Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
GSTs are not detected in anaerobic bacteria or archaea. In bacteria, GSTs are involved in a variety of distinct processes such ... Oakley A (May 2011). "Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective". Drug Metab. Rev. 43 (2): 138-51. doi:10.3109/ ... Allocati N, Federici L, Masulli M, Di Ilio C (January 2009). "Glutathione transferases in bacteria". The FEBS Journal. 276 (1 ... GSTs are widely distributed in aerobic bacteria and are classified into several classes. ...
"Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. doi:10.1038/nrd1917. ... Target for drugs. Shikimate can be used to synthesise (6S)-6-Fluoroshikimic acid, an antibiotic which inhibits the ... The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, algae, parasites, and plants for the ... and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of ...
Robertson MD, Drummer OH (May 1995). "Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria". J Forensic Sci. 40 (3): 382-6. PMID 7782744. ... The drug causes a delay in the onset, and decrease in the duration of REM sleep. Following discontinuation of the drug, REM ... The drug was recommended to join the barbiturates in not being prescribed to the elderly. Only nitrazepam and lorazepam were ... It is a popular drug of abuse in countries where it is available. Doses as low as 5 mg can impair driving skills. Therefore, ...
Robertson MD; Drummer OH (May 1995). "Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria". J Forensic Sci. 40 (3): 382-6. PMID 7782744. ... Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook 2014 "Clonazepam - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-25. "Clonazepam ... "Clonazepam, Prescription Marketed Drugs". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and ... "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental ...
US Food and Drug Administration. "Aeromonas hydrophila and Related Bacteria." International Specialty Supply. "Georgia woman ... This bacterium can be found in fresh or brackish water. It can survive in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and can digest ... This bacterium is linked to two types of gastroenteritis. The first type is a disease similar to cholera, which causes rice- ... A. hydrophila bacteria are Gram-negative, straight rods with rounded ends (bacilli to coccibacilli shape) usually from 0.3 to ...
... is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from soil on the ... ISBN 0-85186-224-1. J., Elks (1990). Dictionary of Drugs Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Boston, MA: Springer US ... ISBN 1-4757-2085-8. editor, Dinesh K. Maheshwari, (2013). Bacteria in agrobiology disease management. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3- ...
Bigongiari J (October 26, 2010). "Chicago sees drug-resistant bacteria spreading". VaccineNewsDaily.com. Siegel-Itzcovich J (26 ... The bacteria remain susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, varying degrees of inhibition of the beta-lactamase with ... facultative anaerobic bacterium. In terms of the pathophysiology of Klebsiella pneumonia we see neutrophil myeloperoxidase ... "Klebsiella pneumoniae antimicrobial drug resistance, United States, 1998-2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19 (1): 133-6. ...
The different drugs in the regimen have different modes of action. INH are bacteriocidal against replicating bacteria. EMB is ... The drug most frequently implicated as causing a drug fever is RMP: details are given in the entry on rifampicin. Drug-induced ... 104 STM-resistant bacteria, 104 INH-resistant bacteria and 10² RMP-resistant bacteria. Resistance mutations appear ... Drugs are not used singly (except in latent TB or chemoprophylaxis), and regimens that use only single drugs result in the ...
Many researchers are developing methods that use bacteria to deliver drugs. These bacteria can be "programmed" to perform a ... "Bad Bacteria Key to Drug Delivery." Wired. 28 Feb. 2003. CondéNet, Inc. 10 Oct. 2008. . Cao, Guozhong. Nanostructures & ... However, the bacteria may damage healthy organs or fail to deliver the medicine to the sick organ in the case of a malfunction ... In such cases, a fail-safe mechanism is required to neutralize the bacteria and prevent damage. An antibiotic is generally ...
Although most of the drugs derived from bacteria are employed as anti-infectives, some have found use in other fields of ... Although natural products have inspired numerous U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, drug development from ... Drug Discovery - Is Mother Nature still the number one source for promising new drugs? Patrick GL (2013). "12.4.2: Medical ... Koehn FE, Carter GT (March 2005). "The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 4 ...
In April 2011 it reached a deal with Optimer Pharmaceuticals in which its class of bacterium fighting drugs will be co marketed ... As a part of this plan, sales of its flagship drug Cubicin were expected to grow to more than 1B dollars per year. In July 2013 ... Under this plan, the company was expected to reach 2B dollars in sales and have 4 new drugs in late stage development by 2017. ... acquired Cubist for $102 per share in cash ($8.4 billion) as entree to the market for drugs that can combat superbugs. Cubist ...
"Novel Anti-Infective Compounds from Marine Bacteria". Marine Drugs. 8 (3): 498-518. doi:10.3390/md8030498. PMC 2857357 . PMID ... MC21-B is an antibiotic isolated from the O-BC30T strain of a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica. MC21-B is ... an antibacterial compound produced by the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas phenolica O-BC30T". International Journal of ...
Crowe, Kelly (25 June 2014). "Antibiotic-resistant bacteria disarmed with fungus compound". CBC News. Retrieved 19 August 2015 ... Waters, Hannah (25 April 2011). "Drugs boost antibiotic function". The Scientist. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Unravelling the ... the collection of all the antibiotic resistant genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In ... Antibiotic Biochemistry at McMaster University who studies chemical compounds that can combat antibiotic resistance in bacteria ...
"Novel Anti-Infective Compounds from Marine Bacteria". Marine Drugs. 8 (3): 498-518. doi:10.3390/md8030498. Fedorov, Roman; Böhl ... However, despite inhibition these strains at PBP drug concentrations of 0.0063 μg/ml, these promising preliminary findings ... it has a served as a model example of the potential significance of marine natural products drug discovery as an effective ... pathway first identified in the marine bacteria, P. luteoviolacea 2ta16 and P. phenolica O-BC30. The bmp pathway describes a bi ...
... producing bacteria could be divided in two classes: homofermentative bacteria like Lactobacillus casei and ... "Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-10-27. "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling ... Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast ... These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries. In ...
It is used in the treatment of respiratory tract and ear, nose and throat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. It is ... Drugs Exp Clin Res. 14 (1): 39-43. PMID 3391105. ... It is only functional against Gram-positive bacteria. It ... Combe J, Simonnet F, Yablonsky F, Simonnet G (1980). "[Clofoctol binding by the bacteria (author's transl)]". J Pharmacol (in ...
Without folic acid, bacteria cannot grow and divide. Therefore, because of sulfa drugs' competitive inhibition, they are ... These fatty acids inhibitors have been used as drugs to relieve pain because they can act as the substrate, and bind to the ... Sulfa drugs also act as competitive inhibitors. For example, sulfanilamide competitively binds to the enzyme in the ... An example of non-drug related competitive inhibition is in the prevention of browning of fruits and vegetables. For example, ...
Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ... Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ...
"Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. doi:10.1038/nrd1917. PMID ... The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, algae, parasites, and plants for the ... and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of ...
Bradley, D. (Dec 2005). "Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. ... Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermentation by E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to ... Later that year, a method for the production of shikimic acid using bacteria was discovered. ... a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Shikimic acid is produced by ...
"US Meat and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria". sciencedaily.com. "Retail Meat Report" (PDF). ... The Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2016. Gulli, Cathy (17 June 2009). " ... Bacteria survives but does not grow in freezing temperatures. However, if frozen cooked foods are not defrosted properly and ... The FDA has since revised its stance on safe limits to inorganic arsenic in animal feed by stating that "any new animal drug ...
"US Meat and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria". sciencedaily.com.. ... The Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2016.. ... Food and Drug Safety Administration. 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2015.. *^ Cohen Stuart, James; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Voets ... However, if frozen cooked foods are not defrosted properly and are not reheated to temperatures that kill bacteria, chances of ...
... , like other quinolones and fluoroquinolones, are bactericidal drugs, actively killing bacteria. Quinolones inhibit ... Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 501. ISBN 9783527607495. .. ... For many gram-negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... However, many of these reported reactions were very minor; discontinua- tion of the antibacterial agent because of drug-related ...
... is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. It usually results in death of the bacteria. It ... "Levofloxacin ophthalmic medical facts from Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved ... Unlike ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin does not appear to deactivate the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2. Therefore, drugs that use ... levofloxacin exhibits greater activity towards Gram-positive bacteria but lesser activity toward Gram-negative bacteria, ...
Stearns, John (August 1, 2016). "Melinta Therapeutics takes aim at deadly drug-resistant bacteria". Hartford Business Journal. ... using this drugs with antacids, some dietary supplements, or drugs buffered with any of these ions will interfere with ... New Drug Applications (NDA) for delafloxacin (Baxdela) 450 mg tablets and 300 mg injections were approved by the FDA in June ... Like other drugs in the fluoroquinolone class, delafloxacin contains a black box warning about the risk of tendinitis, tendon ...
Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes. ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ... Opinion on Drug Safety. 4 (6): 1097-109. doi:10.1517/14740322.214.171.1247. PMID 16255667.. ...
The AMR sentinel surveillance system is the first national surveillance for multi-drug resistant bacteria in the country. This ... The solution: CDC is supporting Vietnam in tracking multi-drug resistant infections in hospitals as part of the countrys ... In Vietnam, rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are among the highest in Asia, with multi-drug-resistant infections causing ... The region has recently seen the emergence of serious antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis, malaria, and bacteria commonly ...
Your gut is home to tens of trillions of bacteria. Collectively, they act as another organ, one with many different roles. They ... when the team killed the bacteria with antibiotics, the cancer-killing immune cells werent recruited, and the drug became ... www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2013/11/21/three-cancer-drugs-dont-work-without-gut-bacteria.html ... Remove the bacteria with antibiotics, and you also neuter the drugs. ...
... have identified new means of fighting drug-tolerant bacteria, a growing global threat as menacing as drug... ... New means to fight un-killable bacteria in healthcare settings Published: 13Sep2018 ... Read more about New means to fight un-killable bacteria in healthcare settings ... drug-tolerant bacteria ...
CDC offers new call to arms on nightmare bacteria Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people and kill 23,000 each ... The financial barrier to developing antibiotics? No big payday for drug companies As current antibiotics begin to lose their ... Since every use of an antibiotic drives resistance, and doctors are reluctant to use a drug until theres no alternative, why ... As the list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria grows, so have the extraordinary efforts to prevent the spread of infection… ...
... is used to prevent infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Includes Prevnar 13 side effects, interactions and indications. ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Prevnar 13 works by exposing you to a small amount of the bacteria or a protein from the bacteria, which causes the body to ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
E. coli is a normal bacteria found in the intestine and is released in large numbers in human feces. S. aureus is a bacteria ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Drug Safety Communication: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) - Avoid Use of NSAIDs in Pregnancy at 20 Weeks or ...
Will it be able to overcome resistant bacteria? ... an antibiotic in the lab with three ways of killing bacteria. ... Bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin have replaced one D-alanine with another amino acid, D-lactic acid. This change from ... Not only did the redesigned vancomycin bind to bacteria that had one D-alanine and one D-lactic acid. It was also able to bind ... "Bacteria have so many different ways to resist antibiotics, it seems impossible that resistance will not eventually develop," ...
The United States first known case of a superbug that cannot be killed by any existing antibiotic was announced by the U.S. Department of Defense. CNNs Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports.
... bacteria can get inside tumours, and even inside cancer cells themselves, and then use their own metabolic machinery to break ... Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs?According to ... down anti-cancer drugs and protect the tumour. ... Bacteria deactivate cancer drugs. Bacteria deactivate cancer ... Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs? ...
They found that they needed to add higher drug concentrations to kill the bacteria when some of the chemicals were present. In ... A New Antibiotic Weakness-Drugs Themselves Help Bacteria Survive. Medications can change body chemistry to make it more ... making bacteria less susceptible to the drugs.. These chemical changes were incited not by bacterial cells, but by the animals ... leading to the build-up of toxic molecules inside the bacteria that help to kill them. With this process dampened, bacteria ...
... while an antibiotic drug increased by 120% after going through the wastewater treatment process. ... while an antibiotic drug increased by 120% after going through the wastewater treatment process. ... The concentration of an anti-epileptic drug increased by 80%, ... The concentration of an anti-epileptic drug increased by 80%, ... Microbes can activate or inactivate drugs, generate toxic byproducts of drug metabolism, and alter drug metabolism by human ...
Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a rapid screening method to pair existing FDA-approved drugs to combat multi ... but persistent use and over-prescription have opened the door that has allowed bacteria to evolve resistance. According to the ... Antibiotics were the wonder drug of the 20th century, ... Bacteria-Drug Stand Off (video). University of Utah Health. ... Finding the perfect match: A new approach to battle drug-resistant bacteria. University of Utah Health ...
Tuberculosis drug shows promise against latent bacteria WASHINGTON, Sept. 12 (Xinhua) -- A new study has shown that an ... currently in clinical trials against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains, is quite effective at killing latent bacteria, ... reasoning proved to be correct and R207190 was able to kill dormant bacteria by greater than 95 percent whereas current drugs ... Researchers hope to validate these results clinically, and note that ATP synthase should be looked at as a drug target for ...
... of bacteria evolving drug resistance right before your eyes. ... believe bacteria can evolve a resistance to drugs, but only ... and at some point one or more of the baby bacteria just happened to get a resistance to the drug. It was able to pass that ... Weve also seen bacteria evolve in real time; a similar experiment (minus the video) was done with E. coli that shows them ... Mind you, bacteria all over the place on the table were probably evolving some sort of resistance, but only the ones near the ...
"Nightmare bacteria" with unusual resistance to antibiotics of last resort were found more than 200 times in the United States ... Bugs and drugs are in a constant battle, as germs evolve to resist new and old antibiotics. About 2 million Americans get ... "Nightmare bacteria" with unusual resistance to antibiotics of last resort were found more than 200 times in the United States ... Some of the sick patients had traveled for surgery or other health care to another country where drug-resistant germs are more ...
The first extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strain of Salmonella typhimurium, called ST313 sublineage II.1, has cropped up in ... And to make things worse, one sample has been isolated that shows incomplete response even to this last drug. ... Expanded, this means the bacteria show MDR along with resistance to the two second-line drugs, ceftriaxone (through extended- ... African bacterium resists almost all drugs. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20190922/African-bacterium-resists ...
The deaths of two patients at a Los Angeles hospital are linked to the deadly bacteria CRE, a spokeswoman for the UCLA Health ... Drug-resistant bacteria linked to two deaths at UCLA hospital. By Steve Almasy, CNN ... Some CRE bacteria can resist most antibiotics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says on its website. The bacteria ... a Los Angeles hospital are linked to the deadly bacteria CRE and more than 100 other patients may have been exposed to the drug ...
... said new money will help further research on its drugs, the most advanced of which has completed early trials with SER-109 in ... He said the drug is being considered as a biologic drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The company is looking for a ... The drug, part of what the company is calling Ecobiotic therapeutics, consists of the spores of bacteria from the colon which ... A week after naming a new CEO, a Cambridge-based startup working on drugs that work in the millions of bacteria in the body has ...
... bacteria into eating a compound that is similar to iron and destroys the microbes from the inside. ... Self-destruction system in TB bacteria may lead to perfect drug. Scientists zoom in on the toxin-antitoxin system that the ... Scientists have applied mathematical analysis to study all of the drug combinations that can kill treatment-resistant bacteria ... "Gallium disrupts machinery that bacteria use to make new DNA, and without this, the bacteria cant multiply," further explains ...
"Because of the virulent nature of multi-drug resistant infections and C. difficile infections, hospitals should consider ... establishing policies on the duration of contact precautions to safely care for patients and prevent spread of these bacteria ...
Synthetic versions of a compound found in soil bacteria show promise as new drug candidates to fight TB, which is increasingly ... Researchers have discovered a compound found in soil bacteria that could lead to new drugs to combat tuberculosis, a global ... "Without a cell wall, the bacterium dies. This wall-building protein is not targeted by currently available drugs." ... There are two forms of drug-resistant TB: multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), and the much rarer form, extensively drug-resistant TB ...
Researchers at Harvard Medical School said they have found a way to produce new antibiotics that can help fight drug-resistant ... New antibiotics fight drug-resistant staph *New way to fight malaria, bacteria found *New way to fight bacteria studied * ... at Harvard Medical School said they have found a way to produce new antibiotics that can help fight drug-resistant bacteria. ... Without these enzymes, bacteria cannot replicate, which is why inhibitors such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin have found ...
... the government is estimating how many people die from drug-resistant bacteria each year more than 23,000, or about as many as ... Report: Drug-resistant bacteria are common killers. In this undated photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and ... In a new report, the CDC tallied the toll of the 17 most worrisome drug-resistant bacteria. The result: Each year, more than 2 ... ATLANTA (AP) For the first time, the government is estimating how many people die from drug-resistant bacteria each year more ...
New research into how bacteria go dormant, allowing them to evade drugs, could lead to a method to keep them from hiding. ... The key to battling drug-tolerant superbugs could be keeping them awake. ... A New Weapon in the Battle Against Drug-Tolerant Bacteria. The key to battling drug-tolerant superbugs could be keeping them ... Persistent bacteria arent resistant to drugs; they just wait them out. Most antibiotics target growing bacteria, killing by ...
ResearchersPathogenic bacteriaInfectionsMicrobesGram-negativeMRSAConcerning drug resistantColonized with drug-resistant bacteriaAntimicrobialScientistsEvolveColi bacteriaMoleculeControlling drug resistance23,000Dangerous bacteriaPseudomonasCenters for DiseasPneumonia2019AcinetobacterSpeciesMulti-drug resiSusceptibleCompoundDeadlyCaused by drug-resistant bacteriaGrounds for drug-resistant bacteriaProteinsIncreasingly resistantStaphImmuneAllows bacteriaPotentLethalTrillion bacteriaChemotherapyCombat drug-resistantPlasmidsSearchResistant to drugsNightmareStrains of bacteriaStudyAntibiotic-like side-effectsDeathsPathwaySuperbugs2020
- Forty-nine percent of the kitchen towels collected for the study were laden with bacteria, and the bacterial count increased with the number of family members and kids, researchers from the Indian Ocean island/nation of Mauritius reported. (drugs.com)
- Specifically, the researchers found that towels used for a variety of tasks -- such as wiping utensils, drying hands, holding hot utensils or cleaning surfaces -- had more bacteria than towels used for one task. (drugs.com)
- WEDNESDAY, June 24, 2020 -- An experimental vaccine helps protect monkeys against bacteria that cause diarrhea in millions of children worldwide, researchers report. (drugs.com)
- Fortunately, not every drug is affected this way, but researchers are trying to determine why certain drugs increase while others do not. (mercola.com)
- Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a rapid screening method to pair existing FDA-approved drugs to combat multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers hope to validate these results clinically, and note that ATP synthase should be looked at as a drug target for other persistent bacterial infections. (redorbit.com)
- The researchers noted they could also see phenotypical (structural) changes in the bacteria as well. (slate.com)
- Researchers have discovered a compound found in soil bacteria that could lead to new drugs to combat tuberculosis, a global disease that is becoming increasingly resistant to current treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers developed potent analogs of a compound found in soil bacteria and showed that they could kill tuberculosis in the laboratory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers examined the effects of using drugs from 41 categories, comparing more than 1,880 fecal samples from three groups: a cohort representative of the general population, one with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a third group with individuals with IBD as well as healthy controls. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers caught the bacteria Mycoplasma hyorhinis hiding out among cancer cells, thwarting chemotherapy drugs intended to treat the tumors they reside in . (slashdot.org)
- The researchers suspected that some of the cells may secrete a drug-busting molecule. (slashdot.org)
- This would catch large particles -- like bacteria -- but not small molecules, as the researchers were expecting. (slashdot.org)
- When the researchers transplanted treatable cancer cells into the flanks of mice -- some with and some without M. hyorhinis -- the bacteria-toting tumors were resistant to gemcitabine treatment. (slashdot.org)
- While the newfound Enterobacter strains on the ISS contained more than 100 genes previously tied to virulence, disease and antibiotic resistance, the bacteria pose no threat to astronauts aboard the ISS at this time, the researchers said. (space.com)
- April 27 (UPI) -- Researchers at Columbia University School of Nursing found that a significant portion of nursing home residents are colonized with drug-resistant bacteria. (upi.com)
- For this study, the researchers chose to encapsulate a type of commercially available probiotic known as Bio-K+, which consists of three strains of Lactobacillus bacteria. (genengnews.com)
- Researchers in the COMBACTE-MAGNET consortium are combining their knowledge and experience to develop novel molecules to combat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. (europa.eu)
- Now, a sweeping survey of these interactions suggests that gut bacteria can modify many drugs and that the genetic makeup of a patient's microbiota may predict that person's response to medications, researchers report online June 3 in Nature . (sciencenews.org)
- Researchers tested the ability of 76 types of bacteria - selected to represent the microbial diversity of the human gut - to alter the molecular structure of 271 oral drugs, from hormones to antiviral medications. (sciencenews.org)
- Then, in a series of experiments with different medications, the researchers monitored the drug-modifying abilities of the entire microbial population in fecal samples from 28 people. (sciencenews.org)
- Afterward, the researchers searched the microbes in each stool sample for the drug-altering DNA snippets identified in the E. coli test, as well as bits of DNA from other microbes that were at least 50 percent similar. (sciencenews.org)
- Researchers at IBM are designing nanoparticles that kill bacteria by poking holes in them. (technologyreview.com)
- Other types of deadly bacteria that have different types of cell membranes would not be vulnerable to these nanoparticles, but the IBM researchers say they are developing nanoparticles that can target these bacteria, too, though it is more difficult. (technologyreview.com)
- The IBM researchers believe the drug could be injected intravenously to treat people with life-threatening infections. (technologyreview.com)
- Brazilian researchers have found drug-resistant bacteria along several of Rio de Janeiro's beaches, and the Olympics are merely a month away. (aol.com)
- A different set of researchers found super bacteria in that same bay back in 2014. (aol.com)
- Researchers at the University of Leeds led by Professors Sheena Radford and Neil Ranson have uncovered new information about the operation of a protein complex called BAM the beta-barrel assembly machinery which helps insert other bacterial proteins into the bacteria s outermost protective layer. (leeds.ac.uk)
- With their new results, researchers in the Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology say it may be possible to design drugs which could target the BAM complex to stop it operating. (leeds.ac.uk)
- Researchers at Harvard have come up with a novel way of studying how bacteria evolve to become drug resistant. (kottke.org)
- To explore the microbiome's response to non-antibiotic drugs, the researchers individually tested nearly 1,200 medications-835 of which have human-cell targets-on 38 species of gut bacteria in vitro. (the-scientist.com)
- Researchers have recently demonstrated a mechanism by which two important strains of bacteria found in the human gut play a role in boosting the effectiveness of a routinely administered anticancer drug. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The next step for the researchers is to identify the intermediate signaling molecules released from these bacteria that are having these beneficial and synergistic effects on T cell behavior and tumor clearance. (fiercebiotech.com)
- A joint study by researchers from India, Sri Lanka and Japan on three wastewater treatment plants ( WWTPs ) in Ahmedabad in India and three places in Sri Lanka revealed that the multidrug-resistant bacteria are more prevalent in the treated water of these plants. (indiatimes.com)
- Researchers from Washington DC recently analyzed the increase in drug resistance, finding a growing public health threat that the scientists say must be addressed by pharmaceutical companies. (emaxhealth.com)
- Researchers have seen a 300 percent increase between 1999 and 2006 in antibiotic resistance from Acinetobacter, raising concerns from the researchers that …"this bacteria is becoming resistant to nearly everything in our arsenal. (emaxhealth.com)
- Nearly half of the 'group A' Streptococcus (GAS) bacteria analyzed by researchers had developed resistance to the drug. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- Using DNA fingerprinting techniques, the researchers determined that a single strain of GAS bacteria, called emm 6, was responsible for the recent outbreak. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- Based on GAS studies done in other parts of the world, she adds, US researchers should expect to find an increase in the frequency of drug-resistant GAS strains. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- To achieve these results, the researchers modified and transferred P450 genes from plants to E. Coli bacteria and to check whether the microbes could produce larger quantities of these enzymes than existing methods. (nanowerk.com)
- Canadian researchers believe they've found a solution: attacking drug-resistant bacteria via a pathway that many of them share. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The researchers tested their drug, PEG-2S, in Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Researchers found that the bacteria colonize in the elbows of drain pipes initially, then they grow slowly toward the sink strainers at a rate of one inch per day, taking about a week. (iran-daily.com)
- Researchers then used the Escherichia coli bacteria to test how bacteria move from sink to patients. (iran-daily.com)
- Researchers found more than 32 published reports describing the spread of bacteria resistant to the antibiotic carbapenem via sinks and other water reservoirs in hospitals. (iran-daily.com)
- Now researchers at the CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute (CSIR-CFTRI) here have found that drug resistance seen in bifidobacteria is naturally occurring and can't be passed on to other bacteria. (org.in)
- The researchers tested if three species - B. longum, B. adolescentis and B. animalis - of bifidobacteria are indeed resistant to anti-TB drugs and how they acquire this resistance. (org.in)
- It is, however, a weakness of the studies that researchers have not taken into account the potential effects of drugs on the patients' intestinal bacteria. (healthcanal.com)
- The study has provided the researchers with a possible explanation, since patients treated with metformin have more coliform bacteria in their intestines, which may be one of the causes of the inconveniences. (healthcanal.com)
- Researchers found that the bacteria S. mutans, as well as fungal organisms of the genus Candida, cultured from HIV patients, were highly susceptible to killing with minimal doses of PDT, both in laboratory dishes and on biofilms grown on denture material. (rxpgnews.com)
- This selective retention allows researchers to direct a laser beam into the organism, which activates the drug and kills the organism but does not damage surrounding tissue. (rxpgnews.com)
- So for the first time, NTU and SMART researchers tested the use of beta-peptides to fight such bacteria in living beings. (eurekalert.org)
- While the next step for the research is to test the polymer on animals infected by MRSA in pig farms, the researchers are also preparing to have the drugs tested in clinical trials for use for the public. (eurekalert.org)
- This experiment wasn't a TKO: The researchers identified a single bacterium, one microbe, that had a frameshift mutation which could have rendered it resistant to both tetracycline and β-Thujaplicin. (extremetech.com)
- In additional experiments, the researchers found that exposure to the ROS-reducing drug edaravone, which is approved for the treatment of stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, effectively inhibited the stress response and ciprofloxacin-induced mutations without altering antibiotic activity. (phys.org)
- Pharmaceutical scientists, microbiologists, medical professionals, pathologists, researchers in the field of drug discovery, infectious diseases and microbial drug discovery both in academia and in industrial settings will find this book helpful. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The study's methods draw on the researchers' previous findings that combination therapy may be effective even when bacteria become resistant to colistin, which is considered a treatment agent of last resort that can punch holes in the tough outer shell of Gram-negative bacteria. (bidmc.org)
- WASHINGTON, DC - June 19, 2013 - A team of researchers at the University of Pittsburgh has developed antibacterial compounds, derived from the outer coating of HIV, that could be potential treatments for drug-resistant bacterial infections and appear to avoid generating resistance. (asm.org)
- The researchers delivered the bacteria to mice along with a small orthopedic implant, to mimic the infections that often occur at the sites of medical implants. (scitechdaily.com)
- However, in this study, the researchers found that before antibiotic treatment, about half of the bacteria were still actively dividing. (scitechdaily.com)
- By enticing away the repressors dampening unexpressed, silent genes in Streptomyces bacteria, researchers at the University of Illinois have unlocked several large gene clusters for new natural products, according to a study published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology . (scienceblog.com)
- In bacteria injected with the decoys, the targeted silent genes were expressed and the researchers harvested new products. (scienceblog.com)
- Of the eight new molecules produced, the researchers purified and determined the structure of two molecules, and described one in detail in the study - a novel type of oxazole, a class of molecules often used in drugs. (scienceblog.com)
- Initially, German researchers from the University of Tübingen found that the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (some strains of which become the MRSA) is in about 30 per cent of the population, while the other 70 per cent did not have it. (bigthink.com)
- According to the study's authors, HipA occurs in many different pathogenic bacteria and likely plays a major role in the development of persistence. (wired.com)
- Many microbiologists therefore suspect that nonpathogenic bacteria are acting as a vast pool of ancient resistance genes waiting to be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. (nationalgeographic.com)
- When MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in a lab dish were exposed to the combination of encapsulated Bio-K+ and tobramycin, all of the pathogenic bacteria were wiped out. (genengnews.com)
- A team from St. Boniface and the University of Manitoba is targeting a sodium pump called NQR, which supplies energy to more than 20 different pathogenic bacteria, according to a statement. (fiercebiotech.com)
- In future studies, Rosenberg and her team will test whether anti-evolvability drugs prevent antibiotic resistance and improve clinical outcomes in animals infected with pathogenic bacteria. (phys.org)
- CDC is supporting Vietnam in tracking multi-drug resistant infections in hospitals as part of the country's National Action Plan - a critical step in monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- In Vietnam, rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are among the highest in Asia, with multi-drug-resistant infections causing thousands of deaths annually. (cdc.gov)
- The region has recently seen the emergence of serious antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis, malaria, and bacteria commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAI). (cdc.gov)
- Even when microbes haven't acquired drug-evading genetic mutations-a hallmark of antibiotic resistance-the medications don't always clear infections. (scientificamerican.com)
- Some of the sick patients had traveled for surgery or other health care to another country where drug-resistant germs are more common, and the superbug infections were discovered after they returned to the U.S. (nypost.com)
- About 2 million Americans get infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year and 23,000 die, Schuchat said. (nypost.com)
- Because of the virulent nature of multi-drug resistant infections and C. difficile infections, hospitals should consider establishing policies on the duration of contact precautions to safely care for patients and prevent spread of these bacteria," said David Banach, MD, MPH, an author of the study and hospital epidemiologist at the University of Connecticut Health Center in Farmington, in a society news release. (medscape.com)
- These drug-tolerant bacteria are a major health issue because they are common in biofilms, thin skins of microorganisms that coat surfaces and cause about 60 percent of infections in the developed world. (wired.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, the percentage of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, or MDR-GNB, is increasing and these infections can cause serious infections in healthcare settings. (upi.com)
- An EU- and industry-funded project has built an extensive public-private network to speed up the development of treatments to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause infections in intensive care units, helping address a major issue for hospitals. (europa.eu)
- Of particular concern are multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which are among the leading causes of serious, debilitating and life threatening healthcare-associated infections. (europa.eu)
- There is an urgent need for new therapies to treat or prevent infections caused by these bacteria in hospitalised patients. (europa.eu)
- The consortium designed and successfully conducted the RESCUING study, which has assessed the outcomes for complicated urinary tract infections with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Europe. (europa.eu)
- This multinational, multi-centre retrospective study was conducted in 20 countries to help us better understand the risk factors for mortality and the outcome of urinary tract infections with Gram-negative bacteria in hospitalised patients," says Jafri. (europa.eu)
- In particular, they are conducting studies to evaluate a promising new beta-lactam antibiotic called AIC499, developed by AiCuris, with activity against a broad range of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, as well as a novel monoclonal antibody, AstraZeneca's MEDI3902, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a leading cause of infections in intensive care units where it is associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. (europa.eu)
- Antibacterial resistance has become a major issue in recent years, with many drugs developed to combat infections from whooping cough to salmonella, and a wide range of hospital-acquired infections, losing their effectiveness. (leeds.ac.uk)
- Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria that can cause skin infections, pneumonia, sepsis, or endocarditis in people with weak hearts, was found in 47 percent of samples, said the study in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. (newsmax.com)
- Like cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour exposure also weakens our host defences, making it easier for bacteria to cause invasive infections. (theweek.com)
- Most infections are not life threatening, but the bacteria can lead to pneumonia and turn deadly if they infect the bloodstream, bones and joints, or lungs. (reuters.com)
- These people, farmers included, were getting staph infections and they were being caused by these livestock-associated strains" of bacteria, Smith told Reuters. (reuters.com)
- These bacteria are causing more hospitalized patients to get infections that, in some cases, are impossible to treat. (cdc.gov)
- Explain to patients who ask that this study suggests that hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by a drug-resistant strain of the common bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with about a twofold risk of 30-day mortality compared with infections caused by drug-susceptible strains. (medpagetoday.com)
- Initial tests show that it is capable of killing a broad range of potentially harmful bacteria in test tubes and can cure certain bacterial infections in mice. (consumeraffairs.com)
- The Center for Disease Control and Prevention found that infections from P. aeruginosa - relatively common bacteria that can cause skin rashes and ear infections - have grown increasingly antibiotic resistant. (rt.com)
- An estimated 15 million people died worldwide in 2002 due to bacterial infections that could not be treated by available drugs, according to figures from the World Health Organization. (presstelegram.com)
- Ramanan Laxminarayan, principal investigator of Extending the Cure, a project examining antibiotic resistance at the Washington, D.C. based think-tank Resources for the Future, says "There is a lot of attention on MRSA , but less on infections caused by bacteria like Acinetobacter for which there are fewer drugs in the development pipeline. (emaxhealth.com)
- Drug-resistant bacteria originating from both humans and animals can cause infections, which are harder to treat than infections caused by non-resistant bacteria. (health24.com)
- A recent outbreak of streptococcal throat infections in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, involved bacteria that are resistant to erythromycin, a drug used to treat sore throats. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- GAS bacteria cause strep throat, rheumatic fever, and other infections. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- Resistance develops regularly to a variety of drugs used in the treatment of bacterial, fungal, virus and protozoal infections and cancer. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Each year, 2 million people are infected by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with at least 23,000 people dying from these infections annually, the CDC says . (fiercebiotech.com)
- Increasing resistance to antimicrobial medicine is a cause for serious concern with at least 700,000 deaths each year caused by drug-resistant infections and diseases, according to a recent World Health Organisation report. (eurekalert.org)
- However, future preclinical trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of such drugs in combatting resistance evolution and promoting the clearance of infections in animal models. (phys.org)
- Not an antibiotic, which kills cells or stops their proliferation, but an anti-evolvability drug, which would slow evolution, allowing our immune systems and drugs to defeat infections. (phys.org)
- A new study reveals that hospital sinks placed near toilets often harbor an antibiotic-resistant bacteria responsible for pneumonia and many types of infections. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- AB-103 is a new drug we're testing to treat patients with nectrotizing soft tissue infections,' Bulger said. (q13fox.com)
- In treating urinary tract infections and preventing staphylococcal wound infections, studies have shown that bacteriostatic drugs work as well as bactericidal drugs. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In central nervous system infections, a rapidly bactericidal drug can release bacterial products that stimulate inflammation. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- When new drugs are developed to combat infections, the bacterial target invariably comes up with a deterrent. (brown.edu)
- The study found that reducing antibiotic use for pediatric respiratory tract infections resulted in lower rates of carriage of drug-resistant bacteria. (rxpgnews.com)
- Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, also called pneumococci, are commonly found in children s noses and throats, and can result in ear infections, sinusitis, pneumonia and even meningitis. (rxpgnews.com)
- Many pneumococcal infections are treated with penicillin, but resistance to the drug is making the microbes more difficult to control. (rxpgnews.com)
- Scientists have hypothesized from previous studies that chronic infections usually consist largely of non-dividing bacteria. (scitechdaily.com)
- ADEPs have been shown to kill bacteria that cause staph infections, some kinds of pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other types of infection in the lab. (futurity.org)
- So far the new antibiotic has been tested only on mice, defeating a number of bacteria which could cause diseases like meningitis, inflammation of the heart, as well as urinary tract and skin infections. (bigthink.com)
- Good bacteria: can microbes be altruistic? (thenakedscientists.com)
- The microbes, it seems, then put them back together during treatment, resulting in increased concentrations of the drugs. (mercola.com)
- If microbes in water can increase the concentration of pharmaceuticals by more than 120 percent in some cases, it begs the questions… what happens in your body when you take drugs? (mercola.com)
- Prof. Singh and team developed an approach whereby, rather than trying to destroy bacteria from the outside, they "lured" the microbes into "eating" the molecule, which looks like food. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In these environments, intense evolutionary pressure pushes microbes to quickly develop resistance to multiple drugs. (nationalgeographic.com)
- bacteria acquire from other microbes DNA elements that encode resistance factors. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Not only anti-infectives but drugs from all therapeutic classes inhibited the growth of different gut microbes. (medindia.net)
- The number of unrelated drugs that hit gut microbes as collateral damage was surprising," says Peer Bork. (medindia.net)
- We don't know yet how most of these drugs target microbes, how these effects manifest in the human host, and what the clinical outcomes are. (medindia.net)
- Anecdotal reports have revealed that some gut-dwelling microbes chemically alter oral medications , affecting how well those drugs work ( SN Online: 7/19/13 ). (sciencenews.org)
- Knowing how the gut microbes … affect a drug is hugely useful," says Matthew Redinbo, a biochemist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill not involved in the work. (sciencenews.org)
- But knowing which microbes affect which drugs isn't enough. (sciencenews.org)
- The scientists hope that the microbes are less likely to develop resistance to this type of drug, which means it could be used to combat the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance. (technologyreview.com)
- In contrast, drugs that compromise microbes' cell membranes are believed to be less likely, or slower, to evoke resistance, she says. (technologyreview.com)
- They found that the nanoparticles could burst open and kill gram-positive bacteria, a large class of microbes that includes drug-resistant staph. (technologyreview.com)
- by their nature, microbes are invisible to the naked eye, and the process by which they defy our drugs is even harder to visualise. (kottke.org)
- This insight will assist in the fight against multi-drug resistant microbes, as well as contribute to theories aimed at predicting cancer evolution. (genetics.org)
- The finding alleviates the fear that use of probiotic prescriptions containing bifidobacteria could spread drug resistance among other microbes too. (org.in)
- Study finds an average of 27 percent of nursing home residents tested positive for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, or MDR-GNR, colonization. (upi.com)
- and designing innovative clinical trials to advance development of novel molecules against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. (europa.eu)
- That's especially important for the troublesome Gram-negative bacteria, like Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae , which are protected by two membranes. (eurekalert.org)
- The BAM complex sits within the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and inserts other proteins into the membrane where they are needed to form a functional protective layer. (leeds.ac.uk)
- Gram Negative bacteria tend to resist chemotherapy due to robust cell walls. (slashdot.org)
- Blocking LPS trasnsport is fatal to Gram-negative bacteria. (slashdot.org)
- The genes for resistance are easily transmitted and disseminated among Gram-negative bacteria, they added. (medpagetoday.com)
- Efflux pumps and drug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
- The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria can only slow down the influx of lipophilic inhibitors, and so these bacteria need active efflux pumps of broad specificity to survive. (nih.gov)
- 2. Drugs against gram-negative bacteria 3. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Interestingly, some agents that are active against organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus (including the antibiotic resistant version of this bacteria, called MRSA) but are not normally active against Gram-negative bacteria, showed potent activity against the Nevada strain when combined with colistin. (bidmc.org)
- Until that discovery, C-capped dipeptides were known to work only against an efflux pump family associated with Gram-negative bacteria. (brown.edu)
- Recently, a company called MPEX Pharmaceuticals discovered that specific C-capped dipeptides could block the efflux pumps of the RND family, which are responsible for much of the drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. (brown.edu)
- MRSA bacteria have been the target of many hospital infection control efforts. (theoaklandpress.com)
- The article also uses MRSA, which is gram positive, as their prime example of resistant bacteria. (slashdot.org)
- About 20 percent of people are colonized by MRSA , and the nasal passages are the most common site for these bacteria to live. (theweek.com)
- The prevalence of staph bacteria resistant to the antibiotic methicillin, known as MRSA, was "unexpectedly" similar between the exposed and unexposed groups, according to the study. (reuters.com)
- The co-beta peptide treatment is shown to eradicate biofilm bacteria such as MRSA, a particularly difficult form of bacteria to treat. (eurekalert.org)
- While alpha-peptides have long been used to treat resistant bacteria such as MRSA, they tend to be rather unstable or toxic in the body. (eurekalert.org)
- The new drug will be particularly beneficial to farm workers as the virus has been detected in 20-80% of workers in MRSA-positive herds. (eurekalert.org)
- In a paper published in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry , the team reports it has discovered a new compound of C-capped dipeptides, called BU-005, to circumvent a family of drug-efflux pumps associated with Gram-positive bacteria, which include the dangerous MRSA and tuberculosis strains. (brown.edu)
- Scientists have applied mathematical analysis to study all of the drug combinations that can kill treatment-resistant bacteria, and some have turned to nature to study the antimicrobial potential of compounds such as an onion extract . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This drug-resistant staph bacterium has been split open and destroyed by an antimicrobial nanoparticle. (technologyreview.com)
- The AMR IRG is a unique translational research and entrepreneurship program that aims to solve the growing threat of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. (eurekalert.org)
- As it happens, that transposon also makes it collaterally sensitive to two other drugs: disulfiram (Antabuse), and a known antimicrobial compound called β-Thujaplicin, isolated from the red cedar and other trees in the cypress family. (extremetech.com)
- After subjecting the bacteria to multiple tests, the doctors found it to be "resistant to all available antimicrobial drugs", and the 70-year-old patient unfortunately died from the infection. (lifeboat.com)
- New research suggests that small pieces of those drugs could keep the efflux pumps busy and allow the antimicrobial drugs to reach a critical mass inside the cell. (brown.edu)
- Working independently, two teams of scientists showed that three cancer treatments rely on gut bacteria to mobilise the immune system and kill tumour cells-not just in the gut, but also in the blood (lymphomas) and skin (melanomas). (nationalgeographic.com)
- Scientists at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) have identified new means of fighting drug-tolerant bacteria, a growing global threat as menacing as drug. (mcgill.ca)
- However, starting in the late 1980s, vancomycin-resistant bacteria emerged, leading scientists to engineer more powerful versions of the drug. (healthline.com)
- According to scientists in Israel, bacteria can get inside tumours, and even inside cancer cells themselves, and then use their own metabolic machinery to break down anti-cancer drugs and protect the tumour. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The scientists then took tissue samples from the mice and analyzed levels of certain bodily chemicals-known as metabolites-that bacteria can use to grow and multiply. (scientificamerican.com)
- Scientists create video of bacteria evolving drug resistance. (slate.com)
- Scientists led by Pradeep Singh, a professor of microbiology and medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, have studied a molecule that can destroy bacteria from within. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Case in point: NASA scientists have discovered four previously unknown strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria lurking in the loos aboard the International Space Station (ISS). (space.com)
- Scientists at MIT report that by delivering a combination of antibiotic drugs and probiotics, they could eradicate two strains of drug-resistant bacteria that often infect wounds. (genengnews.com)
- Scientists hope bacteria won't develop resistance to nanoparticles that poke them open. (technologyreview.com)
- I mproved understanding of the way hundreds of different types of disease-causing bacteria operate could help pave the way to tackling their effects, according to leading scientists. (leeds.ac.uk)
- Scientists are in a race to develop new medicine to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria as infection rates soar. (rt.com)
- The scientists analyzed data from 300 hospitals around the country that showed the bacteria Acinetobacter has become increasingly more resistant to the powerful antibiotic imipenem, marketed under the brand name Primaxin. (emaxhealth.com)
- Scientists recently announced the discovery of a novel antibiotic produced by bacteria living inside a nematode (roundworm). (phys.org)
- The behaviour of one particular gut bacteria species, bifidobacteria, which is resistant to tuberculosis drugs, has intrigued scientists for long. (org.in)
- In search of another way to manage the endless slog against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, scientists just figured out how to bait bacteria into developing an Achilles' heel. (extremetech.com)
- Scientists have developed a novel method which targets antibiotic resistant bacteria and protects patients from the toxic parts of an antibiotic drug. (medindia.net)
- But for the last few years, scientists including Sello's group have been making synthetic ADEP analogs, in the hope of identifying compounds with potential as new drugs. (futurity.org)
- A poll of Americans shows that an overwhelming majority of them (90 percent) believe bacteria can evolve a resistance to drugs, but only about 60 percent believe that humans evolved through natural selection. (slate.com)
- Persistent bacteria are different than antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which evolve as a population to withstand the action of a particular drug. (wired.com)
- Using a computer analysis, the authors predicted a 79 percent chance that the newfound strains of space bacteria could evolve to cause disease in humans arriving on future missions. (space.com)
- As bugs evolve resistance to new chemicals, is it possible that resistance to older drugs - particularly those no longer in the environment - may be disrupted or lost? (thenakedscientists.com)
- Consequently, bacteria can evolve to become sensitive to a compound again. (thenakedscientists.com)
- We develop new drugs and they evolve. (skepchick.org)
- Ten of the 154 cutting boards taken from the hospital kitchen tested positive for a type of drug-resistant E. coli bacteria, compared to five of the 144 boards taken from homes, according to results published in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. (health24.com)
- Factories of E. coli bacteria, producing P450, bound to green fluorescent protein. (nanowerk.com)
- So, building on his experience at City of Hope, Suresh proposes attaching extremely tiny magnets, referred to in research terms as "super paramagnetic iron oxide nanomagnets," to the surface of E. coli bacteria using antibodies. (cityofhope.org)
- These - and many other common bacteria, the team have since confirmed - are endowed with metabolic pathways that can break down the gemcitabine drug molecule and prevent it from working. (thenakedscientists.com)
- By inserting a naturally occurring molecule into an antibiotic-resistant bacterium, the team was able to gradually destroy the machinery responsible for the resistance. (innovations-report.com)
- It codes for a thing called an efflux pump, which pumps tetracycline right out of the bacterium whenever a molecule of tet comes near. (extremetech.com)
- Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people and kill 23,000 each year. (pbs.org)
- ATLANTA (AP) For the first time, the government is estimating how many people die from drug-resistant bacteria each year more than 23,000, or about as many as those killed annually by flu. (theoaklandpress.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes at least 2 million people become infected with this kind of bacteria each year, causing 23,000 deaths. (aol.com)
- Optimer Pharmaceuticals will find out soon whether it has come up with the first new drug for a dangerous bacteria known as "C. difficile" in more than two decades. (xconomy.com)
- Several recent reports have found multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospital sink drainpipes, which puts the dangerous bacteria in close proximity to patients, but it was unclear exactly how the bacteria traveled from the drainpipes to patients, UPI reported. (iran-daily.com)
- City of Hope researcher Anil Suresh theorizes that dangerous bacteria could be removed from the bloodstream using nanomagnets. (cityofhope.org)
- It is demonstrated that this approach using tobramycin combined with encapsulated probiotic has the ability to completely eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in coculture, the two most widely implicated bacteria in chronic wounds. (genengnews.com)
- PORTO ALEGRE, Brazil -- Hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas bacteria are frequently lethal. (medpagetoday.com)
- Essentially, we found nightmare bacteria in your backyard," said Dr. Anne Schuchat, principal deputy director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nypost.com)
- In this undated photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one form of CRE bacteria, sometimes called nightmare bacteria. (theoaklandpress.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the number Monday to spotlight the growing threat of germs that are hard to treat because they've become resistant to drugs. (theoaklandpress.com)
- This week the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that strains of these completely drug-resistant bacteria have quadrupled in the last decade or so, and the bugs have been lurking around in hospitals, hundreds of hospitals around the nation. (nhpr.org)
- Detailed in a newly released Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report , the case highlights the significant threat that the emergence of highly resistant bacteria is becoming to global public health. (lifeboat.com)
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and prevention, the bacteria is rare, with between 9,000 and 11,000 cases in the United States each year. (q13fox.com)
- The effects may range from changes in the relative proportions of different beneficial and potentially harmful species to alterations in the cellular metabolism of the bacteria themselves. (news-medical.net)
- A bacteria species that can metabolize a drug designed to kill cells. (slashdot.org)
- To show which species of the bacteria were present on the ISS, we used various methods to characterize their genomes in detail," study co-author Kasthuri Venkateswaran, a senior research scientist at the JPL Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, said in a statement . (space.com)
- The human gut contains a large number of species of bacteria, collectively referred to as the gut microbiome . (medindia.net)
- Additionally, some plant species such as the yew (Taxus baccata), from which the cancer drug Taxol is obtained, are endangered species. (nanowerk.com)
- It's really the first human-associated bacterium where the whole species is able to produce such an antibiotic," said Bernhard Krismer , one of the study's co-authors. (bigthink.com)
- The AMR sentinel surveillance system is the first national surveillance for multi-drug resistant bacteria in the country. (cdc.gov)
- The term 'superbug' is being used to denote multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. (skepchick.org)
- We are also using the same high throughput screening technology to investigate a collection of more than 200,000 completely novel compounds with as yet uncharacterized biological activity in the hopes of identifying new classes of compounds with potent activity against CRE and other multi-drug resistant pathogens,' Kirby said. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In other words, the chemicals that had been ramped up in the infected, antibiotic-treated animals were, ironically, making bacteria less susceptible to the drugs. (scientificamerican.com)
- In the U.S., the average direct cost of treating TB ranges from $18,000 to treat drug-susceptible forms, to $494,000 to treat XDR-TB. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The persistence phenomenon was identified during World War II, when doctors discovered that many bacteria remaining in the human body after a course of penicillin were actually susceptible to the drug. (wired.com)
- Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been an ongoing international concern for some time now, but the people most likely to suffer are children, who have weaker, less developed immune systems and are more susceptible to infection. (rt.com)
- In the worst case scenario, a bacterium can go from being drug-susceptible to resistant to five or six different drugs by acquiring a single gene. (brown.edu)
- Jason Sello A new way to attack drug-resistant bacteria: "If drug efflux pumps are inhibited, then bacteria will be susceptible to drugs again. (brown.edu)
- This suggests that reduced antibiotic pressure allows drug-susceptible bacteria to re-establish themselves as dominant colonizers of the respiratory tract. (rxpgnews.com)
- The upgraded compound attacks bacteria in three different ways, which have proven to be thousands of times more powerful than the original version, according to lab test results. (healthline.com)
- Enterococcus against the three-part compound, the bacteria were unable to develop resistance even after 50 rounds. (healthline.com)
- This may mean that the compound will be more durable - lasting a long time before the bacteria fight back and become resistant to the medication. (healthline.com)
- Boger thinks the new compound would be durable because if bacteria succeeded in overcoming one of the antibiotic's mechanisms of action, they would still be killed by the other two. (healthline.com)
- Gallium - an iron-like compound - looks similar to food and can trick bacteria into eating it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The new study concerns a compound called sansanmycin uridylpeptide, which is produced by soil bacteria and stops other bacteria growing around them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- I understand Dong, et al to be suggesting that a compound which prevents proper transport of LPS could be used synergistically with another drug which would otherwise be blocked from entry into the cell by LPS. (slashdot.org)
- By disrupting the communication process, he explained, the new compound could lead to drugs that will prevent the formation of biofilms, restoring the potency of antibiotic treatments and limiting the development of antibiotic resistance. (scienceblog.com)
- With the help of chemistry graduate students Johna C.B. DeNap, Jason R. Thomas and Dinty J. Musk, Hergenrother developed a technique that mimicked plasmid incompatibility by incubating bacteria containing plasmids with a specific compound -- in this case an aminoglycoside called apramycin that binds to plasmid-encoded RNA and prevents proper plasmid reproduction. (innovations-report.com)
- The compound - BU-005 - blocks pumps that a bacterium employs to expel an antibacterial agent called chloramphenicol. (brown.edu)
- The deaths of two patients at a Los Angeles hospital are linked to the deadly bacteria CRE and more than 100 other patients may have been exposed to the drug-resistant superbug, a spokeswoman for the UCLA Health System said Wednesday. (cnn.com)
- Is there anything we can do to stop the march of these deadly bacteria? (nhpr.org)
- In recent years, hospitals have reported dramatic increases in the number of cases of the highly contagious, difficult-to-treat, and often deadly antibiotic-resistant bacteria carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- For bacteria, a runaway ClpP is deadly. (futurity.org)
- It uses an alphabet soup of proteins from Streptomyces bacteria to make an enzyme production line that adds different chemical components to coumermycin A1, a member of the aminocoumarin family. (upi.com)
- It could identify new drug targets to explore, perhaps by finding combinations of proteins that can be attacked simultaneously. (eurekalert.org)
- The later, called multidrug resistance (MDR), frequently results from impaired retention of medicine caused by overexpression of particular transport proteins (the so called ABC transporters: MDR, MRP, LRP, BCRP), which function as energy dependent drug efflux pumps. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Bacteria still have to deal with scarcity, even on their scale, and making proteins is expensive. (extremetech.com)
- These pumps are proteins located in the membranes of bacteria that can recognize and expel drugs that have breached the membranes. (brown.edu)
- ADEPs kill bacteria in a way that no marketed antibacterial drug does-by altering the pathway through which cells rid themselves of harmful proteins. (futurity.org)
- However, there is a growing threat to continuing this progress, in that the TB bacterium is becoming increasingly resistant to the current drugs available to treat it - many of which have been in use for more than 40 years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The new understanding will contribute to ongoing work to find new ways to kill bacteria which have become increasingly resistant to drugs developed in 20 th century. (leeds.ac.uk)
- The team showed that the gut bacteria stimulate immune cells that live inside the tumour, priming them to respond to immunotherapy. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The bacteria would probably otherwise would be involved in a raging immune battle, if not for the local down-regulation. (slashdot.org)
- But what if the problem isn't just that cigarette smoke weakens the immune system, but actually makes the bacteria more aggressive? (theweek.com)
- In fact, it appears that e-cigarette vapor both makes bacteria tougher to kill and weakens the immune system. (theweek.com)
- It turned out that memory T cell immune responses specific to E. hirae and B. intestinihominis bacteria strains correlated with progression-free survival. (fiercebiotech.com)
- MDR-TB is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, two potent first-line drugs used to treat everyone who falls ill with TB. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- We hope that additional studies in this direction lead us to discover even more potent quorum-sensing antagonists, thus generating a new type of antibiotic drug. (scienceblog.com)
- The Optimer drug has shown potent activity against C. Diff in the test tube, and hopes are high that it will translate in a final-stage study of effectiveness, he says. (xconomy.com)
- There's estimated to be about 100 trillion bacteria on and in us, the vast majority in our gut, compared to 10 trillion human cells. (nhpr.org)
- Most of the around 100 trillion bacteria living in hiding in our intestines - the gut microbiota - are difficult to grow using traditional methods, because they do not tolerate atmospheric oxygen. (healthcanal.com)
- Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs? (thenakedscientists.com)
- Ravid Straussman and his team at the Weizmann Institute had originally been looking at why certain types of skin cell appear to be able to protect nearby cancer cells from being wiped out by a chemotherapy drug called gemcitabine. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The source of the chemotherapy-blocking effect, he discovered, were small bacteria called Mycoplasma hyorhinis living in and on the skin cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Dr. Straussman and his colleagues got a hunch to look for the bacteria after noticing that, when they grew certain types of human cancer cells together in lab, the cells all became more resistant to a chemotherapy drug called gemcitabine . (slashdot.org)
- In addition to cystic fibrosis patients, whose lungs become clogged with the bacteria, it infects patients receiving chemotherapy, burn patients, AIDS patients, those on ventilators, with catheters and others. (scienceblog.com)
- A common way bacteria develop resistance is by laterally transferring plasmids -- pieces of extra-chromosomal DNA -- from one bacterium to another. (innovations-report.com)
- Further studies are needed to identify whether apramycin is useful against the plasmids occurring in different strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
- During the normal course of cell division, a bacterium can sort of ditch the more expensive plasmids they've been keeping around, leaving only those cells alive that can handle the scarcity. (extremetech.com)
- Gallium disrupts machinery that bacteria use to make new DNA, and without this, the bacteria can't multiply," further explains study co-author Bradley Britigan, a professor of internal medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A new study in Science Thursday maps out the structure and function of one major dormancy-inducer in bacteria, a protein called HipA. (wired.com)
- Though the study sheds light on how bacteria become dormant, it doesn't clarify what spurs the phenomenon on - why HipB sometimes falls away and lets HipA work its soporific magic. (wired.com)
- These drugs result in antibiotic-like side-effects and may promote antibiotic resistance, finds a new study. (medindia.net)
- We need to carefully study these relationships, as this knowledge could dramatically improve our understanding and the efficacy of existing drugs. (medindia.net)
- A sampling of grocery store meat in five U.S. cities has shown a type of drug-resistant bacteria is contained in about one-quarter of beef, chicken, pork, and turkey for sale, a study said Friday. (newsmax.com)
- CHICAGO (Reuters) - Hog farmers are six times more likely than the general population to carry an infectious bacteria that can cause skin and respiratory problems and resists treatment from multiple drugs, according to a new U.S. research study. (reuters.com)
- The group of Christian Melander at NC State University published a study in Medicinal Chemistry Letters that resulted in a promising drug that acts as a partner to an antibiotic. (skepchick.org)
- The study measured bacteria level in the influent, at the discharge point, 20 meters and 50 meters from the point," said Prof Manish Kumar of IIT Gandhinagar (IIT-Gn), lead author of the study. (indiatimes.com)
- Cutting boards used to prepare raw poultry may be an important source of drug-resistant bacteria in hospital kitchens and private homes, according to a new study. (health24.com)
- These E. coli are resistant to some of the last good drugs we have to treat them," Lance B. Price, who was not involved in the European study, told Reuters Health. (health24.com)
- Optimer has another 660-patient study of its drug candidate, which is currently enrolling patients, and is expected to wrap up by June 2009. (xconomy.com)
- A new study suggests that nearly half of workers who care for animals in large industrial hog farming operations may be carrying home livestock-associated bacteria in their noses, and that this potentially harmful bacteria remains with them up to four days after exposure. (nsf.gov)
- A new study from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, has identified the pathway multidrug-resistant bacteria are using to travel from drainpipes in hospital sinks to contact with patients. (iran-daily.com)
- The study shows that the most frequently used drug for the treatment of high blood glucose levels, metformin, causes favourable changes in the gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
- Common gut bacteria blocks effects of Parkinson's drugs, study says. (pjmedia.com)
- A new study finds that non-antibiotic drugs may also contribute to the development of drug-resistant bacteria. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- CRE bacteria is blamed for 600 deaths each year, and can withstand treatment from virtually every type of antibiotic. (theoaklandpress.com)
- Drug-resistant bacteria also cause an estimated 25,000 deaths and cost over $1.5 billion a year in healthcare expenses and productivity losses in the EU, according to the World Health Organization . (triplepundit.com)
- Innovative medical research like the new co-beta-peptide is a crucial step towards preventing the staggering number of deaths from persistent and resistant bacteria. (eurekalert.org)