One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.

Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease: implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1/1409)

In preparing the 1998 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we reviewed evidence regarding the need to eradicate anaerobes when treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Anaerobes are present in the upper genital tract during an episode of acute PID, with the prevalence dependent on the population under study. Vaginal anaerobes can facilitate acquisition of PID and cause tissue damage to the fallopian tube, either directly or indirectly through the host inflammatory response. Use of several broad-spectrum regimens appears to result in excellent clinical cure rates, despite the fact that some combinations fall short of providing comprehensive coverage of anaerobes. There are limited data on the long-term effects of failing to eradicate anaerobes from the upper genital tract. Concern that tissue damage may continue when anaerobes are suboptimally treated has prompted many experts to caution that therapeutic regimens should include comprehensive anaerobic coverage for optimal treatment of women with PID.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (2/1409)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of a novel multidomain mannanase gene from Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum. (3/1409)

The manA gene of Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum was cloned in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of manA is composed of 3,291 bases and codes for a preprotein of 1,097 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119,627 Da. The start codon is preceded by a strong putative ribosome binding site (TAAGGCGGTG) and a putative -35 (TTCGC) and -10 (TAAAAT) promoter sequence. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum is a modular protein. Sequence comparison and biochemical analyses demonstrate the presence of an N-terminal leader peptide, and three other domains in the following order: a putative mannanase-cellulase catalytic domain, cellulose binding domains 1 (CBD1) and CBD2, and a surface-layer-like protein region (SLH-1, SLH-2, and SLH-3). The CBD domains show no sequence homology to any cellulose binding domain yet reported, hence suggesting a novel CBD. The duplicated CBDs, which lack a disulfide bridge, exhibit 69% identity, and their deletion resulted in both failure to bind to cellulose and an apparent loss of carboxymethyl cellulase and mannanase activities. At the C-terminal region of the gene are three repeats of 59, 67, and 56 amino acids which are homologous to conserved sequences found in the S-layer-associated regions within the xylanases and cellulases of thermophilic members of the Bacillus-Clostridium cluster. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum, besides being an extremely active enzyme, is the only mannanase gene cloned which shows this domain structure.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints. (4/1409)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities.  (+info)

Towards the reaction mechanism of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase of Pelobacter acidigallici. (5/1409)

Conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol was studied with the molybdenum enzyme transhydroxylase of the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter acidigallici. Transhydroxylation experiments in H218O revealed that none of the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol was derived from water, confirming the concept that this enzyme transfers a hydroxyl group from the cosubstrate 1,2,3, 5-tetrahydroxybenzene (tetrahydroxybenzene) to the acceptor pyrogallol, and simultaneously regenerates the cosubstrate. This concept requires a reaction which synthesizes the cofactor de novo to maintain a sufficiently high intracellular pool during growth. Some sulfoxides and aromatic N-oxides were found to act as hydroxyl donors to convert pyrogallol to tetrahydroxybenzene. Again, water was not the source of the added hydroxyl groups; the oxides reacted as cosubstrates in a transhydroxylation reaction rather than as true oxidants in a net hydroxylation reaction. No oxidizing agent was found that supported a formation of tetrahydroxybenzene via a net hydroxylation of pyrogallol. However, conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol in the absence of tetrahydroxybenzene was achieved if little pyrogallol and a high amount of enzyme preparation was used which had been pre-exposed to air. Obviously, the enzyme was oxidized by air to form sufficient amounts of tetrahydroxybenzene from pyrogallol to start the reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed which combines an oxidative hydroxylation with a reductive dehydroxylation via the molybdenum cofactor, and allows the transfer of a hydroxyl group between tetrahydroxybenzene and pyrogallol without involvement of water. With this, the transhydroxylase differs basically from all other hydroxylating molybdenum enzymes which all use water as hydroxyl source.  (+info)

Chemical modification of lysine side chains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter causes a shift from cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase to alpha-amylase specificity. (6/1409)

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases and alpha-amylases are two groups of enzymes with related secondary structures. However, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases display transferase activities not present in alpha-amylases, probably derived from the existence of two more domains and different amino acid sequences. The hydrolytic activity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is generally quite low, except for two cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from termophiles. In this work, we have carried out the chemical modification (with acetic anhydride) of the amino groups of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter to assess their contributions to protein function. The acetylated cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase showed a significant reduction of its cyclization, coupling and disproportionation activities. Surprisingly, the hydrolytic (saccharifying) activity was slightly enhanced. These results suggest the participation of one or more lysine side chains in the interactions contributing to the transferase activity, either in any of the S11 subsites or in the acceptor binding site.  (+info)

Current susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria. (7/1409)

While antibiotic resistance among anaerobes continues to increase, the frequency of antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anaerobes is declining. Because anaerobic infections are often mixed and detailed bacteriology of the organisms involved may take some time, physicians must institute empiric therapy before susceptibility testing results are available. Also, economic realities and prudent use of resources mandate that careful consideration be given to the necessity for routine susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Determination of appropriate therapy can be based on published antibiograms; however, since patterns may vary within geographic regions and even within hospitals, it is strongly recommended that each hospital center periodically test their isolates to determine local patterns and detect any pockets of resistance. As a general guide, antibiograms from the last several years of susceptibility testing at the Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory are reported.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (8/1409)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C ...
Title: Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):R. Schaumann and A. C. Rodloff. Affiliation:Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig,Liebigstr. 24, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.. Keywords:Quinolones, naphthyridones, anaerobes, aerobe/anaerobe mixed infections. Abstract: Quinolones are of clinical and scientific interest since their discovery based on the nalidixic acid in the early 1960s. They are based on two types of ring structures, the quinolone nucleus and the naphthyridone nucleus. Nalidixic acid as the first discovered agent is a naphthyridone and has only a moderate activity against Gram-negative rods. The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. The quinolones are now divided into four groups due to their different ...
The purpose of this study was to identify anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and to support quantitative PCR results which were performed for searching an effective seeding sludge to achieve successful enrichment of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Eleven sludge-samples originated from ten purification facilities for livestock wastewater were used in this study. At first, six samples among the eleven samples were selected by gas productivity per a gram biomass. The selected samples were used for the experiments of qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing after extraction of the genomic DNAs. The quantitative PCR was done with the primer sets of AMX818F/AMX1066R and HZO2aF/HZO2aR. The amplicons for pyrosequencing analysis were constructed by using the primer-set which is consisted of a specific pla46F primer targeting the conserved 16S rRNA gene belongs to Plantomycetes phylum and eub 518R targeting the conserved 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria. There is no meaningful correlation between the results ...
In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them (referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration. Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen. ...
Doripenem, a 1-β-methyl carbapenem being developed for the treatment of serious systemic bacterial infections, is resistant to hydrolysis by dihydropeptidase 1 (7). In aerobes, doripenem appears to have the advantages of both imipenem (in its activity against gram-positive cocci) and meropenem (in its activity against gram-negative organisms) (12). Metalloenzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems have been found in both aerobic bacteria (3, 10, 11) and anaerobic bacteria (2); the gene for the metalloenzyme may be silent or expressed to various degrees, resulting in a wide range of carbapenem resistance levels (13). In Japan, this accounts for the 2 to 4% rate of resistance to imipenem (1, 16), but these isolates are rarely found in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of doripenem against a wide range of clinical anaerobic isolates and to compare its in vitro activities to those of other antimicrobial agents.. Bacteria were clinical isolates collected from a wide ...
Diagnosis The diagnosis of anaerobic infection is based primarily on symptoms, the patients medical history, and location of the infection. A foul-smelling infection or drainage from an abscess is diagnostic of anaerobic infection. This foul smell is produced by anaerobic bacteria and occurs in one third to one half of patients late in the infection. Other clues to anaerobic infection include tissue necrosis and gas production at the infection site. A sample from the infected site may be obtained, using a swab or a needle and syringe, to determine which bacteria is (are) causing the infection. Because these bacteria can be easily killed by oxygen, they rarely grow in the laboratory cultures of tissue or pus samples. The recent medical history of the patient is helpful in diagnosing anaerobic infection. A patient who has or recently had surgery, dental work, tumors, blood vessel disease, or injury are susceptible to this infection. The failure to improve following treatment with antibiotics that ...
Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are common and may be serious and life-threatening. Anaerobes are the predominant components of the bacterial flora of
Anaerobic bacteria are not likely to carry out cellular respiration. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, and anaerobic bacteria are able to survive in environments that lack...
Anaerobic bacteria are the primary cause of bad breath. Controlling them will give you a cleaner, fresher mouth. Visit our site for more information.
Preliminary test: The concentration of EA-3098 in the aqueous phases after two and three successive centrigugation steps was for peak 1 ,1.0 x 10 -5 g/l, peak 2 ,4.0 x 10-5 g/l and for peak 3 ,1.o x 10-4 g/l, respectively. From this it could be concluded that the water solubility of EA-3098 is ,10 mg/l. Therefore, the column elution method was chosen for the determination of the water solubility of EA-3098. The pH of the aqueous phase after 2 centrifugation steps was 9.5. Main study (column elution method): Analysis confirmed the presence of test substance on the loaded carrier material before filling the column. The eluates did not contain undissolved particles. In the eluates from the blank column a small peak was detected for peak 1. The concentration was calculated using the RF-factor and was ,Limit of Detection (LOD). The results are summarised in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 1: Results of column elution method for peak 1 ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) has been proven to be an excellent pretreatment step for an anaerobic digester (AD), increasing biogas yield and decreasing sludge disposal. The goal of this work was to optimize deammonification for efficient nitrogen removal despite the inhibition effects caused by the organics present in the THP-AD sludge filtrate (digestate). Two sequencing batch reactors were studied treating conventional digestate and THP-AD digestate, respectively. Improved process control based on higher dissolved oxygen set-point (1 mg O-2/L) and longer aeration times could achieve successful treatment of THP-AD digestate. This increased set-point could overcome the inhibition effect on aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB), potentially caused by particulate and colloidal organics. Moreover, based on the mass balance, anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) contribution to the total nitrogen removal decreased from 97 +/- A 1 % for conventional to 72 +/- A 5 % for THP-AD ...
The complexity of the oral and gingival flora has prevented the clear elucidation of specific etiologic agents in most forms of oral and dental infections. In the gingival crevice, there are approximately 1.8 X1011 anaerobes per gram (1). Because anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal oral flora and outnumber aerobic organisms by a ratio of 1 10 to 1 100 at this site, it is not surprising that they predominant in dental infections. There are at least 350 morphological and biochemically.... ...
An imbalance in the colonic microbiota might underlie many human diseases, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain elusive. Recent insights suggest that colonocyte metabolism functions as a control switch, mediating a shift between homeostatic and dysbiotic communities. During homeostasis, colonocyte metabolism is directed towards oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in high epithelial oxygen consumption. The consequent epithelial hypoxia helps maintain a microbial community dominated by obligate anaerobic bacteria, which provide benefit by converting fiber into fermentation products absorbed by the host. Conditions that alter the metabolism of the colonic epithelium increase epithelial oxygenation, thereby driving an expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria, a hallmark of dysbiosis in the colon. Enteric pathogens subvert colonocyte metabolism to escape niche protection conferred by the gut microbiota. The reverse strategy, a metabolic reprogramming to restore colonocyte hypoxia, ...
Buy Biochemistry and Physiology of Anaerobic Bacteria (9780387955926): NHBS - Edited By: LG Ljungdahl, MW Adams, LL Barton, JG Ferry and MK Johnson, Springer-Verlag
Overview of Anaerobic Bacteria - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Study Flashcards On Q3: Micro: Anaerobic Infections at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Anaerobic Infections, Central Nervous System. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Bernstein J. Papadakis M.A., & McPhee S.J., & Bernstein J(Eds.),Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2020. McGraw-Hill; Accessed October 25, 2020.§ionid=231362258 ...
Anaerobic Infections, Central Nervous System. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ. Papadakis M.A., McPhee S.J. Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, and Stephen J. McPhee.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017 New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; .§ionid=152401325. Accessed December 18, 2017 ...
A novel anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain Zn2T, was isolated from the wastewater of a paper mill in Zhejiang, China. Cells were Gram-type-positive rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 2-4 µm long, and were motile by a lateral flagellum. The ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 10-50 °C and pH 6.0-9.5. Optimal growth occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.3-7.5. The strain did not require NaCl for growth, but its inclusion in the medium improved growth (optimum concentration 6 %). Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, d-xylose, salicin, glycerol, formate, acetate and propionate. The main products of carbohydrate fermentation were acetate, formate, propionate and lactate. Elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and Fe(III) were used as electron acceptors, but sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite and Mn(IV) were not. Growth was inhibited by the addition of 10 µg ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline or chloramphenicol ml−1. iso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 1
The environment-friendly bio-toilets for passenger coaches were developed jointly by Indian Railways and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).In the bio-toilet fitted coaches, human waste is collected in bio digester tanks below the toilets and is decomposed by a consortium of anaerobic bacteria.By the process of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis, the anaerobic bacteria converts human faecal matter into water and small amount of gases (including methane).. Indian railways aims to install human waste discharge free biotoilets in all its coaches and the same would be completed by September 2019.It will help in proving cleanliness and hygiene besides preventingcorrosion of the tracks.It is part of the Swachh Bharat Mission. Diagram of Bio -toilet:. ...
Does anyone know how to isolate genomic DNA from anaerobic bacteria? Any suggestion or protocol are very appreciated! Thanks in advance. Shiyou Ding ...
Rainey, F. A.; Zhilina, T. N.; Boulygina, E. S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Tourova, T. P.; Zavarzin, G. A. (1995). The Taxonomic Status of the Fermentative Halophilic Anaerobic Bacteria: Description of Haloanaerobiales ord. nov., Halobacteroidaceae fam. nov., Orenia gen. nov. and further Taxonomic Rearrangements at the Genus and Species Level. Anaerobe. 1(4): 185-199 ...
Naidoo, S et al. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., Oct 2011, vol.101, no.10, p.732-734. ISSN 0256- ...
I was thinking about getting this block of marinepure from bulk reef supply. Theyre supposed to work really week and boost biological filtration (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria). People have said
Recent studies indicate that ammonia is an important electron donor for the oxidation of fixed nitrogen, both in the marine water column and sediments. This process, known as anammox, has so far only been observed in a large range of temperature habitats. The present study investigated the role of anammox in hydrothermal settings. During three oceanographic expeditions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, hydrothermal samples were collected from five vent sites, at depths ranging from 750 to 3650 m from cold to hot habitats. Evidence for the occurrence of anammox in these particular habitats was demonstrated by concurrent surveys, including the amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences related to known anammox bacteria, ladderanes lipids analysis and measurement of a (14)N(15)N dinitrogen production in isotope-pairing experiments at 60 and 85 degrees C. Together these results indicate that new deep-branching anammox bacteria may be active in these hot habitats.
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Peptostreptococcus spp. (and pathogens formerly designated as Peptostreptococcus, including species now in genera Anaerococcus, Atopobium, Blautia, Finegoldia, Peptoniphilus and Parvimonas, collectively referred to as the peptostreptococci below). SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Finegoldia magnus, Parvimonas micros, Atopobium parvulum, Blautia producta . CHARACTERISTICS: Peptostreptococci are anaerobic, non-sporing, gram-positive cocci that are 0.3-1.8 μm in diameter, depending on the species(1-3). They are usually arranged in chains, pairs, tetrads, or clumps(1,3). SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Peptostreptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary system, and skin(1-5). This type of bacteria causes a wide variety of infections, including oropharyngeal, sinus, ear, ...
Mobiluncus mulieris ATCC ® 35240D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Mobiluncus mulieris strain BV 64-5 TypeStrain=False Application:
The nitrogen removal pathways in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process where anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying heterotrophs convert ammonium and nitrite directly to dinitrogen gas under anoxic conditions were investigated using a mathematical model. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was modified with two step denitrification and one-step anaerobic ammonia oxidation. A one dimensional granular biofilm model was implemented in Aquasim 2.1v (EAWAG, Switzerland) in order to describe a series of batch processes operated in a bioreactor treating synthetic wastewater. A sophisticated statistical method was used for parameter estimation. The model was not sensitive with respect to the detachment velocity in the biofilm matrix as well as the porosity coefficients of dissolved state variables. The final results showed a satisfactory goodness of fitness representing Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.98 and 0.81 for modeled and measured concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N
Anaerobe Systems manufactures anaerobic chambers, anaerobic tubes,anaerobic plates,anaerobic transport media, custom formulations, disks, and reagents for anaerobic diagnostic laboratories. Anaerobe Systems produces the only true Pre-Reduced Anaerobically Sterilized (PRAS) plated and tubed culture media in the USA. Anaerobe Systems also offers anaerobe chamber training seminars, advanced anaerobic microbiology courses and anaerobic microbiology workshops. The Anaerobe Systems website contains descriptions, pricing and ordering information for anaerobic chambers, agars, broths and transport media needed in the anaerobic diagnostic laboratory, as well as information on anaerobic microbiology education.
Cell-associated oligo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase (EC was isolated from Thermoanaerobium Tok6-B1 grown on starch-containing medium. Activity was purified 11.4-fold by salt precipitation, gel filtration, hydroxyapatite and anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular mass was determined as 30,000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 33,000 by analytical gel filtration. The probable order of specificity was p-nitrophenyl-alpha D-glucose greater than-isomaltose greater than-isomaltotriose greater than-panose greater than-nigerose and no activity was shown against malto-oligosaccharides, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, cellobiose, sophorose, gentiobiose, lactose, pullulan, dextran or amylose. The optima for activity and stability were between pH 5.6 and 7.0 and the half-life at pH 6.5 was 1000 min at 70 degrees C and 20 min at 76 degrees C. Activity was stabilized by substrate, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+, but was destabilized by Zn2+ and EDTA. N-Ethylmaleimide, glucose and 1-O-methyl-alpha ...
Multiple species of bacteria have been isolated from chronic and acute wounds, including wounds without any signs of infection. A literature review by Bowler examined culture data from 62 published studies dating between 1969 and 1997 (Bowler, 1998). The most predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (reported in 63% of the studies), followed by coliforms (45%), Bacteroides spp. (39%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%), Enterococcus spp. (26%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (13%).. This literature review also indicated that anaerobic bacteria were more commonly reported isolates from infected wounds. A later culture-based study compared the microflora of chronic and acute wounds (Bowler and Davies, 1999). In this study, Staphylococcus aureus predominated in infected acute wounds, while infected chronic wounds were primarily colonized by anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., Prevotella/ Porphyromonas spp., Clostridium spp.), coliforms, and fecal ...
Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) and ACB8, were isolated from human subgingival dental plaque. All strains required yeast extract for growth. Strains ACB1(T) and ACB8 were able to grow on glucose, lactose, maltose, maltodextrin and raffinose; strain ACB7(T) grew weakly on sucrose only. The growth temperature range was 30-42 °C with optimum growth at 37 °C. Major metabolic fermentation end products of strain ACB1(T) were acetate and lactate; the only product of strains ACB7(T) and ACB8 was acetate. Major fatty acids of strain ACB1(T) were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c dimethyl aldehyde (DMA) and C(18 : 1)ω7c DMA. Major fatty acids of strain ACB7(T) were C(12 : 0), C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 1)ω7c DMA. The hydrolysate of the peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, indicating peptidoglycan type A1γ. Genomic DNA G+C content varied from 42 to 43.3% between strains. ...
The good guys are the aerobic bacteria; naturally present in waste they produce odorless carbon dioxide (CO2) as they breakdown solids and paper in the wastewater. Aerobic bacteria need lots of oxygen to thrive, thus, given a consistent and large enough supply of oxygen, there would be no odor from the holding tank.. Anaerobic bacteria are the bad guys. These bacteria thrive in the absence of air and produce sulfide gases, which smell bad. Anaerobic bacteria also produce methane and CO2, However, most holding tanks do not have sufficient ventilation and since CO2 is heavier than air the CO2 settles on top of the waste and chokes the aerobic bacteria while providing a prime environment for the anaerobic bacteria.. This process can occur any where standing sewage is standing, on Identity Crisis the possible culprits included the holding tank and the hoses.. Locating Odor Source. Armed with the knowledge of how the head odor is created, I began an investigation into the source. The first and ...
Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) and ACB8, were isolated from human subgingival dental plaque. All strains required yeast extract for growth. Strains ACB1(T) and ACB8 were able to grow on glucose, lactose, ma …
Glycerol is a byproduct of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes and can be converted to more valuable products such as ethanol, butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol by various anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we isolated glycerol-utilizing anaerobic bacteria to obtain ones having a superior ability to produce butanol. By adding acetic and butyric acids into the mineral medium containing glycerol, we could enrich butanol-producing bacteria from a soil sample. Isolates showed ,99% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Clostridium diolis/beijerinckii (group 1), C. butyricum (group 2), C. arbusti (group 3), and Klebsiella oxytoca (group 4). The isolates belonging to group 3 produced up to 12.5 g/L of butanol and the isolates belonging to group 2 produced up to 17.1 g/L of 1,3-propanediol from 30 g/L of glycerol. When glucose was used instead of glycerol, the isolates belonging to group 1 produced 12.0 g/L of butanol and 6.9 g/L of ethanol and the isolate of group 4 produced 21.0 g/L of ...
Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
Product Downloads BTI-ANA Medium SDS 052521 Applications Use to test samples for anaerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic bacteria (ANA). Description A liquid growth medium for anaerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic bacteria (ANA). Anaerobic bacteria are important components in biofouling, deposit formation, and M
Chronic osteomyelitis is a relapsing, persistent, low-grade inflammation of bone caused by various infectious agents. The present study, conducted over a two-year period, on specimens received from cases of chronic osteomyelitis was, to determine the frequency of isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and to analyse their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Specimens were processed for Gram stain, aerobic and anaerobic culture, and were identified according to standard techniques. Significant growth was observed in 102/204 specimens, in which aerobic growth was observed in 62 (60.8%) and anaerobic in 40 (39.2%). Resistance to metronidazole and clindamycin was observed in 6.7% and 30% of the anaerobic isolates, respectively. None of these were resistant to meropenem. A significant proportion of anaerobic isolates were found to be resistant to commonly used empirical drugs, such as clindamycin, thus necessitating a need for routine anaerobic susceptibility testing.. ...
In contrast to the well-established roles of microbes in the aetiology of acute sinusitis, the exact roles of the abovementioned microorganisms (namely Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., GPAC, V. parvula, L. buccalis, E. corrodens, E. lenta, Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp.) in the aetiology of CRS are uncertain [1, 2]. Various researchers disagree on the microbial aetiology of CRS; some of the disagreement may be explained by the different methodological approaches to the processing of the obtained microbiological samples. Many bacterial organisms have been identified in the sinus tracts of patients with CRS and are reported in the literature, but there is no consensus as to their correct pathogenic role. Despite the exact cause of the inflammation associated with CRS is uncertain, the presence of bacteria within the sinuses has been well documented in different studies [9, 10]. Some of these studies have examined the bacterial pathogens associated with CRS, but most of ...
Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. subterraneus ATCC ® BAA-225™ Designation: SEBR 7858 TypeStrain=True Application: Biotechnology
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
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A number of anaerobic bacteria are pathogenic to humans and their virulence is based on secreted toxins, which are mainly produced by species from the C..
When I present scientific evidence that God designed the creation and that it is not a product of chance, one response that frequently comes from skeptics is that perhaps there is some other way that life and the conditions to support it could exist. Maybe there is life totally different than our kind of life so that the odds diminish because there are different ways and forms that life can take is a common response. In a statement like this one, we have to assume that a scientific proposal is being made-not a religious one. If a person wishes to argue for rock people or fire people, they can do so, but not on a scientific base. Life is generally defined as having the characteristics of moving, breathing, reproducing, and responding to outside stimuli. Things like viruses and anaerobic bacteria are hard to fit into any definition, but Fire people would be even more of a problem. The reason that there is no other way is because of the chemical restraints on all of lifes processes. In order for ...
This post was most recently updated on October 17th, 2018. Specimens for anaerobic culture should be properly collected and transported. Indigenous anaerobes are often present in large numbers as normal flora on mucosal surfaces (e.g. mouth). So the sample from sites known to have anaerobes as part of the normal flora is unacceptable for anaerobic culture. ...
Every year about 40 000 cases of sepsis occur in Sweden, of which three to ten percent (1 200-4 000 cases) are caused by anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria die in the presence of oxygen. Most often, the disease-causing anaerobic bacteria occur in the patients own normal microflora, but in, for example, post-surgery infections, trauma, impaired blood circulation or underlying disease, they can create serious infections that can, in the worst case, lead to death.. Simple mistakes in the sampling of specimens from a patient, or later handling of material collected from an anaerobic infection, may kill the bacteria before they can be detected and identified. Thereby the diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment might be wrong. A serious infection can have a rapid progression that leads to sepsis, so it is very important that the patients receive the right treatment as quickly as possible, says Maria Hedberg, associate professor and biomedical scientist.. She and her company Dianox are located at ...
0898386888 Models of Anaerobic Infection: Proceedings of the third Anaerobe Discussion Group Symposium held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, July ... (New Perspectives in Clinical Microbiology),books, textbooks, text book
Despite the fact that up to 80 percent of us will experience the living nightmare that is acne at some point in our lives, scientists still dont really understand what causes the condition, and more importantly, how to stop it. 
During January 1994-February 1995, laboratory leaching tests were conducted using crushed shale packed in columns and suspended in shake flasks (slurries). Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures of 20-28oC and over elapsed times of 6 to 39 weeks under three different hydrologic scenarios: variably saturated, aerobic; continuously saturated, stagnant; and continuously saturated, aerobic. Biologically active and sterilized conditions were evaluated to test if specific chemical additives increased or decreased microbial catalysis of acid-forming oxidation reactions. Deionized water was used as the influent when solids, including sewage sludge, N-P-K fertilizer, or CaCO3 were added on top of the shale at the beginning of the experiment. Solutions containing dissolved nutrients (NH3, NO3-, PO43-, or K+) from chloride or sodium salts were added to the shale as the influent in other experiments. Most-probable numbers of iron- and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and concentrations of chemicals in ...
What is the difference between Obligate and Facultative Anaerobe? Obligate anaerobe cannot survive in oxygen while facultative anaerobe can survive in oxygen...
Flagyl is an effective antimicrobial drug which contains the active component Metronidazole. This drug is effective in respect of the broad-spectrum anaerobic microorganisms and inhibits the development of protozoa.
It is important to differentiate ZD from breast cancer. Patients should be carefully checked to make sure that they do not have breast cancer, which can include having a physical exam, mammogram and ultrasound. In Zuskas disease, breast imaging may show a cystic mass or sometimes multiple cystic masses. A biopsy, or tissue sample may need to be obtained to rule out cancer.. ZD treatment may require antibiotics. Abscesses should be drained when they reach a head. Bacteria that live with and without oxygen (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) may be isolated in cultures from patients with ZD, with the most common organisms being anaerobic Peptostreptococci together with aerobic Staphylococci. Surgery is the only curative treatment for a lactiferous fistula, a disease tract between the abscess and the breast skin. Core excision of the fistula and all of the associated infected breast tissue is the definitive treatment. Smoking cessation is also essential to help prevent recurrences of ZD.. For more ...
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The expression of denitrification by a facultatively anaerobic bacterium requires as exogenous signals a low oxygen tension concomitant with an N oxide. of the FNR-CRP family, was found to be part of the NO-triggered signal transduction pathway. However, overexpression of in an engineered strain did not result in NirS synthesis, indicating a need for activation […]. ...
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Sra-mo-tan in-ci-dent iz Kni-na u ko-jem ve-te-ra-ni IX. boj-ne HOS-a mar-ši-ra-ju gra-dom i pri-tom vi-ču za dom sprem-ni te pje-va-ju us-ta-ške pje-sme osu-dio je ju-čer član Pred-sjed-niš-tva SDP-a Pe-đa Gr-bin. - Sra-mot-no je da praz-nik kao što je Dan po-bje-de i do-mo-vin-ske za-hval-nos-ti i Dan bra-ni-te-lja ne-ki ko-ris-te za pro-pa-gi-ra-nje svo-je sra-mot-ne i pro-pa-le ide-olo-gi-je mrž-nje. To tre-ba naj-o-š-tri-je osu-di-ti da se ne vi-še ne po-nav-lja. Hr-vat-ska je pre-du-go za-bi-ja-la gla-vu u pi-je-sak, a od-go-vor-ni su se pra-vi-li da ni-šta ne vi-de i ne ču-ju bez ob-zi-ra na po-s-lje-di-ce - po-ru-čio je Gr-bin. Ko-men-ti-rao je i go-vor pred-sjed-ni-ce dr-ža-ve Ko-lin-de Gra-bar-Ki-ta-ro-vić u Kni-nu u ko-jem je na-pa-la i še-fa SDP-a Zo-ra-na Mi-la-no-vi-ća. - Ne-pri-hvat-lji-vo je da su se po-je-di-ni po-li-ti-ča-ri i da-nas ko-ris-ti-li go-vor-ni-com i, umjes-to da go-vo-re o dr-žav-nom praz-ni-ku, vo-di-li kam-pa-nju i na-pa-da-li po-li-tič-ke ...
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Boone, D.; Mah, R. (2006). Transitional bacteria in anaerobic digestion of biomass. p. 35. "What is anaerobic digestion?" (PDF ... Methanogenic bacteria in Anaerobic digestion of biomass, p49 "The biogas plant". Retrieved 5 November 2007. Anaerobic ... For the bacteria in anaerobic digesters to access the energy potential of the material, these chains must first be broken down ... Some of this material is termed 'hard COD', meaning it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for conversion into biogas ...
Bacteria tend to form biofilms as their primary means of corroding metals, with different bacteria dominating across different ... Anaerobic corrosion primarily occurs on metallic substrates but may also occur on concrete. Bacterial anaerobic corrosion ... Similarly, biofilms are important for bacterial anaerobic corrosion of metals in wastewater pipes. For bacterial anaerobic ... This form of corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria can, in this way, be far more harmful than anaerobic corrosion. There is ...
However, this term is usually employed in a narrower sense only to those bacteria and archaea that perform anaerobic ... Acetogens are found in a variety of habitats, generally those that are anaerobic (lack oxygen). Acetogens can use a variety of ... Together with methane-forming archaea, acetogens constitute the last limbs in the anaerobic food web that leads to the ... An acetogen is a microorganism that generates acetate (CH3COO−) as an end product of anaerobic respiration or fermentation. ...
Anaerobic bacterium strain HD-1 grows on CO2 in the presence of H 2 or tetradecane. In the absence of H 2, tetradecane is ... Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (also known as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, oil degrading bacteria or HCB) are a heterogeneous ... The rest is attacked by bacteria that are able to do this. These bacteria do not adhere to the oil and do not have a high ... pH and oxygen: Bacteria require a neutral pH, and in this the same oil can help neutralize environments that are too acidic for ...
Instead, bacteria are cultured in the presence of antibiotics and screened for viability using opaque anaerobic oxalate agar. ... Jensen, N.S.; Allison, M.J. (1994). "Studies on the diversity among anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria now in the species ... Oxalobacter formigenes is a Gram negative oxalate-degrading anaerobic bacterium that was first isolated from the ... Unden G (2013). "Energy Transduction in Anaerobic Bacteria". Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry. pp. 204-209. doi:10.1016/ ...
McClung, L. S. (1935). "Studies on Anaerobic Bacteria: IV. Taxonomy of Cultures of a Thermophilic Species Causing "Swells" of ... was an American bacteriologist with an international reputation for his research on anaerobic bacteria. McClung graduated from ...
... are a genus of anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae. The organisms are spore-forming ... Ollivier B, Caumette P, Garcia J, Mah R (1994). "Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiol Rev. 58 (1): 27- ... List of bacterial orders List of bacteria genera "Genus: Sporohalobacter". Oren A, Gurevich P, Henis Y (1991). " ... Bacteria genera, Taxa described in 1988, All stub articles, Clostridia stubs). ...
Anaerobic bacteria can also be a rare cause. Fungal pericarditis is usually due to histoplasmosis, or in immunocompromised ... Brook I (April 2009). "Pericarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 33 (4): 297- ...
Ollivier B, Caumette P, Garcia JL, Mah RA (March 1994). "Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiological ... Halophiles use a variety of energy sources and can be aerobic or anaerobic; anaerobic halophiles include phototrophic, ... The domain Bacteria (mainly Salinibacter ruber) can comprise up to 25% of the prokaryotic community, but is more commonly a ... The first strategy is employed by some archaea, the majority of halophilic bacteria, yeasts, algae, and fungi; the organism ...
The green sulfur bacteria are a phylum of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria that metabolize sulfur. Green sulfur ... The coral could provide an anaerobic environment and a source of carbon for the bacteria. The bacteria can provide nutrients ... Green sulfur bacteria are gram-negative rod or spherical shaped bacteria. Some types of green sulfur bacteria have gas vacuoles ... Anoxic event Purple sulfur bacteria Green non-sulfur bacteria List of bacteria genera List of bacterial order Gibbons NE, ...
... many carrion appear covered by mats of Beggiatoa-like filamentous bacteria overlying anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. They ... Ljungdahl LG (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-387-95592-6. Mukhopadhyaya ... This colorless and filamentous bacterium, sometimes in association with other sulfur bacteria (for example the genus Thiothrix ... Anaerobic respiration: PHA + S 0 ⟶ CO 2 + H 2 S {\displaystyle {\ce {PHA + S^0 -> CO2 + H2S}}} The strain Beggiatoa sp. 35Flor ...
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... Bacteria described in 1998, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. LPSN "Desulfotomaculum arcticum" at the Encyclopedia of Life ... Desulfotomaculum arcticum is a spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Its type strain is 15T (=DSM ... Beatty, Tom J. Genome Evolution of Photosynthetic Bacteria. Vol. 66. Academic Press, 2013. Sattley, W. Matthew. Microbiology of ... nov., a novel spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord ...
"Biodegradation of xenobiotics by anaerobic bacteria". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 67 (5): 600-618. doi:10.1007/ ... Savant, D.V.; Abdul-Rahman, R.; Ranade, D.R. (2005). "Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and ... Moreover, due to competition from methanogens for H2, low H2 concentrations are favored by dechlorinating bacteria, and is ... Recently, bacteria (Ancylobacter aquaticus), fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coiriolus versicolor), or synthetic enzymes ...
Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt; Rodolfo Quintero-Ramirez (18 ... Desulfotomaculum halophilum is a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium. It is endospore-forming, long, straight to curved rod- ... 536-. ISBN 978-0-8493-1818-4. Larry L. Barton; W. Allan Hamilton (31 May 2007). Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria: Environmental and ... nov., a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from oil production facilities". International Journal of Systematic ...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic. In the absence of oxygen, they metabolize sugar into lactic acid. LAB improve soil ... Three types of bacteria common in KNF include lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and yeast. Mycorrhizae ... Soil fungus and bacteria absorb those nutrients. The fungus and bacteria are consumed by fungal and bacterial-feeding nematodes ... Bacteria Mineral Water (BMW) steeps granite, limestone, basalt, elvan and other basaltic rocks along with IMO4 to leach ...
Thauer, R.K.; Jungermann, K.; Decker, K. (1977). "Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria". Bacteriological ... It also occurs in some kinds of bacteria (such as lactobacilli) and some fungi. It is the type of bacteria that convert lactose ... These lactic acid bacteria can carry out either homolactic fermentation, where the end-product is mostly lactic acid, or ... Halophilic bacteria can produce bioplastics in hypersaline conditions. Solid-state fermentation adds a small amount of water to ...
... under anaerobic conditions sulfate reducing bacteria converts this to hydrogen sulfide. These bacteria cannot survive in air ... The purple sulfur bacteria and the green sulfur bacteria use hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor in photosynthesis, thereby ... Sulfates are relatively non-inhibitory to methane forming bacteria but can be reduced to H2S by sulfate reducing bacteria, of ... Several groups of bacteria can use hydrogen sulfide as fuel, oxidizing it to elemental sulfur or to sulfate by using dissolved ...
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Fictibacillus arsenicus, also known as Bacillus arsenicus, is a bacterium. It is Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod- ... nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from a siderite concretion in West Bengal, India". International Journal of ... Bacteria described in 2005, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
The Aeromonadaceae are Gram-negative bacteria. The species are facultative anaerobic organisms. The cells are rod-shaped. They ...
Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. LPSN "Desulfotomaculum geothermicum" at the Encyclopedia of ... nov., a thermophilic, fatty acid-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated with H2 from geothermal ground water". Antonie ... Desulfotomaculum geothermicum is a thermophilic, fatty acid-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Its cells are Gram-negative ... "Effect of thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotomaculum geothermicum) isolated from Indian petroleum refinery on ...
It is a facultative anaerobic bacteria. Although S. epidermidis is not usually pathogenic, patients with compromised immune ... It allows other bacteria to bind to the already existing biofilm, creating a multilayer biofilm. Such biofilms decrease the ... "Bacteria Genomes - STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS". Karyn's Genomes. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved December 23, 2011. Cruz, Thomas Edison E. ... Bek-Thomsen, M.; Lomholt, H. B.; Kilian, M. (20 August 2008). "Acne is Not Associated with Yet-Uncultured Bacteria". Journal of ...
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Bacillus arseniciselenatis is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... nov., sp nov.-Strictly anaerobic diazotrophic bacillus isolated from soda lake and transfer of Bacillus arseniciselenatis, ... Bacteria described in 1998, All stub articles, Bacilli stubs). ...
When bacteria grow in anaerobic environments, the terminal electron acceptor is reduced by an enzyme called a reductase. In ... E.g. Heme aa3 Class 1 terminal oxidases are much more efficient than Class 2 terminal oxidases Anaerobic bacteria, which do not ... ISBN 978-0-471-51185-4. Thauer RK, Jungermann K, Decker K (March 1977). "Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria ... Individual bacteria use multiple electron transport chains, often simultaneously. Bacteria can use a number of different ...
Anaerobic bacteria can also be involved. In a normal umbilical stump, you first see the umbilicus lose its characteristic ... For particularly invasive infections, antibiotics to cover anaerobic bacteria may be added (such as metronidazole). Treatment ... Certain bacteria can grow and infect the stump during this process and as a result significant redness and swelling may develop ... Omphalitis is most commonly caused by bacteria. The culprits usually are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, and Escherichia ...
One such mutualistic association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that ... These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which ... There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, that classify bacteria into Gram-positive bacteria and ... In fact, his Bacterium was a genus that contained non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria, as opposed to Bacillus, a genus of ...
... is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Many species in Enterocloster were historically ordered in the genus ... Gram-positive bacteria, All stub articles, Clostridia stubs). ...
... is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Many species in Thermoclostridium were historically ordered in the genus ...
nov., an anaerobic bacterium which reductively dechlorinates pentachlorophenol to 3-chlorophenol". International Journal of ... NCBI taxonomy ID 272564; DSM 10664). D. hafniense are anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. The majority of the described isolates ... nov., an Anaerobic, Reductively Dechlorinating Bacterium". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 46 (2): 442-448. ... Comensoli L, Maillard J, Albini M, Sandoz F, Junier P, Joseph E (May 2017). "Use of Bacteria To Stabilize Archaeological Iron ...
Dack, G. M. (1940). "Non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria of medical importance". Bacteriological Reviews. 4 (4): 227-259. doi: ... The term Bacterium necrophorum as used by Dack might be a synonym for Fusobacterium necrophorum, which can cause Lemierre's ... Heat lability experiments established a heating protocol that safely destroyed the bacteria. Lawrence K. Altman, M.D., gave a ... Dack, G. M. (1936). "Bacterium Necrophorum in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis". Journal of the American Medical Association. 106: 7 ...
... then with anaerobic bacteria. Tteokcha (떡차; lit. "cake tea"), also called byeongcha (병차; 餠茶; lit. "cake tea"), was the most ... Other fermented teas, called pickled teas, are fermented in a wet process with lactic acid bacteria. Pickled teas include miang ... Steamed tea leaves are kept pressed into sealed bamboo baskets until the anaerobic fermentation produces a compact cake with ... Raloff, Janet (January 28, 2004). "Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost". Retrieved 11 August 2014. "Saijo City Sightseeing ...
The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic ... It has been suggested that the last common ancestor of myxobacteria was an aerobe and that their anaerobic predecessors lived ... The myxobacteria have very large genomes relative to other bacteria, e.g. 9-10 million nucleotides except for Anaeromyxobacter ... Myxobacteria are used to study the polysaccharide production in gram-negative bacteria like the model Myxococcus xanthus which ...
... is a Gram-negative, anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Parabacteroides. "Species: ... Bacteria described in 2020, All stub articles, Bacteroidota stubs). ...
... although many live in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The production of methane is an important and widespread form ... Aerobic methane production Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic oxidation of methane Electromethanogenesis Hydrogen cycle Methanotroph ... In the rumen, anaerobic organisms, including methanogens, digest cellulose into forms nutritious to the animal. Without these ... Methanogenesis in microbes is a form of anaerobic respiration. Methanogens do not use oxygen to respire; in fact, oxygen ...
The energy in sunlight is captured by plants, cyanobacteria, purple bacteria, green sulfur bacteria and some protists. This ... In anaerobic conditions, glycolysis produces lactate, through the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase re-oxidizing NADH to NAD+ for re ... as purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria can use sunlight as a source of energy, while switching between carbon fixation ... Most bacteria and plants can synthesize all twenty, but mammals can only synthesize eleven nonessential amino acids, so nine ...
Other bacteria have become endosymbionts or obligate intracellular pathogens and experienced extensive genome reduction as a ... One example of the miniaturization of the genome occurred in the microsporidia, an anaerobic intracellular parasite of ... Many present-day mitochondria have less than 20 genes in their entire genome, whereas a modern free-living bacterium generally ... Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity ...
... is a Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the family of Facklamia which has been ... ISBN 978-0-387-68489-5. Buller, Nicky B. (2014). Bacteria and Fungi from Fish and other Aquatic Animals, 2nd Edition: A ... Bacteria described in 2001, Lactobacillales, All stub articles, Bacillota stubs). ...
... which are considered toxic to most anaerobic bacteria, might have given the bacteria an adaptive advantage which could have ... If their electron and hydrogen donors are inorganic compounds (e.g. Na 2S 2O 3, as in some purple sulfur bacteria, or H 2S, as ... This bacterium can use water as a source of electrons in order to perform CO2 reduction reactions. Evolutionarily, ... Green plants and photosynthetic bacteria are photoautotrophs. Photoautotrophic organisms are sometimes referred to as ...
Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulphide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ... If oxygen is depleted (hypoxia), marine mammals can access substantial reservoirs of glycogen that support anaerobic glycolysis ...
Since it is hard to isolate bacteria, many cultures of different bacteria are able to form. To identify a particular bacteria ... Anaerobic processes occur in the absence of oxygen and produce less cell mass than aerobic processes. An additional benefit of ... In conventional bacteria culturing, bacteria are allowed to grow on a medium that supports many strains. ... Though bacteria are often the focus of food safety processes, viruses, protozoa, and molds are also known to cause food-borne ...
Anaerobic action is common as the dissolved oxygen is seldom above a fraction of a part per million. The discharge of cooling ... Recreation water quality standards (using bacteria as indicators) are generally met during dry weather conditions, but are ...
The cytochrome-dependent enzymes are more important in anaerobic metabolism in prokaryotes. For example, in E. coli, the ... NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenases are important in methylotrophic yeast and bacteria and are vital in the catabolism of C1 ... formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase is an intrinsic membrane protein with two subunits and is involved in anaerobic ...
... nitrate acts as an alternate terminal electron acceptor for certain bacteria delaying the onset of anaerobic conditions and ...
... is a predatory prokaryotic genus that lives in anaerobic, aquatic conditions. This bacterium is distinguished ... as small, anaerobic microbe about 0.6 μm wide before being given the name of Vampirococcus in 1986 by Guerrero et al. This ... As a bacterium, Chromatium is much larger than Vampirococcus. The benefit of preying on larger microbes is the sheer abundance ... List of bacteria genera List of bacterial orders Myxococcus xanthus Bdellovibrio Jurkevitch, Edouard; Davidov, Yaacov (2007). " ...
... a group of bacteria that can obtain energy through photosynthesis. Its best growth conditions are anaerobic phototrophy ( ... Mackenzie, C; Simmons, AE; Kaplan, S (1999). "Multiple chromosomes in bacteria. The yin and yang of trp gene localization in ... It is remarkably metabolically diverse, as it is able to grow heterotrophically via fermentation and aerobic and anaerobic ... Variation in nutrient availability has important effects on the physiology of this bacterium. For example, decrease in oxygen ...
For example, bacteria as well as Candida species may be involved in these lesions. Frequently, antifungal therapy alone does ... Dentures provide a relative acidic, moist and anaerobic environment because the mucosa covered by the denture is sheltered from ... There is frequently Candida species in the lesion, sometimes mixed with bacteria. This is a localized or generalized, linear ... Broad-spectrum antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline) eliminate the competing bacteria and disrupt the normally balanced ecology of ...
... is a Gram-positive, anaerobic and moderately halophilic species of bacteria from the family of ... Bacteria described in 2009, Actinomycetia, Monotypic bacteria genera, All stub articles, Actinomycetota stubs). ...
The main cause of sludge bulking is the growth of filamentous bacteria. Filamentous microorganisms grow in long strands that ... Anaerobic digestion Membrane fouling C. C. Lee and Shun Dar Lin (2007). Handbook of environmental engineering calculations (2nd ...
... is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus Nocardioides which has ... Bacteria described in 2017, All stub articles, Propionibacteriales stubs). ...
This enzyme serves as the terminal reductase under anaerobic conditions in some bacteria, with DMSO being the terminal electron ... DMSO reductase (DMSOR) and other members of the DMSO reductase family are unique to bacteria and archaea. Enzymes of this ... family in anaerobic oxidative phosphorylation and inorganic-donor-based lithotrophic respiration. These enzymes have been ...
... originally all purple nonsulfur bacteria were included here. They are often found in anaerobic aquatic environments, such as ... The majority are purple nonsulfur bacteria, producing energy through photosynthesis; ... A Handbook of the Biology of Bacteria. Volume 5: Proteobacteria: Alpha and Beta Subclasses ISBN 978-0-387-25495-1 Peter R. ...
Some anaerobic bacteria use the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in reverse to break down acetate. For example, Sulfate reducing bacteria ... In these anaerobic archaea, the Wolfe Cycle functions as a methanogenesis pathway to reduce CO2 into methane with electron ... A 2016 study of the genomes of a set of bacteria and archaea suggested that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all ... The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway is a set of biochemical reactions used by some bacteria. It is also known as the reductive acetyl- ...
Bacteria involved in aspiration pneumonia may be either aerobic or anaerobic. Common aerobic bacteria involved include: ... the treatment of aspiration pneumonia typically includes anaerobic coverage regardless. Potential anaerobic bacteria are as ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1. Bartlett JG (March 2013). "How important are anaerobic bacteria in aspiration pneumonia: when should ... Whereas the use of antibiotics focuses on destroying and hindering the growth of bacteria, mechanical removal of oral bacteria ...
... a study of the role of anaerobic bacteria". Br. J. Dermatol. 116 (1): 31-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1987.tb05788.x. PMID ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus of ... Bacteria described in 2016, All stub articles, Bacteroidota stubs). ...
This disease is caused by a mixture of different bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria, including spirochetes of the genus Treponema, ... Treponemes are the bacterium most commonly found in lesions. Their abundance increases as the lesion progresses. They account ... It is very rare that attempts are made to isolate the bacteria. Treatment of lesions of digital dermatitis is done by topical ... Bandaging the lesion is often undertaken but there is no evidence of any benefit and bandaging can provide the anaerobic ...
Finally, aerobic bacteria convert this by oxidation to pyrite. The requirement of early anaerobic and later aerobic bacteria ... When a carcass is buried in such sediment, sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria break down its organic matter producing sulfide ... Seawater sulfate ions diffusing toward animal carcasses enabled sulfate-reducing bacteria to oxidize the reactive organic ... means that the pyritisation must occur in the upper levels of the sediment, close to the aerobic-anaerobic interface. If the ...
Louis Pasteur's work in fermentation and spontaneous generation led to the distinction between anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. ... bacteria undergoes plasmotysis or turgid state. This plasmolysis and plasmotysis kills bacteria because it causes change in ... Eliminate all bacteria, fungi, spores, and viruses. Disinfectants: Destroy or inactivate microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, ... Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level, making ...
nov., an anaerobic alkalithermophilic, cellulolytic-xylanolytic bacterium isolated from soil of a coconut garden". ... Bacteria genera, Monotypic bacteria genera, All stub articles, Bacillota stubs). ... Cellulosibacter is an obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial genus from the family of Clostridiaceae with ...
nov., a glutarate-fermenting, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic and ... Bacteria genera, Monotypic bacteria genera, All stub articles, Bacillota stubs). ... Pelospora is a Gram-negative strictly anaerobic and spore-forming bacterial genus from the family of Syntrophomonadaceae with ... Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 1-4. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm00681. ...
Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA, eds. Medical Microbiology. 9th ed. Philadelphia ... In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. They play a role in conditions such as ...
Google aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. T. Google aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The worst thing you want is an oxygen deprived ... The good bacteria that use oxygen soon used it all up, the nasty anaerobic bacteria takes over and you get major gases, gooey ...
EP-3385371-B1 chemical patent summary.
Anaerobic bacteria--Industrial applications *. Anaerobic bacteria--Metabolism *. Anaerobic bacteria--Physiology *. Anaerobic ...
Four strains of Gram-negative, nitrate-reducing bacteria capable of growth with both pimelate and benzoate as sole carbon and ... indicating the specific involvement of these enzyme activities in anaerobic degradation of these two acids. Enzyme activities ... acid derivative is postulated as an intermediate in anaerobic degradation of benzoate. ... Rudolphi A., Tschech A., Fuchs G. 1991; Anaerobic degradation of cresols by dinitrifying bacteria. Arch Microbiol 155 238 248 ...
Contributor(s): Lambe, Dwight W , Genco, Robert J , Mayberry-Carson, K. J , International Symposium on Anaerobic Bacteria: ... Anaerobic bacteria : selected topics / edited by Dwight W. Lambe, Robert J. Genco and K. J. Mayberry-Carson. ... Proceedings of the International Symposium on Anaerobic Bacteria: Laboratory Aspects, Pathogenicity, Human Immune Response to ... Anaerobic -- congressesNLM classification: WC 200 Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to ...
Endophthalmitis caused by anaerobic bacteria.. Authors: Sharma, T. Gopal, L. Parikh, S. Badrinath, S S. Madhavan, H N. Mukesh, ... Endophthalmitis caused by anaerobic bacteria. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 1995 Dec; 43(4): 191-4. ... analysis of 22 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for endophthalmitis and had culture-proven anaerobic bacteria, was ... a routine anaerobic culture of intraocular specimen is recommended. ...
The application concerns the replacement of an anaerobic cabinet that is used to culture anaerobic bacteria for studying ... an essential tool to study the interaction of anaerobic bacteria with the host (01B01115). - ... Basic information about research project The anaerobic cabinet: ... intestinal health bacteria-host interactions Anaerobic bacteria ... The anaerobic cabinet: an essential tool to study the interaction of anaerobic bacteria with the host. ...
Aerobic bacteria, and how ChemQuest can help deal with both kinds. ... Aerobic bacteria thrive in oxygen rich environments. Unlike anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria dont typically release sulfur ... Anaerobic Vs. Aerobic Bacteria. Stinky Reclaim Pits?. Dec 7, 2018 10:02:00 AM. Waste water collected from a car wash contains ... Anaerobic bacteria thrive in oxygen depleted environments. They feed on waste water nutrients and release the foul sulfur- ...
Serious infections due to anaerobic bacteria are usually treated with CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE ® Sterile Solution. However, in ... Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. ... At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to ... However, the efficacy of clindamycin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate ...
Topic: Anaerobic Bacteria. (Please note that the documents listed below are sorted by date.). Defining the Public Health Impact ...
What is an anaerobic bacteria?. Anaerobic bacterias are germs that can survive and grow where there is no oxygen. For example, ... This approach enables growing anaerobic bacteria, here sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), in flasks on a shaker at aerobic fully ... Cultivating anaerobic bacteria in aerobic conditions. SURFBIO2022-03-29T10:55:12+00:00 Blog ... How you ever asked yourself how do we get anaerobic bacteria in our guts? This is not so trivial question, since these ...
Anaerobic Bacteria have a basic job in the worldwide biogeochemical cycles. Anaerobes are redox pros and are liable for the ... Anaerobic Bacteria Open Access Journals. Anaerobic Bacteria have a basic job in the worldwide biogeochemical cycles. Anaerobes ... The anaerobic cycling of supplements requires complex small scale biome connections. An especially assorted universe of ... These microorganisms get their vitality by maturation and anaerobic breath; moreover, phototrophic and chemoautotrophic forms ...
Gram-Negative Bacteria. * Legionella pneumophila * Pasteurella multocida Anaerobic Bacteria. * Clostridium perfringens * ... 5.9 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience 6.2 Postmarketing Experience 7 ... 5.9 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria. Prescribing clarithromycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected ... MAC bacteremia, defined as at least one positive culture for Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria from blood or another ...
eli5 What kills anaerobic bacteria in the blood?. 31 views. November 12, 2022. ... Though, if bacteria are in the blood, chances are *theyre killing you* as much or more than the other way around. Sepsis is a ...
... ... evaluated the potential of vinasse as nutrient source for biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production by means of anaerobic ...
... bacteria and methanogens involved in the decomposition of dairy cattle manure have been characterized via cultivation on ... Characterizing Bacteria and Methanogens in a Balloon-Type Digester Fed with Dairy Cattle Manure for Anaerobic Mono-Digestion ... In this study, bacteria and methanogens involved in the decomposition of dairy cattle manure have been characterized via ...
The bacterial flora of noninflamed sinuses were studied for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 12 adults who underwent ... The bacteria most commonly involved in acute sinusitis are part of the normal nasal flora. These bacteria can become sinus ... These bacteria are usually removed by mucociliary clearance; thus, if mucociliary clearance is altered, bacteria may be ... The most common aerobic bacteria were S pyogenes, S aureus, S pneumonia, and H influenzae. In another study, specimens were ...
Anaerobic bacteria Stool For C.Difficile. Swabs are not the preferred collection method for anaerobic culture. Draining pus or ... Specimens likely to contain anaerobes as normal flora are not ideal for anaerobic culture. These include coughed sputum, ... aspirate is the preferred specimen for anaerobic culture. ...
Base of the evolutionary tree for anaerobic bacterium LacC. ← parent Species anaerobic bacterium LacC ...
Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria, 9th edition. CLSI standard M11. Wayne (PA): The ...
Copy For Citation Sözen S. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, vol.71, no.2, pp.1066-1071, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) ...
Infectious pericarditis may be caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi, and parasites. [5] ... Anaerobic bacteria. * Fungi (Histoplasma species, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, Aspergillus species, Candida species). * ...
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are one of the latest additions to the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. These ... Anammox bacteria are characterized by a compartmentalized cell architecture featuring a central cell compartment, the ... bacteria derive their energy for growth from the conversion of ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas in the complete absence ... Anammoxosome in Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Bacteria - was It Originated from Endosymbiosis?. *Yiguo Hong, H. Cao, M. Li, J. ...
Comparative genomics provides insights into the RNA biology of anaerobic gut bacteria. 24.08.2021 Recent paper published in ... Comparative genomics provides insights into the RNA biology of anaerobic gut bacteria. Recent paper published in Molecular ... How bacteria imprint the intestinal immune system in newborns. 04.10.2018 HZI researchers discovered how early colonisation by ... Growing bacteria to combat them. 01.04.2022 4 million euros funding for international project on urinary tract infections ...
Anaerobic activity lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students ... Two Kingdoms of Bacteria For Students 9th In this bacterial growth worksheet, 9th graders name and describe the three types of ... Aerobic And Anaerobic Activity For Teachers 3rd Third graders engage in the study of aerobic and anaerobic activities. They ... Anaerobic Respiration For Teachers 9th - 12th High schoolers define aerobic and anaerobic respiration. They compare and ...
C. difficile is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium. Normally fastidious in its vegetative state, it is capable of ... Substantial numbers of bacteria can then be transferred to carpeting during the cleaning process.1030 Therefore, keeping the ... Although these chemicals may help to reduce the overall numbers of bacteria or fungi present in carpet, their use does not ... are plant pathogens, plants brought into the delivery room were suspected to be the source of the bacteria, although the case ...
Structure-Guided Identification of a Small Molecule That Inhibits Anaerobic Choline Metabolism by Human Gut Bacteria. ... The anaerobic gut microbial pathway that converts choline into trimethylamine (TMA) is broadly linked to human disease. Here, ... Structure-Guided Identification of a Small Molecule That Inhibits Anaerobic Choline Metabo ...
  • Due to technical hurdles associated with experiments on obligate anaerobic bacterial species of the gut microbiota, research in recent years has focused in particular on aerobic model organisms, i.e., those that tolerate aerial oxygen. (
  • Students identify organisms that use the processes of aerobic and anaerobic to synthesize energy from. (
  • Anaerobic organisms were isolated from 39 of the 134 cases (29%) of all types of pyogenic osteomyelitis. (
  • Taylor and Davies [2] confirmed the presence of anaerobic organisms within sequestra. (
  • In 6 [‎12.8%]‎ patients, infection was with anaerobic organisms alone. (
  • 1. The mutally beneficial association between two organisms Important Oral Bacteria 1. (
  • Gram Positive organisms: Bacteria are very tiny organisms that fit into their own kingdom of life. (
  • But in certain organisms like bacteria and algae, respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen, called anaerobic respiration. (
  • Bacteria that can live and grow in the presence of oxygen (aerobic bacteria) and bacteria that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic bacteria), and fungal organisms can all cause septic arthritis. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria were the second most common flora in patients with cDC, while S treptococcus, Enterococcus , Extended spectrum Beta Lactamase-producing organisms, Pseudomonas, Morganella and Proteus were the second most common in patients with CD. (
  • Micro-organisms inhabiting teeth surfaces grow on biofilms where a specific and complex succession of bacteria has been described by co-aggregation tests and DNA-based studies. (
  • Meanwhile, the anaerobic count test selects anaerobic organisms by culturing them in an anaerobic environment and is usually performed with biological samples and components. (
  • Botulinum Toxins are produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum under anaerobic conditions. (
  • They obtained the Clostridium botulinum bacteria from soil samples from northern Japan. (
  • Members of the genus Clostridium are obligate anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. (
  • Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligately anaerobic bacterium. (
  • Bar Goldberg] Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal disease caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , a gram-negative, spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. (
  • The good bacteria that use oxygen soon used it all up, the nasty anaerobic bacteria takes over and you get major gases, gooey mess. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria thrive in oxygen depleted environments. (
  • Aerobic bacteria thrive in oxygen rich environments. (
  • Anaerobic bacterias are germs that can survive and grow where there is no oxygen. (
  • The solution for this problem might be in formation of aggregates where outer microbes are consuming oxygen and forming anaerobic niches inside such aggregates. (
  • These bacteria derive their energy for growth from the conversion of ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas in the complete absence of oxygen. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that can not survive in the presence of oxygen. (
  • When you return home after a week or more, it might be a good idea to treat the water with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).The bacteria don't enjoy the additional oxygen that hydrogen peroxide brings. (
  • Cells can break down glucose to generate energy using oxygen-dependent aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration, which does not require oxygen. (
  • Anaerobic respiration in humans occurs in muscles during strenuous exercise when sufficient oxygen is not available. (
  • When there is an inadequate supply of oxygen during intense exercise, muscles derive energy from anaerobic respiration. (
  • Anaerobic respiration is less energy-efficient, but allows survival in habitats which lack oxygen. (
  • Aerobic bacteria grow only in the presence of oxygen. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria can only grow if there is no oxygen present. (
  • Gas Effect - Inert gas to substitute oxygen & Actively retards the growth of both bacteria and moulds. (
  • Bacteria that can survive and grow in the complete, or nearly complete absence of oxygen. (
  • When organic matter, such as food scraps and animal waste, breaks down in an anaerobic environment (without oxygen), a blend of gases, primarily methane and carbon dioxide, is released. (
  • It's produced when organic matter, such as food or animal waste, is broken down by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen, in a process called anaerobic digestion. (
  • Biogas is produced when bacteria digest organic matter (biomass) in the absence of oxygen. (
  • Biogas is produced when organic matter biodegrades under anaerobic conditions (that is, in the absence of oxygen). (
  • Unfortunately, with the naturally occurring bacteria, this happens slowly even in a healthy septic system, mainly because of the lack of oxygen. (
  • Hydrogen sulfide gas is a toxic byproduct of bacteria that breaks down organic material in anaerobic conditions (i.e., without oxygen). (
  • First, the air pump puts oxygen into the water allowing the formation and survival of Aerobic bacteria. (
  • The bacteria need oxygen to break down the organic matter, so the second chamber is usually open to the air. (
  • Requiring oxygen [compare with anaerobic ]. (
  • Salt is used for two reasons: it is negatively charged, like oxygen, and therefore has the ability to fight anaerobic respiratory infections and through osmosis, draws mucus away from the airways. (
  • An especially assorted universe of microorganisms occupies the anaerobic conditions on earth. (
  • The ability to form biofilms is a common feature of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. (
  • The antimicrobial activity displayed by some lactic acid bacteria isolates suggests the possibility of its use against pathogens , and they might be effective as a barrier in these microorganisms development and as biological preservatives in coalho cheese. (
  • In terms of the aerobic count test, which enumerates the overall levels of microorganisms present in an aerobic environment, typically including bacteria, fungi/mold, and yeast, is used for all bioburden determinations, and additional optional tests can be applied to complement the supplemental data. (
  • Decomposition or breakdown of a substance through the action of microorganisms (such as bacteria or fungi) or other natural physical processes (such as sunlight). (
  • Buried under piles of other waste and sand, the garbage rots and breaks down in an anaerobic environment. (
  • The ultrastructure of the compartmentalized anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria is linked to their energy metabolism. (
  • High schoolers define aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (
  • They compare and contrast the processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (
  • In this performing an experiment that measures respiration lesson, students discuss aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (
  • What is aerobic and anaerobic respiration in humans? (
  • Within the human body, both aerobic and anaerobic respiration are important to muscle function. (
  • After 24 hours, this inoculated XLD agar culture plate cultivated colonial growth of Gram-negative, rod-shaped and facultatively anaerobic Salmonella sp. (
  • Würzburg, August 24, 2021 - In a study just published in Molecular Microbiology by the Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research (HIRI) in cooperation with the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg (JMU), the authors highlight potentials offered by bioinformatics in combination with experimental research approaches in the investigation of anaerobic gut bacteria. (
  • We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4 + T cells in a murine model. (
  • The goal is to see if there is an anaerobic infection present in the cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • If there is a growth of bacteria in the culture, then it may indicate that there is an infection. (
  • The risk factors of getting an anaerobic infection are diabetes, a weak immune system, low blood flow, staph infection, open wounds, etc. (
  • The common symptoms of anaerobic infection are smelly discharge, pus-filled abscess, discoloration of the infected area, etc. (
  • This test may be specially performed to check if the infection is due to anaerobic bacteria or not. (
  • If your test results show positive it may indicate that you may have an anaerobic bacterial infection in the central nervous system. (
  • The prevalence and role of anaerobic bacteria in bone infection were investigated in this prospective study on 134 cases with pyogenic osteomyelitis. (
  • Von Langenbeck (1844) reported the first case of osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacterial infection. (
  • One hundred and thirty-four (134) cases of pyogenic osteomyelitis were studied for anaerobic infection. (
  • The PulseNet specimens have no connection other than symbiotic flora, colonization, contamination, or infection by bacteria that at some point years ago were progeny of the same cell. (
  • Actinomyces , an anaerobic gram-positive bacterium, is only occasionally a cause of pelvic organ infection, usually in the presence of a long-standing intrauterine device. (
  • A study reported that the main etiologic factor for inflammation around dental implants is the infection resulting from contamination by anaerobic bacteria. (
  • This refractory effect is particularly critical in polymicrobial biofilms involving both fungi and bacteria. (
  • Propolis seems to help fight against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. (
  • STEMart has recently introduced Bioburden Tissue Testing services for medical applications, including Aerobic Count, Anaerobic Count, Fungi/Mold Count, and Spore Count. (
  • New York, USA - January 23, 2023 - STEMart, a U.S.-based provider of comprehensive services for all stages of medical device development, has recently introduced Bioburden Tissue Testing services for medical applications, including Aerobic Count, Anaerobic Count, Fungi/Mold Count, and Spore Count, all of which follow the guidance of Radiation Sterilization standards (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-1 & 2) and the EO Sterilization standard (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11135). (
  • STEMart now offers four types of bioburden testing, including Aerobic Count, Anaerobic Count, Fungi/Mold Count, and Spore Count. (
  • Four strains of Gram-negative, nitrate-reducing bacteria capable of growth with both pimelate and benzoate as sole carbon and energy source were isolated. (
  • What's the difference between Gram-negative Bacteria and Gram-positive done a very good job of very example, acid-fast bacteria or Gram-variable do, The image on the left shows Gram-positive bacteria, which retain a purple stain. (
  • Examples of Gram-negative bacteria that have demonstrated drug resistance include. (
  • and Gram-Negative Bacteria : Characteristic: Gram-positive Gram-negative: Gram reaction Most bacteria have one of two types of cell walls. (
  • What are some examples of beneficial Gram-negative bacteria? (
  • Neither Gram-positive or Gram-negative (due to 12/06/2016В В· This video highlights the similarities and differences between Gram positive and Gram Negative bacteria. (
  • and anaerobic gram negative rods were quantitated. (
  • Under a very high magnification of 12000X, this colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed the presence of a large grouping of Gram-negative Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria that had been isolated from a pure culture. (
  • Cultures showed mostly mixed Gram-positive and negative bacteria in both CD and cDC, but Gram-negative culture was more prevalent in cDC (p=0.029). (
  • The most common infectious anaerobic agents are Gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Bacteroides / Parabacteroides , which under normal conditions constitute the natural human microflora. (
  • Shigella flexneri serotype 5b (strain 8401) is a gram-negative, non-sporulating and facultative anaerobic bacteria. (
  • A Gram- stain -negative or -positive, strictly anaerobic, non- spore -forming and pleomorphic bacterium (designated 14-104T) was isolated from the saliva sample of a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma . (
  • nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows via fermentation and reduces the cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). (
  • This unique capacity is called anaerobic digestion and has the potential to revolutionise the way we produce energy. (
  • This process is called anaerobic digestion. (
  • The Clearwaters Reclaim Additive is a synergistic blend of naturally occurring bacteria strains that are exceptional at biologically degrading surfactants, animal & vegetable fats, oils, grease, petroleum hydrocarbon derivatives. (
  • Gram-positive bacteria stain purple because their cell walls are rich in For example, the milk-curdling Bacteria can be beneficial as well as detrimental to, microbiology final exam unknown bacteria report example Gram positive bacteria diseases and some strains indeed are beneficial in helping the process of food. (
  • Our hunch came from CDC's PulseNet Team, which collects and analyses subtype patterns of strains of bacteria that cause foodborne illness to identify potential clusters - they had an old report of this strain of Salmonella being isolated from pepper. (
  • Remeclar is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by strains of susceptible bacteria. (
  • Stability is formulated specifically for the aquarium and contains a synergistic blend of aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria which facilitate the breakdown of waste organics, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate. (
  • Adding a different bacteria will not speed up the process, in fact it could harm the healthy bacterial ecosystem as the yeast and bacteria in the septic system will fight it out. (
  • This approach enables growing anaerobic bacteria, here sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), in flasks on a shaker at aerobic fully oxidized conditions (see formed black precipitate as a prove of growth of SRBs in fig 3). (
  • The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D -methionine, D -tyrosine, D -leucine, and D -tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. (
  • In the MIC caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), elemental iron (Fe 0 ) in carbon steel serves as an electron donor. (
  • Osteomyelitis involving anaerobes is often mixed (i.e. also involves aerobes) and may typically yield between two and four anaerobic species and several aerobes on culture [4-6]. (
  • Although the set of species present in the human oral biofilm is almost fully depicted, new efforts have to be conducted to establish microbial agonistic or antagonistic associations, to distinguish actively-growing bacteria from inactive or transient species, as well as to outline the role of individual species during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. (
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (
  • The growth of anaerobic bacteria causes anaerobic infections. (
  • Anaerobic infections can occur when deep tissues are injured or exposed. (
  • The bacteria listed in Table URI-2 cause over 70% of the infections of the paranasal sinuses. (
  • Human bacterial infections are mainly caused by mesophilic bacteria (like ecoli) - because our bodies are moderate (37 Celsius). (
  • Anaerobic infections including bacteraemia nearly always arise from contamination by endogenous bacteria into contiguous or other sites like gastrointestinal tracts, genito-urinary tracts, abscesses etc. (
  • the potential to increase biogas production in anaerobic digestion process. (
  • They are also known as anaerobic biodigesters, anaerobic treatment units (ATUs), or biogas plants. (
  • Of 20 bacteria isolated, 19 showed inhibition halos on the three pathogenic bacteria with diameter of 2 to 15 mm, and the largest halos were formed by Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis on S. enterica and S. aureus. (
  • Summary: A C 7 dicarboxylic (pimelic) acid derivative is postulated as an intermediate in anaerobic degradation of benzoate. (
  • Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase and glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase activities were expressed in cells grown with pimelate or benzoate, indicating the specific involvement of these enzyme activities in anaerobic degradation of these two acids. (
  • Anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. (
  • Aerobic degradation requires that the plastic be exposed at the surface, whereas anaerobic degradation would be effective in landfill or composting systems. (
  • Does human have anaerobic respiration? (
  • Where do you find anaerobic respiration in human body? (
  • Complete answer: The anaerobic respiration occurs in the human body inside the white muscles. (
  • Why is anaerobic respiration important in humans? (
  • Direct correlation between rates of anaerobic respiration and levels of mRNA for key respiratory genes in Geobacter sulfurreducens. (
  • Beneficial Aspects of Bacteria An example is the organism depicted some of the ultrastructural details seen in the cell wall configuration of a number of Gram Examples of gram-positive bacteria include the genera is consumed in order to help absorb nutrients and replenish the body’s supply of “good” bacteria. (
  • In nature, bacteria take care of breaking down organic matter from plants and animals. (
  • Bacteria produce a strong ammonia smell when it breaks down organic matter in the well. (
  • A biodigester septic tank is a type of sewage treatment system that uses anaerobic digestion to break down organic matter. (
  • The bacteria break down the organic matter in the sewage, which produces methane gas. (
  • The most common type of biodigester septic tank is the anaerobic digester, which uses bacteria to break down organic matter in the wastewater. (
  • The second chamber is where the bacteria break down the organic matter. (
  • nov., a novel mesophilic anaerobic bacterium that produces cassava pulp-degrading enzymes. (
  • The human intestine contains many beneficial mesophilic bacteria, such as dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus as well. (
  • Identification, characterization and production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of bacterial and human origin that are active against pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Your septic tank is designed to use bacteria to break down solid waste by what is called the anaerobic digestion process. (
  • Solid waste that enters your septic tank system already has the bacteria needed for the anaerobic digestion process. (
  • Lactic acid bacteria have been used for the preparation of foods as cheese, soy sauce, vinegar, yoghurt and pickles and fermented foods for thousands of years. (
  • The relevance of the profile of lactic acid bacteria found in this type of cheese was assessed, and the antimicrobial activity of these identified bacteria against Salmonel a enterica, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was analyzed. (
  • The lactic acid bacteria counts of coalho cheese from producers A and B were 106 and the highest counts (109 UFC/g) were found in cheese samples from producer C. Forty-nine lactic acid bacteria from three rural properties were selected and predominant genera was Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc. (
  • This equipment is essential to perform research that is focusing on the understanding of how anaerobic bacteria and their metabolites are involved in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and in prevention of infectious and inflammatory gastrointestinal disease. (
  • Septic arthritis occurs when bacteria or another infectious agent is introduced into one (or more) joints, leading to painful inflammation. (
  • Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. (
  • Reports suggested that the Soviet biological weapons program, Biopreparat, attempted to splice the botulinum toxin gene into other bacteria. (
  • Micro biological fouling, corrosion induced by anaerobic bacteria is also a concen in most closed clooing circuits. (
  • bacteria biofilms, the epidemiology of this community, the challenges in the eradication of such biofilms, and the most relevant treatments. (
  • Using our synthetic structures we can increase efficiency of biologically aided precipitation of toxic metals in remediation processes aiming water clean-up, processes which are currently only efficient under anaerobic conditions. (
  • Anammox bacteria convert ammonium and nitrite to dinitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions to obtain their energy for growth. (
  • A plausible mechanism for the origin of anammoxosome is proposed, in which anaerobic archaea with capability of metabolizing ammonium and nitrite are thought to gain advantages for survival with reciprocal metabolisms and eventually established as stable endosymbiont under the given environmental conditions by invading into a bacterial cell. (
  • Specimens were inoculated immediately in the operating theatre or in the ward and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions without using transport media. (
  • Des prélèvements ont été ensemencés immédiatement dans la salle d'opération ou dans la salle d'hôpital et placés en incubation dans des conditions aérobie et anaérobie sans recourir à des milieux de transport. (
  • Blood cultures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were done for eight cases with acute osteomyelitis. (
  • The important point in this study was that the inoculation of the specimens was done immediately in the operating theatre or in the ward (bedside inoculation) and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions without using transport media. (
  • Under anaerobic conditions aseptically rehydrate the entire pellet with approximately 0.5 mL of #1490 broth. (
  • Anaerobic conditions for transfer may be obtained by the use of an anaerobic gas chamber or placement of test tubes under a gassing cannula system connected to anaerobic gas. (
  • The inadequate sanitary conditions widespread in these areas contribute to the extent of the bacteria, and the cost of antibiotics and rising antibiotic resistance complicate treatment [ 2 ]. (
  • incubated under anaerobic conditions in a sealed anaerobic jar (Becton Dickinson) at 37 °C for up to 36 h. (
  • extract (1%), maltose (0.1%), glucose (0.1%) and horse serum (10%) under anaerobic conditions in a sealed anaerobic jar at 37 °C for up to 36 h. (
  • The results further suggest that establishment of the community structure is first driven by the switch to anaerobic conditions, and subsequently by possible competition for nitrogen. (
  • Mixed Gram-positive and negative bacteria with Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in CD and cDC. (
  • Bioburden tissue testing determines the total number of viable aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts within tissues or solutions. (
  • Here we applied the methods used in colloid biology that allow us to join together different types of bacteria in synthetic 3D structures like aggregates (Tatenhove-Pel et al. (
  • What Types of Bacteria Are many Gram-positive bacteria are non These are bacteria that have historically done a very good job of very quickly developing Morphology, Discussion, Types, Habitat. (
  • Unlike anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria don't typically release sulfur containing odors. (
  • 1 At least 80% of abscesses contain multiple bacteria types, which are typically a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic flora. (
  • Adding harmful chemicals to your septic tank via your shower, sink, toilet bowl etc will harm the bacteria and stop your septic systems from functioning properly. (
  • The current knowledge on the cell biology of anammox bacteria is reviewed, proposing to have an atypical cell wall devoid of both peptidoglycan and a typical outer membrane. (
  • Treatment of a deep-seated abscess consists of drainage and antibiotics active against the responsible bacteria. (
  • suggested that the presence of carbon steel benefited the microbial community in a nutrient-deficient anaerobic environment. (
  • Other articles where Gram-positive bacteria is discussed: antibiotic: Categories of antibiotics: , penicillin G) affect primarily gram-positive bacteria. (
  • The following media were employed for the isolation of anaerobic bacteria: blood agar, phenyl ethanol agar, bile eculin agar, egg yolk agar, Baird-Parker agar and Omata and Disraely's agar, while Shaedler broth was used for anaerobic blood culture. (
  • Bacteria were MK0683 purchase cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. (
  • If your test results show negative it means there is no growth of anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Both groups also showed significant growth of Enterococci, Streptococci , and anaerobic bacteria in culture. (
  • Our unique MAP gas mix actively delays the growth of bacteria and mold, thereby preserving food quality in terms of taste, color and smell. (
  • Three things cause water to smell bad: bacteria, mold, and chemicals. (
  • The Salin Plus salt cartridge includes a G4 Pre Filter that removes 98% of airborne pollutants (at least 10 micron in size), including bacteria, mold spores and pollen. (
  • As for the spore count test, it selects bacterial spores by heating them to eliminate the undesired bacteria. (
  • A retrospective analysis of 22 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for endophthalmitis and had culture-proven anaerobic bacteria, was done. (
  • In endophthalmitis, a routine anaerobic culture of intraocular specimen is recommended. (
  • The application concerns the replacement of an anaerobic cabinet that is used to culture anaerobic bacteria for studying bacterial metabolism and host-microbiota interactions. (
  • Swabs are not the preferred collection method for anaerobic culture. (
  • Draining pus or aspirate is the preferred specimen for anaerobic culture. (
  • Specimens likely to contain anaerobes as normal flora are not ideal for anaerobic culture. (
  • Insights into plant biomass conversion from the genome of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725. (
  • In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • The bacteria colonize in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • This chapter digs a little deeper into the energy metabolism of the cell where it is discovered that anammox bacteria also show generalist as well as specialist behavior in relation to substrates and electron donors and acceptors. (
  • The present review summarizes the knowledge about the ultrastructure of anammox cells and the connection between theAnammoxosome and the energy metabolism of the cell and suggests the unusual subcellular organization may well be essential for the lifestyle of anamsox bacteria. (
  • Some anaerobic bacteria like hydrogen and warmth. (
  • Also, that level of softening will reduce the amount of hydrogen gas in the tank, making it less hospitable to the bacteria. (
  • In a feasibility study funded by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ( EPSRC ), bioscientists at the University of Birmingham have demonstrated that certain bacteria can produce hydrogen gas as they consume high-sugar waste produced by the confectionery industry. (
  • The bacteria, which the researchers had identified as potentially having the right sugar-consuming, hydrogen-generating properties, were then added. (
  • These bacteria appear to be naturally associated with the plant material, although slight variations between source materials were found. (