Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria, AnaerobicMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria, AerobicStreptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.PeptidoglycanAgar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)L Forms: Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
... is part of the human bacteria flora, but can cause diseases including brain and liver abscesses under ... Most Streptococcus milleri strains are resistant to bacitracin and nitrofurazone, and sulfonamides are totally ineffective. ... Disc diffusion technique revealed that bacterium was sensitive to penicillin. Patient was asymptomatic on 30th day of treatment ... Yilmaz, hava (1 June 2012). "Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus". Journal of ...
It is a high G + C ratio bacterium. M. luteus is coagulase negative, bacitracin susceptible, and forms bright yellow colonies ... The bacterium also colonizes the human mouth, mucosae, oropharynx and upper respiratory tract. It was discovered by Sir ... Ohama T, Muto A, Osawa S. Role of GC-biased mutation pressure on synonymous codon choice in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium ... To confirm it is not Staphylococcus aureus, a bacitracin susceptibility test can be performed. M. luteus has been shown to ...
In addition, some of these bacteria, most notably H. influenzae, need growth factors such as NAD (factor V) and hemin (factor X ... Chocolate agar with the addition of bacitracin becomes selective, it is most critically, for the genus Haemophilus. Another ... which are inside red blood cells; thus, a prerequisite to growth for these bacteria is lysis of the red blood cells. The heat ... enriched growth medium used for isolation of pathogenic bacteria. It is a variant of the blood agar plate, containing red blood ...
Waste from swine on these farms carry a host of pathogens and bacteria as well as heavy metals. These toxins can leach down ... China uses sulfamethazine, bacitracin, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, florfenicol, sulfonamide, doxycycline, oxytetracycline ... Investigations then led to the identification of "a gene called MCR-1 that allowed bacteria to survive colistin treatment in ... coli bacteria in a pig from a Shanghai farm in 2013. ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex
OFPBL contains polymyxin (which kills most Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and bacitracin (which ... It also contains phenol red pH indicator which turns pink when it reacts with alkaline byproducts generated by the bacteria ... Diagnosis of BCC involves culturing the bacteria from clinical specimens, such as sputum or blood. BCC organisms are naturally ... ISBN 978-0-19-856925-1. McGowan J (2006). "Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the ...
However, the bacterium is frequently encountered as a colonizer of healthy animals, especially in the alimentary tract and ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ... In order to establish infection, the bacteria need to escape the host immune response, and in streptococci, a varied arsenal of ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It ...
When these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes, so form clumps of bacteria. This is as opposed to streptococci, which ... Staphylococcus species are resistant to bacitracin (0.04 U disc: resistance = < 10 mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to ... Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, for they can be produced by bacteria growing in improperly stored ... Staphylococcus (from the Greek: σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria ...
Other antibiotics inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria other than Brucella species, thus favoring the exclusive growth ... bacitracin (25,000 units = 25 mg), natamycin (50 mg), nalidixic acid (5 mg), nystatin (100,000 units), and vancomycin (20 mg). ... Vancomycin inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria on this medium, while nystatin inhibits the growth of fungi. ...
Actually, as a small number of bacteria would soon outgrow a larger population of animal cells. Its main disadvantages are low ... Some important antibiotics besides penicillin are cephalosporins, azythromycin, bacitracin, gentamycin, rifamycin, streptomycin ... After the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming from colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, it ...
... bacteria, with S. pyogenes being sensitive to bacitracin and others resistant. In this case bacitracin is used to distinguish S ... Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Other bacitracin components ... Bacitracin is commercially manufactured by growing the bacteria Bacillus subtilis var Tracy I in a container of liquid growth ... since bacitracin is nephrotoxic and the concentration of bacitracin in the blood must be followed closely. Bacitracin can be ...
The only Gram-positive bacteria that amikacin strongly affects are Staphylococcus and Nocardia. Amikacin can also be used to ... Such drugs include other aminoglycosides; the antiviral acyclovir; the antifungal amphotericin B; the antibiotics bacitracin, ... Amikacin works by blocking the function of the bacteria's 30S ribosomal subunit, making it unable to produce proteins. Amikacin ... Mutations such as these reduce the binding affinity of amikacin to the bacteria's ribosome. Variations of aminoglycoside ...
Neomycin kills bacteria as a result of irregular protein production in the bacterial cell. When the cell can no longer produce ... and bacitracin. It is used to prevent infections. Neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin ointment is reported to be a safe and ... In some countries bacitracin is replaced with gramicidin. Neosporin is the brand name for a product produced by Johnson & ... Neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin sold under the brand name Neosporin among others, is an antibiotic cream that contains neomycin ...
When these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes, so form clumps of bacteria. This is as opposed to streptococci, which ... Staphylococcus species are resistant to bacitracin (0.04 U disc: resistance = , 10 mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to ... Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales. Under the ... Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, for they can be produced by bacteria growing in improperly stored ...
This bacterium has also been shown to form biofilms, similar to that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. S. mucilaginous is a cohabitant ... Sensitivity, as of 2003, is still found in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and bacitracin. Fanourgiakis, P.; Georgala ... S. mucilaginous can easily be confused for the bacteria from the genera Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. One way that it can be ...
Omphalitis of newborn
Certain bacteria can grow and infect the stump during this process and as a result significant redness and swelling may develop ... Other popular recommendations include triple dye, betadine, bacitracin, or silver sulfadiazine. With regards to the medicinal ... Anaerobic bacteria can also be involved. In a normal umbilical stump, you first see the umbilicus lose its characteristic ... For particularly invasive infections, antibiotics to cover anaerobic bacteria may be added (such as metronidazole). Treatment ...
Group A streptococcal infection
These occurs when the bacterium is able to infect areas where bacteria are not usually found, such as blood and organs. The ... Then, the organism is cultured on blood agar with an added bacitracin antibiotic disk to show beta-hemolytic colonies and ... Severe infections are usually invasive, meaning that the bacteria has entered parts of the body where bacteria are not usually ... However, S. dysgalactiae can also be group A. S. pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic species of Gram positive bacteria that is ...
The NRPS genes for a certain peptide are usually organized in one operon in bacteria and in gene clusters in eukaryotes. ... Antibiotics Actinomycin Bacitracin Calcium dependent antibiotic Daptomycin Vancomycin Teixobactin Tyrocidine Gramicidin ... Nonribosomal peptides are also found in higher organisms, such as nudibranchs, but are thought to be made by bacteria inside ... Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and ...
... bacteria, with S. pyogenes being sensitive to bacitracin and others resistant. In this case bacitracin is used to ... Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Other bacitracin ... Bacitracin is commercially manufactured by growing the bacteria Bacillus subtilis var Tracy I in a container of liquid growth ... Notable fractions include bacitracin A, A1, B, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, G, and X. Bacitracin A has been found to have the most ...
nov., a skin bacterium associated with infections in dogs". International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. ... Species in this genus are resistant to bacitracin and lysozyme and sensitive to furazolidone. The DNA base content is 38-45 mol ... and the Neolatin masculine noun coccus intended to mean a coccus shaped bacterium, as it comes from the Greek masculine noun ...
Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements
The mechanism of action for reducing the numbers of C. perfringens may differ from that previously explained for bacteria with ... Sims, MD; Dawson, KA; Newman, KE; Spring, P; Hoogell, DM (2004). "Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide, bacitracin ... A healthy sow produces good quality colostrum and spreads less harmful bacteria in the environment where she gives birth and ... However, reported effects on promoting beneficial bacteria, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are more variable. The ...
The bacteria are nonmotile, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci, 1.1 to 1.6 μm in diameter, that occur ... It is resistant to novobiocin, bacitracin, vibriostatic agent O/129, lysozyme, metronidazole, and optochin. It is susceptible ... Growth occurs between 20 and 40 °C: best growth occurs at 30 °C. No growth is observed at 15 or 45 °C. This bacterium produces ... Staphylococcus nepalensis is a Gram-positive coccoid bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. This species was first ...
The compound is then isolated and purified from the bacterium. DNA binding. Aminoglycosides such as neomycin are ... Neomycin is typically used as a topical preparation, such as Neosporin (neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin). It can also be given ... It is produced naturally by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. Synthesis requires specific nutrient conditions in either ... By killing bacteria in the intestinal tract, it keeps ammonia levels low and prevents hepatic encephalopathy, especially prior ...
And H. influenzae remodels its membranes to make it appear as if the bacterium has already been successfully attacked by AMPs, ... As of January 2018 the following antimicrobial peptides were in clinical use: Bacitracin for pneumonia, topical Boceprevir, ... Bacteria use various resistance strategies to avoid antimicrobial peptide killing. Some microorganisms alter net surface ... Bacteria produce proteolytic enzymes, which may degrade antimicrobial peptides leading to their resistance. Outer membrane ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes *Group A streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal pharyngitis. *Scarlet fever ... However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may ... It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria ...
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Urinary tract infection
Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%. Asymptomatic bacteria in the urine occurs ... bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes *Group A streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal pharyngitis. *Scarlet fever ... The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors ... Those who have bacteria in the urine but no symptoms should not generally be treated with antibiotics. This includes those ...
First aid kit
The spectrum of action includes many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas) and anaerobic bacteria. ... or caused by bacteria that are less sensitive to meropenem, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... although meropenem is more active against Enterobacteriaceae and less active against Gram-positive bacteria. It works against ... an enzyme that many drug-resistant bacteria use to destroy carbapenems. ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter
Some gram-positive bacteria have BPs fused to the transmembrane domain of the transporter itself. The first successful x-ray ... Family 3.A.1.131 The Bacitracin Resistance (Bcr) Family 3.A.1.132 The Gliding Motility ABC Transporter (Gld) Family 3.A.1.133 ... In bacteria, Levy and colleagues presented the first evidence that antibiotic resistance was caused by active efflux of a drug ... In gram-negative bacteria, exporters transport lipids and some polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. The third ...
As a beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin, it is used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, in particular, ... Diarrhea, often due to suppression of normal gastrointestinal bacteria, which, on occasion, leads to a more serious super- ... bactoprenol inhibitors (Bacitracin). Glycopeptide. *Inhibit PG chain elongation: Vancomycin# (Oritavancin. *Telavancin). * ...
... is caused by the tetanus bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanus is an international health problem, as C. tetani ... bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes *Group A streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal pharyngitis. *Scarlet fever ... Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and ... The diagnosis is based on the presentation of tetanus symptoms and does not depend upon isolation of the bacterium, which is ...
... is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes *Group A streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal pharyngitis. *Scarlet fever ... He had seven years earlier named the genus Bacterium. Bacillus was later amended by Ferdinand Cohn to further describe them as ... The cell wall of Bacillus is a structure on the outside of the cell that forms the second barrier between the bacterium and the ...
... waxy lipid layer like acid-fast bacteria. When counter stain is applied, non-acid-fast bacteria pick it up and become blue ( ... Bacitracin susceptibility test. *Optochin susceptibility test. *Novobiocin susceptibility test. *Lancefield grouping. *RPR test ... Acid-fast bacteria retain carbol fuchsin so they appear red. Modifications. *1% sulfuric acid alcohol for actinomycetes, ... These acids resist staining by ordinary methods such as a Gram stain. It can also be used to stain a few other bacteria, ...
It is less active than benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) against Gram-negative bacteria. Phenoxymethylpenicillin has a ... It is not active against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, which include many strains of Staphylococci. ... but it is substantially less active than benzylpenicillin against Gram-negative bacteria. ... bactoprenol inhibitors (Bacitracin). Glycopeptide. *Inhibit PG chain elongation: Vancomycin# (Oritavancin. *Telavancin). * ...
In the resistant bacteria, stable cross-links are formed. In the sensitive bacteria, cross-links cannot be formed and the cell ... In resistant bacteria, cross-links are successfully formed. However, in the nonresistant bacteria, the vancomycin bound to the ... Shnayerson, Michael; Plotkin, Mark (2003). The Killers Within: The Deadly Rise of Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Back Bay Books. ISBN ... However, in resistant bacteria, the last D-ala residue has been replaced by a D-lactate, so vancomycin cannot bind. ...
Bacteria can also develop a resistance to antiseptics, but the effect is generally less pronounced. ... After continued exposure to antibiotics, bacteria may evolve to the point where they are no longer harmed by these compounds. ... It is mostly used on live tissues for cleaning wounds of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Because of practicality of preparation ... The mechanisms by which bacteria evolve may vary in response to different antiseptics. Low concentrations of an antiseptic may ...
It is especially effective against Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria. The following represents MIC data for a few medically ... bactoprenol inhibitors (Bacitracin). Glycopeptide. *Inhibit PG chain elongation: Vancomycin# (Oritavancin. *Telavancin). * ... Patentdocs: Reaction Medium For Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Bacteria *^ http://www.toku-e.com/Assets/MIC ...
It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes *Group A streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal pharyngitis. *Scarlet fever ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ... When such bacteria are able to enter a living host, they encounter a vast supply of nutrients, warm conditions, and an ...
List of infectious diseases
Streptococcus dysgalactiae - Wikipedia
However, the bacterium is frequently encountered as a colonizer of healthy animals, especially in the alimentary tract and ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ... In order to establish infection, the bacteria need to escape the host immune response, and in streptococci, a varied arsenal of ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It ...
Polyfax (polymyxin B, bacitracin)
Polymyxin B and bacitracin work by killing the bacteria that are causing the infection. They attack the bacteria in different ... Polymyxin B binds to the cell membranes of the bacteria, while bacitracin interferes with the formation of their cell walls. ... Polyfax (polymyxin B, bacitracin). Polyfax ointment contains two active ingredients, polymyxin B and bacitracin. These are both ... Stopping the course early increases the chance that the infection will come back and that the bacteria will grow resistant to ...
Can mupirocin be substituted for bacitracin for wound management?
... bacitracin, mupirocin, skin and structure infection - Answer: Despite both medicines being commonly ... ... Skin and Structure Infection - Bacteria infected hole cut in leg mupirocin ointment plus augumentin?. Posted 23 May 2015 • 2 ... bacitracin, mupirocin, skin and structure infection. Details:. Open wound treatment began with bacitracin ointment. Can ... Can mupirocin be substituted for bacitracin for wound management?. Asked. 12 May 2011 by Hartigan. Active. 13 May 2011. Topics ...
Bacitracin Bacillus licheniformis, main >= 65IU/mg | 1405-87-4 | Sigma...
Bacitracin is used to study disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis at the level of peptidoglycan cross-linking and ... Bacitracin is a peptide antibiotic.. Antimicrobial spectrum: Gram-positive bacteria.. Mode of Action: Inhibits bacterial cell ... Bacitracin from Bacillus licheniformis, ≥65 IU/mg * CAS Number 1405-87-4 ... Bacitracin is used to study disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis at the level of peptidoglycan cross-linking and ...
Neomycin, Polymyxin, Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Topical: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone combination is used to treat skin infections caused by certain bacteria and ... Use neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone combination exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use ... Neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone combination is only for use on the skin. Do not use the medication in your ...
Neomycin, Polymyxin, Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Ophthalmic : MedlinePlus Drug Information
Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Ophthalmic : learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... They work by stopping the growth of bacteria. Hydrocortisone is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by ... Neomycin, Polymyxin, Bacitracin, and Hydrocortisone Ophthalmic pronounced as (nee" oh mye sin)(pol" ee mix in) ... Use neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone ophthalmic combination exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of ...
Bacitracin Ophthalmic (Eye) : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD
Find patient medical information for Bacitracin Ophthalmic (Eye) on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.. This medication treats only bacterial eye infections. It will not work for other ... bacitracin 500 unit/gram eye ointment. color. pale yellow. shape. No data.. imprint. No data.. This medicine is a pale yellow, ... bacitracin 500 unit/gram eye ointment. color. pale yellow. shape. No data.. imprint. No data.. This medicine is a pale yellow, ...
What should I avoid while using bacitracin? | Antibiotic - Sharecare
There are no restrictions on your activities while you are using bacitracin ointment. You should avoid leaving the medication ... Bacitracin should not be swallowed. If the ointment is swallowed, call the poison control center.. ... There are no restrictions on your activities while you are using bacitracin ointment. You should avoid leaving the medication ...
Bacitracin vs. Neosporin
Bacitracin and Neosporin can help you keep an infection at bay. Learn the differences between these two common over-the-counter ... Neosporin can treat more types of bacteria than Bacitracin can. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your individual ... Both Neosporin and Bacitracin stop bacterial growth, but Neosporin can also kill existing bacteria. ... Bacitracin is a brand-name drug that contains the active ingredient bacitracin only. Neosporin is the brand name of a ...
DailyMed - AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID KIT - alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, bacitracin zinc, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b...
BACITRACIN ZINC (UNII: 89Y4M234ES) (BACITRACIN - UNII:58H6RWO52I). BACITRACIN ZINC. 400 [iU] in 1 g. ... bacitracin 400 UNT / neomycin 3.5 MG (as neomycin sulfate 5 MG) / polymyxin B 5000 UNT per GM Topical Ointment. SY. ... Bacitracin 0.4 UNT/MG / Neomycin 0.0035 MG/MG / Polymyxin B 5 UNT/MG Topical Ointment. SCD. ... bacitracin 400 UNT / neomycin 3.5 MG / polymyxin B 5000 UNT per GM Topical Ointment. PSN. ...
bacitracin ophthalmic | Cigna
Bacitracin ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat bacterial infections of the eyes. Bacitracin ophthalmic may also be used ... What is bacitracin ophthalmic?. Bacitracin is an antibiotic that kills bacteria.. Bacitracin ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used ... Before using bacitracin ophthalmic, tell your doctor if you have any type of viral or fungal infection in your eye. Bacitracin ... Before using bacitracin ophthalmic, tell your doctor if you have any type of viral or fungal infection in your eye. Bacitracin ...
Bacitracin Antibiotic Ointment BUY Bacitracin, Antibiotic Ointment, 1163, Dynarex Bacitracin Antibiotic Ointment.
Bacitracin Ointment, Dynarex Ointment, Antibiotic Ointment, 1163, Dynarex Bacitracin, Dynarex Antibiotic Ointment, Bacitracin ... Dynarex 1 oz Tube Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic that stops the growth of bacteria. It does not prevent fungus infection ... Bacitracin Topical Ointment is for use on the skin and can be applied with your finger tip or with a cotton swab, such as Q- ... Dynarex Bacitracin Antibiotic Ointment is a topical medication that is designed to prevent minor infections caused by burns, ...
Bacitracin zinc ointment vs polysporin - Doctor answers
Which bacteria does ointment with bacitracin zinc and polymyxin b sulfate kill? ... Yes: Bacitracin is an effective topical antibiotic. Bacitracin zinc is a salt of the compound that is usually added to neomycin ... Bacitracin (Definition) Bacitracin is an acne agent which is a kind of skin-related medication. ...Read more ... Bacitracin And Polymyxin (Definition) Bacitracin,polymyxin is a topical anti-bacterial antibiotic skin-related medication. ... ...
Polypeptide Antibiotics: Bacitracin, Colistin, Polymyxin B - Infectious Diseases - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
... treatment of Bacteria and Antibacterial Drugs from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and is active against gram-positive bacteria. ... Polypeptide Antibiotics: Bacitracin, Colistin, Polymyxin B By Hans P. Schlecht, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor of Medicine, ... Bacitracin may pose minimal risk during pregnancy and breastfeeding because systemic absorption is minimal; however, safety has ...
bacitracin ophthalmic - WellSpan Health Library
Bacitracin ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat bacterial infections of the eyes. Bacitracin ophthalmic may also be used ... What is bacitracin ophthalmic?. Bacitracin is an antibiotic that kills bacteria.. Bacitracin ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used ... Do not use bacitracin ophthalmic if you have a viral or fungal infection in your eye. This medicine treats only infections that ... are caused by bacteria.. You should not use bacitracin ophthalmic to treat any eye infection that has not been checked by your ...
What is Bacitracin zinc ointment usp? | Reference.com
Bacitracin zinc ointment is a medication that is used to prevent minor infection on the skin caused by burns, small cuts or ... It is an antibiotic and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria on the affected areas. ... Bacitracin should be used 1 to 3 times a day by applying a thin layer on the affected area. A person may then cover the ... Bacitracin zinc ointment is a medication that is used to prevent minor infection on the skin caused by burns, small cuts or ...
Neosporin vs bacitracin - What You Need to Know
Virus vs bacteria: Bactroban (mupirocin) is used to treat bacterial infections and zovirax cream is for viruses. ...Read more ... Yes: Bacitracin is an effective topical antibiotic. Bacitracin zinc is a salt of the compound that is usually added to neomycin ... Bacitracin (Definition) Bacitracin is an acne agent which is a kind of skin-related medication. ...Read more ... Oral versus topical: Hello TPinton, Bacitin is a trade name for Bacitracin. Polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) is trade name ...
Bacitracin | Define Bacitracin at Dictionary.com
Bacitracin definition, an antibiotic polypeptide derived by the hydrolytic action of Bacillus subtilis on protein, primarily ... A polypeptide antibiotic obtained from a strain of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and used as a topical treatment for certain ... Origin of bacitracin. 1940-45; baci(llus) + (Margaret) Trac(y) (born 1936), American child whose tissues were found to contain ... bacitracin. C20: baci (llus) + -trac- from Margaret Tracy (born 1936), American girl in whose blood Bacillus subtilis was found ...
bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic - WellSpan Health Library
Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria. Bacitracin and ... Bacitracin and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. ... Bacitracin and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. ... Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria. ... Store bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the tube tightly capped when ...
Products in RPI (Research Products International) on Thomas Scientific
found in: Beef Extract, Peptone, Soy, Distilled Water, EGTA, Sodium Azide, Agar, Plant, Bacitracin, Agarose, Low Melt, R2A Agar ... Bacitracin RPI (Research Products International). Interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis. Active against gram positive ... Low nutrient medium for plate detection of heterotropic bacteria in water. Low concentrations of carbon and energy sources ... Pancreatic digest of casein used to supplement media in cultivation of anaerobic bacteria. pH (1% solution): 7.3. Ingredients: ...
bacitracin (baciguent) interferes with the cell wall synthesis of which type of bacteria? - Ask Microbiology
bacitracin (baciguent) interferes with the cell wall synthesis of which type of bacteria? Question ... Home/ Microbial genetics/bacitracin (baciguent) interferes with the cell wall synthesis of which type of bacteria? ... what is the "sexual transfer" of genes in bacteria called?. *. What is the process in which bacteria take up pieces of DNA from ... bacitracin (baciguent) interferes with the cell wall synthesis of which type of bacteria?. ...
Bacitracin zinc | definition of Bacitracin zinc by Medical dictionary
Bacitracin zinc explanation free. What is Bacitracin zinc? Meaning of Bacitracin zinc medical term. What does Bacitracin zinc ... Looking for online definition of Bacitracin zinc in the Medical Dictionary? ... bacitracin. (băs′ĭ-trā′sĭn). n.. A polypeptide antibiotic obtained from a strain of a bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and used as ... bacitracin. (redirected from Bacitracin zinc). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia. bacitracin. [bas″ĭ ...
bacitracin topical | PeaceHealth
Bacitracin topical (for the skin) is used to prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. Bacitracin may also be used ... What is bacitracin?. Bacitracin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria.. Bacitracin topical (for the skin) is used to prevent ... Bacitracin is not expected to harm an unborn baby.. It is not known whether bacitracin passes into breast milk or if it could ... What should I avoid while using bacitracin?. Bacitracin topical is for use only on the skin. Avoid getting this medication in ...
Best Over-The-Counter Antibiotic Ointments | LIVESTRONG.COM
Neomycin is generally active against the same types of bacteria as the combination of bacitracin plus polymyxin B. The addition ... First discovered in 1945, bacitracin is an antibiotic that effectively kills a broad range of bacteria. It is particularly ... Bacitracin and Polymyxin B. Double antibiotic ointments and creams contain bacitracin plus polymyxin B. Polysporin is a brand ... Bacitracin, Polymyxin B and Neomycin. Triple antibiotic ointments contain bacitracin, polymyxin B and neomycin. Both a brand ...
Bacitracin - Wikipedia
... bacteria, with S. pyogenes being sensitive to bacitracin and others resistant. In this case bacitracin is used to ... Bacitracin B1 and B2 have similar potencies and are approximately 90% as active as bacitracin A. Other bacitracin ... Bacitracin is commercially manufactured by growing the bacteria Bacillus subtilis var Tracy I in a container of liquid growth ... Notable fractions include bacitracin A, A1, B, B1, B2, C, D, E, F, G, and X. Bacitracin A has been found to have the most ...
Acquired Bacitracin Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis Is Mediated by an ABC Transporter and a Novel Regulatory Protein, BcrR ...
A number of mechanisms of bacitracin resistance have been reported in bacteria (2, 4, 5, 24, 26, 28, 34). In the bacitracin- ... Bacitracin resistance (bacitracin MIC, ≥256 μg ml−1) has been reported in Enterococcus faecalis, and in the present study we ... This concentration of bacitracin was chosen as it was approximately threefold greater than the intrinsic bacitracin MIC of 32 ... Bacitracin resistance is transferable and plasmid borne in E. faecalis.To examine if bacitracin resistance was transferable, ...
Pluronic-based nano-self-assemblies of bacitracin A with a new mechanism of action for an efficient in vivo therapeutic effect...
... have demonstrated promising antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the desirable ... were selected to link the N-terminus of bacitracin A to construct Pluronic-based nano-self assemblies (Nano-BAF127, Nano-BAP123 ... Nano-BAs possessed higher solubility and stronger effectiveness against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria compared ... Although assemblies of hydrophobic-modified bacitracin A with PLGA (Nano-BAPLGA) ...
bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone ophthalmic | PeaceHealth
... and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. Hydrocortisone is a steroid. It prevents the release of substances in the ... Bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin B and hydrocortisone ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat eye infections caused by ... Bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria.. Hydrocortisone is a steroid. It prevents the release ... bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone ophthalmic. Pronunciation: BAS i TRAY sin, NEE oh MYE sin, POL ee MIX in ...
bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B (topical)
... and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria on your skin. The combination of bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B ... What is bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B?. Bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria on ... What should I avoid while using bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B?. Bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B is for use only ... The combination of bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B topical (for the skin) is used to treat and prevent infections in ...
Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate Ointments at low Cost
We supply Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate ointment for both skin and eye. Save up to $39.96 on ordering at ... Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic eye ointment is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria ... How will Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate work in my body?. How should Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc- ... This medicine works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate skin ...
Genes Involved in Bacitracin Resistance in Streptococcus mutans | Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mechanism of bacitracin resistance in gram-negative bacteria that synthesize exopolysaccharides. J. Bacteriol. 176:6229-6237. ... Bacitracin sensitivity tests.To determine which genes were responsible for resistance to bacitracin, S. mutans mutants that ... 20) reported that certain gram-negative bacteria that synthesized exopolysaccharides acquired resistance to bacitracin by ... 20) reported that exopolysaccharide-synthesizing gram-negative bacteria acquired resistance to bacitracin by repressing the ...
StreptococcusAntibioticsOintmentNeosporinStaphylococcusAntimicrobialCell wall synthesisPolysporinGrowth of bacteriaInfectionInfections causedSynthesisOintmentsTypes of bacteriaCyclicPolypeptide antibioticDiscovered in 1945Combination of bacitracinDrugsAnaerobic bacteriaSensitive to bacitracinSkin infectionsResistant bacteriaAllergic to bacitracinNeomycin and bacitracinPolymyxin B and neomycinKnown whether bacitracinSusceptibleWork by killing theVancomycinMixtureMechanismFungusToxicSusceptibilityTopical antibioticGram-negative and gram-positivePrevent bacteria
- Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Neomycin, polymyxin, and bacitracin are in a class of medications called antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop using neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone ophthalmic combination too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics are drugs that kill infections caused by bacteria. (sharecare.com)
- Bacitracin and Neosporin are both OTC topical antibiotics used as first aid to help prevent infection from minor abrasions, wounds, and burns. (healthline.com)
- The antibiotic in Bacitracin stops bacterial growth, while the antibiotics in Neosporin stop bacterial growth and also kill existing bacteria. (healthline.com)
- Bacitracin and Neosporin are safe antibiotics for most people's minor skin wounds. (healthline.com)
- Bacitracin and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. (wellspan.org)
- Products with multiple antibiotics protect against a broader range of bacteria that might cause an infection related to a skin wound. (livestrong.com)
- As bacitracin zinc salt, in combination with other topical antibiotics (usually polymyxin B and neomycin ) as an ointment ("triple antibiotic ointment," with a common brand name Neosporin ), it is used for topical treatment of a variety of localized skin and eye infections, as well as for the prevention of wound infections . (wikipedia.org)
- Bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B are antibiotics that kill bacteria. (peacehealth.org)
- Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment is indicated for the treatment of superficial bacterial infections of the eyelid and conjunctiva in dogs and cats when due to organisms susceptible to the antibiotics contained in the ointment. (medi-vet.com)
- The three antibiotics present in bacitracin-neomycin-polymyxin veterinary ophthalmic ointment provide a broad spectrum of activity against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria commonly involved in superficial infections of the eyelid and conjunctiva. (medi-vet.com)
- Antibiotics such as bacitracin have been shown to act as dermatological irritants and may slow healing. (wikipedia.org)
- A different treatment may be necessary for these types of conditions.This product contains neomycin , bacitracin, and polymyxin, antibiotics that work by stopping the growth of bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
- Antibiotics are drugs that are used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other organisms, including protozoa, parasites, and fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
- Often, an antibiotic that kills a broad spectrum of bacteria is chosen and several antibiotics may be used together. (encyclopedia.com)
- Most of these antibiotics kill bacteria by preventing them from making protein for their cell walls. (encyclopedia.com)
- Narrow spectrum antibiotics only work against a select group of bacteria or single specific microorganism. (reference.com)
- IT IS USED FOR Vancomycin belongs to a group of glycopeptide antibiotics which eliminate bacteria that cause many kinds of infections, including pneumonia and skin, bone and heart valve infections. (drugs.com)
- However, with time bacteria have developed mechanisms to escape the effects of antibiotics - they have become resistant. (eurekalert.org)
- So, in order to kill a certain number of bacteria, we needed less antibiotics, they say. (eurekalert.org)
- According to the researchers, the combination of CBD and antibiotics may be a novel treatment of infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
- Susceptibility testing on the isolated bacteria to routine antibiotics (including: bacitracin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadiazine, tetracycline and tylosin) indicated that the most potent of these compounds was tylosin and the less one was bacitracin. (priory.com)
- These peptides are toxic to other bacteria and are used in medicine as antibiotics . (britannica.com)
- Antibiotics are used to either kill or slow down the growth of bacteria and are divided into the categories listed below. (newleafmarket.coop)
- From [http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/success/en/pur/0291e.html Innovation in Europe]]] Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. (kenyon.edu)
- Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. (kenyon.edu)
- An easier way is for the bacteria to produce antibiotics that destroy neighboring bacilli, so that their contents may be digested allowing for the survival of a few of the bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
- The purpose of the work is to determine the influence of antibiotics, bacitracin, amipicillin and streptomycin in bacterial growth. (vdu.lt)
- They were grown on a nourishing medium with different concentrations of antibiotics, bacitracin, amipicillin and streptomycin, and with petri dishes of different sizes. (vdu.lt)
- Micrococcus lutueus bacterium has been found to be sensitive to all antibiotics. (vdu.lt)
- Bacillus mycoides bacterium all antibiotics did not affect its growth. (vdu.lt)
- Topical antibiotics such as bacitracin, erythromycin, and levofloxacin are used in cases of blepharitis, if the disease is thought to be infectious. (medscape.com)
- First, topical antibiotics and other antibiotics used with wound care contribute to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, most notably MRSA. (verywellhealth.com)
- Second, people often develop an allergy to topical antibiotics like neomycin and bacitracin. (verywellhealth.com)
- In stark contrast to traditional antibiotics, AgaDerm's unique mechanism of action is not specific to one, or even a small group of molecular targets, making it extremely difficult for bacteria to become naturally resistant. (newswise.com)
- Neomycin belongs to a class of antibiotics known as aminoglycosides, which have relatively weak activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as MRSA. (newswise.com)
- Antibiotics are medications taken to fight infections caused by bacteria. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
- Here are eight natural antibiotics that can help beat infections without damaging the healthy bacteria in your gut Antibiotic ointments like Neosporin or Polysporin are good topical treatments for staph infections 2. (pimaair.org)
- The cyanoacrylate polymer particles, which do not contain antibiotics or antibacterial agents, bond with the cell wall of drug-resistant bacteria, and then induced an auto-destructive behavior that causes the bacteria to destroy itself. (omicsonline.org)
- In humans, antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria, including ear and skin infections, food poisoning , pneumonia, meningitis and other serious illnesses. (copperwiki.org)
- When bacteria are exposed to small amounts of antibiotics, the antibiotics can actually make the bacteria stronger. (copperwiki.org)
- As a result, the stronger bacteria live on, adapt to living with low levels of antibiotics, and multiply. (copperwiki.org)
- These stronger bacteria are called " resistant bacteria " because they have adapted to surviving with the antibiotics, and therefore antibiotics can't kill them. (copperwiki.org)
- Modern industrial livestock operations are an example of how rampant overuse of antibiotics threatens to increase the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (copperwiki.org)
- Polyfax ointment contains two active ingredients, polymyxin B and bacitracin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Open wound treatment began with bacitracin ointment. (drugs.com)
- Skin and Structure Infection - Bacteria infected hole cut in leg mupirocin ointment plus augumentin? (drugs.com)
- This combination comes as a cream (containing neomycin, polymyxin, and hydrocortisone) and as an ointment (containing neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone) to apply to the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- or any of the ingredients in neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone cream or ointment. (medlineplus.gov)
- These ophthalmic combinations come as an ointment (containing neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone) to apply to the eye and as a suspension (liquid with undissolved particles) (containing neomycin, polymyxin, and hydrocortisone) to instill in the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
- What conditions does Bacitracin 500 Unit/Gram Eye Ointment treat? (webmd.com)
- List Bacitracin 500 Unit/Gram Eye Ointment side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
- There are no restrictions on your activities while you are using bacitracin ointment. (sharecare.com)
- Bacitracin and Neosporin are both available in ointment forms. (healthline.com)
- Wash your hands before using bacitracin ophthalmic ointment. (cigna.com)
- Dynarex Bacitracin Antibiotic Ointment is a topical medication that is designed to prevent minor infections caused by burns, cuts, and scrapes. (vitalitymedical.com)
- Dynarex 1 oz Tube Bacitracin Ointment is an antibiotic that stops the growth of bacteria. (vitalitymedical.com)
- Bacitracin Topical Ointment is for use on the skin and can be applied with your finger tip or with a cotton swab, such as Q-tips . (vitalitymedical.com)
- Is polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) or calendula ointment better? (healthtap.com)
- Is bacitracin zinc ointment exactly like neosporin? (healthtap.com)
- Are both bacitracin ointment & bacitracin zinc ointment the same? (healthtap.com)
- Is bacitracin ointment antifungal? (healthtap.com)
- Is there a difference between neosporin ointment and polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) ointment? (healthtap.com)
- What's the difference between neosporin and polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) ointment? (healthtap.com)
- Would bacitracin zinc and polymyxin b sulfate opthalmic ointment work for a style? (healthtap.com)
- 24 y/o female asks if bacitracin zinc and polymyxin b sulfate ophthalmic ointment work for eye stye? (healthtap.com)
- Which bacteria does ointment with bacitracin zinc and polymyxin b sulfate kill? (healthtap.com)
- Allergic to neosporin and polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) what ointment can I use? (healthtap.com)
- What is Bacitracin zinc ointment usp? (reference.com)
- Bacitracin zinc ointment is a medication that is used to prevent minor infection on the skin caused by burns, small cuts or scrapes, as stated by WebMD. (reference.com)
- Double antibiotic ointments and creams contain bacitracin plus polymyxin B. Polysporin is a brand name, over-the-counter ointment containing this antibiotic mixture. (livestrong.com)
- Generic drug Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate is considered just as safe and effective as its brand-name equivalents such as Neosporin Eye Ointment and Neosporin Skin Ointment. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Did you know that buying the generic drug Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate from IDM is much cheaper than buying the Neosporin Eye Ointment or Neosporin Skin Ointment brand drug? (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic eye ointment is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria, including superficial eye infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, keratoconjunctivitis and blepharoconjunctivitis. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic skin ointment is used to treat and prevent minor skin infections caused by cuts, scrapes and burns. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic eye ointment is prescribed for the treatment of eye infections caused by bacteria, including superficial eye infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, keratoconjunctivitis and blepharoconjunctivitis. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic eye ointment may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- Polymyxin B Sulfate-Bacitracin Zinc-Neomycin Sulfate antibiotic skin ointment is indicated for the treatment and prevention of minor skin infections caused by cuts, scrapes and burns. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- The area should be properly cleansed prior to the use of Bacitracin-Neomycin-Polymyxin Veterinary Ophthalmic Ointment. (medi-vet.com)
- Animax is an antibiotic ointment that is used to treat infections of the skin that are caused by either bacteria or fungi. (vetinfo.com)
- Once the injury is clean, you should apply an antibiotic ointment such as Bacitracin or Neosporin . (healthline.com)
- What is the most important information I should know about bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B ophthalmic?You should not use this medication if you are allergic to bacitracin, neomycin, or polymyxin B. Do not allow the tip of the ointment tube to touch any surface, including the eyes or hands. (drugster.info)
- When using bacitracin as an ointment, the affected area should be clean and dry, and the ointment should be applied in a thin layer, and, where necessary, covered with a bandage. (equimed.com)
- When using bacitracin as an opthalmic (eye) ointment, apply a thin film over the cornea 3 or 4 times daily. (equimed.com)
- My favorites are Bacitracin and Polysporin ointment, both of which are available without prescriptions. (dermtv.com)
- Each gram of Bacimyxin ointment contains polymyxin B (as sulfate) 10,000 units and bacitracin (as zinc) 500 units topical ointment. (medbroadcast.com)
- Bacitracin vs. Neosporin: Which Is Better for Me? (healthline.com)
- Compare the major similarities and differences between Bacitracin and Neosporin to decide which antibiotic may be better for you. (healthline.com)
- Neosporin is the brand name of a combination drug with the active ingredients bacitracin, neomycin, and polymixin b. (healthline.com)
- One of the main differences between the two drugs is that some people are allergic to Neosporin but not to Bacitracin. (healthline.com)
- Still, Neosporin is safe and works well for most people, like Bacitracin. (healthline.com)
- Neosporin can also fight against a wider range of bacteria than Bacitracin can. (healthline.com)
- Most people tolerate both Bacitracin and Neosporin well, but a small number of people will be allergic to either drug. (healthline.com)
- There are also no known significant drug interactions for either Bacitracin or Neosporin. (healthline.com)
- You can ask your doctor how long you should use Bacitracin or Neosporin. (healthline.com)
- You use Bacitracin and Neosporin in the same way. (healthline.com)
- Both Neosporin and Bacitracin stop bacterial growth, but Neosporin can also kill existing bacteria. (healthline.com)
- Neosporin can treat more types of bacteria than Bacitracin can. (healthline.com)
- Bacitracin zinc is a salt of the compound that is usually added to neomycin and polymixin b to form the triple antibiotic, neosporin. (healthtap.com)
- Neosporin contains bacitracin, polymyxin and neomycin . (healthtap.com)
- Neosporin with vs without bacitracin zinc, what's the difference? (healthtap.com)
- Should I use polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) or neosporin for cuts and scrapes? (healthtap.com)
- There are no known problems with this, and polysporin ( bacitracin and polymyxin ) and neosporin are not penicillins. (healthtap.com)
- Apply bacitracin (not Neosporin) for pediatric patients if bacterial infection is suspected. (medhelp.org)
- Triple-antibiotic ointments such as Neosporin often contain the active drugs bacitracin and neomycin. (newswise.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus - ≤0.03 μg/mL - 700 μg/mL Staphylococcus epidermidis - 0.25 μg/mL - >16 μg/mL Streptococcus pyogenes - 0.5 μg/mL - >16 μg/mL Bacitracin interferes with the dephosphorylation of C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, also known as bactoprenol, a membrane carrier molecule that transports the building-blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Results of susceptibility testing of the most commonly isolated bacteria indicated that for Staphylococcus spp, most efficacious antimicrobial agents were tylosin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, and gentamicin. (priory.com)
- Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales . (wikipedia.org)
- It is effective against gram-positive bacteria, including strains of staphylococcus that are resistant to penicillin. (equimed.com)
- Bacitracin injection is an antibiotic that treats staph infection caused by a bacteria called staphylococcus (STAF-il-oh-KOK-us). (johnstonhealth.org)
- Bacteria frequently associated with periorbital infections include species of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus . (medscape.com)
- The human body consists of a vast repertoire of bacteria, among which the genus Staphylococcus represents the proportion of bacteria that can cause severe infections to the host and majority of these colonize inside new born babies through mother's skin [ 8 , 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Bacitracin targets the cell wall of gram-positive organisms such as Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus . (goldbio.com)
- Initial microscopic examination of the wound revealed that it was infected with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureas. (amsny.org)
- The doctor thinks that you might have acquired an infection caused by Staphylococcus, which are Gram-positive bacteria. (study.com)
- A good example of antibiotic resistant bacteria would be Staphylococcus aureus . (copperwiki.org)
- Antimicrobial spectrum: Gram-positive bacteria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Bacitracin is comprised of numerous antimicrobial peptide fractions. (agscientific.com)
- There are several antimicrobial resistant strains of this bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus the purpose of the study reported here was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of most bacteria isolated from the normal flora of dogs that were presented for check up examination and vaccination to Veterinary Clinic of Shiraz University. (priory.com)
- Several studies have shown that oral bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Government bodies and other large health organizations are now formally recognizing the urgent need for new generations of antimicrobial agents that are fast-acting and effective against drug-resistant bacteria. (newswise.com)
- In addition, all of these isolates were tested against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeast in order to further characterize their antimicrobial properties. (frontiersin.org)
- The use of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for anaerobes remains restricted to specialized reference laboratories, so antimicrobial therapy for patients with infections due to anaerobic bacteria is often empirical. (asm.org)
- Bacitracins B1 and B2 exhibit about 90% of the antimicrobial activity of bacitracin A when together. (goldbio.com)
- Other forms of bacitracin have not been studied extensively, but may have negligible antimicrobial properties. (goldbio.com)
- Characteristics of an antimicrobial drug used in treatment are specific to each bacterium. (omicsonline.org)
Cell wall synthesis5
- Bacitracin is used to study disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis at the level of peptidoglycan cross-linking and isoprenyl metabolism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and is active against gram-positive bacteria. (merckmanuals.com)
- bacitracin (baciguent) interferes with the cell wall synthesis of which type of bacteria? (askmicrobiology.com)
- Binding of bacitracin prevents the recycling of UPP and therefore causes disruption of cell wall synthesis ( 31 , 32 , 33 ). (asm.org)
- To learn more about inhibitors, review the accompanying lesson on Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, Vancomycin & Mycobacteria-Specific Drugs. (study.com)
- Polysporin ( bacitracin and polymyxin ) is antibiotic but, is a mixture of few antibiotic products. (healthtap.com)
- Is polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) a steroidal cream? (healthtap.com)
- Polysporin ( bacitracin and polymyxin ) contains just the first 2 of these. (healthtap.com)
- Can i use fucidin 2% & polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin) together for infected eczema patch? (healthtap.com)
- Do you clean an abrasion before applying polysporin (bacitracin and polymyxin)? (healthtap.com)
- And that is easily done with over-the-counter antibiotic ointments like bacitracin or Polysporin. (dermtv.com)
Growth of bacteria6
- They work by stopping the growth of bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. (webmd.com)
- It is an antibiotic and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria on the affected areas. (reference.com)
- This medicine works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- These drugs are used to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria without causing significant harm to the host (such as a human or an animal). (copperwiki.org)
- 3. Antibiotic chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of bacteria and even destroy them. (austincc.edu)
- Polymyxin B and bacitracin work by killing the bacteria that are causing the infection. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Interfering with the cell membranes and cell walls kills the bacteria and thus clears up the infection. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Stopping the course early increases the chance that the infection will come back and that the bacteria will grow resistant to the antibiotic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Before using bacitracin ophthalmic, tell your doctor if you have any type of viral or fungal infection in your eye. (cigna.com)
- Bacitracin will not treat a viral or fungal infection of the eye. (cigna.com)
- Do not use bacitracin ophthalmic if you have a viral or fungal infection in your eye. (wellspan.org)
- You should not use bacitracin ophthalmic to treat any eye infection that has not been checked by your doctor. (wellspan.org)
- Bacitracin ophthalmic will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold. (wellspan.org)
- Bacitracin topical (for the skin) is used to prevent infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. (peacehealth.org)
- This antibiotic compound works by killing the bacteria that causes the infection. (internationaldrugmart.com)
- The pimple will heal faster if you don't give bacteria a chance to settle in and create a new or worse infection. (wikihow.com)
- Here we describe an investigation into the role of cellular protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) by studying the effects of the commonly used PDI inhibitor bacitracin on HPV16 infection. (asm.org)
- Bacitracin caused an unusual time-dependent opposing effect on viral infection. (asm.org)
- Bacitracin was rapidly taken up by host cells and colocalized with HPV16 at late times of infection. (asm.org)
- Transient treatment with the reductant β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) was able to partially rescue the virus from bacitracin, suggesting the involvement of a cellular reductase activity in HPV16 infection. (asm.org)
- It contains three main ingredients to fight infection: Bacitracin, Neomycin and Polymyxin. (vetinfo.com)
- You may have bacteria or other substances on your hand that could cause infection. (healthline.com)
- Inflammation has many possible causes, including irritation by environmental substances, physical trauma, and infection by a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria, virus, or fungus-each of which require a particular treatment. (medhelp.org)
- Impetigo is a common skin or soft tissue infection usually caused by a staph or strep bacteria. (verywellhealth.com)
- Many organisms (including various species of fungi) produce substances that destroy bacteria and thus prevent infection. (copperwiki.org)
- The antibiotic is for the infection (bacteria) and the anti-inflammatory is for the pain, redness, and swelling. (acne.org)
- That infection is usually caused by familiar germs like staph or strep bacteria. (dermtv.com)
- Through a positive feedback mechanism, the bacteria make the eczema worse, so unless you treat the infection with an antibiotic, the eczema won't get better. (dermtv.com)
- The next issue that you have to deal with is infection because all of that scratching caused little breaks in the skin and those little breaks create little valleys where bacteria can hide, and also all the inflamed skin is all flaky and scaly and bacteria just love to use that for nutrients and to live there. (dermtv.com)
- Whether those bacteria are causing an actual infection, whether they are just living there and making their metabolic byproducts which themselves are irritating to your atopic skin and further causing more itching, you have to stop the bacteria. (dermtv.com)
- Neomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin, and hydrocortisone combination is used to treat skin infections caused by certain bacteria and to treat the redness, swelling, itching, and discomfort of various skin conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bacitracin and polymyxin B ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria. (wellspan.org)
- Bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin B and hydrocortisone ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat eye infections caused by bacteria, injury, burns, or contamination by a foreign body in the eye. (peacehealth.org)
- These peptides disrupt Gram-positive bacteria by interfering with cell wall and peptidoglycan synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- The inactivation of RGP synthesis in S. mutans resulted in an approximately fivefold-higher sensitivity to bacitracin relative to that observed for the wild-type strain Xc. (asm.org)
- We conclude that RGP synthesis is related to bacitracin resistance in S. mutans and that the mbr genes modulate resistance to bacitracin via an unknown mechanism that is independent of RGP synthesis. (asm.org)
- 20 ) reported that certain gram-negative bacteria that synthesized exopolysaccharides acquired resistance to bacitracin by shutting down the synthesis of exopolysaccharides. (asm.org)
- It acts by interfering with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, effective against Gram-positive bacteria. (agscientific.com)
- Bacitracin is synthesised via what is called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which means that ribosomes are not directly involved in its synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Bacitracin is a key ingredient in over-the-counter antibiotic ointments and creams. (livestrong.com)
- Several brands of bacitracin-only antibiotic ointments are available over the counter. (livestrong.com)
- Therefore, double antibiotic ointments and creams offer broader antibacterial coverage than bacitracin alone. (livestrong.com)
- Triple antibiotic ointments contain bacitracin, polymyxin B and neomycin. (livestrong.com)
- Avoid applying other creams, lotions, ointments, or other medicated skin products to the same areas you treat with bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B. (cardiosmart.org)
Types of bacteria4
- Polymyxin B is effective against many types of bacteria in the group known as the gram-negative rods, many of which are not inhibited by bacitracin. (livestrong.com)
- Neomycin is generally active against the same types of bacteria as the combination of bacitracin plus polymyxin B. The addition of neomycin to the double antibiotic combination is believed to enhance effectiveness through an additive effect. (livestrong.com)
- Many types of bacteria reproduce by cell division (the one-celled organism divides into two identical organisms), a very rapid process that sometimes takes as little as 20 minutes. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
- Some types of bacteria are photosynthetic, but most are not. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
- Bacitracin is used in human medicine as a polypeptide antibiotic and is "approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in chickens and turkeys," though use in animals contributes to antibiotic resistance . (wikipedia.org)
- Tyrothricin belongs to the pharmacologically related group of polypeptide antibiotic compounds including colistin, polymyxin B and bacitracin. (wikipedia.org)
Discovered in 19451
Combination of bacitracin1
- What other drugs will affect bacitracin ophthalmic? (cigna.com)
- It is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on bacitracin ophthalmic used in the eyes. (cigna.com)
- These drugs are not active against Proteus , Providencia , Burkholderia , and Serratia spp and some obligate anaerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis and gram-positive bacteria. (merckmanuals.com)
- Although allergic cross reaction with sulfa drugs has been occasionally reported, bacitracin-containing topical preparations remain a possible alternative to silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene) for burn patients with a sulfa allergy. (wikipedia.org)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bacitracin and other antibacterial drugs, Bacitracin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Other drugs may interact with bacitracin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (johnstonhealth.org)
- In order to be effective, these new drugs must minimize the possibility that bacteria could develop resistance. (newswise.com)
- The basis for this perhaps lies in the mechanism of action of Aganocides relative to drugs like bacitracin and neomycin. (newswise.com)
- Antibiotic drugs are prepared from natural compounds that are antagonistic (harmful) to bacteria. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
Sensitive to bacitracin2
- Although the bacitracin sensitivities of mutants that had defects in flanking genes were similar to that of the parental strain Xc, mutants that were defective in mbrA , mbrB , mbrC , or mbrD were about 100 to 120 times more sensitive to bacitracin than strain Xc. (asm.org)
- In addition, a mutant that was defective in all of the mbrABCD genes and rgpA was more sensitive to bacitracin than either the RGP or Mbr mutants. (asm.org)
- Their use contributes to emerging antibiotic- resistant bacteria . (healthtap.com)
- In some countries, treatment of bacterial infections with these resistant bacteria are difficult and the problem is projected to be an ever-larger problem in the future. (eurekalert.org)
- This may contribute to the development of fewer resistant bacteria, says Janne Kudsk Klitgaard. (eurekalert.org)
- If you're intermittent cathing you definitely have some bacteria in your bladder, if the current mix isn't causing you problems (fever, pain, spasms, frequency, smell, etc) then you're likely to disrupt the current biome and let a resistant bacteria take over. (rutgers.edu)
- Nowadays, because of the rise of MRSA and other types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mupirocin is ineffective in many cases of impetigo. (verywellhealth.com)
- Because of this, the drug-resistant bacteria are unable to arise. (omicsonline.org)
- What are Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria? (copperwiki.org)
- The discovery of resistant bacterial strains led to the development of semisynthetic penicillins (resistant bacteria have beta lactamase enzymes that can break down beta lactam rings). (austincc.edu)
Allergic to bacitracin3
- You should not use this medication if you are allergic to bacitracin. (cigna.com)
- Bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B should not be used on a child.What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B ophthalmic?You should not use this medication if you are allergic to bacitracin, neomycin, or polymyxin B. FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether bacitracin, neomycin, and polymyxin B ophthalmic is harmful to an unborn baby. (drugster.info)
- Your baby should not receive this medicine if he or she is allergic to bacitracin. (johnstonhealth.org)
Neomycin and bacitracin1
Polymyxin B and neomycin1
Known whether bacitracin2
- In infants, bacitracin is rarely administered intramuscularly for the treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown susceptible to bacitracin. (wikipedia.org)
- Its use should be restricted to infants with staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown to be susceptible to bacitracin. (nih.gov)
- In accordance with the statements in the 'Warning Box', the use of intramuscular bacitracin is limited to the treatment of infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci shown to be susceptible to the drug. (nih.gov)
Work by killing the1
- Northern analysis demonstrated that bcrA , bcrB , and bcrD were transcribed as a polycistronic message that was induced by increasing concentrations of bacitracin but not by other cell wall-active antimicrobials (e.g., vancomycin). (asm.org)
- Bacitracin is used widely in topical applications in human medicine, and its oral use for the control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has been suggested ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- The clinical use of bacitracin by oral administration is getting much attention for its ability to eradicate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from the gastrointestinal tracts of patients ( 2 , 15 , 25 ). (asm.org)
- Bacitracin is composed of a mixture of related compounds with varying degrees of antibacterial activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Curious about how the bacteria in this dish were killed, Fleming took the greenish 'fluff in the dish and made a mixture that his laboratory workers called 'mold juice. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
Gram-negative and gram-positive3
- Ciprofloxacin (Cipro): fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat certain gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and some mycobacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
- They are tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria using panels, discs, and MIC strips by medical microbiologists. (goldbio.com)
- 1. What unique cell wall structure do mycobacteria have that Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not? (study.com)