Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
GSTs are not detected in anaerobic bacteria or archaea. In bacteria, GSTs are involved in a variety of distinct processes such ... Oakley A (May 2011). "Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective". Drug Metab. Rev. 43 (2): 138-51. doi:10.3109/ ... Allocati N, Federici L, Masulli M, Di Ilio C (January 2009). "Glutathione transferases in bacteria". The FEBS Journal. 276 (1 ... GSTs are widely distributed in aerobic bacteria and are classified into several classes. ...
"Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. doi:10.1038/nrd1917. ... Target for drugs[edit]. Shikimate can be used to synthesise (6S)-6-Fluoroshikimic acid,[13] an antibiotic which inhibits the ... The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, algae, parasites, and plants for the ... and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of ...
Robertson MD, Drummer OH (May 1995). "Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria". J Forensic Sci. 40 (3): 382-6. PMID 7782744. ... The drug causes a delay in the onset, and decrease in the duration of REM sleep. Following discontinuation of the drug, REM ... The drug was recommended to join the barbiturates in not being prescribed to the elderly. Only nitrazepam and lorazepam were ... It is a popular drug of abuse in countries where it is available. Doses as low as 5 mg can impair driving skills. Therefore, ...
Robertson MD; Drummer OH (May 1995). "Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria". J Forensic Sci. 40 (3): 382-6. PMID 7782744. ... Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook 2014 "Clonazepam - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-25. "Clonazepam ... "Clonazepam, Prescription Marketed Drugs". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and ... "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental ...
US Food and Drug Administration. "Aeromonas hydrophila and Related Bacteria." International Specialty Supply. "Georgia woman ... This bacterium can be found in fresh or brackish water. It can survive in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and can digest ... This bacterium is linked to two types of gastroenteritis. The first type is a disease similar to cholera, which causes rice- ... A. hydrophila bacteria are Gram-negative, straight rods with rounded ends (bacilli to coccibacilli shape) usually from 0.3 to ...
... is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from soil on the ... ISBN 0-85186-224-1. J., Elks (1990). Dictionary of Drugs Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Boston, MA: Springer US ... ISBN 1-4757-2085-8. editor, Dinesh K. Maheshwari, (2013). Bacteria in agrobiology disease management. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3- ...
Bigongiari J (October 26, 2010). "Chicago sees drug-resistant bacteria spreading". VaccineNewsDaily.com. Siegel-Itzcovich J (26 ... The bacteria remain susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, varying degrees of inhibition of the beta-lactamase with ... facultative anaerobic bacterium. In terms of the pathophysiology of Klebsiella pneumonia we see neutrophil myeloperoxidase ... "Klebsiella pneumoniae antimicrobial drug resistance, United States, 1998-2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19 (1): 133-6. ...
The different drugs in the regimen have different modes of action. INH are bacteriocidal against replicating bacteria. EMB is ... The drug most frequently implicated as causing a drug fever is RMP: details are given in the entry on rifampicin. Drug-induced ... 104 STM-resistant bacteria, 104 INH-resistant bacteria and 10² RMP-resistant bacteria. Resistance mutations appear ... Drugs are not used singly (except in latent TB or chemoprophylaxis), and regimens that use only single drugs result in the ...
Many researchers are developing methods that use bacteria to deliver drugs. These bacteria can be "programmed" to perform a ... "Bad Bacteria Key to Drug Delivery." Wired. 28 Feb. 2003. CondéNet, Inc. 10 Oct. 2008. . Cao, Guozhong. Nanostructures & ... However, the bacteria may damage healthy organs or fail to deliver the medicine to the sick organ in the case of a malfunction ... In such cases, a fail-safe mechanism is required to neutralize the bacteria and prevent damage. An antibiotic is generally ...
Although most of the drugs derived from bacteria are employed as anti-infectives, some have found use in other fields of ... Although natural products have inspired numerous U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, drug development from ... Drug Discovery - Is Mother Nature still the number one source for promising new drugs? Patrick GL (2013). "12.4.2: Medical ... Koehn FE, Carter GT (March 2005). "The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 4 ...
In April 2011 it reached a deal with Optimer Pharmaceuticals in which its class of bacterium fighting drugs will be co marketed ... As a part of this plan, sales of its flagship drug Cubicin were expected to grow to more than 1B dollars per year. In July 2013 ... Under this plan, the company was expected to reach 2B dollars in sales and have 4 new drugs in late stage development by 2017. ... acquired Cubist for $102 per share in cash ($8.4 billion) as entree to the market for drugs that can combat superbugs. Cubist ...
"Novel Anti-Infective Compounds from Marine Bacteria". Marine Drugs. 8 (3): 498-518. doi:10.3390/md8030498. PMC 2857357 . PMID ... MC21-B is an antibiotic isolated from the O-BC30T strain of a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica. MC21-B is ... an antibacterial compound produced by the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas phenolica O-BC30T". International Journal of ...
Crowe, Kelly (25 June 2014). "Antibiotic-resistant bacteria disarmed with fungus compound". CBC News. Retrieved 19 August 2015 ... Waters, Hannah (25 April 2011). "Drugs boost antibiotic function". The Scientist. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Unravelling the ... the collection of all the antibiotic resistant genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In ... Antibiotic Biochemistry at McMaster University who studies chemical compounds that can combat antibiotic resistance in bacteria ...
"Novel Anti-Infective Compounds from Marine Bacteria". Marine Drugs. 8 (3): 498-518. doi:10.3390/md8030498. Fedorov, Roman; Böhl ... However, despite inhibition these strains at PBP drug concentrations of 0.0063 μg/ml, these promising preliminary findings ... it has a served as a model example of the potential significance of marine natural products drug discovery as an effective ... pathway first identified in the marine bacteria, P. luteoviolacea 2ta16 and P. phenolica O-BC30. The bmp pathway describes a bi ...
... producing bacteria could be divided in two classes: homofermentative bacteria like Lactobacillus casei and ... "Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2011-10-27. "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling ... Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast ... These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries. In ...
It is used in the treatment of respiratory tract and ear, nose and throat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. It is ... Drugs Exp Clin Res. 14 (1): 39-43. PMID 3391105. ... It is only functional against Gram-positive bacteria. It ... Combe J, Simonnet F, Yablonsky F, Simonnet G (1980). "[Clofoctol binding by the bacteria (author's transl)]". J Pharmacol (in ...
Without folic acid, bacteria cannot grow and divide. Therefore, because of sulfa drugs' competitive inhibition, they are ... These fatty acids inhibitors have been used as drugs to relieve pain because they can act as the substrate, and bind to the ... Sulfa drugs also act as competitive inhibitors. For example, sulfanilamide competitively binds to the enzyme in the ... An example of non-drug related competitive inhibition is in the prevention of browning of fruits and vegetables. For example, ...
Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ... Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ...
"Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. doi:10.1038/nrd1917. PMID ... The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, algae, parasites, and plants for the ... and this reflects on why shikimic acid is active only against gram-positive bacteria, due to outer membrane impermeability of ...
Bradley, D. (Dec 2005). "Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 4 (12): 945-946. ... Roche now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermentation by E. coli bacteria. The 2009 swine flu outbreak led to ... Later that year, a method for the production of shikimic acid using bacteria was discovered. ... a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Shikimic acid is produced by ...
"US Meat and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria". sciencedaily.com. "Retail Meat Report" (PDF). ... The Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2016. Gulli, Cathy (17 June 2009). " ... Bacteria survives but does not grow in freezing temperatures. However, if frozen cooked foods are not defrosted properly and ... The FDA has since revised its stance on safe limits to inorganic arsenic in animal feed by stating that "any new animal drug ...
"US Meat and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria". sciencedaily.com.. ... The Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2016.. ... Food and Drug Safety Administration. 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2015.. *^ Cohen Stuart, James; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Voets ... However, if frozen cooked foods are not defrosted properly and are not reheated to temperatures that kill bacteria, chances of ...
... , like other quinolones and fluoroquinolones, are bactericidal drugs, actively killing bacteria. Quinolones inhibit ... Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 501. ISBN 9783527607495. .. ... For many gram-negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... However, many of these reported reactions were very minor; discontinua- tion of the antibacterial agent because of drug-related ...
... is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. It usually results in death of the bacteria. It ... "Levofloxacin ophthalmic medical facts from Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved ... Unlike ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin does not appear to deactivate the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2. Therefore, drugs that use ... levofloxacin exhibits greater activity towards Gram-positive bacteria but lesser activity toward Gram-negative bacteria, ...
Stearns, John (August 1, 2016). "Melinta Therapeutics takes aim at deadly drug-resistant bacteria". Hartford Business Journal. ... using this drugs with antacids, some dietary supplements, or drugs buffered with any of these ions will interfere with ... New Drug Applications (NDA) for delafloxacin (Baxdela) 450 mg tablets and 300 mg injections were approved by the FDA in June ... Like other drugs in the fluoroquinolone class, delafloxacin contains a black box warning about the risk of tendinitis, tendon ...
Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes.[31] ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ... Opinion on Drug Safety. 4 (6): 1097-109. doi:10.1517/14740338.4.6.1097. PMID 16255667.. ...
The AMR sentinel surveillance system is the first national surveillance for multi-drug resistant bacteria in the country. This ... The solution: CDC is supporting Vietnam in tracking multi-drug resistant infections in hospitals as part of the countrys ... In Vietnam, rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are among the highest in Asia, with multi-drug-resistant infections causing ... The region has recently seen the emergence of serious antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis, malaria, and bacteria commonly ...
Your gut is home to tens of trillions of bacteria. Collectively, they act as another organ, one with many different roles. They ... when the team killed the bacteria with antibiotics, the cancer-killing immune cells werent recruited, and the drug became ... www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2013/11/21/three-cancer-drugs-dont-work-without-gut-bacteria.html ... Remove the bacteria with antibiotics, and you also neuter the drugs. ...
... have identified new means of fighting drug-tolerant bacteria, a growing global threat as menacing as drug... ... New means to fight un-killable bacteria in healthcare settings Published: 13Sep2018 ... Read more about New means to fight un-killable bacteria in healthcare settings ... drug-tolerant bacteria ...
CDC offers new call to arms on nightmare bacteria Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people and kill 23,000 each ... The financial barrier to developing antibiotics? No big payday for drug companies As current antibiotics begin to lose their ... Since every use of an antibiotic drives resistance, and doctors are reluctant to use a drug until theres no alternative, why ... As the list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria grows, so have the extraordinary efforts to prevent the spread of infection… ...
... is used to prevent infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Includes Prevnar 13 side effects, interactions and indications. ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Prevnar 13 works by exposing you to a small amount of the bacteria or a protein from the bacteria, which causes the body to ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
E. coli is a normal bacteria found in the intestine and is released in large numbers in human feces. S. aureus is a bacteria ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Drug Safety Communication: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) - Avoid Use of NSAIDs in Pregnancy at 20 Weeks or ...
Will it be able to overcome resistant bacteria? ... an antibiotic in the lab with three ways of killing bacteria. ... Bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin have replaced one D-alanine with another amino acid, D-lactic acid. This change from ... Not only did the redesigned vancomycin bind to bacteria that had one D-alanine and one D-lactic acid. It was also able to bind ... "Bacteria have so many different ways to resist antibiotics, it seems impossible that resistance will not eventually develop," ...
The United States first known case of a superbug that cannot be killed by any existing antibiotic was announced by the U.S. Department of Defense. CNNs Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports.
... bacteria can get inside tumours, and even inside cancer cells themselves, and then use their own metabolic machinery to break ... Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs?According to ... down anti-cancer drugs and protect the tumour. ... Bacteria deactivate cancer drugs. Bacteria deactivate cancer ... Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs? ...
They found that they needed to add higher drug concentrations to kill the bacteria when some of the chemicals were present. In ... A New Antibiotic Weakness-Drugs Themselves Help Bacteria Survive. Medications can change body chemistry to make it more ... making bacteria less susceptible to the drugs.. These chemical changes were incited not by bacterial cells, but by the animals ... leading to the build-up of toxic molecules inside the bacteria that help to kill them. With this process dampened, bacteria ...
... while an antibiotic drug increased by 120% after going through the wastewater treatment process. ... while an antibiotic drug increased by 120% after going through the wastewater treatment process. ... The concentration of an anti-epileptic drug increased by 80%, ... The concentration of an anti-epileptic drug increased by 80%, ... Microbes can activate or inactivate drugs, generate toxic byproducts of drug metabolism, and alter drug metabolism by human ...
Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a rapid screening method to pair existing FDA-approved drugs to combat multi ... but persistent use and over-prescription have opened the door that has allowed bacteria to evolve resistance. According to the ... Antibiotics were the wonder drug of the 20th century, ... Bacteria-Drug Stand Off (video). University of Utah Health. ... Finding the perfect match: A new approach to battle drug-resistant bacteria. University of Utah Health ...
Tuberculosis drug shows promise against latent bacteria WASHINGTON, Sept. 12 (Xinhua) -- A new study has shown that an ... currently in clinical trials against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains, is quite effective at killing latent bacteria, ... reasoning proved to be correct and R207190 was able to kill dormant bacteria by greater than 95 percent whereas current drugs ... Researchers hope to validate these results clinically, and note that ATP synthase should be looked at as a drug target for ...
... of bacteria evolving drug resistance right before your eyes. ... believe bacteria can evolve a resistance to drugs, but only ... and at some point one or more of the baby bacteria just happened to get a resistance to the drug. It was able to pass that ... Weve also seen bacteria evolve in real time; a similar experiment (minus the video) was done with E. coli that shows them ... Mind you, bacteria all over the place on the table were probably evolving some sort of resistance, but only the ones near the ...
"Nightmare bacteria" with unusual resistance to antibiotics of last resort were found more than 200 times in the United States ... Bugs and drugs are in a constant battle, as germs evolve to resist new and old antibiotics. About 2 million Americans get ... "Nightmare bacteria" with unusual resistance to antibiotics of last resort were found more than 200 times in the United States ... Some of the sick patients had traveled for surgery or other health care to another country where drug-resistant germs are more ...
The first extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strain of Salmonella typhimurium, called ST313 sublineage II.1, has cropped up in ... And to make things worse, one sample has been isolated that shows incomplete response even to this last drug. ... Expanded, this means the bacteria show MDR along with resistance to the two second-line drugs, ceftriaxone (through extended- ... African bacterium resists almost all drugs. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20190922/African-bacterium-resists ...
The deaths of two patients at a Los Angeles hospital are linked to the deadly bacteria CRE, a spokeswoman for the UCLA Health ... Drug-resistant bacteria linked to two deaths at UCLA hospital. By Steve Almasy, CNN ... Some CRE bacteria can resist most antibiotics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says on its website. The bacteria ... a Los Angeles hospital are linked to the deadly bacteria CRE and more than 100 other patients may have been exposed to the drug ...
... bacteria? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce ... The display and use of drug information on this site is subject to express terms of use. By continuing to view the drug ... bacteria. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details and read user reviews for the drugs listed below. ... Considering taking medication to treat infection+by+enterobacter+bacteria? Below is a list of common medications used to treat ...
... said new money will help further research on its drugs, the most advanced of which has completed early trials with SER-109 in ... He said the drug is being considered as a biologic drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The company is looking for a ... The drug, part of what the company is calling Ecobiotic therapeutics, consists of the spores of bacteria from the colon which ... A week after naming a new CEO, a Cambridge-based startup working on drugs that work in the millions of bacteria in the body has ...
... bacteria into eating a compound that is similar to iron and destroys the microbes from the inside. ... Self-destruction system in TB bacteria may lead to perfect drug. Scientists zoom in on the toxin-antitoxin system that the ... Scientists have applied mathematical analysis to study all of the drug combinations that can kill treatment-resistant bacteria ... "Gallium disrupts machinery that bacteria use to make new DNA, and without this, the bacteria cant multiply," further explains ...
"Because of the virulent nature of multi-drug resistant infections and C. difficile infections, hospitals should consider ... establishing policies on the duration of contact precautions to safely care for patients and prevent spread of these bacteria ...
Synthetic versions of a compound found in soil bacteria show promise as new drug candidates to fight TB, which is increasingly ... Researchers have discovered a compound found in soil bacteria that could lead to new drugs to combat tuberculosis, a global ... "Without a cell wall, the bacterium dies. This wall-building protein is not targeted by currently available drugs." ... There are two forms of drug-resistant TB: multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), and the much rarer form, extensively drug-resistant TB ...
Researchers at Harvard Medical School said they have found a way to produce new antibiotics that can help fight drug-resistant ... New antibiotics fight drug-resistant staph *New way to fight malaria, bacteria found *New way to fight bacteria studied * ... at Harvard Medical School said they have found a way to produce new antibiotics that can help fight drug-resistant bacteria. ... Without these enzymes, bacteria cannot replicate, which is why inhibitors such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin have found ...
... the government is estimating how many people die from drug-resistant bacteria each year more than 23,000, or about as many as ... Report: Drug-resistant bacteria are common killers. In this undated photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and ... In a new report, the CDC tallied the toll of the 17 most worrisome drug-resistant bacteria. The result: Each year, more than 2 ... ATLANTA (AP) For the first time, the government is estimating how many people die from drug-resistant bacteria each year more ...
New research into how bacteria go dormant, allowing them to evade drugs, could lead to a method to keep them from hiding. ... The key to battling drug-tolerant superbugs could be keeping them awake. ... A New Weapon in the Battle Against Drug-Tolerant Bacteria. The key to battling drug-tolerant superbugs could be keeping them ... Persistent bacteria arent resistant to drugs; they just wait them out. Most antibiotics target growing bacteria, killing by ...
  • MRSA bacteria have been the target of many hospital infection control efforts. (theoaklandpress.com)
  • The article also uses MRSA, which is gram positive, as their prime example of resistant bacteria. (slashdot.org)
  • About 20 percent of people are colonized by MRSA , and the nasal passages are the most common site for these bacteria to live. (theweek.com)
  • The prevalence of staph bacteria resistant to the antibiotic methicillin, known as MRSA, was "unexpectedly" similar between the exposed and unexposed groups, according to the study. (reuters.com)
  • The co-beta peptide treatment is shown to eradicate biofilm bacteria such as MRSA, a particularly difficult form of bacteria to treat. (eurekalert.org)
  • While alpha-peptides have long been used to treat resistant bacteria such as MRSA, they tend to be rather unstable or toxic in the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new drug will be particularly beneficial to farm workers as the virus has been detected in 20-80% of workers in MRSA-positive herds. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a paper published in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry , the team reports it has discovered a new compound of C-capped dipeptides, called BU-005, to circumvent a family of drug-efflux pumps associated with Gram-positive bacteria, which include the dangerous MRSA and tuberculosis strains. (brown.edu)
  • Ten of the 154 cutting boards taken from the hospital kitchen tested positive for a type of drug-resistant E. coli bacteria, compared to five of the 144 boards taken from homes, according to results published in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. (health24.com)
  • Factories of E. coli bacteria, producing P450, bound to green fluorescent protein. (nanowerk.com)
  • So, building on his experience at City of Hope, Suresh proposes attaching extremely tiny magnets, referred to in research terms as "super paramagnetic iron oxide nanomagnets," to the surface of E. coli bacteria using antibodies. (cityofhope.org)
  • Essentially, we found nightmare bacteria in your backyard," said Dr. Anne Schuchat, principal deputy director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nypost.com)
  • In this undated photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one form of CRE bacteria, sometimes called nightmare bacteria. (theoaklandpress.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the number Monday to spotlight the growing threat of germs that are hard to treat because they've become resistant to drugs. (theoaklandpress.com)
  • This week the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that strains of these completely drug-resistant bacteria have quadrupled in the last decade or so, and the bugs have been lurking around in hospitals, hundreds of hospitals around the nation. (nhpr.org)
  • Detailed in a newly released Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report , the case highlights the significant threat that the emergence of highly resistant bacteria is becoming to global public health. (lifeboat.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and prevention, the bacteria is rare, with between 9,000 and 11,000 cases in the United States each year. (q13fox.com)
  • A startling presentation at UEG Week 2019 , in Barcelona, reveals that the gut microbiome is at high risk for damage each time we use a drug from one or more of 18 commonly used groups. (news-medical.net)
  • The effects may range from changes in the relative proportions of different beneficial and potentially harmful species to alterations in the cellular metabolism of the bacteria themselves. (news-medical.net)
  • A bacteria species that can metabolize a drug designed to kill cells. (slashdot.org)
  • To show which species of the bacteria were present on the ISS, we used various methods to characterize their genomes in detail," study co-author Kasthuri Venkateswaran, a senior research scientist at the JPL Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, said in a statement . (space.com)
  • The human gut contains a large number of species of bacteria, collectively referred to as the gut microbiome . (medindia.net)
  • Additionally, some plant species such as the yew (Taxus baccata), from which the cancer drug Taxol is obtained, are endangered species. (nanowerk.com)
  • It's really the first human-associated bacterium where the whole species is able to produce such an antibiotic," said Bernhard Krismer , one of the study's co-authors. (bigthink.com)
  • It uses an alphabet soup of proteins from Streptomyces bacteria to make an enzyme production line that adds different chemical components to coumermycin A1, a member of the aminocoumarin family. (upi.com)
  • It could identify new drug targets to explore, perhaps by finding combinations of proteins that can be attacked simultaneously. (eurekalert.org)
  • The later, called multidrug resistance (MDR), frequently results from impaired retention of medicine caused by overexpression of particular transport proteins (the so called ABC transporters: MDR, MRP, LRP, BCRP), which function as energy dependent drug efflux pumps. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Bacteria still have to deal with scarcity, even on their scale, and making proteins is expensive. (extremetech.com)
  • These pumps are proteins located in the membranes of bacteria that can recognize and expel drugs that have breached the membranes. (brown.edu)
  • ADEPs kill bacteria in a way that no marketed antibacterial drug does-by altering the pathway through which cells rid themselves of harmful proteins. (futurity.org)
  • They built a table more than a meter long and put down a culture agent that allows bacteria (specifically, E. coli ) to grow. (slate.com)
  • And so we're breaking these anatomical barriers, and it allows bacteria that normally can't get into these sites to slip in there and cause problems. (nhpr.org)
  • MDR-TB is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, two potent first-line drugs used to treat everyone who falls ill with TB. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We hope that additional studies in this direction lead us to discover even more potent quorum-sensing antagonists, thus generating a new type of antibiotic drug. (scienceblog.com)
  • The Optimer drug has shown potent activity against C. Diff in the test tube, and hopes are high that it will translate in a final-stage study of effectiveness, he says. (xconomy.com)
  • There's estimated to be about 100 trillion bacteria on and in us, the vast majority in our gut, compared to 10 trillion human cells. (nhpr.org)
  • Most of the around 100 trillion bacteria living in hiding in our intestines - the gut microbiota - are difficult to grow using traditional methods, because they do not tolerate atmospheric oxygen. (healthcanal.com)
  • Could bacteria living inside tumours be conspiring with cancer cells to block the action of chemotherapy drugs? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Ravid Straussman and his team at the Weizmann Institute had originally been looking at why certain types of skin cell appear to be able to protect nearby cancer cells from being wiped out by a chemotherapy drug called gemcitabine. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The source of the chemotherapy-blocking effect, he discovered, were small bacteria called Mycoplasma hyorhinis living in and on the skin cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Dr. Straussman and his colleagues got a hunch to look for the bacteria after noticing that, when they grew certain types of human cancer cells together in lab, the cells all became more resistant to a chemotherapy drug called gemcitabine . (slashdot.org)
  • In addition to cystic fibrosis patients, whose lungs become clogged with the bacteria, it infects patients receiving chemotherapy, burn patients, AIDS patients, those on ventilators, with catheters and others. (scienceblog.com)
  • Gallium disrupts machinery that bacteria use to make new DNA, and without this, the bacteria can't multiply," further explains study co-author Bradley Britigan, a professor of internal medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A new study in Science Thursday maps out the structure and function of one major dormancy-inducer in bacteria, a protein called HipA. (wired.com)
  • Though the study sheds light on how bacteria become dormant, it doesn't clarify what spurs the phenomenon on - why HipB sometimes falls away and lets HipA work its soporific magic. (wired.com)
  • These drugs result in antibiotic-like side-effects and may promote antibiotic resistance, finds a new study. (medindia.net)
  • We need to carefully study these relationships, as this knowledge could dramatically improve our understanding and the efficacy of existing drugs. (medindia.net)
  • A sampling of grocery store meat in five U.S. cities has shown a type of drug-resistant bacteria is contained in about one-quarter of beef, chicken, pork, and turkey for sale, a study said Friday. (newsmax.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - Hog farmers are six times more likely than the general population to carry an infectious bacteria that can cause skin and respiratory problems and resists treatment from multiple drugs, according to a new U.S. research study. (reuters.com)
  • The group of Christian Melander at NC State University published a study in Medicinal Chemistry Letters that resulted in a promising drug that acts as a partner to an antibiotic. (skepchick.org)
  • The study measured bacteria level in the influent, at the discharge point, 20 meters and 50 meters from the point," said Prof Manish Kumar of IIT Gandhinagar (IIT-Gn), lead author of the study. (indiatimes.com)
  • Cutting boards used to prepare raw poultry may be an important source of drug-resistant bacteria in hospital kitchens and private homes, according to a new study. (health24.com)
  • These E. coli are resistant to some of the last good drugs we have to treat them," Lance B. Price, who was not involved in the European study, told Reuters Health. (health24.com)
  • Optimer has another 660-patient study of its drug candidate, which is currently enrolling patients, and is expected to wrap up by June 2009. (xconomy.com)
  • A new study suggests that nearly half of workers who care for animals in large industrial hog farming operations may be carrying home livestock-associated bacteria in their noses, and that this potentially harmful bacteria remains with them up to four days after exposure. (nsf.gov)
  • A new study from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, has identified the pathway multidrug-resistant bacteria are using to travel from drainpipes in hospital sinks to contact with patients. (iran-daily.com)
  • The study shows that the most frequently used drug for the treatment of high blood glucose levels, metformin, causes favourable changes in the gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Common gut bacteria blocks effects of Parkinson's drugs, study says. (pjmedia.com)
  • A new study finds that non-antibiotic drugs may also contribute to the development of drug-resistant bacteria. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • The effects of human-targeted drugs on gut bacteria are reflected on their antibiotic-like side effects in humans and are concordant with existing human cohort studies. (nih.gov)
  • The toxicity and proof-of-concept studies have shown that this can be on the drug development pathway as it shows good potency and low toxicity and we look forward to having this developed as a topical drug for humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • TUESDAY, June 30, 2020 -- Swimming and summer are practically synonymous, but getting sick from bacteria in lakes, rivers and the ocean can spoil the fun, U.S. health officials. (drugs.com)