Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DextranaseBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Streptococcus equi: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteria, AnaerobicBacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteria, AerobicDental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptococcus intermedius: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mice, Inbred BALB CPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 220.127.116.11.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Streptococcus constellatus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
Factors affecting the development of phlegmons are virulence of bacteria and immunity strength. By clinical course: acute ... Commonly by bacteria - streptococci, spore and non-spore forming anaerobes, etc. ... presence of bacteria in urine, increase urinary leucocyte counts. Radiologic studies, such as Computed Tomography or ultrasound ...
... is a putative virulence factor of the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a pore-forming toxin ... Nov 27, 1998). "The molecular mechanism of pneumolysin, a virulence factor from Streptococcus pneumoniae". Journal of Molecular ... Rubins, JB; Janoff, EN (January 1998). "Pneumolysin: A multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor". The Journal of ... Cockeran, R; Anderson, R; Feldman, C (June 2002). "The role of pneumolysin in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
The key factors for virulence include their ability to metabolise glucose and similar sugars, their tolerance for a low pH ... The presence of streptococci encourage adherence of more cariogenic bacteria, which in turn increases the likelihood for caries ... differences in virulences of bacteria were then considered as part of the theory that the overall entirety of the microflora ... associating caries with such truly cariogenic bacteria as Streptococcus mutans and the lactobacilli species. The specific ...
... an important virulence factor of streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterial cause of pneumonia, bronchitis, and other breathing ... 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase has been found to be an important virulence factor in a variety of pathogens including bacteria ... Bacteria with defective UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase are unable to incorporate galactose into their cell walls. ... Nigam VN, Macdonald HL, Cantero A (February 1962). "Limiting factors for glycogen storage in tumors. I. Limiting enzymes". ...
It is often speculated that Streptococcus and Staphylococcus pathogens use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the ... Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium perfringens, produce hyaluronidase as a ... Starr CR, Engleberg NC (January 2006). "Role of hyaluronidase in subcutaneous spread and growth of group A streptococcus". ... "spreading factors", having a function akin to bacterial hyaluronidases. In most mammalian fertilization, hyaluronidase is ...
... and intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria called virulence factors. Many virulence factors are so-called effector proteins ... The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae inhibits phagocytosis of the bacterium by host immune cells. Toxins. ... Many virulence factors are proteins made by bacteria that poison host cells and cause tissue damage. For example, there are ... These virulence factors allow the bacteria to enter host cells and facilitate entry into the body across epithelial tissue ...
The emm-gene encodes the M-protein, a major virulence factor in both S.pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. It is ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae can infect a range of animal hosts, and both subspecies are of importance. However, the bacterium is ... Furthermore, Streptococcus dysgalactiae possesses Protein G, a virulence factor binding circulating immunoglobulins, and thus ... Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong (2016-01-01). "Genome sequence and virulence factors of a group G Streptococcus ...
They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome it must enter a special physiological ... "Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF). "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved March 24 ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. S. pneumoniae played a central ...
M protein (Streptococcus)
M protein is a virulence factor that can be produced by certain species of Streptococcus. Viruses, parasites and bacteria are ... M protein is strongly anti-phagocytic and is a major virulence factor. It binds to serum factor H, destroying C3-convertase and ... who also formulated the Lancefield classification system for streptococcal bacteria. Bacteria like S. pyogenes, which possess M ... One such molecule is the M protein produced by certain streptococcal bacteria. M proteins embody a motif that is now known to ...
Virulence. As other virulent bacteria, GBS harbors an important number of virulence factors (virulence factors are ... Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to group B of the Lancefield classification. GBS ...
... and simple derivatives have been found to inhibit the production of the virulence factor streptolysin S, a cytolysin ... by other bacteria. Nelfinavir's interaction profile is similar to that of other protease inhibitors. Most interactions occur at ... produced by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Nelfinavir and these related molecules did not exhibit detectable ...
Horizontal gene transfer
... aureus and many other pathogenic bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer also plays a role in the spread of virulence factors, such ... Streptococcus and Clostridium perfringens. In prokaryotes, restriction-modification systems are known to provide immunity ... Strategies to combat certain bacterial infections by targeting these specific virulence factors and mobile genetic elements ... 2013), endosymbiotic bacteria, and intracellular parasitic bacteria. In some cases, even TEs facilitate transport for other TEs ...
Some bacteria, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, are able to break down the host's immunoglobulins using proteases. Viruses also ... it is an example of a virulence factor from a fungus. Other virulence factors include factors required for biofilm formation (e ... When placed at random, the transposon may be placed next to a virulence factor or placed in the middle of a virulence factor ... Small molecules being investigated for their ability to inhibit virulence factors and virulence factor expression include ...
Other virulence factors include a polysaccharide capsule which prevents host phagocytosis and aids in evasion of the host ... In 1887 Anton Weichselbaum isolated the bacterium from the CSF of patients with bacterial meningitis. He named the bacterium ... such as Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Suspicion of meningitis is a medical emergency and immediate ... Porins are also recognized by TLR2, they bind complement factors (C3b, C4b, factor H, and C4bp (complement factor 4b-binding ...
S. pyogenes has several virulence factors that enable it to attach to host tissues, evade the immune response, and spread by ... Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, ... both Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci when ... Like other cocci, streptococci are round bacteria. The name is derived from Greek words meaning chain(Strepto) of berries ( ...
... of anaerobic gram-positive cocci and microaerophilic streptococci to produce capsular material is an important virulence ... Due to a large amount of new research done on the human microbe and more information on bacteria, many species of bacteria have ... abdominal and soft tissue along with gastrointestinal surgery are predisposing factors for bacteremia due to peptostreptococcus ... the DNA homology group of microaerobic streptococci that was formerly known as Streptococcus anginosus or Streptococcus milleri ...
S. pyogenes has a cell wall composed of branched polymers which sometimes contain M protein, a virulence factor that is highly ... Rheumatic fever may occur following an infection of the throat by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. If the infection is ... and can occur after an untreated strep throat infection, specifically due to group A streptococcus (GAS), Streptococcus ... Other risk factors include malnutrition and poverty. Diagnosis of RF is often based on the presence of signs and symptoms in ...
Group A streptococcal infection
... which cause other types of infections and should not be confused with group A strep. Several virulence factors contribute to ... These occurs when the bacterium is able to infect areas where bacteria are not usually found, such as blood and organs. The ... There are many other types of streptococci (species of Streptococcus), including group B streptococcus (Streptococcus ... Indeed, the many virulence factors of GAS can influence the epigenetics of the host. Furthermore, persons with suppressed or ...
Group B streptococcal infection
As other virulent bacteria, GBS harbours an important number of virulence factors, the most important are the capsular ... UK Group B Strep Association] UK  Ontario Midwives Group B Strep International CDC-Group B Strep (GBS) Group B Strep ... is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS ... Lin FY, Weisman LE, Troendle J, Adams K (2003). "Prematurity Is the Major Risk Factor for Late-Onset Group B Streptococcus ...
The capsule is considered a virulence factor because it enhances the ability of bacteria to cause disease (e.g. prevents ... Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule. Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular ... Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine antigenic types that all contain sialic acid (Ia, Ib, II, ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
... in gram-positive bacteria. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... Additionally, T4SS also secrete virulence factor proteins directly into host cells as well as taking up DNA from the medium ... Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, ... It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ...
Additionally, T4SS also secrete virulence factor proteins directly into host cells as well as taking up DNA from the medium ... Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is present in bacteria and archaea as well. ATP binding cassette (ABC) type ... In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, the accessory secretory system handles the export of highly repetitive ... Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, ...
Bacteria invest energy into creating these toxins because they act as virulence factors. By targeting immune cells such as ... For example, Intermedilysin (ILY; TC# 1.C.12.1.5) secreted by Streptococcus intermedius will bind only to target membranes ... and phospholipases C leading to the virulence of these bacteria. However, although the C. perfringens α-toxin treatment of ... Some factors that affect cholesterols availability are size of the polar head groups and the ability of the phospholipid to ...
Bacterial small RNA
... is the only well-characterized regulatory RNA known to control the regulation of several virulence factors in Streptococcus ... In some bacteria sRNAs regulate virulence genes. In Salmonella, the pathogenicity island encoded InvR RNA represses synthesis ... "The small regulatory RNA FasX enhances group A Streptococcus virulence and inhibits pilus expression via serotype-specific ... The outer membrane of gram negative bacteria acts as a barrier to prevent the entry of toxins into the bacterial cell, and ...
In this way, temperate bacteriophages also play a role in the spread of virulence factors, such as exotoxins and exoenzymes, ... amongst bacteria. This change then stays in the genome of the infected bacteria and is copied and passed down to daughter cells ... Streptococcus pyogenes, produce a pyrogenic exotoxin, obtained by lysogenic conversion, which causes fever and a scarlet-red ... 23 April 2013). "Importance of prophages to evolution and virulence of bacterial pathogens". Virulence. 4 (5): 354-65. doi: ...
Vaginal flora in pregnancy
Africa, Charlene; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan (2014). "Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors ... No bacteria were able to be cultured from the samples. Bacteria were detected and were directly proportional to the time ... nucleatum Staphylococci spp Streptococci Atopobium vaginae Mobiluncus spp Mycoplasma spp Bacteroides ureolyticus Fusobacterium ... Bacteria or viruses that are infectious most often have no symptoms. In normal pregnancy, the resident vaginal flora is thought ...
Africa, Charlene; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan (2014). "Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors ... Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with ... Mashima, I.; Nakazawa, F. (August 2014). "The influence of oral Veillonella species on biofilms formed by Streptococcus species ...
"Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. ...
One such exotoxin is alpha toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens and is the key virulence factor in its pathogenesis. ... It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... Bacteroides and anaerobic streptococci). The exotoxin is commonly found in C. perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ...
It is often speculated that Streptococcus and Staphylococcus pathogens use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the ... Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium perfringens, produce ... "spreading factors", having a function akin to bacterial hyaluronidases. ... although most hyaluronidase preparations are contaminated with large amounts of angiogenic growth factors. ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... There exists a genetic switch controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that allows the bacterium to randomly ... "Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells". PLoS ... Epigenetics in bacteria. While epigenetics is of fundamental importance in eukaryotes, especially metazoans, it plays a ...
500 bacteria cells Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep throat): 1000 bacteria cells Salmonella: varies by strain, 100-1 ... Another factor is the duration of exposure. Some drugs or supplements have a slow-release feature in which portions of the ... Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Frank, Steven A (2017-04-07). "Pathogenesis, Virulence, and Infective Dose". PLoS Pathogens. 3 (10). doi: ... billion bacteria cells Vibrio cholerae (Cholera): 1000-100,000,000 bacteria cells Typically, stomach acids can kill bacteria ...
Microbial factors. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune ... The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, ... Other commonly implicated bacteria include Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella ... Consequentially, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1, will up-regulate the expression ...
Some colonizing bacteria, such as Corynebacteria sp. and viridans streptococci, prevent the adhesion and colonization of ... "can lead to increases in growth and virulence". More recently, in 2017, bacteria were found to be more resistant to ... Host genetic factors. The organism that is the target of an infecting action of a specific infectious agent is called the ... Antibiotics only work for bacteria and do not affect viruses. Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria ...
For example, iron may be a limiting factor in the growth of various pathogenic bacteria. Since free iron may generate ... Further findings show that the main virulence factor of S. aureus, the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla), is the secreted ... Griffiths BB, McClain O (1988). "The role of iron in the growth and hemolysin (Streptolysin S) production in Streptococcus ... As mentioned before, hemolysin is a potential virulence factor produced by microorganisms, which can put a human's health at ...
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep throat): 1000 bacteria cells. *Salmonella: varies by strain, 100-1 billion bacteria cells ... Factors affecting doseEdit. A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are ... "Pathogenesis, Virulence, and Infective Dose". PLoS Pathogens. 3 (10): 1372-3. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030147. ISSN 1553-7366 ... Vibrio cholerae (Cholera): 1000-100,000,000 bacteria cells. Typically, stomach acids can kill bacteria below the infectious ...
A bacterium may participate in opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, acquire virulence factors by plasmid ... which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria ... BacteriaEdit. Main article: Pathogenic bacteria. The vast majority of bacteria, which can range between 0.15 and 700 μM in ... VirulenceEdit. Virulence (the tendency of a pathogen to reduce a host's fitness) evolves when a pathogen can spread from a ...
... s are used to prepare bioactive molecules such as Streptokinase from the bacterium Streptococcus, Cyclosporin ... Kumamoto, C.A.; Vinces, M.D. (2005). "Contributions of hyphae and hypha-co-regulated genes to Candida albicans virulence". Cell ... Bacteria are microscopic, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis. Bacteria function and ... They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome. Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain ...
"Bacterial Infection (Streptococcus) in Dogs". petmd.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.. *^ "Bacteria-Firmicutes-Bacilli- ... Current guidelines state that if one or more of the following risk factors is present, then the woman should be treated with ... showed that nasal colonization fitness and virulence (lung infectivity) depend on an intact competence system. Competence may ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha ...
... has been shown to significantly reduce attachment and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans, a bacteria with the potential ... "Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans". mBio. 5 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.01911-14. ISSN 2150-7511 ... B-cell activating factor. *4-1BB ligand. *Cholesterylester transfer protein. *Clusterin. *Colony-stimulating factor ... to form cavities. Unusually, MUC5B does not kill the bacteria but rather maintains it in the planktonic (non-biolfim) phase ...
The source of the spacers was a sign that the CRISPR/cas system could have a role in adaptive immunity in bacteria. All ... Researchers studied a simpler CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes that relies on the protein Cas9. The Cas9 endonuclease ... Nuñez JK, Bai L, Harrington LB, Hinder TL, Doudna JA (June 2016). "CRISPR Immunological Memory Requires a Host Factor for ... novicida to dampen host response and promote virulence. ... Another way for bacteria to defend against phage infection is ...
Tupe mikrofloora - Vikipeedia
Charlene W. J. Africa, Janske Nel, Megan Stemmet (2014). "Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors ... 7,0 7,1 Sylvie Y. Doerflinger, Andrea L. Throop, Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz (2014). "Bacteria in the Vaginal Microbiome Alter ... Streptococcus spp.. *Corynebacterium spp.. *Staphylococcus spp.. *Enterobacteriaceae (harva). *Eubacterium spp.. * ...
The capsule is considered a virulence factor because it enhances the ability of bacteria to cause disease (e.g. prevents ... Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule.. *Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular ... As a group where the capsule is present they are known as polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria or encapsulated bacteria. ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
... key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell biology tools". Future Microbiol. 5 (3): 455-469. doi:10.2217/fmb.09.133 ... The bacteria then multiply. In infants, who experience more severe disease, the bacteria spread down to the lungs. ... filamentous strep throat and leukocytosis-promoting-factor HA), which are secreted by B. pertussis. Sato's acellular pertussis ... Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs ...
Necrotizing fasciitis (caused by the "flesh eating" bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes) - produces a pore forming toxin ... Toxins produced by microorganisms are important virulence determinants responsible for microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion ... bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, ... that are released mainly when bacteria are lysed. ... Virulence. factor. *Clumping factor A. *Fibronectin binding ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... There exists a genetic switch controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that allows the bacterium to randomly ... Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria.[ ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, a enciclopedia libre
"Understanding the regulation of Group B Streptococcal virulence factors" (PDF). Future Microbiol 4 (2): 201-221. PMC 2691590. ... É unha bacteria beta-hemolítica, catalase negativa, e anaerobia facultativa. En xeral, o GBS é unha bacteria comensal ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae (tamén coñecido como estreptococo do grupo B ou EGB (GBS polas súas siglas en inglés) é unha ...
... a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast, bacteria, or cell cultures. After the ... Lack of response commonly results from clinical factors such as diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection, or age. ... For example, by greatly reducing the incidence of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, vaccine programs have greatly ... of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in complement inhibition would neutralize the key bacterial virulence ...
... virulence factors or toxic genes in their genomes and identification of genes with similarity to known virulence factors or ... Under certain conditions, it may result in preferential growth of resistant bacteria, while growth of susceptible bacteria is ... "The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Research. 41 (5): 342 ... Duchesne E. Duchesne's Antagonism between molds and bacteria, an English Colloquial Translation. Translated by Witty M. Amazon. ...
In bacteria. Antigenic variation in bacteria is best demonstrated by species of the genus Neisseria (most notably, ... An example of this is the pox virus vaccinia which encoded a viral growth factor similar that is very similar to the human ... Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus); species of the genus Streptococcus and the Mycoplasma. The ... Many of the proteins known to show antigenic or phase variation are related to virulence. ...
Risk factors include Caesarean section (C-section), the presence of certain bacteria such as group B streptococcus in the ... Another reason appears to be a lessening of the virulence or invasiveness of Streptococcus pyogenes. This organism is also the ... Typically multiple types of bacteria. Risk factors. Cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, prolonged labour, ... It frequently includes organisms such as Ureaplasma, Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, and Bacteroides, and may also include organisms ...
Among some rod-like bacteria, he also found bacteria with a characteristic spiral shape, which he called Vibrio rugula. He was ... These factors may induce the expression of a single peptide or multiple AMPs . It is also possible that certain factors ... The cagA gene codes for one of the major H. pylori virulence proteins. Bacterial strains with the cagA gene are associated with ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. mutans, and H. pylori. For each of these pathogens, surviving the DNA damage induced by ...
A bacterium may participate in opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, acquire virulence factors by plasmid ... which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria ... Virulence. Virulence (the tendency of a pathogen to cause damage to a host's fitness) evolves when that pathogen can ... A class of bacteria without cell walls is mycoplasma (a cause of lung infections). A class of bacteria which must live within ...
... or various virulence factors. Bacteria genomes usually encode a few hundred to a few thousand genes. The genes in ... Streptococcus form chains, and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters. Bacteria can also group to form ... Bacteria (/bækˈtɪəriə/ (. listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a ... Further information: Economic importance of bacteria. Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae - Wikipedia
The emm-gene encodes the M-protein, a major virulence factor in both S.pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. It is ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae can infect a range of animal hosts, and both subspecies are of importance. However, the bacterium is ... Furthermore, Streptococcus dysgalactiae possesses Protein G, a virulence factor binding circulating immunoglobulins, and thus ... Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong (2016-01-01). "Genome sequence and virulence factors of a group G Streptococcus ...
Clonal Clusters and Virulence Factors of Group C and G Streptococcus Causing Severe Infections, Manitoba, Canada, 2012-2014 -...
Virulence factors cbp, fbp, speG, sicG, gfbA, and bca clustered clonally into these clades. A clonal distribution of virulence ... factors may account for severe and fatal cases of bacteremia caused by invasive GCGS. ... The incidence of group C and G Streptococcus (GCGS) bacteremia, which is associated with severe disease and death, is ... Collection and Identification of Bacteria. At the discretion of the healthcare provider, patient blood samples were collected ...
Streptococcus - Medical Microbiology - NCBI Bookshelf
... a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria, has broad significance in medicine and industry. Various streptococci are ... Streptococci are essential in industrial and dairy processes and as indicators of pollution. ... Among the significant human diseases attributable to streptococci are scarlet fever, rheumatic heart disease, ... Streptococci are members of the normal flora. Virulence factors of group A streptococci include (1) M protein and lipoteichoic ...
... a virulence factor. This would be interesting. Has anyone seen a report of , phage in these bacteria isolates? , ... including Streptococcus pyogenes. , If there is a virus involved it would have to be a temperate phage carrying , ... This is apparently Necrotizing Fasciitis , which my med micro book (Baron) says is caused by several types of bacteria, , ... Strep A, is a bacterial strain that contains a virus. What Ive read said that the phage causes bacterial production of a ...
Complete sequence and comparative genome analysis of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus
... raising the possibility that it has a potential for virulence. Here we report the genome … ... This dairy species of major economic importance is phylogenetically close to pathogenic streptococci, ... The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used for the manufacture of yogurt and cheese. ... Streptococcus thermophilus / genetics* * Streptococcus thermophilus / pathogenicity * Virulence Factors / genetics* * Yogurt / ...
The PhlA Hemolysin from the Entomopathogenic Bacterium Photorhabdusluminescens Belongs to the Two-Partner Secretion Family of...
Streptococcus spp., Listeria spp.) bacteria and are known to function as virulence factors. Most of them are active against a ... Measuring virulence factor expression by the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens in culture and during insect ... After invasion of the insect host by the nematodes, bacteria produce potential virulence factors, including lipase, protease, ... Bacterial hemolysins found in numerous pathogenic bacteria are often virulence factors. We describe here the nucleotide ...
Clinical Bacteriology: Gram Positive Bacteria - Staphylococci and Streptococci Flashcards by Aaron Iuppa | Brainscape
Gram Positive Bacteria - Staphylococci and Streptococci flashcards from Aaron Iuppa ... What are the virulence factors for Streptococcus pneumoniae?. What conditions can be complicated by infection with S. ... Streptococcus pyogenes - Group A Strep (catalase negative, bacitracin sensitive). Streptococcus agalactiae - Group B strep ( ... Nonenterococcus, AKA Streptococcus Bovis (Group D strep). Colonizes the gut. Can cause bacteremia and subacute endocarditis in ...
WHO | Pneumococcal Disease
Microorganisms in Disease Flashcards by Eleanor Barnard | Brainscape
Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6 | Journal of Bacteriology
2000) Virulence factors and the pathogenesis of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Res. Microbiol. 151:413-419. ... Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. JoAnn Hoskins, William E. Alborn Jr., Jeffrey Arnold, Larry C. ... Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. JoAnn Hoskins, William E. Alborn Jr., Jeffrey Arnold, Larry C. ... Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. JoAnn Hoskins, William E. Alborn, Jr., Jeffrey Arnold, Larry C. ...
Sir Henry Dale Fellowships: people we've funded | Wellcome
Identification of niche-specific virulence factors via experimental evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Pathogenic bacteria have also devised virulence mechanisms to block IFNλ production. My findings suggest that type III IFNs are ... Using the bacterium Streptococcus suis as a model system, Lucys laboratory will sample whole genomes of global populations, ... These bacteria cause common infections such as tonsillitis (strep throat). Importantly, mild infections can develop into life ...
Single strep bacteria protein sets off white blood cell's early warning system | EurekAlert! Science News
... the cause of strep throat and flesh-eating infections -- have been well studied for nearly a century. But researchers at ... streps M protein alone wipes out macrophages, but not other types of immune cells. The macrophages self-sacrifice serves as ... is streps most important virulence factor. M protein is known to help the bacteria adhere to human tissues, make it harder for ... Group A Streptococcus bacteria -- the cause of strep throat and flesh-eating infections -- have been well studied for nearly a ...
Research Profiles | Health Research Council
Key words: Streptococcal, virulence factor, ssuperantigen, toxic shock syndrome, group A streptococcus ... Understanding virulence of group A streptococcus, the flesh eating bacterium. Dr Thomas Proft, The University of Auckland ... Socio-cultural factors associated with food security and physical activity for Māori and Pacific people in Aotearoa New Zealand ... Key words: Streptococcus pyogenes, cellulitis, toxic shock syndrome, flesh eating disease-necrotising fasciitis ...
Preventing Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Young Children
The capsule of the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium consists of polysaccharides and constitutes a major virulence factor for ... Risk factors for invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae among Alaska native children younger than two years of age ... Risk factors for carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Memphis, Tennessee. J Pediatr 1996;128: ... Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in acute otitis media: risk factors, susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial ...
Fascial space & infections
Factors affecting Spread of Infection General factors- 1. Microbial factorsLevel of virulence. No. of organisms introduced. ... Streptococcus species(alpha hemolytic) are usually the etiologic organisms if aerobic bacteria present. Anaerobes- prevotella, ... Combination of both factors. 2. 3. * 35. Routes of Spread Direct spread- a) Spread into superficial soft tissues asAbscess- ... MICROBIOLOGY OF ODONTOGENIC INFECTIONS Usually caused by endogenous bacteria. Most odontogenic infections due to mixed ...
Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci: Structural, functional and regulatory aspects and implications for...
The pathogenicity of these bacteria is due to the expression of a large variety of virulence factors. Such determinants, which ... Bacteria within a biofilm persist in adverse conditions, show resistance to killing by antibiotics and to host immune defences ... proteins that contribute to host cell invasion and intracellular survival and soluble factors that decrease phagocytosis and ... Members of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the causative agents of many human and animal diseases. Over the past ...
Extracellular bacterial lymphatic metastasis drives Streptococcus pyogenes systemic infection | Nature Communications
We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic ... first in afferent and then efferent lymphatics that carry the bacteria through successive draining lymph nodes. ... Here, we report that Streptococcus pyogenes also hijack lymphatic vessels to escape a local infection site, transiting through ... streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense ...
Phlegmon - Wikipedia
Factors affecting the development of phlegmons are virulence of bacteria and immunity strength. By clinical course: acute ... Commonly by bacteria - streptococci, spore and non-spore forming anaerobes, etc. ... presence of bacteria in urine, increase urinary leucocyte counts. Radiologic studies, such as Computed Tomography or ultrasound ...
Pneumolysin - Wikipedia
Pneumolysin is a putative virulence factor of the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a pore-forming toxin ... Nov 27, 1998). "The molecular mechanism of pneumolysin, a virulence factor from Streptococcus pneumoniae". Journal of Molecular ... Rubins, JB; Janoff, EN (January 1998). "Pneumolysin: A multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor". The Journal of ... Cockeran, R; Anderson, R; Feldman, C (June 2002). "The role of pneumolysin in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
Estudo do efeito \'in vitro\' de extrato das folhas e do óleo-resina de copaíba sobre...
... upon virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. The inhibitory effect on bacteria acid production was evaluated through the ... Study of the in vitro of extract from leaves and oil-resin of Copaíba upon virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, related ... is essential for the expression of virulence by mutans streptococci and contribute for the effective adherence of bacteria on ... Acid production by acidogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, which are embedded in a biofilm termed ?dental plaque? is ...
Epidemic of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Western Canada, 2005-2009 - Volume 18, Number 5-May 2012 - Emerging Infectious...
The serotype of a Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium is designated according to the organisms polysaccharide capsule, its ... major virulence factor. Worldwide, 91 polysaccharide capsular serotypes have been identified (5,6). A small subset of serotypes ... Firacative C, Moreno J, Rosales P, Maldonado A, Sánchez J, Pesantes C, Circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Colombia5 ... Romney MG, Hull MW, Gustafson R, Sandhu J, Champagne S, Wong T, Large community outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 ...
Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections:adaptive immunity, innate immunity, cell biology, virulence factors |...
During the past two decades the intense study of the infection process of Streptococcus pneumoniaehas elucidated multifaceted ... interactions of the human pathogenic bacterium with the host. A broad... ... a novel virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae that induces tumor necrosis factor alpha production in the respiratory ... Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections:adaptive immunity, innate immunity, cell biology, virulence factors. ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Nanocharacterization in Dentistry | HTML
... oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is ... Virulence factors of mutans streptococci: Role of molecular genetics. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med 1993, 4, 159-176. [Google ... Lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococcusmutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Leuconostocmesenteroides are known to ... Atomic force microscopy study of the structure-function relationships of the biofilm-forming bacterium Streptococcus mutans. ...
JCI - Epidermal hepcidin is required for neutrophil response to bacterial infection
... it has not yet developed a virulence factor able to neutralize the activity of hepcidin. Because of hepcidin resistance to ... Global disease burden of group a streptococcus. In: Ferretti JJ, Stevens DL, Fischetti VA, eds. Streptococcus pyogenes: Basic ... Four days after infection, Hamp1Δker mice had a significantly higher number of bacteria than the Hamp1lox/lox littermates at ... GAS is equipped with a magnitude of virulence factors, allowing the pathogen to uniquely counteract each antibacterial strategy ...
Streptococcus gordonii lipoproteins induce IL-8 in human periodontal ligament cells. - PubMed - NCBI
Here, we investigated the role of S. gordonii cell wall-associated virulence factors on interleukin (IL)-8 induction in human ... Streptococcus gordonii, a Gram-positive oral bacterium, is a life-threatening pathogen that causes infective endocarditis. It ... However, little is known about the virulence factors of S. gordonii responsible for the induction of inflammatory responses in ... Streptococcus gordonii lipoproteins induce IL-8 in human periodontal ligament cells.. Kim AR1, Ahn KB2, Kim HY1, Seo HS3, Kum ...
A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus | mBio
Anchorless adhesins and invasins of Gram-positive bacteria: a new class of virulence factors. Trends Microbiol 10:205-208. doi: ... Virulence control in group A Streptococcus by a two-component gene regulatory system: global expression profiling and in vivo ... M1T1 group A Streptococcus undergoes a phase-shift in vivo to prevent proteolytic degradation of multiple virulence factors by ... Both mild and severe forms of GAS diseases are mediated by a suite of secreted and membrane-associated virulence factors that ...
BMC Veterinary Research | Bacteriology
Biofilm production and other virulence factors in Streptococcus spp. isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Poland ... An important aetiological agent of this disease is bacteria of the genus Streptococcus; hence, ... ... 1.958 - 2-year Impact Factor. 2.221 - 5-year Impact Factor. 1.108 - Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP). 0.934 - SCImago ... is known for its ability to acquire to antimicrobial resistance and to secrete numerous virulence factors that can exacerbate ...
Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Latex Agglutination | Protocol (Translated to Turkish)
Lateks aglütinasyon testi Streptococcus pneumoniae serotip için, basit, hızlı ve ucuz bir yöntemdir ve aynı zamanda yaygın... ... in Real Time the Impact of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in an Acute Mouse Pneumonia Model Using Bioluminescent Bacteria… ... Of kapsül Serotiplemeem, Streptococcus pneumoniae…. Published 2/24/2014. Poliovirüs Kimlik Parçacık Aglütinasyontemi…. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (pnömokok) beş yaşın altındaki çocuklarda morbidite ve mortalitenin önemli bir nedeni eski dünya ...
Microbiology: Ditch the term pathogen : Nature News & Comment
What is more, many of the ongoing attempts to develop new vaccines by identifying and targeting virulence factors have so far ... it is the massive activation of white blood cells triggered by certain strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria ... In some cases, efforts aiming to neutralize virulence factors may even have uncovered ways to exacerbate disease. Pulmonary ... Researchers deleted or inactivated genes in search of those encoding virulence factors, molecules thought to enable a microbe ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Analysis of the virulence factors from periodontopathic bacteria (KAKENHI-PROJECT-08672095)
Publications] Saito, T., Takatsuka, T., Kato, T., Ishihara, K.and Okuda, K.: Adherence of oral streptococci to an immobilized ... This microorganism produces a number of virulence factors. Recently several investigators have been reported that strains of A. ... Publications] Saito, T., Takatsuka, T., Kato, T., Ishihara,K and Okuda,K.: Adherence of oral streptococci to an immobilized ... Publications] Saeki, Y.: Inhibitory effects of funoran on the adherence and colonization of mutans streptococci Caries Res.30 ...
PathogenPyogenesCommensalInfectAbstractPathogenic bacteriumMajor virulence factorSpeciesProteinEnterococcusExtracellularPneumoniaDental cariesMeningitisPotential virulence factorsIsolatesOral bacteriaNecrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syBeta-hemolyticPneumococcal virulence factorsSerotypesMolecularPneumococcusInfectiveAdherenceGramGroup A StrGeneColonizationCritical virulenceInvasiveToxinSanguinisThroatMutans streptococciDiseasesBiofilm formationAntibioticsImportant
- However, an increasing incidence of S.dysgalactiae infections has been documented, and in some geographic regions, the rate of invasive infection has even surpassed that of Streptococcus pyogenes. (wikipedia.org)
- These immunologic sequelae have previously only been associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. (wikipedia.org)
Major virulence factor1
- This dairy species of major economic importance is phylogenetically close to pathogenic streptococci, raising the possibility that it has a potential for virulence. (nih.gov)
- Equi (horse) similis (like) infers similarity to the closely related species, Streptococcus equi. (wikipedia.org)
- Contemporary research has found that many species of streptococci and other Gram positive bacteria have evolved similar peptide pheromone quorum-sensing systems that probably help them adapt to and survive host-imposed fluctuations in their local environment and coincidently regulate the expression of virulence factors that promote their pathogenicity. (jci.org)
- Apart from caries formation by Mutans group species, oral streptococci generally play a benign or beneficial role within the oral cavity. (plos.org)
- Oral streptococci are a common cause of IE, with Streptococcus sanguinis frequently reported as the most commonly isolated oral species . (plos.org)
- Interactions and communication between bacteria in mixed-species biofilms. (ncl.ac.uk)
- However, it is becoming clear that bacteria adapt very rapidly to their surroundings and that they alter their make-up upon contact with other bacterial species or with a human host. (ncl.ac.uk)
- We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp. (plos.org)
- The increased number of well-defined Bacillus species described together with the physiological diversity that they will undoubtedly represent will present a formidable challenge to the taxonomist, but the outcome should be a fascinating insight into the evolutionary history of these bacteria and perhaps of endospore formation itself. (asmscience.org)
- Streptococcus mutans , the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. (hindawi.com)
- recently reported that S. mutans was the oral bacterial species most frequently detected in cardiovascular specimens, suggesting that it enters the bloodstream more readily than other oral bacteria [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- There are numerous differences between the two streptococcus species to include their cell wall structure, factors that make them pathogenic or virulence factors, how the organism is acquired, and the resulting diseases. (livestrong.com)
- All bacterial species encode a single, highly conserved σ factor that drives the expression of house-keeping genes essential for vegetative growth and cell homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
- Serologic grouping is based on antigenic differences in cell wall carbohydrates (groups A to V), in cell wall pili-associated protein, and in the polysaccharide capsule in group B streptococci. (nih.gov)
- Antibody to M protein gives type-specific immunity to group A streptococci. (nih.gov)
- This is an electronic microscopy image of Group A Streptococcus (faint purple chains) overlaid with a confocal microscopy image of M protein (red) internalized in macrophages (blue). (eurekalert.org)
- M protein, an abundant, tentacle-like molecule that projects from the bacterium's surface, is strep's most important virulence factor. (eurekalert.org)
- M protein is known to help the bacteria adhere to human tissues, make it harder for immune cells to engulf the bacteria, and bind or inhibit other components of the human immune system, such as antibodies and antimicrobial peptides. (eurekalert.org)
- Here's how that played out in living systems: While macrophages in a laboratory dish infected with live normal strep bacteria spew IL-1beta and then commit suicide, strep engineered to lack M protein do not have the same effect. (eurekalert.org)
- According to Nizet, these findings underscore the significant role strep and M protein have played in human history -- important enough that the human immune system has evolved a rapid response system just for them. (eurekalert.org)
- In this report we discuss the bacterial repertoire of virulence factors and provide insights into the surface protein variability. (springer.com)
- We thought we already knew pretty much everything there was to know about how M protein helps strep gain a foothold in the human body and avoid the immune system," said Dr. Victor Nizet, right. (aacp.org)
- In this study, we identified within the factor H protein two separate PspC binding regions, which were localized to SCR8-11 and SCR19-20, by using recombinant factor H deletion constructs for Western blotting assays and surface plasmon resonance studies. (jimmunol.org)
- In addition, the factor H binding site was mapped within the pneumococcal PspC protein to a 121-aa-long stretch positioned in the N terminus (residues 38-158). (jimmunol.org)
- In 1944, Oswald Avery , Colin MacLeod , and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was DNA, not protein , as was widely believed at the time. (wikidoc.org)
- The isolate, confirmed as serotype 2 by using the coagglutination test (8), did not produce the virulence markers muramidase-released protein, extracellular factor, or the hemolysin suilysin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The M protein is an alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer extending from the surface of the bacteria as a fibril [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Biochemists have uncovered patterns in the outer protein coat of group A Streptococcus that could finally lead to a vaccine against diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis. (genengnews.com)
- Now, researchers at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) have uncovered patterns in the outer protein coat of the bacteria that could finally lead to a vaccine against the highly pathogenic strain. (genengnews.com)
- In their newly published findings, the researchers describe finding "hidden sequence patterns in the major surface protein and virulence factor" of group A Strep, called the M protein, which limits the body's immune response against these bacteria. (genengnews.com)
- One of the major hurdles in developing a vaccine against these bacteria is the hypervariability of the M protein. (genengnews.com)
- When we become infected with a particular strain of group A Strep, we generally mount an immune response against the particular M protein displayed by that strain," explained Dr. Ghosh. (genengnews.com)
- The UCSD team found that a previously identified human protein called C4BP was recruited to the surface of Group A Strep by many different protein types and was the key to resolving the hypervariability issue. (genengnews.com)
- The findings from this study were published recently in Nature Microbiology in an article entitled "Conserved Patterns Hidden within Group A Streptococcus M Protein Hypervariability Recognize Human C4b-Binding Protein. (genengnews.com)
- These common patterns are what is used to recruit C4BP to the surface of group A Strep by the different M protein types. (genengnews.com)
- A homogeneous non-toxic 39 kDa factor from the cytosol of GBS showing a homology with xenobiotic response element type transcriptional regulator protein adds another quill to the GBS protein panama, thus indicating that such protein molecules can be efficiently explored as suitable vaccine candidates. (intechopen.com)
- In the report, Braunstein and co-authors Drs. William R. Jacobs Jr. and John Chan from New York s Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Drs. Benjamin Espinosa and John T. Belisle from Colorado State University said numerous disease-causing bacteria "possess specialized protein secretion systems that are dedicated to the export of virulence factors. (innovations-report.com)
- Having demonstrated that SecA2 is required for virulence, the next step was to identify the virulence factor secreted by the protein. (innovations-report.com)
- She used antibodies to identify M protein , a virulence factor on streptococci that is necessary for the bacteria's ability to cause strep throat. (lumenlearning.com)
- Production of antibodies against M protein is crucial in mounting a protective response against the bacteria. (lumenlearning.com)
- His graduate studies focused on protein folding and insertion into the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. (rockefeller.edu)
- Enterococcus faecalis and all of the enterococci are closely related to the streptococci and appear microscopically as spheres or cocci. (livestrong.com)
- One of the most important and serious factors about Enterococcus faecalis and the other enterococci is its resistance to a variety of antibiotics. (livestrong.com)
- A few hitherto uncharacterized T7SS-like clusters have been identified in the pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, Saccharomonospora viridis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcuss gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis. (ias.ac.in)
- Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
- As externalized chromatin could entangle bacteria, these structures were named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). (jimmunol.org)
- Cleavage of the host extracellular matrix by GBS may be a relevant factor in the process of bacterial dissemination and/or invasion. (ingentaconnect.com)
- are cariogenic bacteria found in dental plaque which produce extracellular glucans from sucrose that allow it to form aggregates on the tooth surface. (kenyon.edu)
- Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides often form very thin, hydrated, and soft capsules around bacteria, which are considered virulence factors, contributing to their attachment and evasion of host defenses ( 31 ) and protecting them from desiccation. (asm.org)
- The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes. (aaem.pl)
- It also is a major bacterium for invasive diseases like pneumonia and meningitis in South Asian children 12 years of age, though the evidence is of low quality and scarce. (wikidoc.org)
- Streptococcus bugs cause strep throat, as well as meningitis, bacterial pneumonia , endocarditis and the flesh-eating bacterial condition necrotizing fasciitis. (chicagotribune.com)
- This bacterium causes sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis and is a major threat to public health globally. (medindia.net)
- Although Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is considered the major receptor for Gram-positive bacteria in innate immunity, it does not play a major role in host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
- however, the relationship between the pathogenic state and the biofilm mode of growth has been most clearly established with the oral streptococci, which are known to initiate dental caries when the bacteria are living in the biofilm environment of dental plaque. (jci.org)
- Streptococcus mutans is one of the most important etiologic agents of dental caries [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
Potential virulence factors1
Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock sy1
- Lancefield classified beta-hemolytic streptococci into many groups based on antigenic differences in group-specific polysaccharides located in the bacterial cell wall. (lumenlearning.com)
- Many years ago, a pioneering microbiologist named Rebecca Lancefield established the Lancefield grouping system used to differentiate the cell wall polysaccharides that distinguish strep A from strep B and other beta-hemolytic streptococcus. (livestrong.com)
Pneumococcal virulence factors2
- A broad spectrum of pneumococcal virulence factors, which are adapted successfully to different host niches, is involved either predominantly in nasopharyngeal colonization or subsequently in dissemination and transmigration of host tissue barriers. (springer.com)
- The value of molecular evolutionary analysis helps identify new drug targets, including among pneumococcal virulence factors, especially when combined with traditional molecular microbiological approaches. (medindia.net)
- This Research Topic will focus on the molecular components involved in biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci, the role they play in the development, maturation and dispersal of biofilm and on the regulatory aspects of such complex processes. (frontiersin.org)
- Molecular mechanisms of adhesion and colonisation by oral streptococci. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Since the molecular basis of virulence of this oral commensal bacterium remains unclear, we searched the genome of S. sanguinis for previously unidentified virulence factors. (umn.edu)
- With an ever-increasing understanding of the group A streptococcus at a molecular level, new and sophisticated vaccines are currently in human trials and the next decade holds exciting prospects for curbing group A streptococcal diseases. (scribd.com)
- The study, published online in the April issue of Molecular Microbiology, also adds crucial new knowledge to the molecular factors that underlie the virulence of M. tuberculosis and may aid development of new, targeted treatments for the disease. (innovations-report.com)
- Dr. Amendt's research focuses on studying the expression and regulation of transcription factor genes and signaling processes involved in craniofacial/tooth development, the molecular basis of selected human genetic disorders, and the role of stem cells and microRNAs in regulating craniofacial and regenerative medicine. (uiowa.edu)
- Streptococcus sanguinis is an important component of dental plaque and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. (plos.org)
- These results suggest that the com regulon is not required for S. sanguinis infective endocarditis virulence in this model. (plos.org)
- Blood-borne bacteria may colonize endocardium or cardiac valves that have been damaged by congenital conditions or degenerative processes, resulting in infective endocarditis (IE) , . (plos.org)
- Streptococcus sanguinis is the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). (umn.edu)
- In addition, there is clear and unequivocal evidence that glucan production is essential for the expression of virulence by mutans streptococci and contribute for the effective adherence of bacteria on dental surfaces formed when exposed to sucrose. (usp.br)
- Publications] Saeki, Y.: 'Inhibitory effects of funoran on the adherence and colonization of mutans streptococci' Caries Res.30. (nii.ac.jp)
- Factor H attached to the surface of pneumococci via PspC significantly enhanced pneumococcal adherence to host epithelial and endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Surface and secreted molecules of GBS are often essential virulence factors which are involved in the adherence of the bacteria to host cells or are required to suppress the defense mechanisms of hosts. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Streptococci are Gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. (nih.gov)
- What color are gram positive bacteria on the gram stain? (brainscape.com)
- Gram positive bacteria are purple/blue. (brainscape.com)
- Gram negative bacteria will be pink. (brainscape.com)
- It is also used as a primary vehicle for genomics-based development of antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria. (asm.org)
- Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. (wikipedia.org)
- however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. (asm.org)
- The encapsulated , Gram-positive coccoid bacteria have a distinctive morphology on Gram stain, lancet -shaped diplococci. (wikidoc.org)
- Reflects the recent and rapid advances in studying gram-positive bacteria and makes useful comparisons among diverse groups of microorganisms. (asmscience.org)
- Gram-positive" refers to the grouping of bacteria relating to its outer structure. (innovations-report.com)
- is a group A streptococcus that is known to be gram positive, spherical bacteria that grows in long chains. (austincc.edu)
- Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that is categorized as a potential bioterrorism agent. (prolekare.cz)
- Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative flagellate bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease endemic to South-East Asia and other tropical regions . (prolekare.cz)
Group A Str5
- The bacteria that cause necrotizing fasciitis, or "flesh-eating disease"-group A Streptococcus (group A Strep)-is highly infectious and leads to more than 500,000 deaths per year. (genengnews.com)
- At present, there is no vaccine against group A Strep, and our discovery of hidden sequence patterns has offered up a novel way to devise such a vaccine," noted lead study investigator Partho Ghosh, Ph.D., professor, and chair of UC San Diego's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. (genengnews.com)
- Group A Strep brings C4BP to its surface to dampen the immune response. (genengnews.com)
- For example, pharyngitis caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum can have a similar clinical syndrome as group A strep, including fever, exudative pharyngitis, and accompanying rash. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Antibodies against six different serovars of Group A strep were attached to latex beads. (lumenlearning.com)
- A key regulator of GAS virulence gene expression is the CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system (also known as CsrR-CsrS). (asm.org)
- Here, we report that P. inhibens S4Sm, an alphaproteobacterium and member of the Roseobacter clade, also secretes secondary metabolites that hijack the quorum sensing ability of V. coralliilyticus RE22Sm, suppressing virulence gene expression. (asm.org)
- 100-gene com regulon in addition to DNA uptake, including virulence. (plos.org)
- Secondly, the requirement for and the role of virulence gene regulators identified by Signature Tagged Mutagenesis were investigated. (bl.uk)
- In some it has already been shown that the extra secA2 gene is required for virulence. (innovations-report.com)
- Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , have recentlybeen shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis . (ias.ac.in)
- Moreover, the luxS gene was down-regulated in bacteria treated with LF. (springer.com)
- A clonal distribution of virulence factors may account for severe and fatal cases of bacteremia caused by invasive GCGS. (cdc.gov)
- Group A streptococcus (GAS) is known to cause a broad spectrum of illness, from pharyngitis and impetigo, to autoimmune sequelae such as rheumatic heart disease, and invasive diseases. (hindawi.com)
- Genetic competence in S. sanguinis requires a quorum sensing system encoded by the early comCDE genes, as well as late genes controlled by the alternative sigma factor, ComX. (plos.org)
- S. sanguinis virulence for IE has been examined in a number of studies - but very few genes or functions required for virulence have been identified. (plos.org)
- 0.01) and recovered bacterial loads (log 10 CFU, P = 0.01), suggesting that Nt5e contributes to the virulence of S. sanguinis in vivo. (umn.edu)
- In conclusion, we now show for the first time that streptococcal Nt5e modulates S. sanguinis-induced platelet aggregation and may contribute to the virulence of streptococci in experimental IE. (umn.edu)
- Both of these diseases originate from dental plaque, a complex mixture of numerous different bacteria that accumulates on tooth surfaces between cleaning procedures. (ncl.ac.uk)
- In addition to large armamentarium of virulence factors responsible for this serious diseases, there are over 100 million prevalent cases of broad range of human disease. (scribd.com)
- Bacteria within a biofilm persist in adverse conditions, show resistance to killing by antibiotics and to host immune defences and are difficult to eradicate and treat clinically. (frontiersin.org)
- In recent years, the discovery and development of structurally novel antibiotics with distinct mechanisms of action have become particularly important because of the emerging resistance of bacteria to all existing classes, which causes significant treatment problems around the world. (emedexpert.com)
- Developing ways to block, rather than kill, microorganisms that cause disease is important because a growing number of bacteria have found ways to avoid antibiotics, Federle explained. (chicagotribune.com)
- Timing is an important factor and a stimulus that animals encountered before adverse events becomes something to avoid. (wellcome.ac.uk)
- Recently, a 39kDa Invasion Inhibitory Factor (IIF) was isolated from GBS playing an important role in its invasion. (intechopen.com)
- Adhesins are important VIRULENCE factors. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The mechanism of damage was also investigated, as well as the impact of these peptides on the transcription levels of genes known to encode important virulence factors. (springer.com)