Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation: A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteasome Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the function or proteolytic action of the PROTEASOME.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)PeptidoglycanGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins: A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
At that time, milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria were known to inhibit the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of the ... Jonas, Rainer; Farah, Luiz F. (1998). "Production and application of microbial cellulose". Polymer Degradation and Stability. ... Other acidic bacteria, said to be probiotic,[34][35] can also be found in kombucha. This drink contains Gluconacetobacter ... The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis[54] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium. Tissier found that ...
It was at that time known that milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria inhibits the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of ... "Polymer Degradation and Stability. 59 (1-3): 101-106. doi:10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00197-3.. ... The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis[56] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium. Tissier found that ... Other acidic bacteria, said to be probiotic,[35][36] can also be found in Kombucha. This drink contains Gluconacetobacter ...
Antimicrobial preservatives prevent degradation by bacteria. This method is the most traditional and ancient type of preserving ... Drying prevents yeasts and bread molds (Rhizopus) from growing by removing moisture so bacteria cannot grow.[15][16] ... It serves the important function of controlling the bacteria that cause botulism, but sodium nitrite can react with proteins, ... The detailed mechanism of these chemical compounds range from inhibiting growth of the bacteria to the inhibition of specific ...
... degradation by bacteriaEdit. Bacteria lack most of the enzymes employed in fungal lignin degradation, yet bacterial ... Lignin degradation by fungiEdit. Well-studied ligninolytic enzymes are found in Phanerochaete chrysosporium[31] and other white ... degradation can be quite extensive.[32] The ligninolytic activity of bacteria has not been studied extensively even though it ... Bacterial degradation of lignin is particularly relevant in aquatic systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams, where inputs of ...
Schmidt, S.K. (1988). "Degradation of juglone by soil bacteria". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 14: 1561-1571. Fisher, R.F. (1987 ... Indigenous bacteria found in the soil of black walnut roots, most notably Pseudomonas J1, are able to metabolize juglone and ...
Cook AM, Beilstein P, Grossenbacher H, Hutter R (1985). "Ring cleavage and degradative pathway of cyanuric acid in bacteria". ... This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. ...
Bacterial degradation of black and white feathers. Auk 121: 656-659. Muza*, M.M., E.H. Burtt Jr., and J.M. Ichida. 2000. ... Distribution of bacteria on the feathers of eastern North American birds. Wilson Bull. 112: 432-435. Reneerkins, J., M.A. ... He has published extensively on the coloration of wood-warblers, the evolutionary pressure of bacteria on the coloration of ... Sunlight on feathers inhibits feather-degrading bacteria. Wilson J. Ornithol. 119: 239-245. Schreiber, R. W., E. A. Schreiber, ...
Early stages of carbohydrate degradation by bacteria. MSc thesis, University of Toronto, 1932. The enzymatic breakdown of ...
It is found in the bacterium species Eubacterium oxidoreducens. Armstrong, SM; Patel, TR (1994). "Microbial degradation of ... Dihydrophloroglucinol is a chemical compound found in the pathway of the microbial degradation of phloroglucinol and other ...
Nakada HI, Sweeny PC (1967). "Alginic acid degradation by eliminases from abalone hepatopancreas". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (5): 845- ... Preiss J; Ashwell G (1962). "Alginic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Enzymatic formation of unsaturated oligosaccharides and 4- ...
This enzyme participates in toluene and xylene degradation in bacteria such as Pseudomonas mendocina. It is also found in ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. It can be found in ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. It can be found in ... This enzyme catalyses the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Benzoate ...
"Genetic characterization of caffeine degradation by bacteria and its potential applications". Microbial Biotechnology. 8 (3): ... Paraxanthine is also a natural metabolite of caffeine in some species of bacteria.[1] After intake, roughly 84% of caffeine is ...
Gallus C, Schink B (1994). "Anaerobic degradation of pimelate by newly isolated denitrifying bacteria". Microbiology. 140 (2): ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via coa ligation. ...
... is a Gram-negative, hydrocarbon-degrading and strictly aerobic bacterium from the genus of Arenibacter. ... "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation of Phytoplankton-Associated Arenibacter spp. and Description of Arenibacter ... nov., an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (2): 618-628. doi:10.1128/AEM. ... a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Associated with Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton". Genome Announcements. 4 (4): e00765-16. doi ...
In many bacteria, both mRNAs and non-coding RNAs can be polyadenylated. This poly(A) tail promotes degradation by the ... Like in bacteria, polyadenylation by polynucleotide phosphorylase promotes degradation of the RNA in plastids and likely also ... In contrast, when polyadenylation occurs in bacteria, it promotes RNA degradation. This is also sometimes the case for ... Régnier, Philippe; Arraiano, Cecília Maria (2000). "Degradation of mRNA in bacteria: emergence of ubiquitous features". ...
This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation. As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this ... Massey LK, Sokatch JR, Conrad RS (1976). "Branched-chain amino acid catabolism in bacteria". Bacteriol. Rev. 40 (1): 42-54. PMC ...
... is susceptible to degradation by a wide range of bacteria[which?].[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] The bacteria ... Linos, A. and Steinbuchel, A. (1998) Microbial degradation of natural and synthetic rubbers by novel bacteria belonging to the ... Leeang, K.W.H. (1963). "Microbiologic degradation of rubber". J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 53: 1523-1535.. ... Tsuchii, A.; Suzuki, T.; Takeda, K. (1985). "Microbial degradation of natural rubber vulcanizates". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ...
... degradation has been characterized in the bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii.[12] C5H8O2 + O2 → C2H4O2 + C3H4O2. ...
Propionic Acid Degradation by Syntrophic Bacteria During Anaerobic Biowaste Digestion. Karlsruhe, Baden: KIT Scientific ... Syntrophobacter is a genus of bacteria from the family of Syntrophobacteraceae. Syntrophobacter have the ability to grow on ...
This enzyme participates in toluene and xylene degradation in bacteria. It is also found in carrots (Daucus carota). Bossert ID ... "Anaerobic oxidation of p-cresol mediated by a partially purified methylhydroxylase from a denitrifying bacterium". J. Bacteriol ...
Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation. CRC Press, 2012. Klotz, Martin G., Donald A ... nov., novel obligately alkaliphilic and obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes". Int J Syst ... Thioalkalivibrio nitratis is an obligately alkaliphilic and obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. It was ... "The prokaryotes, a handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications." Springer- ...
Schennen U, Braun K, Knackmuss HJ (1985). "Anaerobic degradation of 2-fluorobenzoate by benzoate-degrading, denitrifying ... bacteria". J. Bacteriol. 161 (1): 321-5. PMC 214874 . PMID 2857161. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via coa ligation. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium that is used to study the mechanisms of pyruvate carboxylase. It was ... PMID 13750403 Seubert, W. (Mar 1960). "Degradation of isoprenoid compounds by micro-organisms. I. Isolation and ... characterization of an isoprenoid-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas citronellolis n. sp". J Bacteriol. 79: 426-34. PMC 278703 . ...
Nov., a Fermentative Bacterium Specialized in the Degradation of Hydroaromatic Compounds". International Journal of Systematic ... nov., a new anaerobic bacterium bacterium from an estuarine sediment". Arch Microbiol. 164: 29-35. Brune, Andreas; Ludwig, ... P. modestum is a non-sporing and non-motile bacteria. Its growth optimum is pH of 7.1-7.7 and a temperature of 33 °C. The G+C ... a New Strictly Anaerobic, Nonsporing Bacterium Growing on Succinate" (PDF). Archives of Microbiology. 133.3: 209-216. Schink, ...
Microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, play a role in bone degradation. They are capable of invading bone tissue and ... Anaerobic bacteria dominate within a body following death, which promote the anaerobic degradation of fatty acids by ... A summary of the protein degradation products can be found in Table 1 below. Nitrogen is a component of amino acids and is ... A summary of the carbohydrate degradation products can be found in Table 1 below. Lipids in the body are mainly contained in ...
Sakamoto W, Takami T (June 2018). "Chloroplast DNA Dynamics: Copy Number, Quality Control and Degradation". Plant & Cell ... which is related to RNA polymerases found in bacteria. Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is ... "The case of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to the peculiar dinoflagellate plastid genome". Mobile Genetic Elements. 3 ...
... cellulose degrading bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Despite both of these organisms being isolated for almost ... Taken together, the abundance and localization of proteins putatively involved in cellulose degradation led into important ... insights into the cellulose degradation mechanisms in both ,em,C. hutchinsonii,/em, and ,em,S. myxococcoides,/em,. ... a century, they remain poorly studied with the proteins responsible for cellulose degradation remaining unknown. Both organisms ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare on rainbow trout ... and biofilm was in turn significantly correlated with increased membrane degradation. The use of either streptomycin or ... Effect of Flavobacterium columnare inoculation, antibiotic treatments and resident bacteria on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus ...
In an effort to investigate the influence of bacteria on the resilience and fertility of these soils, we enriched five ADE ... Capacity of Aromatic Compound Degradation by Bacteria from Amazon Dark Earth by Fernanda Mancini Nakamura 1,*, Mariana Gomes ... Nakamura, F.M.; Germano, M.G.; Tsai, S.M. Capacity of Aromatic Compound Degradation by Bacteria from Amazon Dark Earth. ... "Capacity of Aromatic Compound Degradation by Bacteria from Amazon Dark Earth." Diversity 6, no. 2: 339-353. ...
Considerable differences were detected among degradation rates in various bacteria, and the meso-(RS)-diastereomer was ... As a result, the stereospecific degradation of diastereomers changed their ratio in the medium, thus this metabolic step could ... Degradation experiments. Standard suspension of bacteria (5 mL) was added to nutrient broth (150 mL) in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask ... Degradation. The quantity of both diastereomers was diminished by bacteria in the incubation system during a 5 hours incubation ...
Degradation of [. ]MC-LR by a Microcystin Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Lake Rotoiti, New Zealand. Theerasak Somdee,1 ... Degradation of MCs by naturally occurring bacteria is an attractive bioremediation option for removing MCs from drinking and ... The intermediate by-products of [Dha7]MC-LR degradation were detected and similar to MC-LR degradation by-products. The ... This study confirmed that degradation of [Dha7]MC-LR by the Sphingomonas isolate NV-3 occurred by a similar mechanism ...
... by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ... The research goal was to characterize whether bacteria or fungi drive lignocellulose degradation in these underground gardens ... Citation: Integrated omics uncovers roles of fungi and bacteria in lignocellulose degradation (2013, May 13) retrieved 28 ... Bacteria tend leafcutter ants gardens More information: Aylward, F. et al. 2013. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces a ...
Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation ... Competition for oxygen and 3-chlorobenzoate between two aerobic bacteria using different degradation pathways. Krooneman, J., ...
The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas ... "Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation." Mar. Drugs 9, no ... Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation. Emilie ... Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation. Mar. Drugs 2011, ...
... source to observe the ability of the bacteria to digest solid substrate. The bacteria were Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A, ...
Genes involved in anaerobic degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon ethylbenzene in the denitrifying Azoarcus-like strain EbN1 ... Genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene in a denitrifying bacterium, strain EbN1. ... Further degradation probably involves acetophenone carboxylase forming benzoylacetate, a ligase forming benzoylacetyl-CoA, and ... Genes involved in anaerobic degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon ethylbenzene in the denitrifying Azoarcus-like strain EbN1 ...
Novel inhibitors of cholesterol degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal how the bacteriums metabolism is constrained ... Novel Inhibitors of Cholesterol Degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveal How the Bacteriums Metabolism Is Constrained ... Novel Inhibitors of Cholesterol Degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveal How the Bacteriums Metabolism Is Constrained ... Novel Inhibitors of Cholesterol Degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveal How the Bacteriums Metabolism Is Constrained ...
Microbiological Degradation Of 1,3,5-TMB By In Situ Degradation Bacteria Isolated From Soil ... Microbiological Degradation Of 1,3,5-TMB By In Situ Degradation Bacteria Isolated From Soil ... Two bacteria with the ability of degrading 1,3,5-TMB were isolated from crude oil contaminated soil. The optimal pH value and ... 1,3,5-TMB was degraded by strain C with efficiency of 41.2±1.8%. The bacteria offered new source for biodegradation of BTEX and ...
The sulphate-reducing bacteria strain H1 with the function for Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide (HPAM) degradation w... ... Article Isolation and identification of the sulphate-reducing bacteria strain H1 and its function for hydrolysed polyacrylamide ... The sulphate-reducing bacteria strain H1 with the function for Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide (HPAM) degradation was isolated from a ... Keywords: HPAM degrading bacteria, identification, biodegradation, 16S rDNA, sulphate-reducing bacteria, hydrolysed ...
... bacterium was isolated from pulp and paper mill sludge and characterized as Brevibacillus parabrevis (MTCC 12105) by ... Brevibacillus parabrevis MTCC 12105: a potential bacterium for pulp and paper effluent degradation World J Microbiol Biotechnol ... Wastewater degradation efficiency of the bacterial isolate was evaluated by Flask study in batch mode and Reactor study in semi ... CD and EOP stage wastewater, collected from a leading pulp and paper mill situated in North India, was used for degradation ...
... ... YANG C-F, LEE C-M and WANG C-C (2005) Degradation of chlorophenols using pentachlorophenol-degrading bacteria Sphingomonas ... Since during simultaneous degradation the presence of other compounds can enhance or decrease the PCP degradation rate, it is ... The 2,3,5,6 TeCP degradation followed a similar trend to that of the PCP degradation: it was accumulated during Assay III until ...
Cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic ethers by phenol- and ammonia-oxidizing ... We also characterized the role of AMO in the degradation of aromatic ethers. Our results indicated that aromatic ethers ... In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in ... We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range ...
A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide ( ... Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of a range of alkyl sulfides by a denitrifying marine bacterium. Applied and Environmental ... Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of a range of alkyl sulfides by a denitrifying marine bacterium. ... A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide ( ...
Insights into plant cell wall degradation from the genome sequence of the soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.. ... Insights into plant cell wall degradation from the genome sequence of the soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.. ... Insights into plant cell wall degradation from the genome sequence of the soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.. ... Insights into plant cell wall degradation from the genome sequence of the soil bacterium... ...
We performed the metabolic reconstruction of aromatics degradation, linking the catabolic abilities predicted in sil … ... Metabolic reconstruction of aromatic compounds degradation from the genome of the amazing pollutant-degrading bacterium ... Gene redundancy seems to play a significant role in the catabolic potential of this bacterium. The literature on the ... We performed the metabolic reconstruction of aromatics degradation, linking the catabolic abilities predicted in silico from ...
... are identified in soil bacteria. These ptegenes, often identified on mobilizable and self-transmissible plasmids are organized ... Lateral transfer of organophosphate degradation (opd) genes among soil bacteria: mode of transfer and contributions to ... 2015 The organophosphate degradation (opd) Island-borne esterase-induced metabolic diversion in Escherichia coli and its ... Singh B., Kaur J. and Singh K. 2014 Microbial degradation of an organophosphate pesticide, malathion. Critical Rev. Microbiol. ...
alkan-oxide-rende mikroorganisme/ MTBE degradation in ground water by use of alkane-oxidizing bacteria. *Henriksen, Kaj, ( ...
Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Cycloclasticus Play a Primary Role in the Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released in a ... Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Cycloclasticus Play a Primary Role in the Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released in a ... Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Cycloclasticus Play a Primary Role in the Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released in a ... Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Cycloclasticus Play a Primary Role in the Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released in a ...
Home › CSP Plans › Why sequence obligate syntrophic bacteria capable of phthalate isomer compound degradation in methanogenic ... Why sequence obligate syntrophic bacteria capable of phthalate isomer compound degradation in methanogenic conditions?. ... Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in nearly all types of bacteria and interacts with cell signaling networks that ... P. terephthalicum and P. isophthalicum are the first two syntrophic bacteria cultures that can degrade terephthalate and ...
However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when aU other waU areas in A. ... in liquid cuItures showed degradation of aU areas of the secondary waU incIuding the highly lignified middle lameUa in advanced ... Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunneIIing bacteria (TB) ... Alstonia Scholaris Vestures are Resistant to Degradation by Tunnelling Bacteria. IAWA Journal 14, 2, 119 (1993); https://doi. ...
We examined the release of methanol (MeOH) by this degradation. A 0.2% glucose (2 g/L) mixture was used as the control medium. ... A pure culture of pectinolytic Erwinia carotovora was the control bacterium. The chief substrates were, in set 1, 0.2% pectin ( ... This study demonstrates that fecal bacteria are capable of degrading pectin to release MeOH. ... 2 g/L) and, in set 2, 0.1% glucose (1 g/L) and 0.1% pectin (1 g/L). Cultures of fecal bacteria and E carotovora grew for 72 h ...
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth and proteolytic activity of sixty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria in whey to further formulate a starter culture for the development of fermented whey-based beverages. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Selection and characterization of probiotic lactic acid bacteria with heterocyclic amine binding and nitrosamine degradation properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Qualitative 2,6-Dichlorophenol Indophenol (2,6-DCPIP) and quantitative methods for hydrocarbon degradation revealed that Achromobacter sp. (port.ac.uk)
  • The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment. (edu.au)
  • Two bacteria with the ability of degrading 1,3,5-TMB were isolated from crude oil contaminated soil. (witpress.com)
  • Insights into plant cell wall degradation from the genome sequence of the soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus. (jcvi.org)
  • Genes encoding structurally independent phosphotriesterases (PTEs) are identified in soil bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Their dissemination through lateral gene transfer is evident due to the detection of identical organophosphate degradation genes among soil bacteria with little or no taxonomic relationship. (springer.com)
  • Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. (phys.org)
  • Phylogenetic- and modeling-based methods con?rmed the wide occurrence of LMCO genes in HA-degrading polar soil bacteria and linked their putative gene functions with initial oxidative reaction for HA degradation. (kopri.re.kr)
  • The streptomycetes are predominantly soil-dwelling bacteria, and as such must have the means of coping with diverse environmental stresses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The degradation was studied on the key model PAH (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in J. Arthur Bower's top soil. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Twelve bacteria genera were isolated and identified by biochemical and molecular techniques from the roadside soil with the four PAHs as the sole carbon source. (herts.ac.uk)
  • MyTitle: Ecological Functions of Agricultural Soil Bacteria and Microeukaryotes in Chitin Degradation: A Case Study. (zalf.de)
  • Sustainable land use can help to reduce the impacts of agriculture and livestock, preventing soil degradation and erosion and the loss of valuable land to desertification. (worldwildlife.org)
  • Effects include land degradation, soil erosion and sterility, and a loss of biodiversity, with huge economic costs for nations where deserts are growing. (worldwildlife.org)
  • Experiments with dense cell suspensions of hydroxyhydroquinone- and pyrogallol-grown cells showed different kinetics of hydroxyhydroquinone and pyrogallol degradation, as well as different patterns of resorcinol accumulation, indicating that these substrates are metabolized by different transhydroxylation reactions. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • When gut bacteria consume substrates, they produce various metabolites, the most famous of which are the short chain fatty acids butyrate, acetate, and propionate. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. (oregonstate.edu)
  • For the first time a microcystin-degrading bacterium (NV-3 isolate) has been isolated and characterized from a NZ lake. (hindawi.com)
  • Horne I., Sutherland T. D., Harcourt R. L., Russell R. J. and Oakeshott J. G. 2002b Identification of an opd (organophosphate degradation) gene in an Agrobacterium isolate. (springer.com)
  • A differential, phenanthrene-enrichment agar plating technique was used to isolate phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from phenanthrene-enriched Chesapeake Bay sediment. (ifremer.fr)
  • Here, we used SLES as sole carbon and energy source, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 mg L−1, to enrich and isolate nitrate-reducing bacteria from activated sludge of a WWTP with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) concept. (knaw.nl)
  • Hence, the present study was aimed to isolate and identify the indigenous azo dye decolorizing bacteria from dyeing industry effluent and to assay their dye decolorization potential in order to use them as an efficient bio-agent for decolorizing and mineralizing toxic azo dyes. (asianjab.com)
  • A gram positive, rod shaped, bacterium was isolated from pulp and paper mill sludge and characterized as Brevibacillus parabrevis (MTCC 12105) by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • Gene redundancy seems to play a significant role in the catabolic potential of this bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • The expression level of a gene is a function of both its rate of transcription and RNA decay, and the influence of mRNA decay rates on gene expression in genome-wide studies of Gram-positive bacteria is under-investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other operons showed segmental degradation patterns where specific ORFs within polycistrons were degraded at variable rates, underlining the importance of RNA processing in gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thirty unique laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) gene fragments were PCR-amplified from 71% of the isolated HA-degrading bacteria, all of which included the conserved copper binding regions (CBR) I and II, both essential for laccase activity. (kopri.re.kr)
  • Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological roles of the ALDH family remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • A stable stoichiometric AID-REG-γ complex can be recapitulated in co-transformed bacteria, and REG-γ accelerates proteasomal degradation of AID in in vitro assays. (rupress.org)
  • These attempts failed because addition of molybdate'also inhibited methane production from acetate9 and the degradation of acetate and propionate.10 The contribution of SRBs to organic pollutant degradation in the presence of low sulfate concentrations has received little attention. (purdue.edu)
  • Given the growing interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs among highly evolved insect herbivores is particularly relevant for bio-inspired approaches to plant biomass conversion. (phys.org)
  • Finally, among the feed flows tested, taking into account both the degradation efficiency and the SDR, 2 m·ℓmin -1 is the most convenient flow rate for chlorophenol degradation in fed-batch systems. (scielo.org.za)
  • An even higher degradation efficiency (97%) can be achieved by using the feed rate of 2 m·ℓmin -1 followed by an additional batch post-treatment of 2 h, with a SDR of 13.136 x 10 -10 mg CP-h -1 -CFU -1 . (scielo.org.za)
  • An even higher degradation efficiency (97%) can be achieved by using the feed rate of 2 mf-min'1 followed by an additional batch post-treatment of2 h, with a SDR of 13.136 x 10-10 mg CP-h1-CFU1. (gob.ar)
  • Plant polymer degradation in the leaf-cutter ant gardens: the fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, plays a dominant role in breaking down cellulose, lignin, and pectin. (phys.org)
  • This system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, is functionally analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system. (nature.com)
  • Un des isolats, un bâtonnet pigmenté en jaune, produisant du mucus, Gram négatif et identifié comme étant un Flavobacterium sp a fait l'objet d'une étude détaillée. (ifremer.fr)
  • Is the Subject Area "Gram negative bacteria" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • PS1) showed a maximum degradation (46.32%) of 2% (w/v) crude oil with 70.77% and 77.17% reduction in peak area of aliphatic and aromatic fractions respectively with simultaneous lowering of surface tension from 59.27 mN/m (control) to 32.43 mN/m in 7 days. (port.ac.uk)
  • The isolated bacterium showed a considerable reduction of the colour (59%), chemical oxygen demand (62%) and lignin (53.8%) content of Kraft paper mill effluent at 37 °C after 5 days. (nih.gov)
  • The Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology researches marine bacteria that transform carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and iron compounds, thus playing crucial roles in the global material cycle. (mpg.de)