One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.

Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease: implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1/1409)

In preparing the 1998 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we reviewed evidence regarding the need to eradicate anaerobes when treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Anaerobes are present in the upper genital tract during an episode of acute PID, with the prevalence dependent on the population under study. Vaginal anaerobes can facilitate acquisition of PID and cause tissue damage to the fallopian tube, either directly or indirectly through the host inflammatory response. Use of several broad-spectrum regimens appears to result in excellent clinical cure rates, despite the fact that some combinations fall short of providing comprehensive coverage of anaerobes. There are limited data on the long-term effects of failing to eradicate anaerobes from the upper genital tract. Concern that tissue damage may continue when anaerobes are suboptimally treated has prompted many experts to caution that therapeutic regimens should include comprehensive anaerobic coverage for optimal treatment of women with PID.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (2/1409)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of a novel multidomain mannanase gene from Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum. (3/1409)

The manA gene of Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum was cloned in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of manA is composed of 3,291 bases and codes for a preprotein of 1,097 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119,627 Da. The start codon is preceded by a strong putative ribosome binding site (TAAGGCGGTG) and a putative -35 (TTCGC) and -10 (TAAAAT) promoter sequence. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum is a modular protein. Sequence comparison and biochemical analyses demonstrate the presence of an N-terminal leader peptide, and three other domains in the following order: a putative mannanase-cellulase catalytic domain, cellulose binding domains 1 (CBD1) and CBD2, and a surface-layer-like protein region (SLH-1, SLH-2, and SLH-3). The CBD domains show no sequence homology to any cellulose binding domain yet reported, hence suggesting a novel CBD. The duplicated CBDs, which lack a disulfide bridge, exhibit 69% identity, and their deletion resulted in both failure to bind to cellulose and an apparent loss of carboxymethyl cellulase and mannanase activities. At the C-terminal region of the gene are three repeats of 59, 67, and 56 amino acids which are homologous to conserved sequences found in the S-layer-associated regions within the xylanases and cellulases of thermophilic members of the Bacillus-Clostridium cluster. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum, besides being an extremely active enzyme, is the only mannanase gene cloned which shows this domain structure.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints. (4/1409)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities.  (+info)

Towards the reaction mechanism of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase of Pelobacter acidigallici. (5/1409)

Conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol was studied with the molybdenum enzyme transhydroxylase of the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter acidigallici. Transhydroxylation experiments in H218O revealed that none of the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol was derived from water, confirming the concept that this enzyme transfers a hydroxyl group from the cosubstrate 1,2,3, 5-tetrahydroxybenzene (tetrahydroxybenzene) to the acceptor pyrogallol, and simultaneously regenerates the cosubstrate. This concept requires a reaction which synthesizes the cofactor de novo to maintain a sufficiently high intracellular pool during growth. Some sulfoxides and aromatic N-oxides were found to act as hydroxyl donors to convert pyrogallol to tetrahydroxybenzene. Again, water was not the source of the added hydroxyl groups; the oxides reacted as cosubstrates in a transhydroxylation reaction rather than as true oxidants in a net hydroxylation reaction. No oxidizing agent was found that supported a formation of tetrahydroxybenzene via a net hydroxylation of pyrogallol. However, conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol in the absence of tetrahydroxybenzene was achieved if little pyrogallol and a high amount of enzyme preparation was used which had been pre-exposed to air. Obviously, the enzyme was oxidized by air to form sufficient amounts of tetrahydroxybenzene from pyrogallol to start the reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed which combines an oxidative hydroxylation with a reductive dehydroxylation via the molybdenum cofactor, and allows the transfer of a hydroxyl group between tetrahydroxybenzene and pyrogallol without involvement of water. With this, the transhydroxylase differs basically from all other hydroxylating molybdenum enzymes which all use water as hydroxyl source.  (+info)

Chemical modification of lysine side chains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter causes a shift from cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase to alpha-amylase specificity. (6/1409)

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases and alpha-amylases are two groups of enzymes with related secondary structures. However, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases display transferase activities not present in alpha-amylases, probably derived from the existence of two more domains and different amino acid sequences. The hydrolytic activity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is generally quite low, except for two cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from termophiles. In this work, we have carried out the chemical modification (with acetic anhydride) of the amino groups of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter to assess their contributions to protein function. The acetylated cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase showed a significant reduction of its cyclization, coupling and disproportionation activities. Surprisingly, the hydrolytic (saccharifying) activity was slightly enhanced. These results suggest the participation of one or more lysine side chains in the interactions contributing to the transferase activity, either in any of the S11 subsites or in the acceptor binding site.  (+info)

Current susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria. (7/1409)

While antibiotic resistance among anaerobes continues to increase, the frequency of antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anaerobes is declining. Because anaerobic infections are often mixed and detailed bacteriology of the organisms involved may take some time, physicians must institute empiric therapy before susceptibility testing results are available. Also, economic realities and prudent use of resources mandate that careful consideration be given to the necessity for routine susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Determination of appropriate therapy can be based on published antibiograms; however, since patterns may vary within geographic regions and even within hospitals, it is strongly recommended that each hospital center periodically test their isolates to determine local patterns and detect any pockets of resistance. As a general guide, antibiograms from the last several years of susceptibility testing at the Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory are reported.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (8/1409)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C ...
Title: Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):R. Schaumann and A. C. Rodloff. Affiliation:Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig,Liebigstr. 24, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.. Keywords:Quinolones, naphthyridones, anaerobes, aerobe/anaerobe mixed infections. Abstract: Quinolones are of clinical and scientific interest since their discovery based on the nalidixic acid in the early 1960s. They are based on two types of ring structures, the quinolone nucleus and the naphthyridone nucleus. Nalidixic acid as the first discovered agent is a naphthyridone and has only a moderate activity against Gram-negative rods. The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. The quinolones are now divided into four groups due to their different ...
The purpose of this study was to identify anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and to support quantitative PCR results which were performed for searching an effective seeding sludge to achieve successful enrichment of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Eleven sludge-samples originated from ten purification facilities for livestock wastewater were used in this study. At first, six samples among the eleven samples were selected by gas productivity per a gram biomass. The selected samples were used for the experiments of qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing after extraction of the genomic DNAs. The quantitative PCR was done with the primer sets of AMX818F/AMX1066R and HZO2aF/HZO2aR. The amplicons for pyrosequencing analysis were constructed by using the primer-set which is consisted of a specific pla46F primer targeting the conserved 16S rRNA gene belongs to Plantomycetes phylum and eub 518R targeting the conserved 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria. There is no meaningful correlation between the results ...
In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them (referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration. Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen. ...
Doripenem, a 1-β-methyl carbapenem being developed for the treatment of serious systemic bacterial infections, is resistant to hydrolysis by dihydropeptidase 1 (7). In aerobes, doripenem appears to have the advantages of both imipenem (in its activity against gram-positive cocci) and meropenem (in its activity against gram-negative organisms) (12). Metalloenzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems have been found in both aerobic bacteria (3, 10, 11) and anaerobic bacteria (2); the gene for the metalloenzyme may be silent or expressed to various degrees, resulting in a wide range of carbapenem resistance levels (13). In Japan, this accounts for the 2 to 4% rate of resistance to imipenem (1, 16), but these isolates are rarely found in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of doripenem against a wide range of clinical anaerobic isolates and to compare its in vitro activities to those of other antimicrobial agents.. Bacteria were clinical isolates collected from a wide ...
Diagnosis The diagnosis of anaerobic infection is based primarily on symptoms, the patients medical history, and location of the infection. A foul-smelling infection or drainage from an abscess is diagnostic of anaerobic infection. This foul smell is produced by anaerobic bacteria and occurs in one third to one half of patients late in the infection. Other clues to anaerobic infection include tissue necrosis and gas production at the infection site. A sample from the infected site may be obtained, using a swab or a needle and syringe, to determine which bacteria is (are) causing the infection. Because these bacteria can be easily killed by oxygen, they rarely grow in the laboratory cultures of tissue or pus samples. The recent medical history of the patient is helpful in diagnosing anaerobic infection. A patient who has or recently had surgery, dental work, tumors, blood vessel disease, or injury are susceptible to this infection. The failure to improve following treatment with antibiotics that ...
Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are common and may be serious and life-threatening. Anaerobes are the predominant components of the bacterial flora of
Anaerobic bacteria are not likely to carry out cellular respiration. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, and anaerobic bacteria are able to survive in environments that lack...
Anaerobic bacteria are the primary cause of bad breath. Controlling them will give you a cleaner, fresher mouth. Visit our site for more information.
Preliminary test: The concentration of EA-3098 in the aqueous phases after two and three successive centrigugation steps was for peak 1 ,1.0 x 10 -5 g/l, peak 2 ,4.0 x 10-5 g/l and for peak 3 ,1.o x 10-4 g/l, respectively. From this it could be concluded that the water solubility of EA-3098 is ,10 mg/l. Therefore, the column elution method was chosen for the determination of the water solubility of EA-3098. The pH of the aqueous phase after 2 centrifugation steps was 9.5. Main study (column elution method): Analysis confirmed the presence of test substance on the loaded carrier material before filling the column. The eluates did not contain undissolved particles. In the eluates from the blank column a small peak was detected for peak 1. The concentration was calculated using the RF-factor and was ,Limit of Detection (LOD). The results are summarised in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 1: Results of column elution method for peak 1 ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) has been proven to be an excellent pretreatment step for an anaerobic digester (AD), increasing biogas yield and decreasing sludge disposal. The goal of this work was to optimize deammonification for efficient nitrogen removal despite the inhibition effects caused by the organics present in the THP-AD sludge filtrate (digestate). Two sequencing batch reactors were studied treating conventional digestate and THP-AD digestate, respectively. Improved process control based on higher dissolved oxygen set-point (1 mg O-2/L) and longer aeration times could achieve successful treatment of THP-AD digestate. This increased set-point could overcome the inhibition effect on aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB), potentially caused by particulate and colloidal organics. Moreover, based on the mass balance, anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) contribution to the total nitrogen removal decreased from 97 +/- A 1 % for conventional to 72 +/- A 5 % for THP-AD ...
The complexity of the oral and gingival flora has prevented the clear elucidation of specific etiologic agents in most forms of oral and dental infections. In the gingival crevice, there are approximately 1.8 X1011 anaerobes per gram (1). Because anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal oral flora and outnumber aerobic organisms by a ratio of 1 10 to 1 100 at this site, it is not surprising that they predominant in dental infections. There are at least 350 morphological and biochemically.... ...
An imbalance in the colonic microbiota might underlie many human diseases, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain elusive. Recent insights suggest that colonocyte metabolism functions as a control switch, mediating a shift between homeostatic and dysbiotic communities. During homeostasis, colonocyte metabolism is directed towards oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in high epithelial oxygen consumption. The consequent epithelial hypoxia helps maintain a microbial community dominated by obligate anaerobic bacteria, which provide benefit by converting fiber into fermentation products absorbed by the host. Conditions that alter the metabolism of the colonic epithelium increase epithelial oxygenation, thereby driving an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria, a hallmark of dysbiosis in the colon. Enteric pathogens subvert colonocyte metabolism to escape niche protection conferred by the gut microbiota. The reverse strategy, a metabolic reprogramming to restore colonocyte hypoxia, ...
Buy Biochemistry and Physiology of Anaerobic Bacteria (9780387955926): NHBS - Edited By: LG Ljungdahl, MW Adams, LL Barton, JG Ferry and MK Johnson, Springer-Verlag
Overview of Anaerobic Bacteria - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Study Flashcards On Q3: Micro: Anaerobic Infections at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Anaerobic Infections, Central Nervous System. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Bernstein J. Papadakis M.A., & McPhee S.J., & Bernstein J(Eds.),Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2020. McGraw-Hill; Accessed October 25, 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2750§ionid=231362258 ...
Anaerobic Infections, Central Nervous System. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ. Papadakis M.A., McPhee S.J. Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, and Stephen J. McPhee.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017 New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2033§ionid=152401325. Accessed December 18, 2017 ...
A novel anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain Zn2T, was isolated from the wastewater of a paper mill in Zhejiang, China. Cells were Gram-type-positive rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 2-4 µm long, and were motile by a lateral flagellum. The ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 10-50 °C and pH 6.0-9.5. Optimal growth occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.3-7.5. The strain did not require NaCl for growth, but its inclusion in the medium improved growth (optimum concentration 6 %). Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, d-xylose, salicin, glycerol, formate, acetate and propionate. The main products of carbohydrate fermentation were acetate, formate, propionate and lactate. Elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and Fe(III) were used as electron acceptors, but sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite and Mn(IV) were not. Growth was inhibited by the addition of 10 µg ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline or chloramphenicol ml−1. iso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 1
The environment-friendly bio-toilets for passenger coaches were developed jointly by Indian Railways and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).In the bio-toilet fitted coaches, human waste is collected in bio digester tanks below the toilets and is decomposed by a consortium of anaerobic bacteria.By the process of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis, the anaerobic bacteria converts human faecal matter into water and small amount of gases (including methane).. Indian railways aims to install human waste discharge free biotoilets in all its coaches and the same would be completed by September 2019.It will help in proving cleanliness and hygiene besides preventingcorrosion of the tracks.It is part of the Swachh Bharat Mission. Diagram of Bio -toilet:. ...
Does anyone know how to isolate genomic DNA from anaerobic bacteria? Any suggestion or protocol are very appreciated! Thanks in advance. Shiyou Ding ...
Naidoo, S et al. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., Oct 2011, vol.101, no.10, p.732-734. ISSN 0256- ...
I was thinking about getting this block of marinepure from bulk reef supply. Theyre supposed to work really week and boost biological filtration (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria). People have said
Recent studies indicate that ammonia is an important electron donor for the oxidation of fixed nitrogen, both in the marine water column and sediments. This process, known as anammox, has so far only been observed in a large range of temperature habitats. The present study investigated the role of anammox in hydrothermal settings. During three oceanographic expeditions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, hydrothermal samples were collected from five vent sites, at depths ranging from 750 to 3650 m from cold to hot habitats. Evidence for the occurrence of anammox in these particular habitats was demonstrated by concurrent surveys, including the amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences related to known anammox bacteria, ladderanes lipids analysis and measurement of a (14)N(15)N dinitrogen production in isotope-pairing experiments at 60 and 85 degrees C. Together these results indicate that new deep-branching anammox bacteria may be active in these hot habitats.
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Peptostreptococcus spp. (and pathogens formerly designated as Peptostreptococcus, including species now in genera Anaerococcus, Atopobium, Blautia, Finegoldia, Peptoniphilus and Parvimonas, collectively referred to as the peptostreptococci below). SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Finegoldia magnus, Parvimonas micros, Atopobium parvulum, Blautia producta . CHARACTERISTICS: Peptostreptococci are anaerobic, non-sporing, gram-positive cocci that are 0.3-1.8 μm in diameter, depending on the species(1-3). They are usually arranged in chains, pairs, tetrads, or clumps(1,3). SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Peptostreptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary system, and skin(1-5). This type of bacteria causes a wide variety of infections, including oropharyngeal, sinus, ear, ...
Mobiluncus mulieris ATCC ® 35240D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Mobiluncus mulieris strain BV 64-5 TypeStrain=False Application:
The nitrogen removal pathways in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process where anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying heterotrophs convert ammonium and nitrite directly to dinitrogen gas under anoxic conditions were investigated using a mathematical model. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was modified with two step denitrification and one-step anaerobic ammonia oxidation. A one dimensional granular biofilm model was implemented in Aquasim 2.1v (EAWAG, Switzerland) in order to describe a series of batch processes operated in a bioreactor treating synthetic wastewater. A sophisticated statistical method was used for parameter estimation. The model was not sensitive with respect to the detachment velocity in the biofilm matrix as well as the porosity coefficients of dissolved state variables. The final results showed a satisfactory goodness of fitness representing Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.98 and 0.81 for modeled and measured concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N
Anaerobe Systems manufactures anaerobic chambers, anaerobic tubes,anaerobic plates,anaerobic transport media, custom formulations, disks, and reagents for anaerobic diagnostic laboratories. Anaerobe Systems produces the only true Pre-Reduced Anaerobically Sterilized (PRAS) plated and tubed culture media in the USA. Anaerobe Systems also offers anaerobe chamber training seminars, advanced anaerobic microbiology courses and anaerobic microbiology workshops. The Anaerobe Systems website contains descriptions, pricing and ordering information for anaerobic chambers, agars, broths and transport media needed in the anaerobic diagnostic laboratory, as well as information on anaerobic microbiology education.
Cell-associated oligo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.10) was isolated from Thermoanaerobium Tok6-B1 grown on starch-containing medium. Activity was purified 11.4-fold by salt precipitation, gel filtration, hydroxyapatite and anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular mass was determined as 30,000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 33,000 by analytical gel filtration. The probable order of specificity was p-nitrophenyl-alpha D-glucose greater than-isomaltose greater than-isomaltotriose greater than-panose greater than-nigerose and no activity was shown against malto-oligosaccharides, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, cellobiose, sophorose, gentiobiose, lactose, pullulan, dextran or amylose. The optima for activity and stability were between pH 5.6 and 7.0 and the half-life at pH 6.5 was 1000 min at 70 degrees C and 20 min at 76 degrees C. Activity was stabilized by substrate, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+, but was destabilized by Zn2+ and EDTA. N-Ethylmaleimide, glucose and 1-O-methyl-alpha ...
Multiple species of bacteria have been isolated from chronic and acute wounds, including wounds without any signs of infection. A literature review by Bowler examined culture data from 62 published studies dating between 1969 and 1997 (Bowler, 1998). The most predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (reported in 63% of the studies), followed by coliforms (45%), Bacteroides spp. (39%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%), Enterococcus spp. (26%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (13%).. This literature review also indicated that anaerobic bacteria were more commonly reported isolates from infected wounds. A later culture-based study compared the microflora of chronic and acute wounds (Bowler and Davies, 1999). In this study, Staphylococcus aureus predominated in infected acute wounds, while infected chronic wounds were primarily colonized by anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., Prevotella/ Porphyromonas spp., Clostridium spp.), coliforms, and fecal ...
Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) and ACB8, were isolated from human subgingival dental plaque. All strains required yeast extract for growth. Strains ACB1(T) and ACB8 were able to grow on glucose, lactose, maltose, maltodextrin and raffinose; strain ACB7(T) grew weakly on sucrose only. The growth temperature range was 30-42 °C with optimum growth at 37 °C. Major metabolic fermentation end products of strain ACB1(T) were acetate and lactate; the only product of strains ACB7(T) and ACB8 was acetate. Major fatty acids of strain ACB1(T) were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c dimethyl aldehyde (DMA) and C(18 : 1)ω7c DMA. Major fatty acids of strain ACB7(T) were C(12 : 0), C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 1)ω7c DMA. The hydrolysate of the peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, indicating peptidoglycan type A1γ. Genomic DNA G+C content varied from 42 to 43.3% between strains. ...
The good guys are the aerobic bacteria; naturally present in waste they produce odorless carbon dioxide (CO2) as they breakdown solids and paper in the wastewater. Aerobic bacteria need lots of oxygen to thrive, thus, given a consistent and large enough supply of oxygen, there would be no odor from the holding tank.. Anaerobic bacteria are the bad guys. These bacteria thrive in the absence of air and produce sulfide gases, which smell bad. Anaerobic bacteria also produce methane and CO2, However, most holding tanks do not have sufficient ventilation and since CO2 is heavier than air the CO2 settles on top of the waste and chokes the aerobic bacteria while providing a prime environment for the anaerobic bacteria.. This process can occur any where standing sewage is standing, on Identity Crisis the possible culprits included the holding tank and the hoses.. Locating Odor Source. Armed with the knowledge of how the head odor is created, I began an investigation into the source. The first and ...
Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) and ACB8, were isolated from human subgingival dental plaque. All strains required yeast extract for growth. Strains ACB1(T) and ACB8 were able to grow on glucose, lactose, ma …
Glycerol is a byproduct of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes and can be converted to more valuable products such as ethanol, butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol by various anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we isolated glycerol-utilizing anaerobic bacteria to obtain ones having a superior ability to produce butanol. By adding acetic and butyric acids into the mineral medium containing glycerol, we could enrich butanol-producing bacteria from a soil sample. Isolates showed ,99% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Clostridium diolis/beijerinckii (group 1), C. butyricum (group 2), C. arbusti (group 3), and Klebsiella oxytoca (group 4). The isolates belonging to group 3 produced up to 12.5 g/L of butanol and the isolates belonging to group 2 produced up to 17.1 g/L of 1,3-propanediol from 30 g/L of glycerol. When glucose was used instead of glycerol, the isolates belonging to group 1 produced 12.0 g/L of butanol and 6.9 g/L of ethanol and the isolate of group 4 produced 21.0 g/L of ...
Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
Chronic osteomyelitis is a relapsing, persistent, low-grade inflammation of bone caused by various infectious agents. The present study, conducted over a two-year period, on specimens received from cases of chronic osteomyelitis was, to determine the frequency of isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and to analyse their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Specimens were processed for Gram stain, aerobic and anaerobic culture, and were identified according to standard techniques. Significant growth was observed in 102/204 specimens, in which aerobic growth was observed in 62 (60.8%) and anaerobic in 40 (39.2%). Resistance to metronidazole and clindamycin was observed in 6.7% and 30% of the anaerobic isolates, respectively. None of these were resistant to meropenem. A significant proportion of anaerobic isolates were found to be resistant to commonly used empirical drugs, such as clindamycin, thus necessitating a need for routine anaerobic susceptibility testing.. ...
In contrast to the well-established roles of microbes in the aetiology of acute sinusitis, the exact roles of the abovementioned microorganisms (namely Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., GPAC, V. parvula, L. buccalis, E. corrodens, E. lenta, Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp.) in the aetiology of CRS are uncertain [1, 2]. Various researchers disagree on the microbial aetiology of CRS; some of the disagreement may be explained by the different methodological approaches to the processing of the obtained microbiological samples. Many bacterial organisms have been identified in the sinus tracts of patients with CRS and are reported in the literature, but there is no consensus as to their correct pathogenic role. Despite the exact cause of the inflammation associated with CRS is uncertain, the presence of bacteria within the sinuses has been well documented in different studies [9, 10]. Some of these studies have examined the bacterial pathogens associated with CRS, but most of ...
Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. subterraneus ATCC ® BAA-225™ Designation: SEBR 7858 TypeStrain=True Application: Biotechnology
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
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A number of anaerobic bacteria are pathogenic to humans and their virulence is based on secreted toxins, which are mainly produced by species from the C..
When I present scientific evidence that God designed the creation and that it is not a product of chance, one response that frequently comes from skeptics is that perhaps there is some other way that life and the conditions to support it could exist. Maybe there is life totally different than our kind of life so that the odds diminish because there are different ways and forms that life can take is a common response. In a statement like this one, we have to assume that a scientific proposal is being made-not a religious one. If a person wishes to argue for rock people or fire people, they can do so, but not on a scientific base. Life is generally defined as having the characteristics of moving, breathing, reproducing, and responding to outside stimuli. Things like viruses and anaerobic bacteria are hard to fit into any definition, but Fire people would be even more of a problem. The reason that there is no other way is because of the chemical restraints on all of lifes processes. In order for ...
This post was most recently updated on October 17th, 2018. Specimens for anaerobic culture should be properly collected and transported. Indigenous anaerobes are often present in large numbers as normal flora on mucosal surfaces (e.g. mouth). So the sample from sites known to have anaerobes as part of the normal flora is unacceptable for anaerobic culture. ...
Every year about 40 000 cases of sepsis occur in Sweden, of which three to ten percent (1 200-4 000 cases) are caused by anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria die in the presence of oxygen. Most often, the disease-causing anaerobic bacteria occur in the patients own normal microflora, but in, for example, post-surgery infections, trauma, impaired blood circulation or underlying disease, they can create serious infections that can, in the worst case, lead to death.. Simple mistakes in the sampling of specimens from a patient, or later handling of material collected from an anaerobic infection, may kill the bacteria before they can be detected and identified. Thereby the diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment might be wrong. A serious infection can have a rapid progression that leads to sepsis, so it is very important that the patients receive the right treatment as quickly as possible, says Maria Hedberg, associate professor and biomedical scientist.. She and her company Dianox are located at ...
0898386888 Models of Anaerobic Infection: Proceedings of the third Anaerobe Discussion Group Symposium held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, July ... (New Perspectives in Clinical Microbiology),books, textbooks, text book
Despite the fact that up to 80 percent of us will experience the living nightmare that is acne at some point in our lives, scientists still dont really understand what causes the condition, and more importantly, how to stop it. 
During January 1994-February 1995, laboratory leaching tests were conducted using crushed shale packed in columns and suspended in shake flasks (slurries). Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures of 20-28oC and over elapsed times of 6 to 39 weeks under three different hydrologic scenarios: variably saturated, aerobic; continuously saturated, stagnant; and continuously saturated, aerobic. Biologically active and sterilized conditions were evaluated to test if specific chemical additives increased or decreased microbial catalysis of acid-forming oxidation reactions. Deionized water was used as the influent when solids, including sewage sludge, N-P-K fertilizer, or CaCO3 were added on top of the shale at the beginning of the experiment. Solutions containing dissolved nutrients (NH3, NO3-, PO43-, or K+) from chloride or sodium salts were added to the shale as the influent in other experiments. Most-probable numbers of iron- and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and concentrations of chemicals in ...
What is the difference between Obligate and Facultative Anaerobe? Obligate anaerobe cannot survive in oxygen while facultative anaerobe can survive in oxygen...
Flagyl is an effective antimicrobial drug which contains the active component Metronidazole. This drug is effective in respect of the broad-spectrum anaerobic microorganisms and inhibits the development of protozoa.
It is important to differentiate ZD from breast cancer. Patients should be carefully checked to make sure that they do not have breast cancer, which can include having a physical exam, mammogram and ultrasound. In Zuskas disease, breast imaging may show a cystic mass or sometimes multiple cystic masses. A biopsy, or tissue sample may need to be obtained to rule out cancer.. ZD treatment may require antibiotics. Abscesses should be drained when they reach a head. Bacteria that live with and without oxygen (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) may be isolated in cultures from patients with ZD, with the most common organisms being anaerobic Peptostreptococci together with aerobic Staphylococci. Surgery is the only curative treatment for a lactiferous fistula, a disease tract between the abscess and the breast skin. Core excision of the fistula and all of the associated infected breast tissue is the definitive treatment. Smoking cessation is also essential to help prevent recurrences of ZD.. For more ...
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The expression of denitrification by a facultatively anaerobic bacterium requires as exogenous signals a low oxygen tension concomitant with an N oxide. of the FNR-CRP family, was found to be part of the NO-triggered signal transduction pathway. However, overexpression of in an engineered strain did not result in NirS synthesis, indicating a need for activation […]. ...
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Sra-mo-tan in-ci-dent iz Kni-na u ko-jem ve-te-ra-ni IX. boj-ne HOS-a mar-ši-ra-ju gra-dom i pri-tom vi-ču za dom sprem-ni te pje-va-ju us-ta-ške pje-sme osu-dio je ju-čer član Pred-sjed-niš-tva SDP-a Pe-đa Gr-bin. - Sra-mot-no je da praz-nik kao što je Dan po-bje-de i do-mo-vin-ske za-hval-nos-ti i Dan bra-ni-te-lja ne-ki ko-ris-te za pro-pa-gi-ra-nje svo-je sra-mot-ne i pro-pa-le ide-olo-gi-je mrž-nje. To tre-ba naj-o-š-tri-je osu-di-ti da se ne vi-še ne po-nav-lja. Hr-vat-ska je pre-du-go za-bi-ja-la gla-vu u pi-je-sak, a od-go-vor-ni su se pra-vi-li da ni-šta ne vi-de i ne ču-ju bez ob-zi-ra na po-s-lje-di-ce - po-ru-čio je Gr-bin. Ko-men-ti-rao je i go-vor pred-sjed-ni-ce dr-ža-ve Ko-lin-de Gra-bar-Ki-ta-ro-vić u Kni-nu u ko-jem je na-pa-la i še-fa SDP-a Zo-ra-na Mi-la-no-vi-ća. - Ne-pri-hvat-lji-vo je da su se po-je-di-ni po-li-ti-ča-ri i da-nas ko-ris-ti-li go-vor-ni-com i, umjes-to da go-vo-re o dr-žav-nom praz-ni-ku, vo-di-li kam-pa-nju i na-pa-da-li po-li-tič-ke ...
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Bartlett JG (2005). "The role of anaerobic bacteria in lung abscess". Clin. Infect. Dis. 40 (7): 923-5. doi:10.1086/428586. ... Anaerobic bacteria: Actinomyces, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium species,. *Microaerophilic streptococcus : ... Aerobic bacteria: Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Mycobacteria ... Bartlett JG, Finegold SM (1972). "Anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections". Medicine (Baltimore). 51 (6): 413-50. doi:10.1097/ ...
"Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria". Bacteriological Reviews. 41 (1): 100-80. ISSN 0005-3678. PMC 413997. ... It also occurs in some kinds of bacteria (such as lactobacilli) and some fungi. It is the type of bacteria that converts ... Fermentative bacteria play an essential role in the production of methane in habitats ranging from the rumens of cattle to ... These lactic acid bacteria can carry out either homolactic fermentation, where the end-product is mostly lactic acid, or ...
Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen.. *Facultative bacteria gather mostly at the top, since ... English: Aerobically different bacteria behave differently when grown in liquid culture: *Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at ... Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. # Obligate anaerobic ... File:Anaerobic.png licensed with PD-self *2007-05-23T13:03:57Z Pixie 865x518 (17309 Bytes) {{Information ,Description= ...
The bacteria causing the thrombophlebitis are anaerobic bacteria that are typically normal components of the microorganisms ... Deep in the abscess, anaerobic bacteria can flourish. When the abscess wall ruptures internally, the drainage carrying bacteria ... the bacteria cause the formation of a thrombus containing these bacteria. Furthermore, the internal jugular vein becomes ... The bacteria then invade the peritonsillar blood vessels where they can spread to the internal jugular vein.[4] In this vein, ...
"Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49- ... "Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (1): 49- ... For many gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ... Fluoroquinolines use in children may be appropriate when the infection is caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, or when ...
"Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated dioxins by an anaerobic bacterium". Nature. 421 (6921): 357-360. Bibcode:2003Natur.421 ... "Scientists find dioxin-eating bacteria".. *^ Bunge, Michael; Adrian, Lorenz; Kraus, Angelika; Opel, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm G ... However scientists at Martin Luther University recently found that a type of bacteria Dehalococcoides CBDB1 can extract the ...
... anaerobic bacteria can also live in aerobic conditions. Denitrification happens in anaerobic conditions e.g. waterlogged soils ... The conversion of ammonium to nitrate is performed primarily by soil-living bacteria and other nitrifying bacteria. In the ... An example of free-living bacteria is Azotobacter. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the ... but most fixation is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria known as diazotrophs. These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme ...
It is especially effective against Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria. The following represents MIC data for a few medically ... Patentdocs: Reaction Medium For Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Bacteria *^ http://www.toku-e.com/Assets/MIC ...
"A single-cell view on the ecophysiology of anaerobic phototrophic bacteria". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria are active in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic); they produce hydrogen sulfide, causing sulfide ... In the presence of oxygen (aerobic), some bacteria may directly oxidize iron to iron oxides and hydroxides, other bacteria ... Alternatively, antimicrobial-producing biofilms can be used to inhibit mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria.[6] ... "Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island ...
nov., isolated from anaerobic granules in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1155-61. ... The feature of gliding motility alone has piqued the interest of many, since the role of gliding bacteria in soil ecology is ... Suppression of damping-off disease in host plants by the rhizoplane bacterium Lysobacter sp. Strain SB-K88 Is linked to plant ... Bacteria associated with spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus geosporum and Glomus constrictum. Appl Environ ...
... anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden". PNAS. 91 (5): 1810-3. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.1810S. doi: ... Bacteria are microscopic, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis.[53] Bacteria function and ... They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome.[59] Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain ... butyric acid made by the bacterium Clostridium butyricum, lactic acid made by Lactobacillus and other lactic acid bacteria,[95] ...
... anaerobic bacteria isolated from a deep borehole in granite in Sweden". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 91 (5): 1810-13. Bibcode: ... They include Bacteria, Fungi, Archaea, and Protista. These life forms are found in almost every location on the Earth where ... Wolska K (2003). "Horizontal DNA transfer between bacteria in the environment". Acta Microbiol Pol. 52 (3): 233-43. PMID ... Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular (although see Myxozoa), which separates them from bacteria, archaea, and most ...
Layers of anaerobic bacteria can exist in the inner parts of the corrosion deposits, while the outer parts are inhabited by ... Bacteria[edit]. Some sulfate-reducing bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide, which can cause sulfide stress cracking. ... Without presence of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria, especially Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum, are common. Desulfovibrio ... Other bacteria produce various acids, both organic and mineral, or ammonia. In presence of oxygen, aerobic bacteria like ...
It contains only 7 genera of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria, known colloquially as Green sulfur bacteria. The ... Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later renamed Proteobacteria[15]) *alpha subdivision (purple non-sulfur bacteria, ... In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" ... nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium from a geothermally heated sediment, and emended description of ...
Lam, Raymond H. W.; Kim, Min-Cheol; Thorsen, Todd (2009). "Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a ... In blood analysis, white blood cells, platelets, bacteria, and plasma must be separated. Sieves, weirs, inertial confinement, ...
infection: e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, tuberculosis, Gram negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumoniae), anaerobic ...
"Amino acid transport by membrane vesicles of an obligate anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Bacteriol. 170 (2 ... findarticles.com: Bacteria speeds drug to tumors - use of Clostridium acetobutylicum enzyme to activate cancer drug CB 1954. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after ... "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Bacteriol. 183 (16 ...
... a study of the role of anaerobic bacteria". Br. J. Dermatol. 116 (1): 31-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1987.tb05788.x. PMID ...
These bacteria clean the leftover waste. Even if the anaerobic bacteria decomposition produces these gases, the percentage of ... That is why many facilities are undergoing renovation to use higher levels of anaerobic bacteria compared to other types of ... These gases occur because of the decomposition of organic material from the anaerobic bacteria. ... greenhouse gases that other equipment produce is still greater than the contribution of the anaerobic bacteria. Also, the power ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroides species are non endospore-forming bacilli, ... "Gut bacteria influence the brain indirectly, study shows". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2018-01-07.. ... A recent report found temperature plays a major role in the amount of time the bacteria will persist in the environment, the ... "A new study has found that there is a three-way relationship between a type of gut bacteria, cortisol, and brain metabolites. ...
Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Plants in the widest sense refers to older, obsolete classifications that placed diverse algae, fungi or bacteria in Plantae (e ...
It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... Gram stain of a muscle biopsy showing Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria in the infected muscle ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ... When such bacteria are able to enter a living host, they encounter a vast supply of nutrients, warm conditions, and an ...
It is mainly bacteria that grow in it, digesting organic material and releasing hydrogen sulfide. Because of this large ... anaerobic zone, the seafloor ecology differs from that of the neighboring Atlantic. ...
A theoretical maximum of 4 mol H2/mol glucose can be produced by strict anaerobic bacteria. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such ... It is an anaerobic facultative and mesophilic bacterium that is able to consume different sugars and in contrast to cultivation ... rod-shaped bacterium.[2] The bacterium is approximately 1-3 microns in length, and is capable of motility via peritrichous ... K. aerogenes is a nosocomial and pathogenic bacterium that causes opportunistic infections including most types of infections. ...
Activity of anaerobic bacteria in the abdomen create gases, which accumulate and results in abdominal bloating. A colour change ... The cause of death likewise can leave openings in the body that allow insects and bacteria access to the inside body cavities ... Fish, crustaceans, aquatic insects and bacteria would be the likely fauna in this case. Bodies that have been buried are harder ... There are no outward signs of physical change, though internal bacteria have begun to digest organ tissues. No odor is ...
BacteriaEdit. *Acidobacteria,[4] a phylum of Bacteria. *Acidithiobacillales, an order of Proteobacteria e.g. A.ferrooxidans, A ... Acidianus brierleyi, A. infernus, facultatively anaerobic thermoacidophilic archaebacteria. *Halarchaeum acidiphilum, ... Alicyclobacillus, a genus of bacteria that can contaminate fruit juices.[5]. *Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium found in the ... Dworkin M, Falkow S (2006). The Prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style ...
Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be causative. Commonly involved aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus ... The most common anaerobic species include Fusobacterium necrophorum, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella species, and Bacteroides.[3 ... They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria.[1] Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis.[1] They do ... Brook I, Frazier EH, Thompson DH (March 1991). "Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of peritonsillar abscess". Laryngoscope. 101 ...
Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Actinomycetales are generally gram-positive and anaerobic and have mycelium in a filamentous and branching growth pattern. Some ... Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, which are called actinophages. Actinomycetales can range from ... Streptomycin, actinomycin, and streptothricin are all medically important antibiotics isolated from Actinomycetes bacteria.[1] ...
These glucans allow the bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface and to build up thick layers of plaque. The anaerobic ... anaerobic plaque and plaque bacteria will metabolise other sugars in the diet,[53] such as the glucose and fructose in HFCS. ... produced by the plaque bacteria also act as a reserve food supply for the bacteria. Such a special role of sucrose in the ... Oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize any sugars (not just sucrose, but also glucose ...
The increases in organic carbon and nitrogen increase aerobic, facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria populations.[18] ... Tilling over-pumps oxygen to local soil residents, such as bacteria and fungi. As a result, the chemistry of the soil changes. ... Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ... Some types of roots contribute directly to soil fertility by funding a mutualistic relationship with certain kinds of bacteria ...
... under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.[1] They are usually found in pairs ( ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may ... It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria ...
The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... In a sebum-rich skin environment, the naturally occurring and largely commensal skin bacterium C. acnes readily grows and can ... Investigators believed the bacteria caused comedones, sebum production, and ultimately acne.[179] During the mid-twentieth ... Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has keratolytic properties.[ ...
For example, bacteria as well as Candida species may be involved in these lesions. Frequently, antifungal therapy alone does ... Dentures provide a relative acidic, moist and anaerobic environment because the mucosa covered by the denture is sheltered from ... There is frequently Candida species in the lesion, sometimes mixed with bacteria. This is a localized or generalized, linear ... Broad-spectrum antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline) eliminate the competing bacteria and disrupt the normally balanced ecology of ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by some bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.[1][2] The ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ...
Like bacteria, archaea lack interior membranes and organelles.[54] Like bacteria, the cell membranes of archaea are usually ... In anaerobic protozoa, such as Plagiopyla frontata, archaea reside inside the protozoa and consume hydrogen produced in their ... the archaeal homologs are more closely related to those of gram-positive bacteria.[67] Archaea and gram-positive bacteria also ... Bacteria. Eukarya. Cell membrane. Ether-linked lipids, pseudopeptidoglycan. Ester-linked lipids, peptidoglycan. Ester-linked ...
Animal gut bacteria[edit]. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of ... Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes.[24] It can be produced ... Recent research has shown that TU-103, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ...
Pu'er is a microbially fermented tea obtained through the action of molds, bacteria and yeasts on the harvested leaves of the ... Fully fermented with microbes during a processing phase which is largely anaerobic, i.e. without the presence of oxygen. This ...
It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... Gram stain of a muscle biopsy showing Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria in the infected muscle ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ... When such bacteria are able to enter a living host, they encounter a vast supply of nutrients, warm conditions, and an ...
... s are created through the cleavage of cellulose in most anaerobic bacteria by the cellulosome (an amalgamation of ... Many cellulolytic bacteria use cellodextrins as their primary source of energy. The energy is obtained through the ... "Cellulose and cellodextrin utilization by the cellulolytic bacterium Cytophaga hutchisonii". Bioresource Technology. 101 (16): ... phosphorolytic cleavage of glycosidic bonds as well as the anaerobic glycolysis of the glucose monomers.[2] Transport of ...
Igual que as bacterias, as arqueas carecen de membranas internas e orgánulos membranosos.[47] Igual que as bacterias, as ... Francis CA, Beman JM, Kuypers MM (2007). "New processes and players in the nitrogen cycle: the microbial ecology of anaerobic ... Compartidas con Bacteria Compartidas con Eukarya Exclusivas de Archaea Sen núcleo nin orgánulos membranosos Sen peptidoglicano ... os homólogos de arqueas están máis próximos aos das bacterias grampositivas.[58] As arqueas e as bacterias grampositivas tamén ...
It is performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria and is a fundamental component of the nitrogen ... One of a class of organic pigments produced by algae and plants, as well as certain bacteria and fungi.. catalase. An enzyme ... anaerobic. analogous structures. A set of morphological structures in different organisms which have similar form or function ... A virus that infects and multiplies within bacteria.. Barr body. The inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered ...
... is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It shows swarming motility and urease ... The bacterium can be found throughout the stones, and these bacteria lurking in the kidney stones can reinitiate infection ... This rod-shaped bacterium has the ability to produce high levels of urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia (NH3), so makes ... Bacteria of the species Proteus mirabilis are widely distributed in soil and water in the natural environment. In humans, ...
Hektoen enteric agar is selective for Gram-negative bacteria.. *Mannitol salt agar is selective for Gram-positive bacteria and ... The wort contains all the nutrients required for yeast growth, and under anaerobic conditions, alcohol is produced. When the ... They remain solid, as very few bacteria are able to decompose agar (the exception being some species in the genera: Cytophaga, ... In contrast, bacteria such as Escherichia coli may be grown on solid or in liquid media. ...
... as the Clostridium botulinum bacteria thrive in the anaerobic conditions created by the air-tight enclosure in plastic.[15] ... yeasts or bacteria-under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The ...
... but very rarely in bacteria. In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of ... Anaerobic respiration. *Electron acceptors are other than oxygen. Fermentation. *Glycolysis →. *Substrate-level phosphorylation ... but also occurs in archaea and bacteria. ...
18 June 2002). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 48 ... Due to the high salinity of HLF moromi, only anaerobic halophile can survive in the medium. Beside the 15-30 °C temperature ... Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary ... Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.[54][55] ...
The bacteria react with H2S from the vent and O2 from the water to produce energy to make food from H2O and CO2. The worms end ... A variant of the molecule, called leghaemoglobin, is used to scavenge oxygen away from anaerobic systems, such as the nitrogen- ... Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... In leguminous plants, such as alfalfa or soybeans, the nitrogen fixing bacteria in the roots are protected from oxygen by this ...
However, the bacterium is frequently encountered as a colonizer of healthy animals, especially in the alimentary tract and ... They are facultative anaerobic, incapable of respiratory metabolism, but are aerotolerant. Growth is enhanced by incubation in ... In order to establish infection, the bacteria need to escape the host immune response, and in streptococci, a varied arsenal of ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It ...
... inland lake environments in NW China have shown that anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria may be directly involved in the ... Some bacteria use metal ions as their energy source. They convert (or chemically reduce) the dissolved metal ions from one ... The colors of Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park are due to mats of thermophilic bacteria.[24] ... of limestone sediments by dolomitization in ancient rocks was possibly aided by ancestors to these anaerobic bacteria.[27] ...
Oxygen gas is poisonous to the anaerobic bacteria that cause gas gangrene, so increasing its partial pressure helps kill them.[ ... 2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms.[82] Cellular respiration of O. 2 occurs in all ... Iron in primeval seas rusted by bacteria, ScienceDaily, April 23, 2013 *^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology ( ... Until the discovery of anaerobic metazoa,[70] oxygen was thought to be a requirement for all complex life.[71] ...
"Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacteria". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their ... Then a dish of the bacteria was taken, and a light was focused on one part of the dish, leaving the rest dark. As the bacteria ... One type of purple bacteria, called purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), use sulfide or sulfur as electron donors.[10] Another type, ...
Multidomain cellulases are widespread among many taxonomic groups, however, cellulases from anaerobic bacteria, found in ... Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ... Numerous "signature" sequences known as dockerins and cohesins have been identified in the genomes of bacteria that produce ...
... which initiates H2 production by fermentative bacteria, which stimulates the growth of H2-oxidizing bacteria. The H2 generation ... Rotting food and other decaying organic waste creates decomposition gases, especially CO2 and CH4 from aerobic and anaerobic ... Gases are produced in landfills due to the anaerobic digestion by microbes. In a properly managed landfill this gas is ... The decreasing O2 leads to less aerobic and more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during ...
The spectrum of action includes many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas) and anaerobic bacteria. ... or caused by bacteria that are less sensitive to meropenem, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[9][10] ... although meropenem is more active against Enterobacteriaceae and less active against Gram-positive bacteria. It works against ... an enzyme that many drug-resistant bacteria use to destroy carbapenems.[16][17] ...
Despite having the name Oenococcus, under the microscope, the bacterium has a bacillus (shape) rod shape. The bacteria is a ... exists currently to suggest that malolactic fermentation runs more smoothly in aerobic conditions than in complete anaerobic ... Lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid as an indirect means of creating energy for the bacteria by ... a b c d Sibylle Krieger "The History of Malolactic Bacteria in Wine Archived 2012-09-15 at the Wayback Machine pgs 15-21. ...
Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ... Anaerobic. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765503/all/anaerobic. Accessed June 12, 2019. ...
Are bacteria anaerobic or aerobic. ?. Some bacteria in the world are considered to be anaerobic bacteria. Other bacteria in the ... Bacteria How do aerobic bacteria differ from anaerobic bacteria. ?. aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic ... How do aerobic bacteria differ form anaerobic bacteria. ?. Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. ... Where might anaerobic bacteria live. ?. Unlike aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria do not use oxygen. Types of bacteria: ...
Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria.. Ettwig KF1, Butler MK, Le Paslier D, Pelletier E, Mangenot S ... This apparently anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium encoded, transcribed and expressed the well-established aerobic pathway for ... The pathway was discovered after metagenomic sequencing of an enrichment culture that couples anaerobic oxidation of methane ... The complete genome of the dominant bacterium, named Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, was assembled. ...
... Dr. Shiyou Ding syding at post.tau.ac.il Sun Jun 8 02:50:43 EST 1997 *Previous ... Does anyone know how to isolate genomic DNA from anaerobic bacteria? Any suggestion or protocol are very appreciated! Thanks in ...
Anaerobic Bacteria with R1eflex to Susceptibility,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader ... Identification, Aerobic Bacteria with Reflex to Susceptibility. 4. Identification, Anaerobic Bacteria. 5. Identification, ...
The Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic bacterium Veillonella ratti possesses a gene cluster that appears to be related to L- ... Characterization of novel L-fucose metabolism pathway in anaerobic bacteria. *Download PDF Copy ... of L-2-keto-3-deoxyfuconate aldolases in a nonphosphorylating L-fucose metabolism pathway in anaerobic bacteria. Journal of ... New device provides rapid results about antibiotic-resistant bacteria. *Specific bacterial sRNA plays key role in symbiosis ...
... Culturing anaerobes in the laboratory can be challenging. ... We will consider topics such as common anaerobic gas mixtures, media selection, and obtaining anaerobic conditions in the lab. ... Due to the copious growth requirements and the plethora of anaerobic organisms, knowing the optimal conditions for your ... anaerobic organism is essential. In this webinar, we will present the various methods to achieve successful growth conditions ...
... Biol Chem. 2005 Oct;386(10):981-8. doi: 10.1515 ... Finally, the available whole-genome sequences of an increasing number of strictly or facultative anaerobic bacteria revealed ... and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase (Nrd). Among the new enzymes, Bss and Hpd share the presence of small subunits, the ... These are involved in metabolic pathways as different as anaerobic toluene metabolism, fermentative production of p-cresol and ...
... anaerobic+bacteria? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria ... Considering taking medication to treat blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria? Below is a list of common medications used ... to treat or reduce the symptoms of blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria. Follow the links to read common uses, side ...
Anaerobic bacteria. 2) Volatile sulfur compounds. 3) Tongue film. , The full story about halitosis formation. ... more specifically Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria).. The term "anaerobic" describes the fact that these types of bacteria do ... b) Bacteria that live around teeth.. The anaerobic bacteria that cause bad breath frequently find a home in places around your ... VSCs are produced by anaerobic oral bacteria.. Most of the compounds that cause bad breath are the byproducts of anaerobic ...
The ratio of methanogenic to acetogenic bacteria in... ... worked out that allows the detection and isolation of bacteria ... Wieringa, K. T.: The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. Antonie van ... Enumeration of bacteria forming acetate from H2 and CO2 in anaerobic habitats. ... anaerobic bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27, 355-361 (1977)Google Scholar ...
Overview of anaerobic bacteria bacteria... Which can be used as an energy source the absence of oxygen anaerobic bacteria ... Overview of anaerobic bacteria, bacteria that operates in the anaerobic digesters and from... An energy source sold to farmers ... Anaerobic digestion sold to farmers as fertilizer bacteria break down sugars and amino anaerobic bacteria decompose organic ... Maybe used by methanogens later in the process of anaerobic bacteria, bacteria that need oxygen wastewater!, nitrogen and ...
A MODIFICATION OF THE BUCHNER METHOD OF CULTIVATING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
... anaerobic+bacteria? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of abscess+within+the+abdomen+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria ... Considering taking medication to treat abscess+within+the+abdomen+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria? Below is a list of common ... 38 medications found for abscess+within+the+abdomen+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria ...
The Etfs from anaerobic bacteria and from mammals both interact with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, but they have different functions ... Some considerations of the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria, p. 39-62. In N. O. Kaplan and E. P. Kennedy (ed.), Current ... B) In anaerobic bacteria Etf transfers the electrons from NADH to the cytosolic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which reduces ... Energy Conservation via Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein in Anaerobic Bacteria. Gloria Herrmann, Elamparithi Jayamani, Galina ...
... potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium puniceum). We found that these anaerobic ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in ... referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration. ... In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them ( ... Bacteria that are capable of living in the absence of molecular oxygen. ...
Comparative in-vitro and in-vivo activity of AM-1155 against anaerobic bacteria.. Kato N1, Kato H, Tanaka-Bandoh K, Watanabe K ... These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of AM-1155 against infections involving most anaerobic bacteria except for the ... against a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Although AM-1155 demonstrated only modest activity against the Bacteroides fragilis ... Institute of Anaerobic Bacteriology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan. [email protected] ...
Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria ... Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. by Techtmann, S. M., Colman, A. S., Murphy, ... Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. Stephen M. Techtmann1, Albert S ... Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. Front. Microbiol. 9:1016. doi: 10.3389/fmicb ...
In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against 623 Diverse Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria D. M. Citron, K. L. Tyrrell, C. V. Merriam, ... In Vitro Activity of Tomopenem (CS-023/RO4908463) against Anaerobic Bacteria Kaori Tanaka, Hiroshige Mikamo, Kenichi Nakao, ... Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns for Recent Clinical Isolates of Anaerobic Bacteria in South Korea Yangsoon Lee, Yongjung ... Besifloxacin, a Novel Fluoroquinolone, Has Broad-Spectrum In Vitro Activity against Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Wolfgang ...
These anaerobic bacteria are usually part of the normal oral and gut flora of humans and animals [7, 8]. The former is ... Necrotizing Fasciitis by Two Anaerobic Bacteria in an Immunocompetent Patient after Minor Trauma: A Case Report. Marco Sciarra, ... Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Atopobium parvulum, two anaerobic pansensitive bacteria, were isolated and identified by ... To our knowledge, this is the first report of these two scarcely virulent bacteria as etiological agents of anaerobic ...
The anaerobic degradation of these compounds can be coupled to industrial applications and waste(water) treatment. The ... My research focuses on the proteins involved in the anaerobic degradation of methanol, CO, and formate and the genes encoding ... of one carbon compounds in nature and application purposes make it important to study the C-1 metabolism of anaerobic ... Genome and proteome analysis of the C1 metabolism of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Status: Planned Partners: * Laboratory ...
... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... The bacterium has non-cellular appendages called spinae that likely help the bacterium stay suspended in the water column. The ... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... Keywords: 03black, 281048b, alpha, anaerobic, anoxic, appendage, appendages, bacilli, bacillus, bacteria, bacterioplankton, ...
... of Marine anaerobic spirillum and vibriod bacteria. This bacteria are unidentified spirillum-shaped and vibriod-shaped bacteria ... of Marine anaerobic spirillum and vibriod bacteria. This bacteria are unidentified spirillum-shaped and vibriod-shaped bacteria ...
Genes involved in anaerobic degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon ethylbenzene in the denitrifying Azoarcus-like strain EbN1 ... Genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene in a denitrifying bacterium, strain EbN1. ... Genes involved in anaerobic degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon ethylbenzene in the denitrifying Azoarcus-like strain EbN1 ... via N-terminal sequences of proteins isolated from strain EbN1 and by sequence similarities to proteins from other bacteria. ...
... Gene ... gene and show that systemically injected spores of these bacteria express CD only in the tumor. This enzyme can convert the ...
DehaloCon II Leipzig, Germany The conference will span the whole field of anaerobic microbial dehalogenation of organohalides ... The conference will span the whole field of anaerobic microbial dehalogenation of organohalides with a focus on the ...
6003993 Anaerobic Bacteria Culture 2 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. msc ... Anaerobic bacteria culture B.A. Linda D. Jones, PBT (ASCP) Definition An anaerobic bacteria culture is a method used to grow ... Purpose Anaerobic bacterial cultures are performed to identify bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen and which may ... several days may be required for bacterium identification. Key Terms Aerobic bacteria Bacteria that can grow freely in oxygen- ...
The bacteriums genome was sequenced using PacBio, assembled, and annotated. The complete genome consists of one 3.77-Mb ... Title: Complete Genome Sequence of Dehalobacterium formicoaceticum Strain DMC, a Strictly Anaerobic Dichloromethane-Degrading ... Accepted Manuscript: Complete Genome Sequence of Dehalobacterium formicoaceticum Strain DMC, a Strictly Anaerobic ...
ETDEWEB / Search Results / Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria ... Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 ... Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 ... Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria. Denmark: N. p., 1998. Web ...
  • Obligate anaerobic bacteria cannot live with oxygen, facultative anaerobic bacteria can live with or without it, and obligate aerobic bacteria require oxygen to survive. (answers.com)
  • Finally, the available whole-genome sequences of an increasing number of strictly or facultative anaerobic bacteria revealed the presence of many more hitherto unknown glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) systems. (nih.gov)
  • In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them (referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria ) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration . (biology-online.org)
  • The effect of atmospheric oxygen on the viability of 13 strains of anaerobic bacteria, two strains of facultative bacteria, and one aerobic organism was examined. (asm.org)
  • All facultative bacteria survived more than 72 h of exposure to atmospheric oxygen. (asm.org)
  • All facultative bacteria and a number of anaerobic bacteria possessed superoxide dismutase. (asm.org)
  • All facultative bacteria contained peroxidase, whereas none of the anaerobic bacteria possessed measurable amounts of this enzyme. (asm.org)
  • and facultative anaerobes , which are organisms that prefer to grow using aerobic metabolic processes but can switch to an anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen. (study.com)
  • Facultative Anaerobic Bacteria Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Anaerobic Bacteria and Anaerobic Bacteria in the decomposition (stabilization) of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and immunochemistry of the surfaces of anaerobic bacteria, particularly of the Bacteroides species and the clostridia, then become a major interest. (bl.uk)
  • Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see next slides Category Sporerod, Gram (+)--- Clostridium Sporerod, forming: Nonspore-forming: Rod, Gram (+) Propionibacterium 丙丙丙丙 Bifidobacterium Bifidobacterium Rod, Gram (-) Bacteroides Fusobacterium 丙丙丙 Cocci, Gram (+) Peptococcus Peptococcus Cocci, Gram (-) Lactobacillus Eubacterium Eubacterium Actinomyces Actinomyces Campylobacter Campylobacter Peptostreptococcus Veillonella Clostridium Species Clostridium The clostridia are opportunistic pathogens. (coursehero.com)
  • Bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, E rectal e, L acidophilus , and F prauznitzii groups were low during acute diarrhea compared with their levels after recovery from diarrhea. (ovid.com)
  • Biochemical and genetic analyses of a catalase from the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis. (ecu.edu)
  • A single catalase enzyme was produced by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis when cultures at late log phase were shifted to aerobic conditions. (ecu.edu)
  • Rocha, Edson R. and Smith, C. Jeffrey, "Biochemical and genetic analyses of a catalase from the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis. (ecu.edu)
  • The Bacteroides genus is an example of anaerobic bacteria that are both beneficial and harmful. (hochichu.info)
  • Die meisten bauen dabei Traubenzucker oder Other species only appear in specific areas of the body, such as some bacteria that we only find in the colon, for example, the genus Bacteroides, very common in human feces and that can cause tissue destruction if they infect wounds of the intestinal mucosa. (hochichu.info)
  • Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, and Clostridium species are the most common anaerobic isolates. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • The anaerobes often isolated from brain abscesses complicating respiratory and dental infections are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB, including Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides), Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aerobic bacteria Because some anaerobic bacteria will die in the presence of oxygen. (answers.com)
  • Aerobic bacteria uses oxygen for cellular respiration and anaerobic bacteria doesn't require oxygen to survive. (answers.com)
  • Unlike aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria do not use oxygen. (answers.com)
  • Types of bacteria: aerobic - oxygen is essential facultatively aerobic - use oxygen if available, but can do without it anaerobic - oxygen is toxic for them Anaerobic bacteria can be found especially in extreme environments such as thermal vents or deep-sea vents. (answers.com)
  • aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic bacteria use either nonoxygen based respiration (e.g. nitrogen, sulfur) or fermentation. (answers.com)
  • arrobic grows faster than anaerobic bacteria The root "aero-" refers to oxygen. (answers.com)
  • Anaerobic means in the absence of oxygen. (answers.com)
  • Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria do not need oxygen to survive. (answers.com)
  • Bacteria that require oxygen to survive are aerobic. (answers.com)
  • Anaerobic" means "without oxygen. (answers.com)
  • Those that are aerobic need oxygen for cellular metabolism, while anaerobic do not. (answers.com)
  • Aerobic bacteria respire oxygen. (answers.com)
  • The term "anaerobic" describes the fact that these types of bacteria do best in an environment that's devoid of oxygen. (animated-teeth.com)
  • In the digesters, anaerobic bacteria-which thrive in the absence of oxygen-can produce "biogas," a mixture containing significant amounts of methane as well as carbon dioxide. (jakesonline.org)
  • Materials high in organic content, such as municipal wastewater, livestock waste, agricultural waste, Anaerobic digestion is a process through which bacteria break down organic matter-such as manure-without oxygen. (jakesonline.org)
  • Biodigestion or anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process that occurs when organic matter is decomposed by bacteria in the absence of oxygen (i.e., anaerobic). (jakesonline.org)
  • Anaerobic digestion is a biological process whereby bacteria break down organic material into more basic compounds without requiring oxygen as a component of the process. (jakesonline.org)
  • Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological process that happens naturally when bacteria breaks down organic matter in environments in the absence of oxygen. (jakesonline.org)
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a unique process where different microbial species decompose organic materials in the absence of oxygen. (jakesonline.org)
  • Waste using bacteria that operates in the absence of oxygen bacteria, that. (jakesonline.org)
  • Maybe used by methanogens later in the process of anaerobic bacteria, bacteria that need oxygen wastewater! (jakesonline.org)
  • The slimy pink rot of potatoes is caused by the bacterium Clostridium puniceum , which cannot grow in the presence of oxygen. (sciencemag.org)
  • The clostrubins, which act as antibiotics against other microbial plant pathogens, enable the anaerobic bacteria to survive an oxygen-rich plant environment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria that are capable of living in the absence of molecular oxygen . (biology-online.org)
  • Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria ) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen . (biology-online.org)
  • Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that can live only in the absence of oxygen. (scribd.com)
  • The methods of obtaining specimens for anaerobic culture and the culturing procedure are performed to ensure that the organisms are protected from oxygen. (scribd.com)
  • Purpose Anaerobic bacterial cultures are performed to identify bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen and which may cause human infection. (scribd.com)
  • If overlooked or killed by exposure to oxygen, anaerobic infections result in serious consequences such as amputation, organ failure, sepsis, meningitis, and death. (scribd.com)
  • The cultivation of microorganisms in these oxygen-depleted atmospheres can take place in a CO 2 incubator or an anaerobic glove cabinet. (aicompanies.com)
  • Alternatively, for anaerobic incubation, agar plates can be placed in a sealed jar made anaerobic by evacuating and replacing the atmosphere with an oxygen-free gas mixture. (aicompanies.com)
  • During the anaerobic evacuation cycle, oxygen within the jar is replaced with hydrogen. (aicompanies.com)
  • After the anaerobic cycle, a mere 0.16% residual oxygen content is left in the jar, which is then removed by a Palladium catalyst. (aicompanies.com)
  • The anaerobic recipe leaves the jar with a strict zero oxygen level and 10% carbon dioxide mix. (aicompanies.com)
  • There were great variations in oxygen tolerance among the bacteria. (asm.org)
  • An effort was made to relate the degree of oxygen tolerance to the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases in cell-free extracts of the bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Catalase activity was variable among the bacteria and showed no relationship to oxygen tolerance. (asm.org)
  • The ability of the bacteria to reduce oxygen was also examined and related to enzyme content and oxygen tolerance. (asm.org)
  • The data indicate that superoxide dismutase activity and oxygen reduction rates are important determinants related to the tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to oxygen. (asm.org)
  • He insists that there is no need for brewing aerobic bacteria that anaerobic is just fine and that more oxygen means nutrient loss. (permies.com)
  • Beginning in 1950, a scientist named Bob Hungate developed techniques to study anaerobic bacteria, or bugs that cannot survive in oxygen. (wylr.net)
  • Only one to three percent of the population of bacteria fit into this category, and McCallister says they are capable of surviving in environments both with and without oxygen. (wylr.net)
  • Anaerobic bacteria will not grow when incubated with 10% CO 2 in room air, but vary in their tolerance of different levels of oxygen. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • In the typical septic tank environment, lack of oxygen causes the proliferation and dominance of anaerobic bacteria. (aero-stream.com)
  • By introducing oxygen into the closed environment of the septic tank, homeowners can encourage the growth of aerobic bacteria and their more efficient methods of organic decomposition. (aero-stream.com)
  • In anaerobic conditions, catalase activity was detected in stationary-phase cultures, indicating that not only oxygen exposure but also starvation may affect the production of this antioxidant enzyme. (ecu.edu)
  • The word "anaerobic" means "without air", and for our purposes, air is synonymous with oxygen. (kiss-bad-breath-goodbye.com)
  • Describe anaerobic bacteria including their sensitivity to oxygen and where they may be found in the environment and the human body. (studylib.net)
  • This allows anaerobic bacteria to thrive in such dry, acidic and oxygen-less conditions. (thecuplady.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria is a powder containing a specially-formulated range of micro-organisms, which biologically treats wastewaters in the absence of oxygen. (thecuplady.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria obtain oxygen from their food source. (thecuplady.com)
  • Often, if the infection is severe enough to produce an abscess with the production of pus, surgical intervention will be needed to drain the wound and expose it … Other modes of therapy such as hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and hydrogen peroxide occasionally may be useful in selected circumstances … It is a prescription drug prescribed for individuals suffering from abscesses in the abdomen, liver, pelvis, or brain formed by anaerobic bacteria. (thecuplady.com)
  • Anaerobic wastewater treatment is a process where anaerobic organisms break down organic material in an oxygen absent environment. (thecuplady.com)
  • The aero-tolerant ones perform aerobic respiration if there is oxygen, and if there is no oxygen they perform fermentation or anaerobic respiration, according to each specific species. (hochichu.info)
  • Many anaerobic bacteria are the cause of infection in various organs and tissues and are usually more difficult to treat than aerobic infections since by being able to live without oxygen, anaerobic bacteria can infect places where other types of microorganisms do not reach. (hochichu.info)
  • An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. (hochichu.info)
  • Acidic environments and low oxygen are the same way that cancers survive in the human body, and as plants and people are so closely related, it gives you a good idea of how bad bacteria can enter a growing medium and thrive. (biotabs.nl)
  • Once you understand how each type of bacteria differ, then applying a pH chart to each will give you a clear idea of the oxygen content that should be present. (biotabs.nl)
  • Ensuring that a nutrient solution or water source is well oxygenated with adequate amounts of dissolved oxygen, is one way to ensure that you keep the aerobic bacteria at peak performance. (biotabs.nl)
  • The bacteria which cause anaerobic infections are able to grow best in the absence of free oxygen. (petmd.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria can be divided into strict anaerobes that can not grow in the presence of more than 0.5% oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 and 8% oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic bacteria usually do not possess catalase, but some can generate superoxide dismutase which protects them from oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic bacteria culture B.A. Linda D. Jones, PBT (ASCP) Definition An anaerobic bacteria culture is a method used to grow anaerobes from a clinical specimen. (scribd.com)
  • Injury to these tissues (i.e., cuts, puncture wounds, or trauma) especially at or adjacent to the mucus membranes allows anaerobes entry into otherwise sterile areas of the body and is the primary cause of anaerobic infection. (scribd.com)
  • Bacteria aren't the only anaerobes in this world, however. (study.com)
  • The tumor-associated bacteria we have identified are all Gram-negative anaerobes, recognized previously as constituents of the oral microbiome, which are capable of causing infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria involved the anaerobic wastewater treatment are anaerobes. (thecuplady.com)
  • Neurological shunt infections are often caused by skin bacteria such as Cutibacterium acnes, or in instances of ventriculoperitoneal shunts that perforate the gut, by anaerobes of enteric origin (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic bacterium Veillonella ratti possesses a gene cluster that appears to be related to L-fucose metabolism and contains a putative dihydrodipicolinate synthase DHDPS/NAL protein (FucH). (news-medical.net)
  • Watanabe, S. (2020) Characterization of L-2-keto-3-deoxyfuconate aldolases in a nonphosphorylating L-fucose metabolism pathway in anaerobic bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • These are involved in metabolic pathways as different as anaerobic toluene metabolism, fermentative production of p-cresol and glycerol fermentation. (nih.gov)
  • The importance of one carbon compounds in nature and application purposes make it important to study the C-1 metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms. (wur.nl)
  • Furthermore, anammox bacteria were shown to be of high interest with regard to their unusual metabolism and significance in the fields of wastewater application and microbial ecology. (asm.org)
  • Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization ( cut ) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. (asm.org)
  • Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. (asm.org)
  • The anaerobic metabolism of phenylalanine was studied in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica, a member of the β-subclass of the Proteobacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase (dearomatizing), a key enzyme of anaerobic aromatic metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enzymes of anaerobic metabolism of phenolic compounds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On the Anaerobic Metabolism of Three Species of Nereis (Annelida)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • As microbiology and molecular biology techniques began to expand, so did the technologies used to study such bacteria. (wylr.net)
  • Techniques in Anaerobic Microbiology. (hochichu.info)
  • Microorganisms begin to break the organic waste down into sugars and fatty acids, in a … This second group of bacteria then converts these sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. (jakesonline.org)
  • Conclusions Mechanically ventilated patients were heavily colonized in their lower airways by potential pathogenic microorganisms, including a high load of anaerobic bacteria. (diva-portal.org)
  • While the high water content of septic systems reduces the heat production caused by aerobic bacteria, these microorganisms provide much better protection against contaminants and dangerous microbes than their anaerobic counterparts. (aero-stream.com)
  • In wet seasons and under humid storage conditions, potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium puniceum ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, strain HGH 136, capable of conversion of the isoflavonoid daidzein, was isolated and identified as a Clostridium sp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One ruminal bacterium was identified as Escherichia coli , and it was found that these isolates from activated sludge were related to Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens and C. difficile . (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • My research focuses on the proteins involved in the anaerobic degradation of methanol, CO, and formate and the genes encoding these proteins. (wur.nl)
  • A maximum of 4 … (See also Overview of Anaerobic Bacteria. (thecuplady.com)
  • A method has been worked out that allows the detection and isolation of bacteria fermenting molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide to acetic acid. (springer.com)
  • The bacterium was adapted by isolation of mutant strains, now resistant to the inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate. (osti.gov)
  • Anaerobic bacteria are common causes of infection and will be missed in clinical diagnosis unless special precautions are taken for their isolation and culture. (aicompanies.com)
  • Isolation of an anaerobic intestinal bacterium capable of cleaving the C-ring of the isoflavonoid daidzein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For the enrichment, isolation and enumeration of Clostridia / sulfite-reducing anaerobic bacteria, Merck provides dehydrated culture media that meet the needs of microbiological testing in the food and beverages industries. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Merck provides high quality media for the enrichment, isolation and enumeration of Clostridia / sulfite reducing anaerobic bacteria. (merckmillipore.com)
  • 2010, Selection and isolation of hydrogen-producing fermentative bacteria with high yield and rate and its bioaugmentation process. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • The frequency of isolation of anaerobic bacterial strains varies in different infectious sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isolation of anaerobic bacteria requires adequate methods for collection, transportation and cultivation of clinical specimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially in obligate anaerobic bacteria, there are two types of bacteria: those that have compound A tolerance and those that do not. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • Anaerobic fermentation is common in landfill and open stockpiles such as manure piles. (jakesonline.org)
  • Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. (osti.gov)
  • The growth medium for fermentation of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria is complex and therefore uneconomical on an industrial scale. (osti.gov)
  • The acidic end-products of glucose fermentation by the bacterium are succinate, acetate and formate. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Using fermentation, these bacteria are able to meet their energy requirement. (hochichu.info)
  • The anaerobic degradation of these compounds can be coupled to industrial applications and waste(water) treatment. (wur.nl)
  • Methanol degradation in methanogens and acetogens is well described, which is not true for sulfate-reducing bacteria. (wur.nl)
  • Genes involved in anaerobic degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbon ethylbenzene in the denitrifying Azoarcus -like strain EbN1 were identified on a 56-kb DNA contig obtained from shotgun sequencing. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrated that anaerobic degradation of toluene was initiated by direct oxidation of the methyl group. (asm.org)
  • Effects of packing of the filter media on substrate degradation and on behavior of anaerobic bacteria were investigated using an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor operated at 20°C. A low strength synthetic wastewater containing suspended solids was used as the substrate. (iwaponline.com)
  • Anaerobic degradation of aromatic amino acids by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Degradation of hydroxyhydroquinone by the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter massiliensis sp. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Hydroxyhydroquinone, Anaerobic degradation, Pelobacter massiliensis sp. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Atopobium parvulum, two anaerobic pansensitive bacteria, were isolated and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), using the Bruker database as reference for the microorganism identification process (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Bremen, Germany). (hindawi.com)
  • Anaerobic infections in the skin and soft tissue can be caused by the cutaneous anaerobic flora, mainly Peptostreptococcus, but are most often caused by contamination with the flora from adjacent mucosal surfaces. (hochichu.info)
  • Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • This apparently anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium encoded, transcribed and expressed the well-established aerobic pathway for methane oxidation, whereas it lacked known genes for dinitrogen production. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel, environmental genomics has provided glimpses into anaerobic methane oxidation by certain archaea, further supporting the hypothesis of reverse methanogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biochemistry of aerobic methane oxidation is relatively well understood, following intensive research efforts with a number of model organisms, but the biochemistry of anaerobic methane oxidation is not yet fundamentally understood and no anaerobic methane-oxidizer has been isolated in pure culture so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, understanding of the process of anaerobic methane oxidation is in its infancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anonymous Reviewer ( 2016 ) Peer Review #1 of 'Distribution and characteristic of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria by comparative analysis of wastewater treatment plants and agriculture fields in northern China (v0.2)' . (peerj.com)
  • Biological methane oxidation proceeds either through aerobic or anaerobic pathways. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This bacterium performs anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, but does so in a peculiar way. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Anaerocellum thermophilum " DSM 6725 is a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows optimally at 75°C. It uses a variety of polysaccharides, including crystalline cellulose and untreated plant biomass, and has potential utility in biomass conversion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The most thermophilic cellulolytic species known at present include the strictly anaerobic bacterium " Anaerocellum thermophilum . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (WN081 T ) was isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. (go.jp)
  • Cells of strain Mat9-16 T were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-sporulating, non-motile and short to long rods (2.0-15.5 μm in length). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Non-sporing strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated from human faecal samples from England, Scotland, USA, India, Uganda and Japan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, sporeforming, rod-like, motile bacterium was enriched from rabbit feces, and isolated using carbon monoxide as sole source of energy and carbon. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, strain AMX 51 T , was isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • nov., a strictly aerobic bacterium isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A new rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacterium (strain HHQ7) was enriched and isolated from marine mud samples with hydroxyhydroquinone (l,2,4-trihydroxybenzene) as sole substrate. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of AM-1155 against infections involving most anaerobic bacteria except for the B. fragilis group and P. bivia should be evaluated further. (nih.gov)
  • Monomicrobial infections are usually caused by group A streptococci, while infections caused by anaerobic germs usually affect immunodepressed patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Anaerobic infections are most likely to be found in persons who are immunosuppressed, those treated recently with broadspectrum antibiotics, and persons who have a necrotic, discolored injury on or near a mucus membrane, especially if the site is foul-smelling. (scribd.com)
  • Infections with more than one species of anaerobic bacteria or anaerobic and aerobic bacteria are called mixed anaerobic infections. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Since the introduction of ciprofloxacin, there has been continuing interest in the ability of fluoroquinolones to treat infections involving anaerobic bacteria [1]. (thecuplady.com)
  • In the treatment of most serious anaerobic infections, intravenous metronidazole is usually administered initially. (thecuplady.com)
  • one of the species of this genus that is best known is Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces various types of infections in humans, for example, skin infections, such as acne, boils or impetigo, and other more serious ones such as endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia or septic shock. (hochichu.info)
  • Anaerobic infections should be suspected in a number of specific clinical scenarios (Table 305-3). (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Getting treatment for minor infections can help prevent the spread of bacteria. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • It is well established that anaerobic bacteria in lung infections cannot be easily recovered after receipt of any antibiotic treatment. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Untreated anaerobic infections can lead to other serious conditions, including: Many of these conditions have their own set of symptoms and complications, including tooth loss, fever, fatigue, organ failure, and, in some cases, death. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Report on the anaerobic infections of wounds and the bacteriological and serological problems arising therefrom by Great Britain. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are common, and may be serious and life-threatening. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Taking a drug before surgery also prevents any anaerobic infections from occurring around the area being operated on. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant indigenous flora of humans and, as a result, play an important role in infections, some of which are serious with a high mortality rate. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Finegold SM, George WL (eds): Anaerobic Infections in Humans. (swo.today)
  • CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. (rxlist.com)
  • However, when something happens to disrupt the balance of bacteria, such as what occurs with deep injuries, surgery or internal infections, these bacteria can invade the tissue, leading to deep infection and tissue death. (petmd.com)
  • Other common symptoms of anaerobic bacterial infections in cats include fever, lameness , difficulty eating, and loss of appetite (related to infection of the gums). (petmd.com)
  • Anaerobic infections are caused by anaerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed infections caused by numerous aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are often observed in clinical situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic bacteria are a common cause of infections, some of which can be serious and life-threatening. (wikipedia.org)
  • The management of anaerobic infection is often difficult because of the slow growth of anaerobic organisms, which can delay their identification by the frequent polymicrobial nature of these infections and by the increasing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of methanogenic to acetogenic bacteria in sludge and lake sediment samples has been found to be approximately 100 to 1. (springer.com)
  • nov., a xylanolytic-cellulolytic bacterium isolated from sludge in an anaerobic digester. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The effect of temperature on the survival of bacteria of waste activated sludge under anaerobic conditions. (wur.nl)
  • 2010, Optimization of conditions for hydrogen production from brewery wastewater by anaerobic sludge using desirability function approach. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • While each of these bacteria, produce enzymes that break down the natural solids and sludge, they are activated and function in different areas of the septic system. (biotabseptictanktreatment.com)
  • A second source of anaerobic infection occurs from the introduction of spores into a normally sterile site. (scribd.com)
  • This meeting will provide scientific insights into the future impact of anaerobic bacteria in human health and disease, addressing the implications of recent microbiota studies as well as the continued threat of emerging and re-emerging anaerobic infection. (microbes.info)
  • Give the clues(sign and manifestations) to anaerobic infection, name the most probable etiologic agents of the following(Wound botulism, gas gangrene, tetanus, Actinomycosis, Pseudomembranous colitis and bacterial vaginosis) 7. (studylib.net)
  • Depending on the cause of the anaerobic infection, dogs may display a variety of symptoms. (thecuplady.com)
  • One of the antibiotics for anaerobic bacterial infection is metronidazole, which is the generic name of. (thecuplady.com)
  • Appropriate documentation of anaerobic infection requires collection of appropriate specimens followed by their expeditious transportation and careful laboratory processing. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Dogs that have developed an anaerobic bacterial infection because of a wound, for instance, may display bite marks, have pus oozing from the wound, or open fractures (where bone sticks out). (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • Testing is important to determine what species of bacteria are present if your dog has a non-healing wound or an infection that isn't responding to initial therapies. (hollywoodsstudio.ca)
  • This is the bacteria group that can wipe out the good aerobic bacteria, causing an infection in vulnerable plants. (biotabs.nl)
  • If the anaerobic infection is within the body, such as an infected uterus , inside the bones, or in the abdomen, then the veterinarian will have to anesthetize the cat to surgically open and clean and/or drain the wounds. (petmd.com)
  • If left untreated, an anaerobic infection can lead to shock and even death. (petmd.com)
  • The ultimate cause of an anaerobic bacterial infection is the disruption of normal bacterial balance within the cat's body. (petmd.com)
  • Your doctor will need to rule out other causes before making a confirmation of anaerobic infection. (petmd.com)
  • Meningitis due to anaerobic bacteria is infrequent and may follow respiratory tract infection or complicate a cerebrospinal fluid shunt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pantskhava, E. S.: Anaerobic formation of acetate from CH 3 OH, CH 2 O, HCOOH, Na 2 CO 3 by cell suspensions of a thermophilic culture of Methanobacillus kuzneceovii . (springer.com)
  • Physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. (osti.gov)
  • An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strict anaerobic bacterium DTU01(T) was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. (dtu.dk)
  • A moderately thermophilic chemoheterotrophic bacterium, strain Mat9-16 T , was isolated from microbial mats developed in hot spring water streams from Yumata, Nagano, Japan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Innovative Technology Improves Our Understanding of Bacterial Cell Signaling Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in nearly all types of bacteria and interacts with cell signaling networks that control many basic cellular functions. (doe.gov)
  • Let me describe the differences between these types of bacteria and where they work. (biotabseptictanktreatment.com)
  • Due to the copious growth requirements and the plethora of anaerobic organisms, knowing the optimal conditions for your anaerobic organism is essential. (atcc.org)
  • Additionally, they are often incapable of cultivating micro-aerophilic and anaerobic organisms at the same time. (aicompanies.com)
  • Because the Anoxomat is faster under many conditions than the Anaerobic chambers and gas packs, the system achieves the required conditions for incubation in less time, and the recovery of micro-organisms cultivated in its jars surpasses all other methods, because the Anoxomat Anaerobic Jars are guaranteed to maintain the same precise environment throughout incubation. (aicompanies.com)
  • Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Huge numbers of bacteria are present in the rumen, and they are joined by eukaryotes - multicellular organisms that include anaerobic fungi and protozoa. (wylr.net)
  • The recovery of these organisms as the only isolate of inflamed gland suggests that anaerobic bacteria may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AST, and they indicate the need for clinical awareness of these anaerobic bacteria as potential causes of this disease. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobic organisms are metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, and piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline and clindamycin. (thecuplady.com)
  • Recent research on methanol utilization by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii revealed the presence of two methanol degrading pathways. (wur.nl)
  • Bacteria typically associated with debris build up the surface of the tongue - Veillonella, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga and Odontomyces (in populations age 70 and beyond). (animated-teeth.com)
  • Before getting into the details of how aerobic bacteria live, it is first necessary to know the difference between aerobic and anaerobic. (biotabs.nl)
  • Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. (answers.com)
  • Eg: Plants and animals, protozoans, some bacteria Anaerobic: IF respiration takes place in the absence of O2, then it is called anaerobic respiration/ anaerobic activity. (answers.com)
  • The conference will span the whole field of anaerobic microbial dehalogenation of organohalides with a focus on the biochemistry and molecular aspects of organohalide respiration. (microbes.info)
  • The genome contained genes of respiratory polysulfide/thiosulfate reductase, however, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate were not used as the electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration with acetate or H 2 , probably due to the lack of the gene of the maturation protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • anaerobic conditions by processes called anaerobic respiration , in which the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule, such as nitrate (NO 3 − ), nitrite (NO 2 − ), sulfate (SO 4 2− ), or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). (britannica.com)
  • In gram-positive bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Pediococcus , hop resistance genes, horA and horC , are reported to be responsible for beer spoilage ability. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. (asm.org)
  • Only a few years later, the bacteria responsible for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) were enriched and identified as a new planctomycete ( 86 , 92 ). (asm.org)
  • CM-M-22 had 95% identities with anaerobic ammonium- oxidizing Planctomycete JMK-1. (omicsonline.org)
  • The aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterial guilds were studied from two multilevel samplers in an ammonium-contaminated aquifer in the UK. (epfl.ch)
  • By end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) planctomycetes was demonstrated. (epfl.ch)
  • Real-time PCR was subsequently used to determine the relative size of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacterial guilds in relation to the whole bacterial community, showing large differences between the two multilevel samplers. (epfl.ch)
  • Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carriers. (eurekamag.com)
  • Ivar Zekker, doktorikraad, 2013, (juh) Taavo Tenno, Enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria for nitrogen removal from digester effluent and anammox process acceleration by intermediate compounds (Anaeroobset ammoniumi oksüdatsiooniprotsessi läbiviivate bakterite rikastamine anaeroobse kääriti väljavoolu lämmastikurikka vädu käitlemiseks ning anammox protsessi kiirendamine protsessi vaheühenditega), Tartu Ülikool, Loodus- ja tehnoloogiateaduskond, Tartu Ülikooli Keemia Instituut. (etis.ee)
  • Wieringa, K. T.: Over het verdwijnen van waterstof en koolzuur onder anaerobe voorwarden. (springer.com)
  • A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate. (usgs.gov)
  • In addition to revealing insights into the phenotype of sessile T. maritima communities, the methodology developed here can be extended to study other anaerobic biofilm formation processes as well as to examine aspects of microbial ecology in hydrothermal environments. (scienceopen.com)
  • Genes of this pathway were identified via N-terminal sequences of proteins isolated from strain EbN1 and by sequence similarities to proteins from other bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Here we describe for the first time the successful transformation of C. sporogenes, a clostridial strain with the highest reported tumor colonization efficiency, with the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and show that systemically injected spores of these bacteria express CD only in the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • Strain Mat9-16 T grew fermentatively with optimum growth at 45 °C, pH 7.0-7.5 and 1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain Mat9-16 T was affiliated with an uncultivated lineage, and the nearest cultivated neighbours were green sulfur bacteria belonging to the class Chlorobea with 77-83 % sequence similarity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, strain Mat9-16 T could not grow phototrophically and did not possess light-harvesting structures, morphologically and genetically, such as the chlorosomes of green sulfur bacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This strain is a potential keystone species in the hydrolysis of complex polymers during anaerobic digestion of biomass. (asm.org)
  • Oxidation of thiosulfate by a new bacterium, Bosea thiooxidans (strain BI-42) gen. nov., sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We found that these anaerobic plant pathogens harbor a gene locus (type II polyketide synthase) to produce unusual polyketide metabolites (clostrubins) with dual functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Culture is required to correctly identify anaerobic pathogens and institute effective antibiotic treatment. (scribd.com)
  • Additionally, because anaerobic bacterial processes produce little heat, they are ineffective in eliminating or reducing the pathogens and microscopic parasites present in wastewater supplies. (aero-stream.com)
  • Among the previously annotated genes in the T. maritima genome, which showed expression changes during biofilm growth, were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in mesophilic bacteria (i.e. (scienceopen.com)
  • Some examples of facultatively anaerobic bacteria are Staphylococcus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea (optimal temperature [ T opt ], ≥80°C) from marine environments are able to grow on various α- and β-linked glucans, but none of them are able to efficiently hydrolyze crystalline cellulose and plant biomass ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • From real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, the growth of anammox bacteria in the gel carriers was clearly shown by increased concentration of 16S rRNA gene of planctomycete from 4.3 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) copies/ml between days 41 and 55. (eurekamag.com)
  • Can you use GFP to investigate the expression of a gene in a bacterium that lives exclusively in anaerobic deep ocean sediments? (coursehero.com)
  • This method is the most efficient way to create precise, reproducible conditions because it rapidly removes the oxygenated environment from a jar and replaces it with precise amounts of anaerobic, or microaerophilic or capnophilic gas mixtures. (aicompanies.com)
  • The Anoxomat system can also culture microaerophilic, hypoxic, and capnophilic bacteria. (aicompanies.com)
  • Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The antibacterial activities of different nitroheterocyclic compounds were assessed by an agar dilution method against aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Microaerophilic campylobacter isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which was as susceptible as aerobic bacteria (MIC50, 1 mg/liter) and the other of which was more highly susceptible (MIC50, 0.015 mg/liter). (asm.org)
  • Types of Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria. (hochichu.info)
  • Microaerophilic bacteria do not grow at all aerobically or grow poorly, but grow better under 10% carbon dioxide or anaerobically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria: Bacteria involved the aerobic wastewater treatment are aerobes. (thecuplady.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant. (thecuplady.com)
  • An "anaerobic digester" is basically a mechanical stomach. (jakesonline.org)
  • nov., obligately anaerobic bacteria from the human oral cavity, and emended description of the genus Oribacterium. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Two Gram-positive obligately anaerobic strains possessed glucuronidase activity. (eur.nl)
  • The genome of Caldithrix abyssi , the first cultivated representative of a phylum-level bacterial lineage, was sequenced within the framework of Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anammox bacteria do not conform to the typical characteristics of bacteria but instead share features with all three domains of life, Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya , making them extremely interesting from an evolutionary perspective. (asm.org)
  • There are two major ways in which methane is removed from the environment: aerobic oxidation by a specialized group of bacteria and anaerobic oxidation by a specialized group of archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. (asm.org)
  • Describe the microscopic and colony morphology and the results of differentiating anaerobic isolates. (studylib.net)
  • Bacteria typically associated with dental plaque build up around teeth - Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas endodontalis. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Prevotella Bacteria, 3D Illustration. (123rf.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria, mainly peptostreptococci and Prevotella spp. (diva-portal.org)
  • Individual examples include transfer from Bacteria to Fungi [ 6 ] or Ciliates [ 7 ] in the rumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Digestion is performed by a numerous and diverse microbiota including Bacteria, anaerobic Fungi, and Ciliates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reason being aerobic bacteria require only a short amount of time to develop from millions in to billions, and it is the fungi present in a solution of microbes that require the full 24 hours. (biotabs.nl)
  • How aerobic bacteria and fungi interact with biochar is by allowing all of the microscopic hairs that are an extension of the root zone to push through into the tiniest crevices imaginable. (biotabs.nl)
  • However, what no one could have predicted was that in addition to being the missing link in the nitrogen cycle, these anammox bacteria would also defy other microbiological concepts. (asm.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to identify whether there were anammox bacteria in the surface sediments of chongming eastern tidal flat in the Yangtze estuary, and the feature of their community structure and spatial distribution. (omicsonline.org)
  • In comparison with the high and low tidal flats, the community structure of anammox bacteria was the most complicated in the middle tidal flat. (omicsonline.org)
  • A portion of the sequences were related to uncultivated bacteria outside the known anammox cluster, probably indicated that there were potential anammox bacteria in the sediments of Chongming eastern tidal flat. (omicsonline.org)
  • Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that these clusters consisted of anammox bacteria. (eurekamag.com)
  • This is the first report of successful immobilization and cultivation of anammox bacteria in a gel carrier. (eurekamag.com)
  • See Anaerobic Bacteria Antimicrobials in Special Instructions for a listing of the antimicrobials routinely tested in our laboratory as well as antimicrobials that may be tested upon request. (hochichu.info)
  • A bonus, the bacteria decompose organic materials in the absence of air, and feeds on organic in. (jakesonline.org)
  • facultatively anaerobic bacteria can grow in the presence or absence of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deoxygenations proceeded simultaneously, with the expected dioxygenase-catalysed asymmetric sulfoxidation of sulfides, during some biotransformations with the aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas putida UV4. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Wieringa, K. T.: The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The genomic analysis revealed mechanisms allowing this anaerobic bacterium to ferment peptides or to implement nitrate reduction with acetate or molecular hydrogen as electron donors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Packing of the filter media promotes the accumulation of lipolytic bacteria, acetate consuming methanogenic bacteria and hydrogen consuming methanogenic bacteria in the space where filter media were packed. (iwaponline.com)
  • The study had aimed to characterize the production of hydrogen gases by anaerobic bacteria. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Rasha Jame, Boris Lakatoš, Mawia Hassan, Mutasim Elhag, Ludovit Varečka, Production of Bio-Hydrogen Gas and Other Metabolic Gases by Anaerobic Bacteria Grown on Molasses, Advances in Biochemistry . (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Unfortunately hydrogen peroxide at any ratio will discourage the life of aerobic bacteria and should not be combined with a nutrient solution containing beneficial bacteria such as BACTREX and MYCOTREX . (biotabs.nl)
  • Thermotoga maritima, a fermentative, anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium, was found to attach to bioreactor glass walls, nylon mesh, and polycarbonate filters during chemostat cultivation on maltose-based media at 80 degrees C. A whole-genome cDNA microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between biofilm and planktonic populations. (scienceopen.com)
  • Often, several species of anaerobic bacteria are present in infected tissues. (merckmanuals.com)
  • other non-fermenting Gram-negative rods and several anaerobic species often primarily colonized the trachea, indicating exogenous or direct gastrointestinal routes of colonization. (diva-portal.org)
  • Growth and production of the metabolic gases with molasses as sole carbon source were measured during the anaerobic cultivation by Micro-Oxymax (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH, U.S.A.) gas analyzer. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Acetogenic bacteria could not be detected in rumen samples. (springer.com)
  • When he developed those techniques, a number of scientists started using it, and we started culturing all the bacteria in the rumen," says Tim McCallister from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (wylr.net)
  • When we did the math to compare what we cultured in the laboratory to what we found in the genetic information, we found out that 95 percent of bacteria in the rumen had never been cultured in the laboratory," he emphasizes. (wylr.net)
  • There are 10 to 100 billion bacteria in one cubic centimeter of rumen fluid. (wylr.net)
  • The three principal populations of bacteria in the rumen are also segregated by their location. (wylr.net)
  • The first are the bacteria that are attached to the rumen wall. (wylr.net)
  • The largest population of bacteria in the rumen - about 70 percent of the total microbiome - attach to the surface of feed and carry out the digestion process. (wylr.net)
  • The final 30 percent of the bacteria in the rumen are free bacteria. (wylr.net)
  • The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we investigate HGT from the Bacteria to rumen Ciliates - a monophyletic but rather diverse group of unicellular Eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pathway was discovered after metagenomic sequencing of an enrichment culture that couples anaerobic oxidation of methane with the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen. (nih.gov)
  • A proposed pathway for anaerobic oxidation of methane involving the homolog of methyl-CoM reductase and a novel methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin (H 4 MPT) reductase (Mer), and its connection with the sulfate reduction pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5. Recognize specimens that are acceptable and unacceptable for anaerobic culture. (studylib.net)
  • Some features of these newly discovered enzymes are described and compared with those of the previously known glycyl radical enzymes pyruvate formate-lyase (Pfl) and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase (Nrd). (nih.gov)
  • I aim to purify one of the enzymes involved in the cobalt-independent pathway and try to assess if more sulfate reducing bacteria use two methanol degrading pathways. (wur.nl)
  • Polyacrylamide gel electropherograms stained for superoxide dismutase indicated that many of the anaerobic bacteria contained at least two electrophoretically distinct enzymes with superoxide dismutase activity. (asm.org)
  • The genome encodes a broad set of cellulolytic enzymes, transporters, and pathways for sugar utilization and compared to those of other saccharolytic, anaerobic thermophiles is most similar to that of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many anaerobic bacteria possess virulence factors that facilitate their pathogenicity, e.g. histiolytic enzymes and various toxins. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Transcriptional analysis of biofilm formation processes in the anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. (scienceopen.com)
  • Techtmann SM, Colman AS, Murphy MB, Schackwitz WS, Goodwin LA and Robb FT (2018) Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. (frontiersin.org)