Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Shigella boydii: One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Trihexosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Bacteria, AnaerobicAdhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacteria, AerobicBacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Edema Disease of Swine: An acute disease of young pigs that is usually associated with weaning. It is characterized clinically by paresis and subcutaneous edema.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. ... Shiga toxin causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome by damaging endothelial cells in the microvasculature of ... Three species are associated with bacillary dysentery: Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae. A study in ... Shigella bacteria invade the intestinal mucosal cells but do not usually go beyond the lamina propria. Dysentery is caused when ...
Shiga toxin is an infectious disease caused by the rod shaped Shigella dysenteriae as well as Escherichia coli (STEC), and is ... Cholera toxin is an infectious toxin composed of a protein complex that is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Some ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ...
... amongst bacteria. A prime example concerning the spread of exotoxins is the adaptive evolution of Shiga toxins in E. coli ... between Shigella strains and Between Shigella and E. coli strains". Hihon Iji Shimpor (in Japanese). 1861: 34. CS1 maint: ... 2013), endosymbiotic bacteria, and intracellular parasitic bacteria. In some cases, even TEs facilitate transport for other TEs ... The LINE1 sequence has transferred from humans to the gonorrhea bacteria. Agrobacterium, a bacterium well known for its ability ...
Herold S; Karch H; Schmidt H (2004). "Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages-genomes in motion". Int J Med Microbiolo. 294 (2-3): ... Shigellae are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria. S. dysenteriae, spread by ... Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.[page needed] Shigella species can cause ... causes the most severe dysentery because of its potent and deadly Shiga toxin, but other species may also be dysentery agents. ...
The bacterium Shigella was thus named after him, as well as the Shiga toxin, which is produced by the bacterium. After the ... Kiyoshi Shiga (志賀 潔, Shiga Kiyoshi, February 7, 1871 - January 25, 1957) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga was ... Shiga became famous for the discovery of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacillus causing dysentery, in 1897, during a severe ... Shiga was a recipient of the Order of Culture in 1944. He was also awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class, on his ...
... (Stx) - true Shiga toxin - is produced by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and ... The most common sources for Shiga toxin are the bacteria S. dysenteriae and the shigatoxigenic serotypes of Escherichia coli ( ... The toxins are named for Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae. ... "Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) ...
It is named for its similarity to the AB5-type Shiga toxin produced by the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae (see Vero cell). There ... 2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... "versions of the same toxin" rather than "different toxins." As with Shiga toxin, the toxin requires highly specific receptors ... Shiga-Like Toxin I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Shiga-Like Toxin II at the US ...
"Production of Shiga toxin and a cytolethal distending toxin (CLDT) by serogroups of Shigella spp." In Microbiology Letters. The ... Cytolethal distending toxins (abbreviated CDTs) are a class of heterotrimeric toxins produced by certain gram-negative bacteria ... Many of these bacteria, including Shigella dysenteriae, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Escherichia coli, infect humans. Bacteria that ... The ability of these toxins to effect lymphocytes differently may be advantageous to the bacteria that utilize these toxins, ...
... is where the spread of the gene encoding for the Shiga toxin from the Shigella bacteria to E. coli helped produce E. coli O157: ... Some strains of E. coli for example 0157:H7, can produce Shiga toxin (classified as a bioterrorism agent). This toxin causes ... H7, the Shiga toxin-producing strain of E. coli. E. coli encompasses an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a very ... the lesions the toxin leaves behind are the reason why bloody diarrhea is a symptom of an Shiga toxin producing E. Coli ...
... may occur due to infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella species, causing low platelet counts, poor ... Bacteria and protozoans that are amenable to treatment include Shigella Salmonella typhi, and Giardia species. In those with ... If food becomes contaminated with bacteria and remains at room temperature for a period of several hours, the bacteria multiply ... In children, bacteria are the cause in about 15% of cases, with the most common types being Escherichia coli, Salmonella, ...
Certain Shiga toxin-secreting strains of Shigella dysenteriae can also cause HUS. Approximately 5% of cases are classified as ... STEC-HUS occurs after ingestion of a strain of bacteria expressing Shiga toxin(s), usually types of E. coli, that expresses ... also called Shiga-like toxin). E. coli can produce stx1 and/or stx2 Shiga toxins, the latter being more dangerous. A ... and is caused by Shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), of which E. coli O157: ...
Both Shiga toxin and verotoxin are associated with causing potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella species invade ... Shigella (/ʃɪˈɡɛlə/) is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria ... Some strains of Shigella produce toxins which contribute to disease during infection. S. flexneri strains produce ShET1 and ... The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897. The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella ...
... coli with shiga-like toxins do not invade the intestinal mucosa, and are therefore toxin dependent. Viruses directly attack the ... Dysentery may also be caused by shigellosis, an infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella, and is then known as bacillary ... Shigella is thought to cause bleeding due to invasion rather than toxin, because even non-toxogenic strains can cause dysentery ... Bacteria can do this either by invading into intestinal mucosa or by secreting toxins that cause cell death. Bacterial ...
... are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority ... If one defines Shiga toxin as the exact toxin of Shigella dysenteriae, down to every last amino acid residue, then one can view ... 2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... with all of their toxins being SLT, not ST; but the equally reasonable view of STEC as producing "the same" toxin as Shigella ...
H4 strain which was lysogenized by a Shiga toxin encoding phage (typically associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... Several toxins have been linked to EAEC virulence, including ShET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1), Pet (plasmid‐encoded toxin), and ... The pathogenesis of EAEC involves the aggregation of and adherence of the bacteria to the intestinal mucosa, where they ... Nadia Boisen; Angela R. Melton-Celsa; Flemming Scheutz; Alison D. O'Brien; James P. Nataro (2015). "Shiga toxin 2a and ...
Such treatment is usually contraindicated in humans infected with Shiga-toxin expressing E. coli infection (STEC/EHEC: ... The bacterium was characterized with colleagues at the University of California at San Francisco and the Centers for Disease ... Particular areas of focus include cholera, typhoid, shigella, and the transmission of infectious diseases by humans crossing ... administration of antibiotics to children with shigellosis in Bangladesh did not increase toxin production by the bacterium. ...
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, such as E coli o157:h7, are the most common cause of infectious bloody diarrhea in the ... some bacteria are developing antibiotic resistance, particularly Shigella.[84] Antibiotics can also cause diarrhea, and ... Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea, but infections by Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and some strains ... Dysentery is a symptom of, among others, Shigella, Entamoeba histolytica, and Salmonella.[16] ...
Yersinia enterocolitica Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga toxin) Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's ... They are mostly pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by bacteria, that assemble to form pores in cell ... All of these toxins share a similar two-domain fold (N and C-terminal domains) with a long alpha-helix in the middle of the ... These toxins share the ability to bind to the major histocompatibility complex proteins of their hosts. A more distant relative ...
Certain Shiga toxin-secreting strains of Shigella dysenteriae can also cause HUS.[4] Approximately 5% of cases are classified ... STEC-HUS occurs after ingestion of a strain of bacteria expressing Shiga toxin(s), usually types of E. coli, that expresses ... also called Shiga-like toxin). E. coli can produce stx1 and/or stx2 Shiga toxins, the latter being more dangerous. A ... and is caused by Shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), of which E. coli O157: ...
The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. ... Shiga toxin causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome by damaging endothelial cells in the microvasculature of ... Three species are associated with bacillary dysentery: Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae. A study in ... Shigella bacteria invade the intestinal mucosal cells but do not usually go beyond the lamina propria. Dysentery is caused when ...
EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Escherichia coli are bacteria that ... THE MULTIPLICATION OF BACTERIOPHAGE IN VIVO AND ITS PROTECTIVE EFFECT AGAINST AN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH SHIGELLA ... GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 1 Genes of bacteria are found in bacterial chromosomes ...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) 5.9% - an increase of 26% from 2015-2017 ... USDA Sued Over Failure to Address High Rates of Fecal Bacteria on Chicken. ... Three years later, in 2013, Consumer Reports8 found potentially harmful bacteria on 97% of the chicken breasts tested, and half ... Retesting in 2010 revealed a modest improvement, with two-thirds being contaminated with these disease-causing bacteria. ...
... by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, 3 (4%) by Brucella spp., 3 (4%) by Listeria spp., and 2 (3%) by Shigella spp. Among the 30 ... The causative agent was identified for all 73 outbreaks involving nonpasteurized dairy products; all were caused by bacteria. ... and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Among the remaining 72 outbreaks, 39 (54%) were caused by Campylobacter spp., 16 ( ...
Campylobacter and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli had the longest median outbreak incubation periods among bacteria (62- ... Norovirus, Salmonella, and Shigella had median outbreak incubation periods of 32-45 hours. ...
Live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin B subunit. Infect Immun. 2011 Dec. 79(12 ... Note that the exterior of the Shigella bacteria is fimbriated, covered by numerous thin, hair-like projections, imparting a ... Schuller S. Shiga toxin interaction with human intestinal epithelium. Toxins (Basel). 2011 Jun. 3(6):626-39. [Medline]. ... Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms. J Infect Dis. 2002 ...
... campylobacter and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli had the longest among bacteria (62-87 h medians); hepatitis A had the ... salmonella and shigella had longer but similar outbreak incubation periods (32-45 h medians); ... RESULTS: A large variation of read abundances related to bacteria, viruses, and parasites of medical importance, as well as ... Outbreaks from preformed bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) had the shortest ...
After entering the body Shiga toxin is secreted by the infecting bact...,Carnegie,Mellon,study,reveals,potential,of,manganese, ... in,neutralizing,deadly,Shiga,toxin,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device ... PITTSBURGHCarnegie Mellon University researchers have discovered that ...Produced by certain bacteria including Shigella and ... Produced by certain bacteria, including Shigella and some strains of E. coli, Shiga toxin can cause symptoms ranging from mild ...
1) Shigella spp. - Shiga toxin (ST) (2) Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli (EHEC), including O157:H7 strain - Shiga-like toxin (SLT) ... What are the defining characteristics of ribosylating A-B toxins? Give 5 examples of such exotoxins and the bacteria that ... Shigella spp. - Shiga toxin (ST) (4) Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), including O157:H7 strain - Shiga-like toxin (SLT) ... Shiga-like toxin (SLT); Inhibit protein synthesis; Inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA (like Shiga toxin of ...
Shigella Salmonella typhi Nontyphoidal salmonella Shiga toxin e. Coli Hep A Norovirus ... Bacteria Dangerous for DM or cirrhosis Oysters from bad water Diarrhea, ab cramps, N/V, low fever and chills. Cook oysters to ... Toxin in scombroid fish Tuna, mackerel, mahimahi, bonita Red face, sweat, headache, burn tingle mouth and throat, diarrhea and ...
Virulent Shigella penetrates mucosa of colon. 3.2.2.4. Shigella carries gene for Shiga-toxin (acts as neurotoxin, cytotoxin and ... 3.3.1.1.5. Both need high load of bacteria to cause infection in human ... Shigella. 3.2.1. - major cause of bacillary dysentery - genetically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli - divided into 4 ... 3. True Pathogens (Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia). 3.1. Salmonella. 3.1.1. - composed of serologically diverse group of ...
While Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 most commonly produces this toxin, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such ... Shiga toxins 1 and 2 are related toxins produced by certain bacteria and are implicated in bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic ... Shiga toxin-producing bacteria are the main cause of bloody or non-bloody diarrhoea. They can produce a life-threatening ... could also carry different Shiga toxin (stx) genes and their variants (stx1 and/or stx2) (1,2). Cooperation of Shiga toxins ...
Our diverse collection of viral microorganisms, viruses, bacteria & fungi specimens are designed to support researchers and ... Shiga Toxin Shigella SIV Staphylococcus Streptococcus Syphilis T.vaginalis Tatlockia Toxoplasma Tremella ...
A shiga toxin is a very dangerous bacterial toxin that attacks the lining of the blood vessels. The main signs of a shiga toxin ... Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae are two common sources of shiga toxin. This toxin is a protein produced by the ... Shiga toxins can cause bloody urine in some patients. Harmful bacteria can be found in a wide range of foods. If people come to ... Shiga toxins typically cause vomiting. A person who has been exposed to a shiga toxin should drink plenty of fluids to prevent ...
Other types of bacteria that can produce shiga toxin include Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, and Yersinia. When these ... Toxins called shiga toxins, or shiga-like toxins cause post-diarrheal HUS. Several kinds of bacteria produce shiga toxins, ... bacteria produce shiga toxin, HUS can occur following the diarrheal illness that is normally caused by these organisms. Not all ... although E. coli O157:H7 is the most common cause of HUS in the U.S. Other species of E. coli can produce shiga toxin, ...
... which have been linked to Shiga toxin (a potent cytotoxin produced by S. dysenteriae that can also cause other neurotoxic ... CHARACTERISTICS: Shigella spp., of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are gram-negative rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria (1). They ... C and bacteria can survive at 5°C on MacConkey agar. Flies can carry Shigella for up to 20 - 24 days (23). SECTION V - FIRST ... NAME: Shigella spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Serogroup A: S. dysenteriae, serogroup B: S. flexneri, serogroup C: S. boydii, ...
Testing for other pathogens, such as Vibrio species, enterohemorrhagic E coli O157:H7, and other Shigatoxin-producing bacteria ... Fecal leukocytes are present in 80-90% of all patients with Salmonella or Shigella infections but are less common with other ... C difficile toxin assays can be performed when antibiotic-associated diarrhea is suspected. ... The Christensen method is used to determine if an organism produces the enzyme urease (Yersinia) or not (Salmonella, Shigella, ...
... have sequenced and analyzed genomes from Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) bacteria associated with major shigellosis outbreaks in ... "Shigella sonnei bacteria normally cause a less severe disease and are not known to produce Shiga toxin," said Dr. James Watt, ... However, some of the isolates had been infected with a bacteriophage (a virus that attacks bacteria) that carried a Shiga toxin ... "The toxin gene was most likely acquired by Shigella sonnei via genetic exchanges with E. coli and other Shigella species. ...
... is a contagious bacterium that causes symptoms like nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea (that may be bloody). This ... coli Shiga,/i, toxin), are almost identical to toxins produced by another related bacterium, Shigella spp. that causes ... Most of the problems caused by the bacteria are due to two Shiga toxins, termed Stx 1 and Stx 2 termed Vero toxins. (Toxins are ... H7 is a bacterium that can produce bloody diarrhea due to toxins, especially Shiga (Vero) toxins that it produces, the toxin is ...
Shiga-Toxin Escherichia coli: What You Should Know About this Group of Foodborne Pathogens HYG-5561 food safety ... Shigella: Bacteria that Causes the Foodborne Illness Shigellosis HYG-5563 foodborne illness ...
The bacterium Shigella was thus named after him, as well as the Shiga toxin, which is produced by the bacterium. After the ... Kiyoshi Shiga (志賀 潔, Shiga Kiyoshi, February 7, 1871 - January 25, 1957) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga was ... Shiga became famous for the discovery of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacillus causing dysentery, in 1897, during a severe ... Shiga was a recipient of the Order of Culture in 1944. He was also awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class, on his ...
Shigella isolate 866 is highly susceptible to infection by a range of bacteriophages including those that carry Shiga toxin and ... Interpretive Summary: Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and can carry factors that increase the bacterias ... One such bacteriophage carries Shiga toxin, an important factor for causing human disease, and are found in some Shigella and ... Technical Abstract: Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the US with over 500,000 cases ...
Shiga toxin is an infectious disease caused by the rod shaped Shigella dysenteriae as well as Escherichia coli (STEC), and is ... Cholera toxin is an infectious toxin composed of a protein complex that is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Some ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ...
The residents were predominately infected with the Shigella sonnei species that was associated with outbreaks in other ... Stanislaus County health officials have shed more light on a surge in Shigella infections this year. In an update, officials ... said Shigella sonnei bacteria normally cause more mild disease but started to produce the Shiga toxin. The species acquired a ... The 2-year-old was treated with antibiotics after tests detected the Shiga toxin. Camarillo, who has five children, said she ...
  • Unfortunately, many strains of Shigella are becoming resistant to common antibiotics, and effective medications are often in short supply in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, food testing has shown that factory farmed chickens (i.e., chickens raised in concentrated animal feeding operations or CAFOs) are particularly prone to contamination with dangerous pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria that make the illness all the more difficult to treat. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Before pasteurization of milk began in the United States in the 1920s, consumption of raw dairy products accounted for a significant proportion of foodborne illnesses among Americans and resulted in hundreds of outbreaks of tuberculosis and infections caused by bacteria, such as Brucella abortus , streptococcal species, and enteric pathogens. (aappublications.org)
  • These results support the hypothesis that by gain and loss of functions, Shigella species became successful human pathogens through convergent evolution from diverse genomic backgrounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outbreaks associated with fresh or marine (i.e., untreated) recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals, including toxins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tools for controlling and preventing transmission of enteric pathogens through untreated recreational water include epidemiologic investigations, regular monitoring of water quality (i.e., testing for fecal indicator bacteria), microbial source tracking, and health policy and communications (e.g., observing beach closure signs and not swimming while ill with diarrhea). (bvsalud.org)
  • A number of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi may cause hemolytic anemias. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • AGE is caused by a variety of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens and by toxins, chemicals, and other noninfectious causes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For this reason, infective doses of different pathogens differ in a great range and depend on the host as well as bacteria. (statpearls.com)
  • and other enteric bacteria were detected in 77.7% (376/484), 5.0% (24/484), 3.9% (19/484), 0.4% (2/484), 3.7% (18/484) and 9.3% (45/484) of the samples respectively. (who.int)
  • Neurominidase produced by enteric bacteria unmasks, and exposes cryptogenic T antigen of RBC to naturally occurring anti-T antibody. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Domain A1 (approximately 22kDa in cholera toxin or heat labile enterotoxins) is the part of the toxin responsible for its toxic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain A2 (approximately 5kDa in cholera toxin or heat labile enterotoxin) provides a non-covalent linkage to the B subunit through the B subunit's central pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A1 chain for cholera toxin catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) to arginine or other guanidine compounds by utilizing ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning that their B subunits are homopentamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ETEC may produce a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) that is very similar in size (86 kDa), sequence, antigenicity, and function to the cholera toxin (CT). (fda.gov)
  • During a routine virulence gene screening of EHEC at the National Reference Laboratory of Enteropathogenic Bacteria at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, an SF O157 strain was isolated from a 68-year-old man with BD. (asm.org)
  • Krista Dommer, a spokeswoman for San Joaquin County's public health agency, said that county has confirmed 65 Shigella cases in 2016, a third of last year's total. (modbee.com)
  • Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Humans and some other animals have receptors on the lining of their blood vessels that make them vulnerable to this toxin, while other animals are immune because there are no receptors for the toxin to lock on to. (wisegeek.com)
  • After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or clathrin-independent endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • OM proteins OspA and OspB attribute adhesive properties to OMVs, and thus enhance binding ability of bacteria to host cell receptors ( Shoberg and Thomas, 1993 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Binding of AB5 toxin B subunits to cognate host glycan receptors triggers internalization by receptor- mediated endocytosis, followed by trafficking to the appropriate intracellular compartment. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The glycan receptors for AB5 toxin B subunit pentamers are displayed either on glycolipids (for Ctx/LT and Stx) or on glycoproteins (for Ptx and SubAB). (functionalglycomics.org)
  • These toxins can bind to certain cell membrane globotriaosylceramide receptors, which, depending on the cell in question, can lead to chemokine or cytokine secretion (colonic and renal epithelial cells), cellular activation (monocytes and platelets), or secretion of unusually large von Willebrand multimers (glomerular endothelial cells). (medscape.com)
  • ETEC may also produce a heat stable toxin (ST) that is of low molecular size (4 kDa) and resistant to boiling for 30 min. (fda.gov)
  • Pertussis toxin is secreted by the gram-negative bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pertussis toxin is different where its pentameric ring is made up of four different protein components, where one of the components is repeated to form a heteropentamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • If Shigella is suspected and it is not too severe, the doctor may recommend letting it run its course-usually less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this new technology there is no risk of false negative results due to inadvertent inhibition of target bacteria by novobiocin, tellurite, cefixime, or other additives commonly used in existing enrichment procedures. (fda.gov)
  • Behavior of 11 Foodborne Bacteria on Whole and Cut Mangoes var. (edu.mx)
  • The behavior of foodborne bacteria on whole and cut mangoes and the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts and chemical sanitizers against foodborne bacteria on contaminated mangoes were investigated. (edu.mx)
  • Behavior of thirteen foodborne bacteria on whole hass avocado and potential of roselle calyx extracts as alternative disinfectant agents of avocado. (edu.mx)