.org)
  • Rifampin Capsules, USP are indicated for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of N. meningitidis to eliminate meningococci from the nasopharynx. (rxlist.com)
  • This study will compare bioavailability of dexlansoprazole from 30 mg and 60 mg dexlansoprazole delayed release capsules manufactured at TOB relative to the corresponding 30 mg and 60 mg dexlansoprazole delayed release capsules manufactured at TPC. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These compartments, termed encapsulins, act as bacterial semiorganelles. (csic.es)