Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
An unbranched glucan in starch.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Bacteria produce this polysaccharide in a cluster near the bacteria's cells. Polyglucan's are a source of beta-glucans. ... Structurally, beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers binding together in a beta-1,3 configuration. The following are ... The detection of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is also used as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal ... 2004). "Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance ...
... from Gram-positive bacteria), N-formylmethionine, lipoproteins and fungal glucans and chitin. Endogenous stress signals are ... similarly fucose presents the same for certain bacteria and helminths; and glucans are present on mycobacteria and fungi. In ... NOD1 recognizes a molecule called meso-DAP, which is a peptidoglycan constituent only of Gram negative bacteria. NOD2 proteins ... a major PRR of the innate immune system that binds to a wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly ...
"Barley β-glucans-containing food enhances probiotic performances of beneficial bacteria". International Journal of Molecular ... These bacteria have been highlighted as key probiotics and beneficial gut bacteria as they may have several beneficial effects ... For instance, oats and barley have high amounts of beta-glucans, fruit and berries contain pectins, seeds contain gums, onions ... Prebiotics are compounds in food that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. ...
Various sourdough-associated lactic acid bacteria synthesize glucans and fructans by extracellular glucansucrases or ... The starter consists of water, flour, yeast, and the starter culture of bacteria. The bacteria begin fermentation by breaking ... The lactic acid producing bacteria are responsible for breaking down sugars and the yeast uses by-products from this process to ... There are potential health benefits by using these Lactobacillus bacteria in commercial food products such as the lactic acid ...
If S. mutans can no longer break down sucrose and synthesize glucan, calcium phosphate is not degraded and bacteria cannot ... This glucose is added to a growing glucan chain. Glucansucrase uses the energy released from bond cleavage to drive glucan ... These extracellular homopolysaccharides are called α-glucan polymers. Glucansucrase enzymes can synthesize a variety of glucans ... Glucan polymers stick to teeth in the human mouth and cause tooth decay. Glucansucrases are large, extracellular proteins with ...
It is also produced by some other bacteria and archaea. Pullulanase is used as a processing aid in grain processing ... Pullulanase will hydrolytically cleave pullulan (alpha-glucan polysaccharides). Lee EY, Whelan WJ (1972). "Glycogen and starch ... It is produced as an extracellular, cell surface-anchored lipoprotein by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Klebsiella. Type I ...
Beta glucans are its substrate of choice in the rumen and its products after digestion include formate, acetate and succinate. ... Fibrobacter succinogenes is a cellulolytic bacterium species in the genus Fibrobacter. It is present in the rumen of cattle. ... that Fibrobacter succinogenes shared a common ancestor with Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi species exclusive of all other bacteria ...
4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase; glycogenase; saccharogen amylase) is also synthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Working from ... "Amylase, Alpha, I.U.B.: 3.2.1.11,4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase". "Chew It Up, Spit It Out, Then Brew. Cheers!". New York Times ... Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All ... The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3 ) (alternative names: Glucan 1,4-a-glucosidase; amyloglucosidase ...
The α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS 9014-71-5) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase; glycogenase) are calcium ... Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All ... Another form of amylase, β-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2 ) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase; glycogenase; saccharogen ... γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3 ) (alternative names: Glucan 1,4-a-glucosidase; amyloglucosidase; exo-1,4-α-glucosidase; glucoamylase; ...
These glucans allow the bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface and to build up thick layers of plaque. The anaerobic ... The glucans and levans (fructose polysaccharides) produced by the plaque bacteria also act as a reserve food supply for the ... Oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize any free sugars (not just sucrose, but also ... In bacteria and some animals, sucrose is digested by the enzyme invertase. Sucrose is an easily assimilated macronutrient that ...
Refined sugar is pure sucrose, the only sugar that can be converted to sticky glucans, allowing bacteria to form a thick, ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Fewer S. mutans bacteria are found on the buccal surface (2-9%). Bacterial-fungal co-coaggregation can help to increase the ... This bacterium, along with the closely related species Streptococcus sobrinus, can cohabit the mouth: Both contribute to oral ...
... use of botryosphaeran in microencapsulating probiotic bacteria appears to be another promising application for this β-glucan. ... The cholesterol-lowering effect (hypocholesterolaemia) of β-glucans derived from oat and barley (β-(1→3)(1→4)-linked D-glucans ... β-glucan, a branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan with single glucose repeat branches (frequency of 18%), and a glycogen-like (1→4)(1→6 ... d-glucan type and a β-(1→3;1→6)-d-glucan produced by strains of Botryosphaeria rhodina isolated from rotting tropical fruit". ...
At the C-terminal end is a PilZ domain conserved in bacteria, which forms part of the cyclic di-GMP binding surface together ... Systematically, it is known as UDP-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase in enzymology. It catalyzes the chemical ... Some bacteria contain extra non-essential periplasmic subunits. BcsA follows a layout of cytoplasmic domains sandwiched between ... The rate at which glucose residues are synthesized per one glucan chain ranges from 300 to 1000 glucose residues per minute, ...
Lactic acid bacteria do not often produce glucan and only a few strains of lactic acid bacteria have been reported to produce ... Pediococcus damnosus is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. The genus Pediococcus is a spherical cocci shaped bacteria with ... P. damnosus is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that can tolerate the low pH and higher ethanol levels that are found in beer. The ... CECT 8 is a growth medium designed to support the growth of lactic acid bacteria. It was designed by de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe ...
... glucan and lipoteichoic acid. These three molecules are found mainly within gram-negative bacteria, fungi and gram-positive ... LAL-Glucan cartridges, for the detection of Beta-1,3-glucan, were launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-123 in March ... bacteria, respectively. Endotoxin and glucan are detected with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) enzyme cascade, derived from ... Endotoxin was found to be distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were ...
... as their mechanism of action resembles that of penicillin in bacteria. β-glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross- ... 3-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex in susceptible fungi to disturb fungal cell glucan synthesis. Beta-glucan destruction ... Echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of β-glucan in the fungal cell wall via noncompetitive ... In vitro and mouse models show echinocandins may also enhance host immune responses by exposing highly antigenic beta-glucan ...
... oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and preclinical studies. Immunomodulators are the active agents of ... imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from bacteria are licensed for medical use. Others including IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, ...
BisHPPP and BBP cause an increase of glycosyltransferase in S. mutans bacteria, which results in increased production of sticky ... glucans that allow S.mutans' adherence to the tooth. This results in a cariogenic biofilms at the interface of composite and ... The cariogenic activity of bacteria increases with concentration of the matrix materials. BisHPPP has furthermore been shown to ... have been demonstrated to increase the cariogenicity of bacteria leading to the occurrence of secondary caries at the composite ...
... is found in bacteria, fungi, and plants; bacteria and cereal sources are the most heat stable. Working from the ... Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... "Amylase, Alpha" , I.U.B.: 3.2.1.11,4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Balls AK, Walden MK, Thompson RR (March 1948). "A crystalline ... 4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Beta-amylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology ...
... gram-negative bacteria), peptidoglycans (gram-positive bacteria) and β-1,3-glucans (fungi). Interaction of PAMPs with PRPs ( ...
... beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... bacteria, algae and mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ... This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages break up the ...
The neutrophils preferentially engulfed and killed beta-1,6-glucan targets compared to beta-1,3-glucan targets. The average ... Trapping of bacteria may be a particularly important role for NETs in sepsis, where NETs are formed within blood vessels. ... Thus, some bacteria-and those that are predominantly intracellular pathogens-can extend the neutrophil lifespan by disrupting ... It was concluded that the function, and not the number, of phagocytes in engulfing bacteria was altered by the ingestion of ...
Dental caries is caused by the formation of insoluble glucan (plaque) on the surface of teeth, and the production of acids by ... The oligosaccharides in IMO mixtures are, at least partially, fermented by bacteria in the colon and may, therefore, stimulate ... thus enhancing the proliferation of the bacteria. In this respect, fermentable oligosaccharides may be considered prebiotics. ... bacteria in the plaque. These acids attack the hard tissues of the teeth. Studies with animal models showed that IMO, in place ...
The bacterium Escherichia coli can grow on nutrient media containing glucose as the sole carbon source. In some bacteria and, ... Polysaccharides that are composed solely of Glucose are termed glucans. Glucose is produced by plants through the ... Glucose is used in some bacteria as a building block in the trehalose or the dextran biosynthesis and in animals as a building ... These polymers are degraded to glucose during food intake by animals, fungi and bacteria using enzymes. All animals are also ...
... such as short-chain fatty acids produced in the colon by gut bacteria. Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and ... The presence of bacteria in the colon produces an 'organ' of intense, mainly reductive, metabolic activity, whereas the liver ... Regular intake of soluble fibers, such as beta-glucans from oats or barley, has been established to lower blood levels of LDL ... Viscous fiber sources gaining FDA approval are: Psyllium seed husk (7 grams per day) Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, or ...
... bacteria, mite faeces, endotoxins and beta glucans, all of which have the potential to contribute to the development of airway ... Some designs have demonstrated effective reduction of bacteria in the hay and effluent runoff by 99+% without the need for ... Soaking hay also has undesirable consequences in terms of bacteria levels; tests show soaking increases bacterial ... Bacteria, Mould, and Nutrient Content in Hay for Horses". Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 39: 62-68. doi:10.1016/j.jevs. ...
As a member of this receptor family, dectin-1 recognizes β-glucans and carbohydrates found in fungal cell walls, some bacteria ... of β-glucan via CLEC7A on phagocytic cells by secreting an enzyme that removes exposed β-glucans or by masking the β-glucan ... It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of β-1,3-linked and β-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, ... Taylor PR, Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Gordon S (January 2004). "The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan ...
Soluble fiber can be metabolized by bacteria residing in the large intestine. Soluble fiber is marketed as serving a prebiotic ... cellulose methyl cellulose hemicellulose lignans plant waxes resistant starches beta-glucans pectins natural gums inulin ... function with claims for promoting "healthy" intestinal bacteria. Bacterial metabolism of soluble fiber also produces short- ...
Plants and bacteria employ a modification of the TCA cycle called the glyoxylate cycle to produce four carbon dicarboxylic acid ... glucans, and chitin. In these organisms, in the absence of available carbohydrates (for example, in certain microbial ... Plants as well as some algae and bacteria can use acetate as the carbon source for the production of carbon compounds. ... Due to the central role of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolism of pathogenic species including fungi and bacteria, enzymes ...
... and contains large quantities of beta-glucans compared to other grains; these long-chain sugars can leach out during a mash, ... distinctive taste and clouded appearance in a witbier and the more complex carbohydrates needed for the wild yeast and bacteria ...
β-glucan types[edit]. β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... 1,3)-β-D-glucan medical application[edit]. An assay to detect the presence of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means ... β-glucan absorption[edit]. Enterocytes facilitate the transportation of β(1,3)-glucans and similar compounds across the ...
... beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... bacteria, algae and mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ... This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages break up the ...
A version without the bacteria, that is only oil in water, is known as Freund's incomplete adjuvant. It helps vaccines release ... Beta-glucan. *Pharmaceutic adjuvant. *Immunostimulant. *Immunomodulator. External links[edit]. *Recommendations for Use and ...
... is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the ... beta-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, celludextrinase, cellulase A, cellulosin AP, ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ... Numerous "signature" sequences known as dockerins and cohesins have been identified in the genomes of bacteria that produce ...
It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ... Type I secretion is also involved in export of non-proteinaceous substrates like cyclic β-glucans and polysaccharides. ... In gram-negative bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is ... Secretion in gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ...
Despite having the name Oenococcus, under the microscope, the bacterium has a bacillus (shape) rod shape. The bacteria is a ... In the case of Lactobacillus, some of these saccharides may be glucans that can be synthesized from glucose present in the wine ... Lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid as an indirect means of creating energy for the bacteria by ... a b c d Sibylle Krieger "The History of Malolactic Bacteria in Wine Archived 2012-09-15 at the Wayback Machine pgs 15-21. ...
This gene is expressed most abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, and mediates host response to Gram-positive bacteria[6] ... Zymosan (a beta-glucan). Saccharomyces cerevisiae -. Malassezia (commensal yeast) Antigen mixtures. Aspergillus fumigatus, ... defense response to Gram-positive bacterium. • positive regulation of interleukin-18 production. • positive regulation of toll- ... Dziarski R, Gupta D (2001). "Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria ...
Some gram-positive bacteria have BPs fused to the transmembrane domain of the transporter itself. The first successful x-ray ... Family 3.A.1.108 The β-Glucan Exporter (GlucanE) Family 3.A.1.109 The Protein-1 Exporter (Prot1E) Family 3.A.1.110 The Protein- ... In bacteria, Levy and colleagues presented the first evidence that antibiotic resistance was caused by active efflux of a drug ... In gram-negative bacteria, exporters transport lipids and some polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. The third ...
... a fungal parasite of the fungus and a bacterium that kills the parasite. The yeast has a negative effect on the bacteria that ... It has been reported that marine yeasts are able to produce many bioactive substances, such as amino acids, glucans, ... Yeast in symbiosis with acetic acid bacteria is used in its preparation. Species of yeasts found in the tea can vary, and may ... Some brands of nutritional yeast, though not all, are fortified with vitamin B12, which is produced separately by bacteria.[88] ...
Fungi and humans share a more recent common ancestor than bacteria. Thus, fungal and human cells are more similar at the ... Echinocandins inhibit the creation of glucan in the fungal cell wall by inhibiting 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase: *Anidulafungin ...
cytosine phosphate-guanosine, oligodeoxynucleotides, glucans Activation immunotherapies[edit]. Cancer[edit]. Main article: ... imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from bacteria are licensed for medical use. Others including IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, ... various chemokines, synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and ...
The mechanism of action for reducing the numbers of C. perfringens may differ from that previously explained for bacteria with ... Glycosidic bond Mannan Mannose Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts PGG-glucan, EpiCor, nutritional yeast Oyofo, BA; Deloach, JR; ... A healthy sow produces good quality colostrum and spreads less harmful bacteria in the environment where she gives birth and ... However, reported effects on promoting beneficial bacteria, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are more variable. The ...
One of the macrophage's roles is to phagocytize other expended phagocytes,[24] bacteria and damaged tissue,[19] and they also ... Son HJ, Bae HC, Kim HJ, Lee DH, Han D, Park J (2005). "Effects of β-glucan on proliferation and migration of fibroblasts". ... Neutrophils phagocytise debris and kill bacteria by releasing free radicals in what is called a 'respiratory burst.[20][21] ... Inflammation: During this phase, damaged and dead cells are cleared out, along with bacteria and other pathogens or debris. ...
... a fungal parasite of the fungus and a bacterium that kills the parasite. The yeast has a negative effect on the bacteria that ... glucans, glutathione, toxins, enzymes, phytase and vitamins with potential application in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic ... Yeast in symbiosis with acetic acid bacteria is used in its preparation. Species of yeasts found in the tea can vary, and may ... Some brands of nutritional yeast, though not all, are fortified with vitamin B12, which is produced separately by bacteria.[89] ...
Oxidative bacteria can be made to use erythrose as its sole energy source.[7] ...
The sucrose is split by glucansucrase, which allows the bacteria to use the resulting glucose for building glucan polymer film ... Dental plaque, also known as dental biofilm, is a sticky, yellow film consisting of a wide range of bacteria which attaches to ... Drinking high-concentration alcohol can lead to a dry mouth, with little saliva to protect the teeth from plaque and bacteria.[ ... The tongue contains numerous bacteria which causes bad breath. Tongue cleaners are designed to remove the debris built up on ...
defense response to bacterium. • defense response to virus. • positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion. • positive ... Further activation of macrophages causes a cycle of further killing of intracellular bacteria, and further presentation of ...
This word jun [[Wikt:菌,]] means "mushroom; fungus; bacterium; germ" - not "tiny". ... such as beta-glucan), coumarin,[23] mannitol, and alkaloids.[22] Sterols isolated from the mushroom include, ganoderol, ...
production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, oatrim, or rolled oats (3 grams per day) ... The presence of bacteria in the colon produces an 'organ' of intense, mainly reductive, metabolic activity, whereas the liver ... 3 g or more per day of beta-glucan soluble fiber from either whole oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley ...
This process is undertaken by the gut bacterium Pantoea agglomerans.[67] Guaiacol is one of the main components of the ... Dillon, Rod J.; Vennard, Chris T.; Charnley, A. Keith (2000). "Exploitation of gut bacteria in the locust". Nature. 403 (6772 ... oncogenic bacteria in genus Agrobacterium.[citation needed] The virA gene on the Ti plasmid in the genome of Agrobacterium ... Dillon, R.J.; Vennard, C.T.; Charnley, A.K. (April 2002). "A Note: Gut bacteria produce components of a locust cohesion ...
... inhibits glucan synthase, an enzyme important in the formation of (1→3)-β-D-glucan, a major fungal cell wall ... by the action of a deacylase enzyme from the bacterium Actinoplanes utahensis;[13] in three subsequent synthetic steps, ... Glucan synthase is not present in mammalian cells, so it is an attractive target for antifungal activity.[12] ... D-glucan synthase, an enzyme important to the synthesis of the fungal cell wall.[7] ...
Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... The cell walls of the hyphae are variably composed of chitin and β-glucans, just as in Basidiomycota. However, these fibers are ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... The cell walls of the ascomycetes almost always contain chitin and β-glucans, and divisions within the hyphae, called "septa", ...
These include beta-glucan (β-glucan) and acetylated α-glucan. Acetylated α-glucan, produced by culturing the mushroom mycelia, ... bacteria, and fungal infections. [15][16] ... Glucans are saccharides, of which some are known to have immune ... AHCC is the brand name of an alpha-glucan rich nutritional supplement produced from the mycelia of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) ... Approximately 20% of the make up of AHCC is α-glucans.[6] ... Chemical structure of α-1,4-glucan, the main polysaccharide in ...
... in order to shield themselves from bacteria, red blood cells, or other matrix molecules. For example, with regards to stem ...
First discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, both Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) function in sucrose ... Reid SJ, Abratt VR (May 2005). "Sucrose utilisation in bacteria: genetic organisation and regulation". Applied Microbiology and ...
Chitinivorous organisms include many bacteria[3] (Aeromonads, Bacillus, Vibrio,[4] among others), which may be pathogenic or ... 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.[1] ... Class II chitinases were found in plants, fungi, and bacteria and mostly consisted of exochitinases.[9] ... bacteria, fungi, insect, and plants. However, family 19 mainly comprises plant chitinases. Family 20 includes N- ...
... such as short-chain fatty acids produced in the colon by gut bacteria. Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and ... Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, or rolled oats; or whole grain or dry-milled barley (3 grams per day) ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... The presence of bacteria in the colon produces an 'organ' of intense, mainly reductive, metabolic activity, whereas the liver ...
Enterotoxicity of bacteria-free culture filtrate of Vibrio cholerae. Nature. 1959;183:1533-4. ... is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[1][2] CTX is responsible for the massive, watery ... and sequence to the heat-labile enterotoxin secreted by some strains of the Escherichia coli bacterium. ...
... legumes and honey are abundant in the human gut and fermentation of resistant fractions of these α-glucans by probiotic... ... "α-Glucans from bacterial exo-polysaccharides or diet, e.g., resistant starch, ... This review presents some aspects of α-glucan metabolism in probiotic bacteria and highlights vague issues that merit ... α-1,6-Linked glucans, e.g., isomalto-oligosaccharides are potential prebiotics. The enzymes targeting these glucans are the ...
Structure of an exocellular beta-D-glucan from Pediococcus sp., a wine lactic bacteria.. Llaubères RM1, Richard B, Lonvaud A, ...
... and reduced populations of non-beneficial bacteria. They also showed reduced LDL (bad) cholesterol. ... People fed β-glucan-enriched pasta for two months showed increased populations of beneficial bacteria in their intestinal ... β-glucans are healthy fibers that humans cannot digest, but that can be digested by some species of our gut bacteria. They are ... β-glucan-enriched Pasta Boosts Good Gut Bacteria, Reduces Bad Cholesterol. By News Staff , September 28th 2015 06:00 AM , Print ...
Dietary modulation of clostridial cluster XIVa gut bacteria (Roseburia spp.) by chitin-glucan fiber improves host metabolic ... "Dietary Modulation of Clostridial Cluster XIVa Gut Bacteria (Roseburia Spp.) by Chitin-glucan Fiber Improves Host Metabolic ... Dietary modulation of clostridial cluster XIVa gut bacteria (Roseburia spp.) by chitin-glucan fiber improves host metabolic ... "Dietary Modulation of Clostridial Cluster XIVa Gut Bacteria (Roseburia Spp.) by Chitin-glucan Fiber Improves Host Metabolic ...
Bacteria and cancer. Articles. Bacteria are part of the root problem with cancer. Improving gut health and the immune system ... Cancer Tutor Forum › Supplemental Natural Cancer Treatments › Beta Glucan › Beta Glucan after Stem Cell Transplant ... Hi there, would Beta Glucan be beneficial to take in recovery after a stem cell transplant in AML? Research shows in mice it ...
β-glucan types[edit]. β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... 1,3)-β-D-glucan medical application[edit]. An assay to detect the presence of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means ... β-glucan absorption[edit]. Enterocytes facilitate the transportation of β(1,3)-glucans and similar compounds across the ...
What is beta glucan and is it affordable? ... the immune system and the role of beta glucan. ... The mouth carries more than 700 types of bacteria. -The soldiers of the immune system. -The importance of strengthening the ... Bringing beta glucan to the market at an affordable price; the body doesnt make beta glucan; what is beta glucan anyway?. - ... Beta Glucan and Immunology. A.J. Lanigan has over 20 years experience in various disciplines of immunology. He was educated at ...
4-glucan chains and the subsequent attachment of the oligosaccharide to the alpha-1,6 position. ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Salmonella › ... Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain.UniRule annotation. , ... 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity (using a ...
4-glucan chains and the subsequent attachment of the oligosaccharide to the alpha-1,6 position. ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Lactobacillales › Streptococcaceae › Streptococcus ... Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain.UniRule annotation. , ... 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme activity (using a ...
6-glucosidic linkages in glucan chains by scission of a 1,4-alpha-linked oligosaccharide from growing alpha-1,4-glucan chains ... Is involved in the biosynthesis of both glycogen and capsular alpha-D-glucan. ... Disruption of glgB is lethal for the bacteria in vitro. Affects the production of both extracellular alpha-D-glucan and ... Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain.2 Publications. ...
Results are presented as relative numbers of specific bacteria group ((number of specific bacteria group / all bacteria)*100). ... Results are presented as relative numbers of specific bacteria group ((number of specific bacteria group / all bacteria)*100). ... β-D-glucans. Testing bread has integrated flour with high amount of barley beta-glucans (ReducholTM). Beta-glucans are ... Bread With Added Beta-glucans Bread Without Added Beta-glucans Total Arm/Group Description Experimental food was bread with a ...
The Global Beta Glucan Market was valued at USD 305.40 million in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 576.28 million by 2025, ... Beta glucan is a form of dietary fiber that optimizes cholesterol levels, boosting heart health. It is available in the ... 1.4 Bacteria. 1.5 Others. 2. Global Beta Glucan Market, by Type:. 2.1 Soluble. 2.2 Insoluble ... The global Beta Glucan Market is segmented on the basis of source, type, application, and region.. 1. Global Beta Glucan Market ...
... plant-associated or human pathogenic bacteria. Linear (1→3)-β-glucans and side-chain-branched... ... d-glucans are encountered in some important soil-dwelling, ... Bohn JA, Bemiller JN (1995) (1→3)-β-d-Glucans as biological ... plant-associated or human pathogenic bacteria. Linear (1→3)-β-glucans and side-chain-branched (1→3,1→2)-β-glucans are major ... Cyclic (1→3,1→6)-β-glucans are predominantly periplasmic, serving in osmotic adaptation. Curdlan, the linear (1→3)-β-glucan ...
Beta glucans are naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, yeast, bacteria, and mushrooms which have historically been ... Are your gut bacteria sabotaging your weight loss results?. Athlone Advertiser / LifestyleThu, Jul 14, 2016 ... Beta glucans and the immune system. Athlone Advertiser / LifestyleThu, Jul 07, 2016 ... Are you struggling to lose weight? Your gut bacteria could be responsible. ...
... their capability to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and to kill bacteria was unaffected. Our data demonstrate that β-glucan ... their capability to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and to kill bacteria was unaffected. Our data demonstrate that β-glucan ... Since β-glucan-trained monocytes have not been classified within the system of mononuclear phagocytes we analyzed these cells ... Since β-glucan-trained monocytes have not been classified within the system of mononuclear phagocytes we analyzed these cells ...
glucan synonyms, glucan pronunciation, glucan translation, English dictionary definition of glucan. n. Any of various ... polysaccharides that are polymers of glucose and are components of the cell walls of plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. n any ... glucan. Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to glucan: chitin, Beta glucan ... The test materials, including [beta]-glucan, were supplied from Glucan Corp.. Effects of [beta]-glucan on the release of nitric ...
β-glucans are glucose polymers that are commonly found in the cell walls of fungi, as well as some bacteria. β-glucans in ... Fungal β-glucan particle-stimulated DCs activate CD8 T cells. We next examined the ability of the β-glucan particle-stimulated ... Fungal β-glucan particle stimulation induces Dectin-1-dependent DC maturation. To determine how fungal β-glucans influence CD8 ... 2A). CD8 T cell activation by β-glucan-stimulated DCs was Dectin-1 dependent (Supplemental Fig. 2B, 2C). The fungal β-glucan- ...
Mushrooms also contain glucans. Add a pinch of cayenne pepper to your omelette to help break down the mucus in your lungs and ... Get a prescription for antibiotics. If you are diagnosed with walking pneumonia caused by bacteria, you will be prescribed an ... You may also have to do a sputum culture test to identify the type of bacteria present in your lungs for picking the right ... To help loosen and rid of secretions that harbor bacteria in your lungs you may choose mucolytic OTC products such as Mucinex. ...
... bacteria, and fungi and much yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of substituting wheat flour by 1, 2, and ... glucan as low-cost food ingredient in formulating cookies at 2% offers exciting new use of ,i,β,/i,-glucan of yeast origin. ... glucan in deterring oxidative. It is further noted that 2 or 4% ,i,β,/i,-glucan incorporated cookies assimilated highest ... i,β,/i,-Glucan fortification in foods is technologically and economically feasible, suggesting that a significant prospect of , ...
The aim of the present study was to determine the anticlastogenic effect of β-glucan in cells e ... "β-glucan is an important polysaccharide due to its medicinal properties of stimulating the immune system and preventing chronic ... 6790517 - Effect of oxygen on acetylene reduction by photosynthetic bacteria.. 19872797 - The kinetics of penetration : viii. ... β-glucan is an important polysaccharide due to its medicinal properties of stimulating the immune system and preventing chronic ...
... Trends Microbiol. 2013 Feb;21(2):63-72. doi: 10.1016/j ... beta-Glucans * poly-N-acetyl-1-6-glucosamine * Glucuronic Acid * Cellulose Grant support * 13337-5/Canadian Institutes of ... polysaccharide secretion systems have identified key conserved components of this pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. These ...
A radioactive band corresponding to the 319-kDa protein was detected in both bacteria. Triton-solubilized inner membranes of A ... Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis in Rhizobiaceae: roles of the 319-kilodalton protein intermediate.. O A Castro, A ... A heterogeneous family of cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucans was formed upon incubation of the gel portion containing the 319-kDa ... A [14C]glucose-labeled protein with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that corresponding to the 319-kDa [14C]glucan ...
β-Glucans were added to the milk in the form of a paste containing 1.21% (on a dry weight basis) of β-glucans, such that the ... The yoghurt containing 0.3% β-glucan had the same viscosity as the control and the yoghurt containing 0.5% β-glucan had the ... Yoghurt with β-glucans received slightly higher scores for flavour, appearance and texture than the control. It was concluded ... The lowest fat, total solids and protein contents were recorded in the yoghurt containing 0.5% glucan. ...
... against which a protective effect of glucan has been established. This list, as you can see, includes bacteria, fungi, viruses ... 4. Combination glucan + topical agent. Glucan is an excellent wound healer. In experiments glucan-treated wounds showed a ... For example, most starches are alpha-glucans. Out of different glucans, the beta-1,3-D-glucan configuration has been shown to ... 1. Combination glucan + anti-infective agent Beta-1,3-D-glucan itself can elicit broad anti-infective effects. The nature of ...
Probiotic bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacilus delbrueckii and ssp. bulgaricus.) and β-glucan (prebiotic agent) ... Beta-glucan, fat and storage time had significantly (P, 0.05) increasing effects on viscosity, Water-Holding Capacity (WHC) and ... It was concluded that the addition of oat β-glucan to camel milk to make functional synbiotic yogurt could result in a product ... The physicochemical properties of the product and viability of probiotic bacteria were measured on the 0, 7th and 14th days. ...
In a solubilized form, beta-glucan binds to a lectin site within complement receptor 3 (CR3) on leukocytes, priming the ... A polysaccharide isolated from the cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi with immunostimulant and antineoplastic activities ... beta-glucan A polysaccharide isolated from the cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi with immunostimulant and ... Thus, the attachment of beta-glucan to CR3 of circulating leukocytes simulates leukocytes to kill iC3b-coated tumor cells in ...
β-(1,3)-Glucans are a heterogeneous class of carbohydrates found in fungi and bacteria.1,2 Fungal β-(1,3)-glucans can modulate ... β-(1,3)-Glucans exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. Since the isolation of pure β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides ... glucans may have a direct influence on these properties as well as their anti-tumor effects.9 β-Glucans are recognized by ... glucan (non-protective) epitopes. This makes AGA an ideal tool for creating libraries of glucans for detailed studies of the ...
bacteria; and bran of cereal grains. Research has shown that dietary inclusion of 0.025% of yeast-derived β-glucans in nursery ... yeast-derived β-glucans. Most research has been performed with β-glucans extracted from specific yeast cell wall components. A ... Corporation, Plymouth, MI), contains β-glucans extracted from algae and is a polysaccharide-zinc complex (35% β-1,3-glucan and ... Keywords: β-glucans; Immune response; Nursery pig. Conference: Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 20, 2014. Starting Page: 63. ...
Beta-glucans. Beta-glucans. Beta-glucans are soluble dietary fibers in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, oats, and barley. They might ... Beta-glucans dont seem to have any effect on body weight.. Is it safe?. Beta-glucans seem to be safe (at up to 10 grams [g] a ... and some dietary supplements that help maintain or restore beneficial bacteria in your digestive tract.. Does it work?. Its ...
Beta-glucans are polysaccharides occurring in the bran of cereal grains, the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria ... Experimental: wheat bread with beta-glucan supplementation Dietary Supplement: wheat bread with beta-glucan 3 g beta-glucan in ... To measure the effect of beta-glucan on fecal microflora (number of bacteria, bacterial enzyme activity, SCFA, pH). [ Time ... Dietary Supplement: wheat bread with beta-glucan Dietary Supplement: wheat bread without beta-glucan Not Applicable ...
  • α -Glucans from bacterial exo-polysaccharides or diet, e.g. , resistant starch, legumes and honey are abundant in the human gut and fermentation of resistant fractions of these α -glucans by probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria impacts human health positively. (springer.com)
  • β-Glucans ( beta- glucans ) comprise a group of β- D -glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals , bacteria , and fungi , with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds , by convention not all β- D -glucose polysaccharides are categorized as β-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-glucans are natural polysaccharides found in grain endosperm and are mostly represented in oat and barley. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Any of various polysaccharides that are polymers of glucose and are components of the cell walls of plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-glucans are polysaccharides occurring in the bran of cereal grains, the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria, certain types of fungi, seaweed and many kinds of mushrooms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, markers of fungi (extra-cellular polysaccharides specific for Penicillium/Aspergillus, ergosterol, and beta(1-->3) glucans) and cat allergen in chair and floor dusts. (cdc.gov)
  • α-Glucans (alpha-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked with glycosidic bonds of the alpha form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-glucans are natural polysaccharides consisting of a backbone of (1,3)-beta-glycosidic linked D -glucose subunits, with irregular beta-(1,6)-linked side chains of various length. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticlastogenic effect of β-glucan, extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on cultured cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, these results indicate that β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used in the prevention and/or reduction of DNA damage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • oral pretreatment with…Saccharomyces cerevisiae-beta-d-glucan once daily for 14 consecutive days significantly increased the survival rate of mice from 6 Gy X-rays irradiation. (betaglucan.org)
  • B-glucan molecules with different chain lengths were extracted from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and thereafter modified. (betaglucan.org)
  • 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. (betaglucan.org)
  • They are major structural components of the cell walls of brewers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , fungi and some bacteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • β -Glucan is biologically active polysaccharide, ubiquitously found in many grains, bacteria, and fungi and much yeast. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of several proteins in synthase-dependent polysaccharide secretion systems have identified key conserved components of this pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • β-glucan is an important polysaccharide due to its medicinal properties of stimulating the immune system and preventing chronic diseases such as cancer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A polysaccharide isolated from the cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi with immunostimulant and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • Polyglucan is any polysaccharide that contains glucan units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria produce this polysaccharide in a cluster near the bacteria's cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polysaccharide is attached to the bacteria cells and then mixed in an alkali solution such as sodium hydroxide to become soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-glucans are used clinically against diabetes, cancer, and high cholesterol, as well as to boost the immune systems of people whose immunity has been compromised by radiation, chemotherapy, stress, and other conditions. (science20.com)
  • β-Glucan derived from cell walls of Candida albicans is a potent immune modulator. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that β-glucan priming induces a population of immune competent long-lived monocyte-derived macrophages that may be involved in immunoregulatory processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Candida albicans β-1-3,1-6-glucan (β-glucan), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) present in the fungal cell wall, has been characterized as a potent immune modulator. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mibelle Biochemistry invented in a special beta glucan from baker's yeast (magnesium carboxymethyl beta- glucan )--an active to bring the immune system once again back into balance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Type I IFNs are key mediators of immune defense against viruses and bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
  • Out of different glucans, the beta-1,3-D-glucan configuration has been shown to act as a non-specific immune-activator. (tldp.com)
  • 1,2 Fungal β-(1,3)-glucans can modulate the immune system of vertebrates 3,4 and exhibit anti-tumor effects. (rsc.org)
  • 9 β-Glucans are recognized by Dectin-1, a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system that belongs to the class of C-type lectin-like receptors. (rsc.org)
  • 10-12 Binding of β-glucans to Dectin-1 induces phagocytosis and the production of proinflammatory factors by the innate immune system. (rsc.org)
  • 13,14 Moreover, β-(1,3)-glucans significantly impact the adaptive immune response via activation of NFκB, 15,16 as well as via antibody formation. (rsc.org)
  • In a few words, Beta-Glucans are immune modulators. (mothering.com)
  • No, our best defense against viruses and bacteria that can destroy our bodies is a balanced immune system. (mothering.com)
  • Beta-Glucans are immune modulators. (mothering.com)
  • Beta-Glucans help your immune response in this way to help your body better fight off virus or bacteria that attacks. (mothering.com)
  • Beta-Glucans can lower inflammation in your body and help balance your body's natural immune response. (mothering.com)
  • Beta-Glucan can make a tremendous difference in your body's immune response and recovery. (mothering.com)
  • Beta-Glucans are incredible skin immune boosters that improve your skin's elasticity, firmness and moisture. (mothering.com)
  • Beta Glucans in skin care products can help reduce wrinkles and wrinkle depth, as well as activate your skin's natural immune system for a healthier, more natural-than-ever appearance. (mothering.com)
  • The use of beta-13D glucan as a supplement is an exciting prospect as yeast-derived beta glucans are noted for their ability to improve the immune system. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Both Epicor and Beta-13D Glucan are yeast extracts promoted as immune system enhancers. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In addition to the potent immune stimulatory effects of (1→3)-β-D-glucans, there are a number of toxicological effects associated with exposure to the water-insoluble, microparticulate form of the polymer. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanisms by which (1→3)-β-D-glucans mediate immune stimulation and, perhaps, toxicity are currently under investigation. (hindawi.com)
  • If you have to cope with severe physical stress - for example, because you train hard - supplementation with beta glucans may at the same time reduce fatigue and keep your immune system strong. (ergo-log.com)
  • At the same time, beta-glucans improved the functioning of the immune system. (ergo-log.com)
  • Through these receptors, beta-glucans boost large parts of the immune system, the researchers suspect. (ergo-log.com)
  • Beta-glucans make immune cells more aggressive, and increase the production of antibodies. (ergo-log.com)
  • Intensive exercise can be at the expense of the immune system, but supplementation with beta-glucans may partially counteract this effect, the researchers speculate. (ergo-log.com)
  • By stimulating the immune system and preventing pathogens from gaining a foothold, beta glucans reduce the need to make a lot of TNF-alpha, the researchers suspect. (ergo-log.com)
  • Most of the trials pointed that concomitant administration of B-glucan with chemo or radiotherapy reduced the immune depression caused by such treatments and/or accelerated the recovery of white blood cells counts. (betaglucan.org)
  • Raa J, "Immune modulation b non-digestible and non-absorbable beta-1,3/1,6-glucan," Micro Edo in Heal & Disease, Vol 26:1, Issue s3, DOI: 103402/mehd.v25.27824, May 29 2015. (betaglucan.org)
  • Huang J, Wu C, et al, "Chiral Active B-Glucan Nanoparticles for Synergistic Delivery of Doxorubicin and Immune Potentiation," Int J Nanomedicine, 15-5083-5095, PMID: 32764938, DOI: 10.2147/UN.525814-5, Jul 14 2020. (betaglucan.org)
  • B-glucan nonoparticles can activate macrophages to produce immune enhancing cytokines (IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-y). (betaglucan.org)
  • Shitake mushrooms contain beta-glucans, natural substances that promote healthy immune function. (reference.com)
  • This part of the immune system is the first line of defense against viruses and bacteria. (drhyman.com)
  • Although their primary role is to alert the animal's immune system to fungal pathogens through cell surface receptors, beta glucans have been used more readily in both human and livestock as a way to enhance host protective immunity (mucosal and systemic immunity). (kemin.com)
  • Macrophages and other immune cells (e.g. dendritic cells and T cells) recognize 1,3-beta glucans through a variety of cell surface receptors, such as dectin-1, complement receptor 3 (CR3), and toll-like receptors (TLR). (kemin.com)
  • Aleta ™ , a source of 1,3-beta glucans, is an ingredient that may enhance host protective immunity (mucosal and systemic immunity) by improving the effector functions of immune cells. (kemin.com)
  • In a few words beta glucans are a substance that is part of the yeast's anatomy, and when detected, immune cells will start fighting. (amazonaws.com)
  • The immune system is more enhanced with the more beta glucan you take. (cancertutor.com)
  • With the Transfer Point brand (highly potent Beta 1, 3-D Glucan), the immune system is greatly enhanced when taken daily. (cancertutor.com)
  • Bacteriophage are special viruses that can naturally boost your immune system because they are a virus that destroys other bacteria. (cancertutor.com)
  • Beta-glucans have also been shown to enhance the ability of the immune system to fight infection.This occurs because beta-glucans can activate the white blood cells called macrophages. (earthturns.com)
  • In this application, i) 'Construction of recombinant Streptococcus anginosus strain which can express stabilizing the recombinant allergen of hay fever caused by cedar pollen' and ii) 'Colonization of the recombinant S. anginosus, and the induction of immune response mechanism against allergen of hay fever caused by cedar pollen which secreted from recombinant bacteria using the laboratory animal' were examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Whilst research into the health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics is still in relative infancy, researchers consider the bacteria to have potential for offering immune support and some suggest that some probiotics could even help prevent skin disorders such as eczema. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • If the immune cells recognise beta glucans that could come from a harmful microorganism, such as a fungus or yeast, they are stimulated to multiply and increase their activity, ramping up our protective defenses against attack. (express.co.uk)
  • The problem is that, with our modern over-sanitised environments and food supplies, we are rarely exposed to the yeasts, moulds and bacteria that should keep our immune system active in this way. (express.co.uk)
  • Highly purified beta 1,3-1,6 glucans provided in supplement form "trick" the body into thinking it is under attack, and safely stimulate our immune system. (express.co.uk)
  • Apart from lowering cholesterol levels, several studies have also shown that beta-glucan is beneficial in maintaining a healthy heart and immune system, controlling blood sugar levels, and reducing the risk of developing cancer. (windowscewebring.com)
  • The immune system is designed to defend against millions of bacteria, microbes, toxins, viruses and parasites that we encounter on a daily basis. (worldwideshoppingmall.co.uk)
  • Beta 1, 3 Glucans is derived from the cell wall of fungi and yeasts and is known to stimulate macrophage activation, which in turn stimulates the immune system to act against pathogenic viruses, fungi and parasites. (worldwideshoppingmall.co.uk)
  • Beta-Glucan - helps to improve the immune system. (chemistdirect.co.uk)
  • Linear (1→3)-β-glucans and side-chain-branched (1→3,1→2)-β-glucans are major constituents of capsular materials, with roles in bacterial aggregation, virulence and carbohydrate storage. (springer.com)
  • This review includes information on the structure, properties and molecular genetics of the bacterial (1→3)-β-glucans, together with an overview of the physiology and biotechnology of curdlan production and applications of this biopolymer and its derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Jung et al (2007) suggests the need for intensive research on bacterial glucan since the industries are using only the glucan from mushrooms and yeast lysate even they are low in purity and yield due to the availability of diminutive information about bacterial glucans (5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A recent study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal β-glucans stimulate IFN-β production by dendritic cells (DCs) following detection by the Dectin-1 receptor, but the effects of β-glucan-induced type I IFNs have not been defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the potential prebiotic beta-glucan on the intestinal microflora, the bacterial enzyme activity (beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase) in the feces, the fecal pH and the concentration of fecal short-chain fatty acid in polypectomized patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To measure the effect of beta-glucan on fecal microflora (number of bacteria, bacterial enzyme activity, SCFA, pH). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As well, other studies looking at the consumption of Beta-Glucans in animals showed that Beta-Glucans decreased the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines AND even enhanced the effects of cancer drugs. (mothering.com)
  • Mice infected with Escherichia coli were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intra peritoneal administration 0.2 ml of 10 mg of poly-1,3,1,6-glucotriosyl-1,3,1,3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per gram body weight of animal 24 h prior to bacterial infection. (academicjournals.org)
  • This procedure employed in this study, is similar to that employ in a previous studies where rat model were protected with β-glucan against intra-abdominal sepsis, where the intramuscular doses of 10 ml to 10 g per animal 24 h and 4 h prior to surgical implantation of the bacterial inoculums reduced the early mortality associated with the peritonitis phase of this experimental disease process. (academicjournals.org)
  • One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. (umass.edu)
  • Glycogen and starch synthesis involves elongation of α(1,4)-linked glucans by glycogen synthase (GS), an enzyme that uses UDP-glucose (Glc) or ADP-Glc as substrate donor in mammalian and fungal or in plant and bacterial cells, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the facility, Tate & Lyle uses a unique patented manufacturing process, without the addition of chemicals, to transform locally sourced Swedish oats into high value ingredients such as PromOat Beta Glucan and PrOatein Oat Protein which are used in a wide variety of food and beverages including breakfast cereals, smoothies, baked goods, bars and sports shakes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • You can naturally find Beta Glucans in baker's yeast, oats, mushrooms and seaweed which are all rich in Beta-Glucans, and it's no surprise that they also are great food fuels. (mothering.com)
  • Oats contain beta glucans, a form of soluble fiber that studies have shown helps reduce bad cholesterol levels while maintaining good cholesterol levels. (greatist.com)
  • Beta-glucans are a variety of natural soluble dietary fiber occurring in foods which include grains (such as barley, oats, and corn bran) and certain mushrooms. (earthturns.com)
  • Soluble fiber β-glucan is thought to be the active component for the cholesterol lowering effect of oats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of concentrated β-glucan from oats and changes in physiological endpoints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rolled oats and isolated beta-glucan (termed oat gum in the report) contributed to increased gut viscosity in male Wistar rats [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concentration of β-glucan in oats ranges from 1.9 to 8.0% [ 10 , 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • They also boost the growth of good bacteria in the digestive tract. (greatist.com)
  • Look for brands that offer several species of good bacteria and contain at least 5-10 billion organisms per capsule. (drhyman.com)
  • Probiotics will restore your intestinal micro flora to balance by increasing the number of the good bacteria. (amazonaws.com)
  • Known as 'good bacteria', probiotics are tiny micro-organisms that help protect the body from 'bad' types of bacteria. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • The skin is the body's largest organ, and when 'bad' bacteria outnumbers 'good' bacteria on the skin surface it can result in the emergence of skin problems such as acne, inflammation and body odour. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Applying prebiotic skin care can help to prevent this by supporting 'good bacteria' that inhibit bad bacteria and bring the skin back into balance. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Also found in Green People's Day Solution Moisturiser , this powerful prebiotic both helps balance the skin's natural flora and supports good bacteria so that it can fend off acne bacteria and keep skin clear. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • When applied to the skin, it encourages the growth of good bacteria and restricts the growth of bacteria known to cause BO so that you can go about your day confident that BO will be kept at bay. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • In addition, inulin can also increase the growth of good bacteria which helps the intestines work optimally. (windowscewebring.com)
  • The good bacteria keeps the bad bacteria from growing out of control, and the good guys help us digest food properly, flush out toxins and waste, and absorb nutrients from our food. (dogcancer.net)
  • Unfortunately, every time we drink chlorinated water, coffee and alcohol, eat fatty foods, get stressed or become overly tired, we unknowingly kill the good bacteria in our bodies. (dogcancer.net)
  • Even the foods we eat to keep healthy, like meat and milk hurt us because they contain antibiotics, which further reduces the levels of good bacteria in our gut. (dogcancer.net)
  • Probiotics provide the good bacteria we need for good health. (dogcancer.net)
  • Choose foods that contain prebiotics - these are types of fiber (inulin, beta-glucans) that feed the good bacteria. (umassmed.edu)
  • Yoghurt is a product of the lactic acid fermentation of milk by addition of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. (scirp.org)
  • Koo found that cranberry juice makes it difficult for the bacteria Streptococcus mutans to cling to tooth surfaces. (nature.com)
  • But peace won't reign within the confines of the oral cavity, where Streptococcus mutans and other harmful bacteria will await their own holiday feast. (healthcanal.com)
  • Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated whether type I IFNs regulate CD8 T cell activation by fungal β-glucan particle-stimulated DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • 5-7 Most fungal β-(1,3)-glucans also contain β-(1,6)-linked D -glucose side chains. (rsc.org)
  • The detection of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is also used as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • This systematic review aimed to compile and compare clinical studies using these [fungal] beta glucans as adjuvants on patients undergoing cancer treatment. (betaglucan.org)
  • These studies show that there is a possibility that beta glucans can: reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol levels.Many oat cereals have been shown to contain beta-glucans, which can help to lower cholesterol. (earthturns.com)
  • Probiotics: the best way to attack the yeast is with a combination of bacteria and yeasts probiotics. (amazonaws.com)
  • Beta glucans are molecules found in the cell walls of plants, fungi, bacteria and yeasts. (express.co.uk)
  • Yeasts are a potential source for prebiotic β-glucans. (intechopen.com)
  • One of the richest, cleanest sources of Beta Glucans comes from Baker's Yeast, but extracting the Beta-Glucans from the yeast is a harsh process. (mothering.com)
  • More than 30 years ago, Seljelid and co-workers screened a large number of glucans and glycans …for their macrophage-activating ability in vitro, and found that a particulate beta-1,3/1,6-glucan prepared from baker's yeast was the most active. (betaglucan.org)
  • and β-glucan (prebiotic agent) were added in three levels of concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (v/v)) and (0, 1 and 2% (w/v)), respectively. (ac.ir)
  • Green People's Organic Young Skin Cleansing Moisturiser is specifically formulated to support healthy skin balance and contains a prebiotic called Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Beta glucan is a particular type of fiber known as a prebiotic nutrient-the food that some healthy gut microbes, known as probiotics, feed on, explains Suzanne Dixon, registered dietician. (parents.com)
  • Whereas the main pathway of α-glucan synthesis is via glycosidic bonds of glucose monomers, α-glucan can be comparably synthesized via the maltosyl transferase GlgE and branching enzyme GlgB. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, α-glucans in mycobacteria have a slight variation in the length of linear chains, which point to the fact that the branching enzyme in mycobacteria makes shorter branches compared to glycogen synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry consists of glycogen branching enzyme GlgB from bacteria and GBE1 from eukaryotes, which are responsible for the transfer of chains of alpha(1,4)-linked glucosyl residues to other similar chains (in new alpha-(1,6) linkages) in the biosynthesis of glycogen [ PMID: 7862674 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Some β-glucan molecules have branching glucose side-chains attached to other positions on the main D-glucose chain, which branch off the β-glucan backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, type I IFNs promote Ag presentation on MHC I molecules, CD86 and CD40 expression, and the production of IL-12 p70, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α by β-glucan-stimulated DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since the isolation of pure β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides from natural sources is complicated, especially when certain branching patterns are desired, chemical synthesis is frequently the only means of accessing these molecules. (rsc.org)
  • An α-glucan coated starch molecule produced from Neisseria polysacchera was able to improve some of the physiochemical properties in comparison to raw normal starch, especially in loading efficiency of bioactive molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-glucan was used in conjunction with modified starch molecules that contained porous starch granules via hydrolysis with amylotic enzymes such as α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta glucans are a well-researched class of molecules found in nature. (kemin.com)
  • Gastrointestinal macrophages engulf the 1,3-beta glucans and transport them throughout the body to secondary lymphoid sites (e.g., lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, etc.), while simultaneously releasing fragments of 1,3-beta glucans by macrophages also triggers the release of signaling molecules such as cytokines. (kemin.com)
  • Oat β-glucan is a natural polymer comprised of individual glucose molecules that are linked together by a series of β-(1-3) and β-(1-4) linkages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Perhaps the same is true in the mouth, where bacteria use adhesion molecules to hold onto teeth,' Koo said. (nature.com)
  • What appears to us as sticky white gunk along our teeth is actually a formidable fortress of molecules known as glucans - building blocks of plaque, stacked like bricks in a wall, rife with bacteria. (healthcanal.com)
  • Earlier this year in the journal Caries Research , the team reported that when the molecules were applied, glucan and acid production by S. mutans was reduced by up to 70 percent, and cavity formation in rats was slashed by up to 45 percent. (healthcanal.com)
  • The β-glucan-enriched pasta made from a mixture of 75 percent durum wheat flour and 25 percent whole grain barley flour. (science20.com)
  • The daily dose of pasta, 100 grams, contained 3 grams of barley β-glucans, the recommended daily dose in the US and in Europe. (science20.com)
  • β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental food was bread with a high amount of barley beta-glucans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Placebo bread without added barley beta-glucans in the testing product. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Experimental bread was prepared with concentrated beta-glucans barley flour, containing up to 15 % of beta-glucans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ss glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 8 ] reported barley flour (as a source of soluble β -glucan dietary fiber) in chocolate chip cookies. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, yeast contains enough β -glucan (as dietary fiber) and β -glucan present in yeast is structurally different compared to β -glucan present in bacteria, oat, and barley. (hindawi.com)
  • 13] studied the effects of addition of β-glucan from different cereal sources (oat and barley) on the growth and metabolic activity of probiotic organisms in yoghurt. (scirp.org)
  • Brennan and Tudorica [14] determined the possible beneficial effects of barley beta-glucan, as a fat substitute on the rheological, textural and sensory quality of low-fat yoghurt. (scirp.org)
  • β-(1,3)-Glucans are a heterogeneous class of carbohydrates found in fungi and bacteria. (rsc.org)
  • Neutrophils literally eat germs such as fungi and bacteria. (ergo-log.com)
  • The presence of high levels of fungi and bacteria in the dust has since been found to be a hallmark of the syndrome (Dutkiewicz et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta-glucans are another type of immunostimulant nutrient, found in plants, fungi , and bacteria. (wisegeek.com)
  • β-glucans are healthy fibers that humans cannot digest, but that can be digested by some species of our gut bacteria. (science20.com)
  • Yeast β -glucan is more concentrated dietary fibers [ 10 ] with remarkable bioactivity and physicofunctional properties [ 11 , 12 ] and its substitution in cookies is comparatively easy and technologically feasible. (hindawi.com)
  • Various types of beta-glucans occur in cellulose fibers in trees and plants, and can also be found in yeast , bacteria, and fungi. (wisegeek.com)
  • Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cereal fibers that are high in water-soluble fiber, such as β-glucan, may improve cardiovascular disease risk through improvements in serum cholesterol and other intermediary risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since β-glucan-trained monocytes have not been classified within the system of mononuclear phagocytes we analyzed these cells metabolically, phenotypically and functionally with a focus on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and compared them with naïve monocytes and other types of monocyte-derived cells such as classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that β-glucan inhibits spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes independent from autocrine or paracrine M-CSF release and stimulates monocyte differentiation into macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • β-Glucan-differentiated macrophages exhibit increased cell size and granularity and enhanced metabolic activity when compared to naïve monocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, there are macrophages that inhabit the intestinal wall and are able to pick up beta-1,3-D-glucan particles through beta-glucan receptors. (tldp.com)
  • It is now established that (1→3)-β-D-glucans are recognized by macrophages and, perhaps, neutrophils and natural killer cells via a (1→3)-β-glucan specific receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • In the body, beta-glucans activate the complement receptor 3 - present in neutrophils, Natural Killer Cells and macrophages, among others. (ergo-log.com)
  • Beta-glucans also activate the Dectin-1 receptor in macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, B cells and dendritic cells. (ergo-log.com)
  • Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, " IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan . (betaglucan.org)
  • It is shown that beta-D-glucan is an immunologic system booster with radioprotectory effects. (betaglucan.org)
  • People fed β-glucan-enriched pasta for two months showed increased populations of beneficial bacteria in their intestinal tracts, and reduced populations of non-beneficial bacteria. (science20.com)
  • To observe the effect of beta-glucan on intestinal symptoms and well-being. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The researchers, from the University of Florence, compared intestinal bacteria in the two populations and found that significant differences developed from the time that breast feeding ceased. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • We demonstrated beneficial effects of B-glucan on intestinal barrier function and increased B-glucan-passage through FAE model. (betaglucan.org)
  • We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Foods that feed and maintain the good intestinal bacteria. (umassmed.edu)
  • β -Glucans, isolated from Pleurotus citrinopileatus mushroom, were used in the manufacture of yoghurt from reduced fat cow milk with added proteins. (scirp.org)
  • GbpB shares homology with Usp45 from S. pneumoniae and L. lactis and to SagA from E. faecalis and E. faecium , which are secreted proteins related to peptidoglycan hydrolases from gram-positive bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Vitamin D is also involved in the production of anti-microbial proteins that fight viruses, bacteria and fungi. (worldwideshoppingmall.co.uk)
  • This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. (davidsnaturalmarket.com)
  • It was concluded that, contrary to what happens in mammalian and yeast cells in which two different proteins are required for linear α(1,4)-linked glucan formation (glycogenin for initiation and GS for further elongation), in A. tumefaciens and probably in all other bacteria, the same protein is involved in both glycogen initiation and elongation. (pnas.org)
  • The most frequent sources of haze are from yeast cells, proteins and polyphenols (tannins), but bacteria, foreign material, and even excessive finings can all contribute to haze in finished beer. (beersmith.com)
  • Phagocytes were able to dispatch bacteria, viruses and abnormal cells more efficiently, even in significantly decreased numbers. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episode as compared to placebo (p = 0.028). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other studies note that beta-glucans can significantly reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure - the top and bottom numbers in a reading, respectively. (healthline.com)
  • A review of 10 studies in people with type 2 diabetes found that consuming 6 grams of beta-glucan daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced blood sugar levels . (healthline.com)
  • Quantitative cultures of the liver obtained from mice infected with E.coli showed significantly the liver of PGG glucan-treated infected animal has a reduced microbial load as compare to those infected and were not treated. (academicjournals.org)
  • Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L), and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a practical dose of β-glucan can significantly lower serum lipids in a high-risk population and may improve colon health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Catalyzes the formation of the alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages in glycogen by scission of a 1,4-alpha-linked oligosaccharide from growing alpha-1,4-glucan chains and the subsequent attachment of the oligosaccharide to the alpha-1,6 position. (uniprot.org)
  • Is involved in the biosynthesis of both glycogen and capsular alpha-D-glucan. (uniprot.org)
  • The accumulation of glycogen Neisseria polysacchera and other bacteria are able to use in α-glucan to catalyze glucose units to form α-1,4-glucan and liberating fructose in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Glucan debranching enzymes hydrolyse α-1,6-linkages in starch/glycogen, thereby, playing a central role in energy metabolism in all living organisms. (dtu.dk)
  • Evidence is presented indicating that initiation of glycogen synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens does not require the presence of α(1,4)-linked glucans. (pnas.org)
  • No glycogenin has been described in bacteria thus far, and several fully sequenced genomes of bacteria known to accumulate glycogen have failed to reveal the presence of prokaryote glycogenin homologues. (pnas.org)
  • The two families GBEs in on bacteria shows that GH13 GBE is involved in glycogen synthesis, and the real function of GH57 GBE is not clear yet. (rug.nl)
  • Chen R, Bhagwat AA, Yaklich R, Keister DL (2002) Characterisation of nvdD , the third gene involved in the synthesis of cyclic-β-(1-3),(1,6)- d -glucans in Bradyrhizobium japonicum . (springer.com)
  • Cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis in Rhizobiaceae: roles of the 319-kilodalton protein intermediate. (asm.org)
  • It is suggested that the protein component is the 319-kDa protein intermediate, which might catalyze the overall cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Glycosyl phosphate 3 ( Fig. 1 ), originally developed for the synthesis of linear β-(1,3)-glucans, 27 was modified by substituting the C2-pivaloyl with a benzoate ester in order to facilitate the final deprotection steps. (rsc.org)
  • GTFA is thus responsible for the synthesis of the unique glucan polymer in L. reuteri strain 121. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • common name, glucansucrases), for the synthesis of high-molecular-weight α-glucans from sucrose. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GtfB and GtfC catalyze the extracellular synthesis of water-insoluble glucan matrix from sucrose, and are essential for accumulation of bacteria in the dental biofilm. (nih.gov)
  • CCWS Candida Cleanser a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor The CCWS treatment works on Candida Albicans Yeast Fungus much like antibiotics work on bacteria, by destroying the cell wall that protects the invaders. (amazonaws.com)
  • Crude cell extracts incubated with ADP-glucose (Glc) were able to form α(1,4)-linked glucans despite the fact that cells used for extract preparation displayed a genotype that prevented synthesis of Glc-containing sugar nucleotides and thus preformation of α(1,4)-linked glucans and that the defined growth medium used contained glycerol as carbon source. (pnas.org)
  • This review presents some aspects of α -glucan metabolism in probiotic bacteria and highlights vague issues that merit experimental effort, especially oligosaccharide uptake and the functionally unassigned enzymes, featuring in this important facet of glycan turnover by members of the gut microbiota. (springer.com)
  • Recent insight into oligosaccharide uptake and metabolism in probiotic bacteria. (springer.com)
  • All Green People deodorants contain Alpha-Glucan Oligosaccharide. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • It has been shown to trigger epigenetic remodeling and metabolic reprogramming through a pathway involving dectin-1, the surface receptor of β-glucan, and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling cascade ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Goldman, and later Czop, identified a specific receptor on the cells of macrophage origin that binds to the beta-1,3-D-glucan molecule. (tldp.com)
  • In a solubilized form, beta-glucan binds to a lectin site within complement receptor 3 (CR3) on leukocytes, priming the receptor to trigger cytotoxic degranulation of leukocytes when leukocyte CR3 binds to complement 3 (iC3b)-coated tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • 20-22 A collection of structurally defined β-(1,3)-glucans featuring a variety of different chain lengths and side chains would be helpful in determining the effect of length and branching pattern on antigenicity and receptor binding. (rsc.org)
  • Following receptor binding, glucan modulates macrophage cytokine expression. (hindawi.com)
  • This is due to the interplay of attractive Van der Waal's force s and electrostatic repulsion and the interaction of specific adhesins and receptor between bacteria and the pellicle surface. (everything2.com)
  • Glucan increased both resistance to infection and antibody titres and this effect was more evident when glucan was used at a dose of .5 mg, administered intraperitoneally before, during and after immunization and when the challenge virus was applied to the food-pad. (betaglucan.org)
  • Due to their ability to enhance infection defense mechanisms and simultaneously down-regulate inflammations, beta-1,3/1,6-glucan is very promising as an alternative to the mainstream use of immunosuppressive drugs to treat inflammatory diseases, for instance, IBD. (betaglucan.org)
  • The transient increase in survival rate of mice infected with E.coli that have been treated with PGG glucan- as compare with that of those not treated shows the significant effect of β glucan on E.coli infection. (academicjournals.org)
  • Patients going in to hospital will be exposed to lots of different bacteria, making infection more likely. (express.co.uk)
  • Beta-glucans have been trialed as adjuvants in cancer therapy, for wound dressing to help prevent post-surgical infection, as a treatment for radiation exposure, and in the treatment of certain types of allergy . (wisegeek.com)
  • Similar to galactomannan testing, the specificity of this assay is reduced in a variety of clinical settings, including exposure to certain antibiotics, hemodialysis, and co-infection with certain bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • An abscess may develop, enlarge, or subside, depending upon the degree of infection by microorganisms, such as bacteria. (davidsnaturalmarket.com)
  • A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Summary Oat bran is high in beta-glucans, a type of soluble fiber that may help reduce cholesterol and blood pressure - two key risk factors for heart disease. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor may suggest that you eat yogurt or take probiotic supplements to ensure you have enough healthy gut bacteria while taking the antibiotics. (wikihow.com)
  • Kilic and Akpinar [12] examined the effects of different levels of oat β-glucan on full fat yoghurts manufactured with probiotic adjunct culture. (scirp.org)
  • Physicochemical Properties and Viability of Probiotic Bacteria of Functional Synbiotic Camel Yogurt Affected by Oat β -Glucan during Storage', Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology , 18(5), pp. 1233-1246. (ac.ir)
  • The physicochemical properties of the product and viability of probiotic bacteria were measured on the 0, 7th and 14th days. (ac.ir)
  • 0.05) increasing effects on viscosity, Water-Holding Capacity (WHC) and the viability of probiotic bacteria. (ac.ir)
  • To help protect yourself, ensure a positive balance of beneficial gut bacteria by using a probiotic. (express.co.uk)
  • Pro-Biotics Plus® is an advanced probiotic that provides 2.5 billion CFUs of live bacteria. (dogcancer.net)
  • Beta glucans are naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, yeast, bacteria, and mushrooms which have historically been associated with immunity. (advertiser.ie)
  • It was concluded that the incorporation of 0.3% or 0.4% β -glucans isolated from edible mushrooms, into the yoghurt does not affect the final product, which is similar or sensorially even better than the control. (scirp.org)
  • Beta-glucans are also present in plant-based foods such as oatmeal and in edible mushrooms. (ergo-log.com)
  • [4] Cellulose is not conventionally considered a β-glucan, as it is insoluble and does not exhibit the same physicochemical properties as other cereal or yeast β-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research on Beta-1, 3-D Glucan, a carbohydrate molecule that enhanced the functioning of the macrophage white blood cell, was extensive and the results were impressive. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • For example, most starches are alpha-glucans. (tldp.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli, Candida albicans, Pneumocytis carinii, Listeria monococytogenesis, Leishmania donovani, Herpes simplex, Ascaris suum - this is an incomplete list of microorganisms, against which a protective effect of glucan has been established. (tldp.com)
  • Imunomodulatory effect of glucan on the response to experimental antirabies vaccination. (betaglucan.org)
  • At dietary intake levels of at least 3 g per day, oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta glucan is a form of dietary fiber that optimizes cholesterol levels, boosting heart health. (bccresearch.com)
  • Once eaten, beta glucan forms a gel which helps bind cholesterol in the intestines and prevent it from being absorbed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-Glucans can help you lower your cholesterol levels and stabilize blood sugars. (mothering.com)
  • Remember those beta glucans that help reduce cholesterol? (greatist.com)
  • Beta-glucans may reduce the amount of cholesterol in your blood because they help remove cholesterol-rich bile - a substance that aids fat digestion ( 12 ). (healthline.com)
  • In a review of 28 studies, consuming 3 grams or more of oat beta-glucan reduced LDL (bad) and total cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/L and 0.3 mmol/L, respectively ( 13 ). (healthline.com)
  • Clinical trials have even revealed that the higher the concentration of beta-glucan content of the oat cereal (hot or cold), the greater the cholesterol lowering effect. (earthturns.com)
  • One way to lower high cholesterol is to eat the best super foods rich in fiber, including beta-glucan and inulin. (windowscewebring.com)
  • One of the cholesterol-lowering supplements is beta-glucan and inulin. (windowscewebring.com)
  • Beta-glucan and inulin are types of fiber found in various foods and have various benefits, one of which is to lower cholesterol. (windowscewebring.com)
  • In lowering cholesterol, beta-glucan and inulin work by binding to cholesterol in the small intestine, and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream so that it does not accumulate in the body. (windowscewebring.com)
  • After that, cholesterol that has been bound to beta-glucan or inulin will be excreted in the feces during defecation. (windowscewebring.com)
  • Different studies confirm safe use and applicability of β-glucans in medicine for the treatment of diseases (cancer, infections, respiratory diseases) and reduction in glucose and cholesterol levels. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition to their cholesterol-lowering and potential cancer-preventing properties, β-glucans may be useful in controlling blood glucose levels. (intechopen.com)
  • a wine lactic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • 2001. Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. (ac.ir)
  • In: Report of the Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic ,Acid Bacteria, Córdoba, Argentina. (ac.ir)
  • Using degenerate primers, based on the amino acid sequences of conserved regions from known glucosyltransferase ( gtf ) genes from lactic acid bacteria, the L. reuteri strain 121 glucosyltransferase gene ( gtfA ) was isolated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phagocytosis increases after consumption of beta-13D glucan. (ehow.co.uk)
  • [1] β-glucans are used as texturing agents in various nutraceutical and cosmetic products, and as soluble fiber supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • A serving of oatmeal supplies 0.75 grams of the 3.0 g of β-glucan soluble fiber necessary per day to have this effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • based DSM Nutritional, last month expanded its ingredient portfolio with the acquisition of the OatWell brand of beta glucan from Swedish Oat Fiber (SOF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is especially high in beta-glucan, a powerful type of soluble fiber ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (healthline.com)
  • For starters, it's a great source of beta-glucan, a type of soluble fiber that dissolves in water to form a viscous, gel-like substance in your digestive tract ( 11 ). (healthline.com)
  • Soluble fiber like beta-glucan helps slow the digestion and absorption of carbs through your digestive tract, stabilizing blood sugar levels ( 18 ). (healthline.com)
  • Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GM fiber passes to the colon, where colon bacteria ferment it and gastrointestinal enzymes digest it. (rainbow.coop)
  • The most common forms of β-glucans are those comprising D-glucose units with β-1,3 links. (wikipedia.org)
  • As any other glucan (or polyglucose), it consists of glucose units linked together. (tldp.com)
  • Respiratory pathogens that commonly cause walking pneumonia are bacteria (including Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Legionella pneumophila , G. pneumoniae ), a number of viruses, and fungi, as well as inhaled food or drink. (wikihow.com)
  • These phagocytes engulf bacteria and viruses, as well as dying cells so that they can protect your body. (mothering.com)
  • T-cells are essential in fighting off viruses and bacteria. (reference.com)
  • It helps white blood cells bind to and kill viruses and bacteria. (drhyman.com)
  • The other 83 to 97 percent of the time it's caused by other viruses or bacteria . (mercola.com)
  • Viruses are orders of magnitude smaller than bacteria and have entirely different structures that make antibiotics useless. (mercola.com)
  • Vitamin D is an amazingly effective antimicrobial agent, producing 200 to 300 different antimicrobial peptides in your body that kill bacteria, viruses and fungi. (mercola.com)
  • In addition, T-Cells (which destroy pathogens, viruses and bacteria) require vitamin D in order to become active. (worldwideshoppingmall.co.uk)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 produces a unique, highly branched, soluble glucan in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An enzyme found in Gram-negative bacteria that exports beta-glucans. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • More recently, researchers found that children had less asthma and allergic disease when they were exposed early in life to endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, 2 a finding that seems to confirm the hygiene hypothesis. (aappublications.org)
  • Placebo Comparator: Bread without added beta-glucans-Participants daily consumed placebo bread without any added beta-glucans (approximately 200 g bread per day). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Koo has discovered that compounds within the cranberry disrupt enzymes known as glucosyltransferases that bacteria use to build glucans. (healthcanal.com)
  • This alternative pathway is common in many bacteria, which use GlgB and GlgE or the GlgE pathway exclusively for the biosynthesis of α-glucan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to degrade polymeric α -glucans is confined to few strains encoding extracellular amylolytic activities of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13. (springer.com)
  • Beta Glucans can even help improve your skin, which is your body's largest organ. (mothering.com)
  • α -1,6-Linked glucans, e.g. , isomalto-oligosaccharides are potential prebiotics. (springer.com)
  • This work is part of a broad effort to identify potential prebiotics--foods that could encourage the growth of health-promoting bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. (science20.com)
  • Prebiotics, such as short- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides are fermented by the microflora colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, and they selectively stimulate the growth or the activity of one or limited number of bacteria within the intestine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antibacterial Prebiotics restrict the growth of odour-causing bacteria. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Prebiotics promote the growth of beneficial, protective bacteria. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Laboratory assays were performed using extracts of foods against types of bacteria commonly associated with oral infections. (rainbow.coop)
  • Already on the first day of supplementation [day 0 in the figure below] the researchers saw that the time the mice were floating around passively was shorter when they were given beta glucans. (ergo-log.com)
  • We have shown that supplementation with a mixture of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes reduces bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain, improving the overall clinical condition of IBD-IBS patients. (betaglucan.org)
  • RESULTS: In the per protocol population, supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25 % as compared to placebo (p = 0.041). (biomedsearch.com)
  • But it is also an important nutrient for bacteria, so care must be taken that iron supplementation doesn't stoke infections. (drhoffman.com)
  • Therefore, the three enzymatic activities detected in situ reside in a unique protein component (i.e., cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan synthase). (asm.org)
  • Structurally, beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers binding together in a beta-1,3 configuration. (wikipedia.org)
  • An α-glucan coating boasts protection from digestive environments, such as the small intestine, efficient encapsulation, and preservation rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great thing about taking grapefruit seed extract for digestive complaints is that it leaves the beneficial bacteria in your system intact. (amazonaws.com)
  • These bacteria, which normally inhabit the skin and sometimes the throat and nasal passages, are responsible for a number of serious diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain), urinary tract infections, and endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart). (davidsnaturalmarket.com)
  • Research has shown that IBD patients have an imbalance of gut bacteria, which contribute to bowel inflammation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The bacteria utilize dietary sugars to build and strengthen biofilms, trapping acids onto the tooth's surface and causing demineralization and decay of teeth. (asm.org)
  • Rather, S. mutans and other bacteria in our mouths - billions of individual microbes all waiting for their next snack - feast on the sugars, stick on your teeth and then churn out acid that eats away at tooth enamel. (healthcanal.com)
  • Sweat is odourless, but when it leaves the body some strains of Gram-positive bacteria on the skin, particularly Staphylococcus hominis, feed and multiply on the salts and nutrients that sweat contains. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Probiotics AR supplies 16 strains with over 12 billion live friendly bacteria in each acid-resistant, vegetarian capsule. (amazonaws.com)
  • Beta glucan, in particular, nourishes healthy strains of gut bacteria, improving the balance and numbers of these important residents of the gastrointestinal tract," she says. (parents.com)
  • Three structural classes of (1→3)-β- d -glucans are encountered in some important soil-dwelling, plant-associated or human pathogenic bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Glucan is known to enhance the innate immunity and resistance against pathogenic bacteria in fish. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-glucans seem to be safe (at up to 10 grams [g] a day for 12 weeks). (nih.gov)
  • Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Curdlan, the linear (1→3)-β-glucan from Agrobacterium , has unique rheological and thermal gelling properties, with applications in the food industry and other sectors. (springer.com)
  • This diet helps to restore balance between helpful and harmful bacteria while promoting good nutrition. (umassmed.edu)
  • Additionally, probiotics compete with harmful bacteria and keep them from proliferating. (drhoffman.com)
  • At the study's end, assays of the fecal samples showed a notable increase in beneficial Lactobacilli, and a reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, and other non-beneficial bacteria in subjects' gastrointestinal tracts. (science20.com)
  • Choose fermented foods that contain probiotics - these are beneficial bacteria. (umassmed.edu)
  • β-glucans found in the cell walls of yeast contain a 1,3 carbon backbone with elongated 1,6 carbon branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucans are (1→3)-β-D-glucose polymers that are found in the cell wall of fungi, bacteria and plants. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell walls of Bakers yeast contain some of the richest concentrated sources of beta-glucans found. (earthturns.com)
  • Koo's team also found evidence that cranberry juice disrupts the formation of glucan, the building block of plaque. (nature.com)
  • Koo's team found that cranberry juice prevents bacteria from forming plaque by inhibiting the enzyme. (nature.com)