Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.

Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease: implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1/1409)

In preparing the 1998 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we reviewed evidence regarding the need to eradicate anaerobes when treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Anaerobes are present in the upper genital tract during an episode of acute PID, with the prevalence dependent on the population under study. Vaginal anaerobes can facilitate acquisition of PID and cause tissue damage to the fallopian tube, either directly or indirectly through the host inflammatory response. Use of several broad-spectrum regimens appears to result in excellent clinical cure rates, despite the fact that some combinations fall short of providing comprehensive coverage of anaerobes. There are limited data on the long-term effects of failing to eradicate anaerobes from the upper genital tract. Concern that tissue damage may continue when anaerobes are suboptimally treated has prompted many experts to caution that therapeutic regimens should include comprehensive anaerobic coverage for optimal treatment of women with PID.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (2/1409)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of a novel multidomain mannanase gene from Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum. (3/1409)

The manA gene of Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum was cloned in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of manA is composed of 3,291 bases and codes for a preprotein of 1,097 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119,627 Da. The start codon is preceded by a strong putative ribosome binding site (TAAGGCGGTG) and a putative -35 (TTCGC) and -10 (TAAAAT) promoter sequence. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum is a modular protein. Sequence comparison and biochemical analyses demonstrate the presence of an N-terminal leader peptide, and three other domains in the following order: a putative mannanase-cellulase catalytic domain, cellulose binding domains 1 (CBD1) and CBD2, and a surface-layer-like protein region (SLH-1, SLH-2, and SLH-3). The CBD domains show no sequence homology to any cellulose binding domain yet reported, hence suggesting a novel CBD. The duplicated CBDs, which lack a disulfide bridge, exhibit 69% identity, and their deletion resulted in both failure to bind to cellulose and an apparent loss of carboxymethyl cellulase and mannanase activities. At the C-terminal region of the gene are three repeats of 59, 67, and 56 amino acids which are homologous to conserved sequences found in the S-layer-associated regions within the xylanases and cellulases of thermophilic members of the Bacillus-Clostridium cluster. The ManA of T. polysaccharolyticum, besides being an extremely active enzyme, is the only mannanase gene cloned which shows this domain structure.  (+info)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints. (4/1409)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities.  (+info)

Towards the reaction mechanism of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase of Pelobacter acidigallici. (5/1409)

Conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol was studied with the molybdenum enzyme transhydroxylase of the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter acidigallici. Transhydroxylation experiments in H218O revealed that none of the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol was derived from water, confirming the concept that this enzyme transfers a hydroxyl group from the cosubstrate 1,2,3, 5-tetrahydroxybenzene (tetrahydroxybenzene) to the acceptor pyrogallol, and simultaneously regenerates the cosubstrate. This concept requires a reaction which synthesizes the cofactor de novo to maintain a sufficiently high intracellular pool during growth. Some sulfoxides and aromatic N-oxides were found to act as hydroxyl donors to convert pyrogallol to tetrahydroxybenzene. Again, water was not the source of the added hydroxyl groups; the oxides reacted as cosubstrates in a transhydroxylation reaction rather than as true oxidants in a net hydroxylation reaction. No oxidizing agent was found that supported a formation of tetrahydroxybenzene via a net hydroxylation of pyrogallol. However, conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol in the absence of tetrahydroxybenzene was achieved if little pyrogallol and a high amount of enzyme preparation was used which had been pre-exposed to air. Obviously, the enzyme was oxidized by air to form sufficient amounts of tetrahydroxybenzene from pyrogallol to start the reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed which combines an oxidative hydroxylation with a reductive dehydroxylation via the molybdenum cofactor, and allows the transfer of a hydroxyl group between tetrahydroxybenzene and pyrogallol without involvement of water. With this, the transhydroxylase differs basically from all other hydroxylating molybdenum enzymes which all use water as hydroxyl source.  (+info)

Chemical modification of lysine side chains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter causes a shift from cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase to alpha-amylase specificity. (6/1409)

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases and alpha-amylases are two groups of enzymes with related secondary structures. However, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases display transferase activities not present in alpha-amylases, probably derived from the existence of two more domains and different amino acid sequences. The hydrolytic activity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is generally quite low, except for two cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from termophiles. In this work, we have carried out the chemical modification (with acetic anhydride) of the amino groups of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter to assess their contributions to protein function. The acetylated cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase showed a significant reduction of its cyclization, coupling and disproportionation activities. Surprisingly, the hydrolytic (saccharifying) activity was slightly enhanced. These results suggest the participation of one or more lysine side chains in the interactions contributing to the transferase activity, either in any of the S11 subsites or in the acceptor binding site.  (+info)

Current susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria. (7/1409)

While antibiotic resistance among anaerobes continues to increase, the frequency of antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anaerobes is declining. Because anaerobic infections are often mixed and detailed bacteriology of the organisms involved may take some time, physicians must institute empiric therapy before susceptibility testing results are available. Also, economic realities and prudent use of resources mandate that careful consideration be given to the necessity for routine susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Determination of appropriate therapy can be based on published antibiograms; however, since patterns may vary within geographic regions and even within hospitals, it is strongly recommended that each hospital center periodically test their isolates to determine local patterns and detect any pockets of resistance. As a general guide, antibiograms from the last several years of susceptibility testing at the Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory are reported.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (8/1409)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

*Sporohalobacter

... are a genus of anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae. The organisms are spore-forming ... Ollivier B, Caumette P, Garcia J, Mah R (1994). "Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiol Rev. 58 (1): 27- ... Oren A, Gurevich P, Henis Y (1991). "Reduction of nitrosubstituted aromatic compounds by the halophilic anaerobic eubacteria ...

*Pericarditis

Anaerobic bacteria can also be a rare cause. Fungal pericarditis is usually due to histoplasmosis, or in immunocompromised ... Brook I (2009). "Pericarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria". Int J Antimicrob Agents: 297-300. Ibe, Tatsuro; Nakamura, Tomohiro ...

*Halophile

"Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (1): 27-38. PMC 372951 . Santos, H.; da Costa, M ... They can be aerobic or anaerobic. Anaerobic halophiles include phototrophic, fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, ... The domain Bacteria (mainly Salinibacter ruber) can comprise up to 25% of the prokaryotic community, but is more commonly a ... In the first (which is employed by the majority of halophilic bacteria, some archaea, yeasts, algae and fungi), organic ...

*Beggiatoa

Ljungdahl LG (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-387-95592-6. Mukhopadhyaya ... Beggiatoa is a genus of bacteria in the order Thiotrichales. They are named after the Italian medic and botanist F. S. Beggiato ... Beggiatoa and other related filamentous bacteria can cause settling problems in sewage treatment plants, industrial waste ... "Beggiatoa". Roxanne L. Nikolaus "Beggiatoa and hydrocarbon seeps - Unique bacteria thriving in a unique environment". Trevisan ...

*Bacillus selenitireducens

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Bacillus selenitireducens is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ...

*Desulfotomaculum arcticum

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. LPSN Desulfotomaculum arcticum at the Encyclopedia of Life ... Desulfotomaculum arcticum is a spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Its type strain is 15T (=DSM ... Beatty, Tom J. Genome Evolution of Photosynthetic Bacteria. Vol. 66. Academic Press, 2013. Sattley, W. Matthew. Microbiology of ... nov., a novel spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord ...

*Adsorbable organic halides

"Biodegradation of xenobiotics by anaerobic bacteria". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 67 (5): 600-618. doi:10.1007/ ... Savant, D.V.; Abdul-Rahman, R.; Ranade, D.R. (2005). "Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and ... Moreover, due to competition from methanogens for H2, low H2 concentrations are favored by dechlorinating bacteria, and is ... Recently, bacteria (Ancylobacter aquaticus), fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coiriolus versicolor), or synthetic enzymes ...

*Desulfotomaculum halophilum

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt; Rodolfo Quintero-Ramirez (18 ... Desulfotomaculum halophilum is a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium. It is endospore-forming, long, straight to curved rod- ... 536-. ISBN 978-0-8493-1818-4. Larry L. Barton; W. Allan Hamilton (31 May 2007). Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria: Environmental and ... nov., a halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from oil production facilities". International Journal of Systematic ...

*Fermentation

"Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria". Bacteriological Reviews. 41 (1): 100-80. ISSN 0005-3678. PMC 413997 . ... It also occurs in some kinds of bacteria (such as lactobacilli) and some fungi. It is the type of bacteria that converts ... Soon, bacteria were also discovered; the term was first used in English in the late 1840s, but it did not come into general use ... These lactic acid bacteria can carry out either homolactic fermentation, where the end-product is mostly lactic acid, or ...

*List of veterinary drugs

Effective against most aerobic Gram-positive cocci (but not Enterococcus faecalis), and some anaerobic bacteria clomipramine - ... metronidazole - Highly effective against anaerobic bacteria. Has good activity against protozoa, but Fenbendazole may be a ... or anaerobic bacteria equine chorionic gonadotropin - gonadotropic hormone used to induce ovulation in livestock prior to ... chloramphenicol - treats anaerobic bacterial infections, both Gram-positive and -negative. Crosses blood-brain barrier, useful ...

*Fictibacillus arsenicus

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Fictibacillus arsenicus, also known as Bacillus arsenicus, is a bacterium. It is Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod- ... nov., an arsenic-resistant bacterium isolated from a siderite concretion in West Bengal, India". International Journal of ...

*Desulfotomaculum geothermicum

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Springer, 2003. LPSN Desulfotomaculum geothermicum at the Encyclopedia of ... nov., a thermophilic, fatty acid-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated with H2 from geothermal ground water". Antonie ... Desulfotomaculum geothermicum is a thermophilic, fatty acid-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Its cells are Gram-negative ... "Effect of thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotomaculum geothermicum) isolated from Indian petroleum refinery on ...

*Bacillus arseniciselenatis

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (2003). Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95592-5. Berkeley, ... Bacillus arseniciselenatis is a bacterium first isolated from Mono Lake, California. It is notable for respiring oxyanions of ... nov., sp nov.-Strictly anaerobic diazotrophic bacillus isolated from soda lake and transfer of Bacillus arseniciselenatis, ...

*Omphalitis of newborn

Anaerobic bacteria can also be involved. In a normal umbilical stump, you first see the umbilicus lose its characteristic ... For particularly invasive infections, antibiotics to cover anaerobic bacteria may be added (such as metronidazole). Treatment ... Certain bacteria can grow and infect the stump during this process and as a result significant redness and swelling may develop ... Omphalitis is most commonly caused by bacteria. The culprits usually are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, and Escherichia ...

*Peritonitis

... gram negative bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria. Beta-lactams with beta lactamase inhibitors can also be used, examples include ... and anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis). Fecal peritonitis results from the presence of faeces in the peritoneal ... In most cases of perforation of a hollow viscus, mixed bacteria are isolated; the most common agents include Gram-negative ... Again, in most cases, mixed bacteria are isolated; the most common agents include cutaneous species such as Staphylococcus ...

*Bacteroides fragilis

... is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal flora of the ... Bacteroides infections at eMedicine Brook I (June 2010). "The role of anaerobic bacteria in bacteremia". Anaerobe. 16 (3): 183- ... List of oncogenic bacteria Infectious causes of cancer Pathogenic bacteria Kuwahara T, Yamashita A, Hirakawa H, et al. (October ... prod.hopkins-abxguide.org/pathogens/bacteria/anaerobic_gram-neg._bacilli/bacteroides_fragilis.html?contentInstanceId=255919 ...

*Tonsillitis

Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in tonsillitis and a possible role in the acute inflammatory process is supported by ... Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase producing bacteria that reside in the tonsillar tissues can "shield" group A streptococcus ... Brook, I. (2005). "The role of anaerobic bacteria in tonsillitis". Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 69 (1): 9-19. doi:10.1016/j. ... When caused by the bacterium group A streptococcus, it is referred to as strep throat. Rarely bacteria such as Neisseria ...

*Methanothrix soehngenii

2012-12-06). Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 55. ISBN 1461570875. ... nov., a new acetotrophic non-hydrogen-oxidizing methane bacterium". Archives of Microbiology. 132 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1007/ ...

*Desulfobacter

Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. New York, NY: Springer New York. ISBN 1-4615-7087-5. CS1 maint: Extra ... Desulfobacter is a genus of bacteria from the family of Desulfobacteraceae. Desulfobacter has the ability to oxidize acetate to ...

*Anaerobic infection

... s are caused by anaerobic bacteria. Obligately anaerobic bacteria do not grow on solid media in room air ( ... Most septic arthritis cases caused by anaerobic bacteria are monomicrobial. The predominant anaerobic bacteria isolated are ... oxygen and moderate anaerobic bacteria that are able of growing between 2 and 8% oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria usually do not ... Anaerobic bacteria in human disease. Orlando: Academic Press Inc.; 1977. Brook, I.: "Anaerobic Infections Diagnosis and ...

*Lemierre's syndrome

Deep in the abscess, anaerobic bacteria can flourish. When the abscess wall ruptures internally, the drainage carrying bacteria ... The bacteria causing the thrombophlebitis are anaerobic bacteria that are typically normal components of the microorganisms ... In this vein, the bacteria cause the formation of a thrombus containing these bacteria. Furthermore, the internal jugular vein ... The bacteria then invade the peritonsillar blood vessels where they can spread to the internal jugular vein. ...

*Clostridial necrotizing enteritis

"Clostridial Necrotizing Enteritis: Anaerobic Bacteria: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2008-12-19. Cooke RA (1979). "Pig ...

*Peritonsillar abscess

Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be causative. Commonly involved aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus ... They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria. Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis. They do not ... The most common anaerobic species include Fusobacterium necrophorum, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella species, and Bacteroides. ... Brook I, Frazier EH, Thompson DH (March 1991). "Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of peritonsillar abscess". Laryngoscope. 101 ...

*Quinolone antibiotic

Schaumann, R.; Rodloff, A. C. (January 2007). "Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti- ... Schaumann, R.; Rodloff, A. C. (January 2007). "Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria" (PDF). Anti- ... In gram-negative bacteria, plasmid-mediated resistance genes produce proteins that can bind to DNA gyrase, protecting it from ... For many gram-negative bacteria, DNA gyrase is the target, whereas topoisomerase IV is the target for many gram-positive ...

*Rhodovulum sulfidophilum

Ormerod, J. G. (1983). The Phototrophic bacteria: anaerobic life in the light. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0 ... Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is a purple bacteria. The cells are rod-shaped, 0.6 to 0.9 μ wide and 0.9 to 2.0 μ long, and motile by ... The bacteria has a high sulfide tolerance. Sulfide and thiosulfate are oxidized to sulfate without an intermediate accumulation ... spec., a new species of the purple nonsulfur bacteria." Archiv für Mikrobiologie 92.1 (1973): 45-58. Imhoff, J. F.; Kramer, M ...

*Fermented tea

... then with anaerobic bacteria. Tteokcha (떡차; lit. "cake tea"), also called byeongcha (병차; 餠茶; lit. "cake tea"), was the most ... Other fermented teas, called pickled teas, are fermented in a wet process with lactic acid bacteria. Pickled teas include miang ... Steamed tea leaves are kept pressed into sealed bamboo baskets until the anaerobic fermentation produces a compact cake with ... Raloff, Janet (January 28, 2004). "Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost". Retrieved 11 August 2014. "Saijo City Sightseeing ...
Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C ...
Title: Activities of Quinolones Against Obligately Anaerobic Bacteria. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):R. Schaumann and A. C. Rodloff. Affiliation:Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig,Liebigstr. 24, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.. Keywords:Quinolones, naphthyridones, anaerobes, aerobe/anaerobe mixed infections. Abstract: Quinolones are of clinical and scientific interest since their discovery based on the nalidixic acid in the early 1960s. They are based on two types of ring structures, the quinolone nucleus and the naphthyridone nucleus. Nalidixic acid as the first discovered agent is a naphthyridone and has only a moderate activity against Gram-negative rods. The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. The quinolones are now divided into four groups due to their different ...
The purpose of this study was to identify anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and to support quantitative PCR results which were performed for searching an effective seeding sludge to achieve successful enrichment of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Eleven sludge-samples originated from ten purification facilities for livestock wastewater were used in this study. At first, six samples among the eleven samples were selected by gas productivity per a gram biomass. The selected samples were used for the experiments of qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing after extraction of the genomic DNAs. The quantitative PCR was done with the primer sets of AMX818F/AMX1066R and HZO2aF/HZO2aR. The amplicons for pyrosequencing analysis were constructed by using the primer-set which is consisted of a specific pla46F primer targeting the conserved 16S rRNA gene belongs to Plantomycetes phylum and eub 518R targeting the conserved 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria. There is no meaningful correlation between the results ...
In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them (referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration. Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen. ...
Doripenem, a 1-β-methyl carbapenem being developed for the treatment of serious systemic bacterial infections, is resistant to hydrolysis by dihydropeptidase 1 (7). In aerobes, doripenem appears to have the advantages of both imipenem (in its activity against gram-positive cocci) and meropenem (in its activity against gram-negative organisms) (12). Metalloenzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems have been found in both aerobic bacteria (3, 10, 11) and anaerobic bacteria (2); the gene for the metalloenzyme may be silent or expressed to various degrees, resulting in a wide range of carbapenem resistance levels (13). In Japan, this accounts for the 2 to 4% rate of resistance to imipenem (1, 16), but these isolates are rarely found in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of doripenem against a wide range of clinical anaerobic isolates and to compare its in vitro activities to those of other antimicrobial agents.. Bacteria were clinical isolates collected from a wide ...
Diagnosis The diagnosis of anaerobic infection is based primarily on symptoms, the patients medical history, and location of the infection. A foul-smelling infection or drainage from an abscess is diagnostic of anaerobic infection. This foul smell is produced by anaerobic bacteria and occurs in one third to one half of patients late in the infection. Other clues to anaerobic infection include tissue necrosis and gas production at the infection site. A sample from the infected site may be obtained, using a swab or a needle and syringe, to determine which bacteria is (are) causing the infection. Because these bacteria can be easily killed by oxygen, they rarely grow in the laboratory cultures of tissue or pus samples. The recent medical history of the patient is helpful in diagnosing anaerobic infection. A patient who has or recently had surgery, dental work, tumors, blood vessel disease, or injury are susceptible to this infection. The failure to improve following treatment with antibiotics that ...
Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are common and may be serious and life-threatening. Anaerobes are the predominant components of the bacterial flora of
Anaerobic bacteria are not likely to carry out cellular respiration. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, and anaerobic bacteria are able to survive in environments that lack...
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Preliminary test: The concentration of EA-3098 in the aqueous phases after two and three successive centrigugation steps was for peak 1 ,1.0 x 10 -5 g/l, peak 2 ,4.0 x 10-5 g/l and for peak 3 ,1.o x 10-4 g/l, respectively. From this it could be concluded that the water solubility of EA-3098 is ,10 mg/l. Therefore, the column elution method was chosen for the determination of the water solubility of EA-3098. The pH of the aqueous phase after 2 centrifugation steps was 9.5. Main study (column elution method): Analysis confirmed the presence of test substance on the loaded carrier material before filling the column. The eluates did not contain undissolved particles. In the eluates from the blank column a small peak was detected for peak 1. The concentration was calculated using the RF-factor and was ,Limit of Detection (LOD). The results are summarised in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 1: Results of column elution method for peak 1 ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) has been proven to be an excellent pretreatment step for an anaerobic digester (AD), increasing biogas yield and decreasing sludge disposal. The goal of this work was to optimize deammonification for efficient nitrogen removal despite the inhibition effects caused by the organics present in the THP-AD sludge filtrate (digestate). Two sequencing batch reactors were studied treating conventional digestate and THP-AD digestate, respectively. Improved process control based on higher dissolved oxygen set-point (1 mg O-2/L) and longer aeration times could achieve successful treatment of THP-AD digestate. This increased set-point could overcome the inhibition effect on aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB), potentially caused by particulate and colloidal organics. Moreover, based on the mass balance, anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) contribution to the total nitrogen removal decreased from 97 +/- A 1 % for conventional to 72 +/- A 5 % for THP-AD ...
The complexity of the oral and gingival flora has prevented the clear elucidation of specific etiologic agents in most forms of oral and dental infections. In the gingival crevice, there are approximately 1.8 X1011 anaerobes per gram (1). Because anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal oral flora and outnumber aerobic organisms by a ratio of 1 10 to 1 100 at this site, it is not surprising that they predominant in dental infections. There are at least 350 morphological and biochemically.... ...
Buy Biochemistry and Physiology of Anaerobic Bacteria (9780387955926): NHBS - Edited By: LG Ljungdahl, MW Adams, LL Barton, JG Ferry and MK Johnson, Springer-Verlag
Study Flashcards On Q3: Micro: Anaerobic Infections at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Anaerobic Infections, Central Nervous System. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ. Papadakis M.A., McPhee S.J. Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, and Stephen J. McPhee.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017 New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2033§ionid=152401325. Accessed December 18, 2017 ...
Does anyone know how to isolate genomic DNA from anaerobic bacteria? Any suggestion or protocol are very appreciated! Thanks in advance. Shiyou Ding ...
Naidoo, S et al. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., Oct 2011, vol.101, no.10, p.732-734. ISSN 0256- ...
I was thinking about getting this block of marinepure from bulk reef supply. Theyre supposed to work really week and boost biological filtration (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria). People have said
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Peptostreptococcus spp. (and pathogens formerly designated as Peptostreptococcus, including species now in genera Anaerococcus, Atopobium, Blautia, Finegoldia, Peptoniphilus and Parvimonas, collectively referred to as the peptostreptococci below). SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Finegoldia magnus, Parvimonas micros, Atopobium parvulum, Blautia producta . CHARACTERISTICS: Peptostreptococci are anaerobic, non-sporing, gram-positive cocci that are 0.3-1.8 μm in diameter, depending on the species(1-3). They are usually arranged in chains, pairs, tetrads, or clumps(1,3). SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Peptostreptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary system, and skin(1-5). This type of bacteria causes a wide variety of infections, including oropharyngeal, sinus, ear, ...
Mobiluncus mulieris ATCC ® 35240D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Mobiluncus mulieris strain BV 64-5 TypeStrain=False Application:
The nitrogen removal pathways in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process where anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying heterotrophs convert ammonium and nitrite directly to dinitrogen gas under anoxic conditions were investigated using a mathematical model. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was modified with two step denitrification and one-step anaerobic ammonia oxidation. A one dimensional granular biofilm model was implemented in Aquasim 2.1v (EAWAG, Switzerland) in order to describe a series of batch processes operated in a bioreactor treating synthetic wastewater. A sophisticated statistical method was used for parameter estimation. The model was not sensitive with respect to the detachment velocity in the biofilm matrix as well as the porosity coefficients of dissolved state variables. The final results showed a satisfactory goodness of fitness representing Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.98 and 0.81 for modeled and measured concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N
Anaerobe Systems manufactures anaerobic chambers, anaerobic tubes,anaerobic plates,anaerobic transport media, custom formulations, disks, and reagents for anaerobic diagnostic laboratories. Anaerobe Systems produces the only true Pre-Reduced Anaerobically Sterilized (PRAS) plated and tubed culture media in the USA. Anaerobe Systems also offers anaerobe chamber training seminars, advanced anaerobic microbiology courses and anaerobic microbiology workshops. The Anaerobe Systems website contains descriptions, pricing and ordering information for anaerobic chambers, agars, broths and transport media needed in the anaerobic diagnostic laboratory, as well as information on anaerobic microbiology education.
Cell-associated oligo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.10) was isolated from Thermoanaerobium Tok6-B1 grown on starch-containing medium. Activity was purified 11.4-fold by salt precipitation, gel filtration, hydroxyapatite and anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular mass was determined as 30,000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 33,000 by analytical gel filtration. The probable order of specificity was p-nitrophenyl-alpha D-glucose greater than-isomaltose greater than-isomaltotriose greater than-panose greater than-nigerose and no activity was shown against malto-oligosaccharides, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, cellobiose, sophorose, gentiobiose, lactose, pullulan, dextran or amylose. The optima for activity and stability were between pH 5.6 and 7.0 and the half-life at pH 6.5 was 1000 min at 70 degrees C and 20 min at 76 degrees C. Activity was stabilized by substrate, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+, but was destabilized by Zn2+ and EDTA. N-Ethylmaleimide, glucose and 1-O-methyl-alpha ...
Multiple species of bacteria have been isolated from chronic and acute wounds, including wounds without any signs of infection. A literature review by Bowler examined culture data from 62 published studies dating between 1969 and 1997 (Bowler, 1998). The most predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (reported in 63% of the studies), followed by coliforms (45%), Bacteroides spp. (39%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%), Enterococcus spp. (26%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (13%).. This literature review also indicated that anaerobic bacteria were more commonly reported isolates from infected wounds. A later culture-based study compared the microflora of chronic and acute wounds (Bowler and Davies, 1999). In this study, Staphylococcus aureus predominated in infected acute wounds, while infected chronic wounds were primarily colonized by anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., Prevotella/ Porphyromonas spp., Clostridium spp.), coliforms, and fecal ...
Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) and ACB8, were isolated from human subgingival dental plaque. All strains required yeast extract for growth. Strains ACB1(T) and ACB8 were able to grow on glucose, lactose, maltose, maltodextrin and raffinose; strain ACB7(T) grew weakly on sucrose only. The growth temperature range was 30-42 °C with optimum growth at 37 °C. Major metabolic fermentation end products of strain ACB1(T) were acetate and lactate; the only product of strains ACB7(T) and ACB8 was acetate. Major fatty acids of strain ACB1(T) were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c dimethyl aldehyde (DMA) and C(18 : 1)ω7c DMA. Major fatty acids of strain ACB7(T) were C(12 : 0), C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 1)ω7c DMA. The hydrolysate of the peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, indicating peptidoglycan type A1γ. Genomic DNA G+C content varied from 42 to 43.3% between strains. ...
The good guys are the aerobic bacteria; naturally present in waste they produce odorless carbon dioxide (CO2) as they breakdown solids and paper in the wastewater. Aerobic bacteria need lots of oxygen to thrive, thus, given a consistent and large enough supply of oxygen, there would be no odor from the holding tank.. Anaerobic bacteria are the bad guys. These bacteria thrive in the absence of air and produce sulfide gases, which smell bad. Anaerobic bacteria also produce methane and CO2, However, most holding tanks do not have sufficient ventilation and since CO2 is heavier than air the CO2 settles on top of the waste and chokes the aerobic bacteria while providing a prime environment for the anaerobic bacteria.. This process can occur any where standing sewage is standing, on Identity Crisis the possible culprits included the holding tank and the hoses.. Locating Odor Source. Armed with the knowledge of how the head odor is created, I began an investigation into the source. The first and ...
Glycerol is a byproduct of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes and can be converted to more valuable products such as ethanol, butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol by various anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we isolated glycerol-utilizing anaerobic bacteria to obtain ones having a superior ability to produce butanol. By adding acetic and butyric acids into the mineral medium containing glycerol, we could enrich butanol-producing bacteria from a soil sample. Isolates showed ,99% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Clostridium diolis/beijerinckii (group 1), C. butyricum (group 2), C. arbusti (group 3), and Klebsiella oxytoca (group 4). The isolates belonging to group 3 produced up to 12.5 g/L of butanol and the isolates belonging to group 2 produced up to 17.1 g/L of 1,3-propanediol from 30 g/L of glycerol. When glucose was used instead of glycerol, the isolates belonging to group 1 produced 12.0 g/L of butanol and 6.9 g/L of ethanol and the isolate of group 4 produced 21.0 g/L of ...
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
The intestinal flora is a complex ecosystem consisting of over 400 bacterial species that greatly outnumber the total number of cells making up the entire human body. These metabolically active bacteria reside close to the absorptive mucosal surface and are capable of a remarkable repertoire of transforming chemical reactions. Any orally taken compound or a compound Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant microorganisms in the human GI tract, outnumbering aerobes by a factor of 10,000 to 1. The most abundant and beneficial or benign anaerobes are Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus. Bifidobacterium can comprise up to 25% of the total flora in a healthy adult. A great many other species are present, but in lesser numbers.227 An imbalance in proportion and numbers of these species can be induced by broad-spectrum antibiotic use. This leads to the dominance of other bacterial species, including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, ...
Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. subterraneus ATCC ® BAA-225™ Designation: SEBR 7858 TypeStrain=True Application: Biotechnology
View Notes - 12 from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. Anaerobic Bacteria Category Category Spore-forming: Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--Clostridium Clostridium Nonspore-forming: Nonspore-forming: see
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A number of anaerobic bacteria are pathogenic to humans and their virulence is based on secreted toxins, which are mainly produced by species from the C..
When I present scientific evidence that God designed the creation and that it is not a product of chance, one response that frequently comes from skeptics is that perhaps there is some other way that life and the conditions to support it could exist. "Maybe there is life totally different than our kind of life so that the odds diminish because there are different ways and forms that life can take" is a common response. In a statement like this one, we have to assume that a scientific proposal is being made-not a religious one. If a person wishes to argue for rock people or fire people, they can do so, but not on a scientific base. Life is generally defined as having the characteristics of moving, breathing, reproducing, and responding to outside stimuli. Things like viruses and anaerobic bacteria are hard to fit into any definition, but Fire people would be even more of a problem. The reason that there is no other way is because of the chemical restraints on all of lifes processes. In order for ...
This post was most recently updated on October 17th, 2018. Specimens for anaerobic culture should be properly collected and transported. Indigenous anaerobes are often present in large numbers as normal flora on mucosal surfaces (e.g. mouth). So the sample from sites known to have anaerobes as part of the normal flora is unacceptable for anaerobic culture. ...
Every year about 40 000 cases of sepsis occur in Sweden, of which three to ten percent (1 200-4 000 cases) are caused by anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria die in the presence of oxygen. Most often, the disease-causing anaerobic bacteria occur in the patients own normal microflora, but in, for example, post-surgery infections, trauma, impaired blood circulation or underlying disease, they can create serious infections that can, in the worst case, lead to death.. "Simple mistakes in the sampling of specimens from a patient, or later handling of material collected from an anaerobic infection, may kill the bacteria before they can be detected and identified. Thereby the diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment might be wrong. A serious infection can have a rapid progression that leads to sepsis, so it is very important that the patients receive the right treatment as quickly as possible", says Maria Hedberg, associate professor and biomedical scientist.. She and her company Dianox are located at ...
0898386888 Models of Anaerobic Infection: Proceedings of the third Anaerobe Discussion Group Symposium held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, July ... (New Perspectives in Clinical Microbiology),books, textbooks, text book
During January 1994-February 1995, laboratory leaching tests were conducted using crushed shale packed in columns and suspended in shake flasks (slurries). Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures of 20-28oC and over elapsed times of 6 to 39 weeks under three different hydrologic scenarios: variably saturated, aerobic; continuously saturated, stagnant; and continuously saturated, aerobic. Biologically active and sterilized conditions were evaluated to test if specific chemical additives increased or decreased microbial catalysis of acid-forming oxidation reactions. Deionized water was used as the influent when solids, including sewage sludge, N-P-K fertilizer, or CaCO3 were added on top of the shale at the beginning of the experiment. Solutions containing dissolved nutrients (NH3, NO3-, PO43-, or K+) from chloride or sodium salts were added to the shale as the influent in other experiments. Most-probable numbers of iron- and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and concentrations of chemicals in ...
What is the difference between Obligate and Facultative Anaerobe? Obligate anaerobe cannot survive in oxygen while facultative anaerobe can survive in oxygen...
Flagyl is an effective antimicrobial drug which contains the active component Metronidazole. This drug is effective in respect of the broad-spectrum anaerobic microorganisms and inhibits the development of protozoa.
It is important to differentiate ZD from breast cancer. Patients should be carefully checked to make sure that they do not have breast cancer, which can include having a physical exam, mammogram and ultrasound. In Zuskas disease, breast imaging may show a cystic mass or sometimes multiple cystic masses. A biopsy, or tissue sample may need to be obtained to rule out cancer.. ZD treatment may require antibiotics. Abscesses should be drained when they reach "a head". Bacteria that live with and without oxygen (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) may be isolated in cultures from patients with ZD, with the most common organisms being anaerobic Peptostreptococci together with aerobic Staphylococci. Surgery is the only curative treatment for a lactiferous fistula, a disease tract between the abscess and the breast skin. Core excision of the fistula and all of the associated infected breast tissue is the definitive treatment. Smoking cessation is also essential to help prevent recurrences of ZD.. For more ...
generic Metronidazole Purchase Generic Flagyl Safe drugstore To Buy Flagyl Generic Over The Counter. Flagyl (Metronidazole) is an antibiotic effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. This medication eliminates bacteria and other microorganisms that cause infections of the reproductive system, gastrointestinal tract, skin, vagina, and other areas of the body. Order Generic Flagyl today for ...
The expression of denitrification by a facultatively anaerobic bacterium requires as exogenous signals a low oxygen tension concomitant with an N oxide. of the FNR-CRP family, was found to be part of the NO-triggered signal transduction pathway. However, overexpression of in an engineered strain did not result in NirS synthesis, indicating a need for activation […]. ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Anaerobic Bacteria from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Sra-mo-tan in-ci-dent iz Kni-na u ko-jem ve-te-ra-ni IX. boj-ne HOS-a mar-ši-ra-ju gra-dom i pri-tom vi-ču "za dom sprem-ni" te pje-va-ju us-ta-ške pje-sme osu-dio je ju-čer član Pred-sjed-niš-tva SDP-a Pe-đa Gr-bin. - Sra-mot-no je da praz-nik kao što je Dan po-bje-de i do-mo-vin-ske za-hval-nos-ti i Dan bra-ni-te-lja ne-ki ko-ris-te za pro-pa-gi-ra-nje svo-je sra-mot-ne i pro-pa-le ide-olo-gi-je mrž-nje. To tre-ba naj-o-š-tri-je osu-di-ti da se ne vi-še ne po-nav-lja. Hr-vat-ska je pre-du-go za-bi-ja-la gla-vu u pi-je-sak, a od-go-vor-ni su se pra-vi-li da ni-šta ne vi-de i ne ču-ju bez ob-zi-ra na po-s-lje-di-ce - po-ru-čio je Gr-bin. Ko-men-ti-rao je i go-vor pred-sjed-ni-ce dr-ža-ve Ko-lin-de Gra-bar-Ki-ta-ro-vić u Kni-nu u ko-jem je na-pa-la i še-fa SDP-a Zo-ra-na Mi-la-no-vi-ća. - Ne-pri-hvat-lji-vo je da su se po-je-di-ni po-li-ti-ča-ri i da-nas ko-ris-ti-li go-vor-ni-com i, umjes-to da go-vo-re o dr-žav-nom praz-ni-ku, vo-di-li kam-pa-nju i na-pa-da-li po-li-tič-ke ...
Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus produces a considerable amount of ethanol from a range of carbohydrates and is an attractive candidate for applications in bioconversion processes. A genetic system with reusable selective markers would be useful for deleting acid production pathways as well as other genetic modifications. The thymidine kinase (tdk) gene was deleted from T. ethanolicus JW200 to allow it to be used as a selectable marker, resulting in strain X20. Deletion of the tdk gene reduced growth rate by 20 %; however, this could be reversed by reintroducing the tdk gene (strain X20C). The tdk and high-temperature kanamycin (htk) markers were tested by using them to delete lactate dehydrogenase (ldh). During positive selection of ldh knockouts in strain X20 on kanamycin agar plates, six out of seven picked colonies were verified transformants. Deletion of ldh reduced lactic acid production by 90 %. The tdk and 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (FUDR) combination worked reliably as
Increasing attention has recently been paid to the normal intestinal flora as a potential source of etiological agents in RA. Changes in the intestinal flora, due to fasting or diet, have been shown to reflect improvement of the patients when they are divided into high and low-responders. Previously, evidence has also been presented that intestinal flora in the early RA is different from that of non-RA controls, due primarily to anaerobic bacteria.. The present study was designed to compare the fecal microbiota of the patients with early RA with the microbiota of the control patients using 16SrRNA oligonucleotide probes, detecting a variety of anaerobic bacteria in the normal intestinal flora. Fecal samples of 25 early, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, naive RA patients and 23 control patients suffering from noninflammatory pain were investigated. The contribution of five bacterial groups was determined by using whole cell hybridization with seven fluorescently labeled 16SrRNA-targeted ...
Peptostreptococcus is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria. The cells are small, spherical, and can occur in short chains, in pairs or individually. They typically move using cilia. Peptostreptococcus are slow-growing bacteria with increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Peptostreptococcus is a normal inhabitant of the healthy lower reproductive tract of women. Peptostreptococcus species are commensal organisms in humans, living predominantly in the mouth, skin, gastrointestinal, vagina and urinary tracts, and compose a portion of the bacterial gut flora. Under immunosuppressed or traumatic conditions these organisms can become pathogenic, as well as septicemic, harming their host. Peptostreptococcus can cause brain, liver, breast, and lung abscesses, as well as generalized necrotizing soft tissue infections. They participate in mixed anaerobic infections, a term which is used to describe infections that are caused by multiple bacteria that do not require or may ...
Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW 200 thiamine biosynthesis/tRNA modification protein (thiI) gene, partial cds; hypothetical protein genes, complete cds; and GTP-binding protein (ychF) gene, partial ...
Definition of Eubacterium aerofaciens with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
General Information: Gardnerella vaginalis is a gram-variable, obligate anaerobic bacterium. The bacterium is the most prevalent sexually transmitted organism and associated with bacterial vaginosis. The bacterium has also been associated with bacteremia, urinary track infections, and neonatal meningitis. ...
Looking for online definition of Facultative anaerobic organism in the Medical Dictionary? Facultative anaerobic organism explanation free. What is Facultative anaerobic organism? Meaning of Facultative anaerobic organism medical term. What does Facultative anaerobic organism mean?
Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to Cefoxitin and Related Compounds: Cephalothin, cefazolin, cephradine, and cefoxitin inhibited more than 75% of 326 anaero
Bacteria. But just ordinary bacteria, and certainly not the bacteria that your toothbrush is style to remove. They are bacteria that reside in your teeth and gums and that covert sugars to acids. The acids then consume away at your tooth enamel till you have a cavity. No, the bacteria that cause chronic bad breath are what exactly are recognized as anaerobic bacteria; bacteria that thrive within the absence of oxygen.. These bacteria live in fissures deep inside your tongue and cheeks where there is no oxygen, at least not sufficient to deter anaerobic bacteria. They produce noxious waste products called volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), that really smell very bad. A white coating in your tongue can indicate which you possess a very serious infestation of these bacteria, even though you do not need a great deal to provide you with chronic bad breath.. The development of anaerobic bacteria could be encouraged by a dry mouth, where theres small saliva to penetrate the cracks inside your mouth and ...
3VSV: The substrate/product-binding modes of a novel GH120 beta-xylosidase (XylC) from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485
Anaerobic bacteria cause serious life-threatening infections such as endocarditis, sepsis, intra abdominal, pleuro-pulmonary and central nervous systems infections. Most infections are polymicrobial and involve aerobes and anaerobes. Empiric therapy is generally based on the expected pathogens and the particular type of infection. Even when specimens are cultured and anaerobes identified, not all laboratories perform susceptibility testing. The clinician often relies on published surveillance data when selecting treatment regimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria is becoming increasingly unpredictable. Resistance can vary significantly and patterns differ geographically, and even within units of the same hospital. From June 2005 until February 2007, 180 consecutive anaerobes isolated from relevant, non- repetitive clinical specimens were tested routinely with the E test method for susceptibility to amoxicillin/ clavulanate (XL), clindamycin (Cm), metronidazole (Mz), penicillin ...
The effect of different electron acceptors on substrate degradation was studied in pure and mixed cultures of various hydrogenotrophic homoacetogenic, methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, fumarate-reducing and nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. Two different species of these bacteria which during organic substrate degradation produce and consume hydrogen, were cocultured on a substrate which was utilized only by one of them. Hydrogen, which was excreted as intermediate by the first strain (and reoxidized in pure culture), could, depending on the hydrogen acceptor present, also be used by the second organism, resulting in interspecies hydrogen transfer. The efficiency of H2 transfer was similar when methanol, lactate or fructose were used as organic substrate, although the free energy changes of fermentative H2 formation of these substrates are considerably different. In coculture experiments nitrate or fumarate,sulfate, CO2/CH4,sulfur or CO2/acetate were the preferred electron acceptors, and an increasing ...
I have a question about anaerobic cultures. I am biochem/biophys grad student at the University of Pennsylvania. I need to grow up wild type ecoli anaerobically. What constitutes an anaerobic culture? How much media should I put into Fernbach flasks to make it an anaerobic culture and is it necessary to degas any flasks or bottles that I choose to grow my bacteria in? Any help in this matter would be appreciated. my email address is ehopper at mail.med.upenn.edu. Thank you Elizabeth Hopper ...
Investigation of Proposed Ladderane Biosynthetic Genes from Anammox Bacteria by Heterologous Expression in E. coli. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The NSF Microbiology Lab offers testing & consulting in aerobic/anaerobic microbiology, cellular/molecular biology, mycology, virology & parasitology.
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Anaerobic infection is an infectious process (often a complication of the wound process), caused by anaerobes. Among the pathogens A. and. Two groups of microorganisms are distinguished: spore-forming anaerobes, or clostridia, and non-spore-forming (nonclostridial) anaerobes (see Anaerobes). They are an integral part of normal human microflora, are found in the intestines, organs of the genitourinary system, as well as on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes. Anaerobes of exogenous flora are detected in the soil, in the mass of decomposing organic compounds. An important role is played by such factors as the amount of anaerobes in the wound, the morphology and virulence of the pathogens, the potentiating effect of the microbial associates, etc. Pathogenic properties of anaerobes are realized in the presence of deformed and practically devoid of blood supply of tissue sites, chronic intoxication, accompanied by a decrease in protective reactions of the organism, etc.. Clostridial wound ...
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By picking up genetic material that contains instructions that code for antibiotic resistance. This genetic material can come from viruses, other bacterial cells or plasmids, which are loops of DNA in a bacterial cell that are separate from its chromosome (bacteria only have one single chromosome, unlike us humans who have 23 pairs in each cell). These plasmids can move from bacteria to bacteria, picking up and depositing bits of genetic material as they go. If the plasmid contains a bit of genetic material that codes for antibiotic resistance this can be spread to many other bacteria. ...
Succinimonas are smooth and rod-shaped. They are motile. Succinivibrio are rod-shaped motile organisms with polar flagella. They have a curved spiral shape. Ruminobacter are rod-shaped. They are nonmotile. Cytochromes have not been detected in these organisms. Succinimonas are anaerobic organisms that break down starch. Succinivibrio are anaerobic bacteria that ferment glucose. They obtains nitrogen through ammonia. Ruminobacter are anaerobic organisms. They utilize molecules such as maltose, maltodextrins, and starch for energy. These organisms do not form spores. Their life cycle is typical of most bacteria, with reproduction by division. ...
As we can observed, the areas are more distinct than the previous time we saw the column As noted, at the bottom we can still notice a dark area due to anaerobic microorganisms and at the top we can also notice a green area due to aerobic microorganisms.The black coloured area at the bottom of the column is due to the presence of iron sulfide which degrades organic matter thus we can notice that black colour . In addition, a small pick coloured area can be observed in the middle region of the column and that is due to a substance produced by purple sulfur bacteria which are responsible for that pink colour. ...
bacteria fibA protein: encodes an immunogenic subunit of the fibril-like surface structure of Peptostreptococcus micros; has been sequenced
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INDICATIONS Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).. INSTRUCTIONS Take clindamycin exactly as prescribed by your doctor.. ...
a condition caused by the overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Gardnerella vaginalis), resulting in vaginal irritation and discharge ...
Metronidazole 250 mg The usual dose is 500 mg tid, higher for some infections (e.g. amebiasis). The drug is effective against certain protozoans including amoebae and Giardia, and for anaerobic bacteria such as those that normally inhabit the bowel and the female genital tract. It can be extremely useful in intraabdominal , pelvic, and wound infections caused by such bacteria ...
Oxygen relation Definition Examples Picture Facultative Anaerobe Does not require oxygen. Can grow with or without it. Able to detoxify toxic by products of oxygen. E. Coli Microaerophile Growth throughout
In fact, we read all the time about denitrifying bacteria (2 or 3 species) and in the best case an anaerobic species, but the biological environment in a filter seems to be much more complex. I read somewhere that the above mentioned species represent only a very minor part of the biomass present in the filter. The mattenfilter can be interpreted as a highly efficient gravelfilter, based on the same principle. Building up a kind of mulm where a huge variety of microscopic live is filtering the water. Potable water is also filtered on the same principle. In nature, filtration is performed partially by the bioactivity in the mulm present in the upperlayer of the bottom. (Im not a biologist, so if Im telling stupidities, please correct me ...
In fact, we read all the time about denitrifying bacteria (2 or 3 species) and in the best case an anaerobic species, but the biological environment in a filter seems to be much more complex. I read somewhere that the above mentioned species represent only a very minor part of the biomass present in the filter. The mattenfilter can be interpreted as a highly efficient gravelfilter, based on the same principle. Building up a kind of mulm where a huge variety of microscopic live is filtering the water. Potable water is also filtered on the same principle. In nature, filtration is performed partially by the bioactivity in the mulm present in the upperlayer of the bottom. (Im not a biologist, so if Im telling stupidities, please correct me ...
Chloromycetin is used to treat serious infectious diseases such as meningitis, rickettsial disease, salmonellosis and anaerobic infections.
Explain what is meant by an enteric pathogen as opposed to enteric bacilli. Explain why anaerobic organisms are generally not the enteric pathogens seen in a routine fecal specimen. Why are these anaerobic organisms not seen in.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Gram-Positive Bacilli from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਛੜੀ ਦੇ ਸਰੂਪ ਦਾ ਬੀਟਾ ਹੀਮੋਲਿਟਿਕ ਗਰਾਮ ਪਾਜਿਟਿਵ ਜੀਵਾਣੁ ਜੀਨਸ ਹੈ, ਫਰਮੀਕਿਊਟਸ ਉਪਜਾਤੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਇੱਕ ਮੈਂਬਰ ਹੈ। ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਜਾਂ ਤਾਂ ਬਾਧਯ ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ ਦੇ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਐੱਛਿਕ aerobe s, ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੀਖਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਕਾਰਾਤਮਕ ਏੰਜਾਇਮ catalase।. ...
•Set of 22 slides. Set illustrates the morphology and Gram staining properties of the basic bacterial groups. Includes both pathogenic and beneficial species of medical or economic …
With the discovery of interspecies hydrogen transfer in the late 1960s (Bryant et al. in Arch Microbiol 59:20-31, 1967), it was shown that reducing the partial pressure of hydrogen could cause mixed acid fermenting organisms to produce acetate at the expense of ethanol. Hydrogen and ethanol are both more reduced than glucose. Thus there is a tradeoff between production of these compounds imposed by electron balancing requirements; however, the mechanism is not fully known. Deletion of the hfsA or B subunits resulted in a roughly 1.8-fold increase in ethanol yield. The increase in ethanol production appears to be associated with an increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which appears to be due, at least in part, to increased expression of the adhE gene, and may suggest a regulatory linkage between hfsB and adhE. We studied this system most intensively in the organism Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum; however, deletion of hfsB also increases ethanol production in other thermophilic bacteria
The antibacterial activities of different nitroheterocyclic compounds were assessed by an agar dilution method against aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. Nitronaphthofurans inhibited the multiplication of aerobic bacteria at low concentrations (MIC for 50% of strains tested [MIC50], 1 mg/liter). Under anaerobic growth conditions the MICs were found to be even lower. The rough, DNA repair-deficient mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were more susceptible, whereas nitroreductase-deficient strains were resistant. Microaerophilic campylobacter isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which was as susceptible as aerobic bacteria (MIC50, 1 mg/liter) and the other of which was more highly susceptible (MIC50, 0.015 mg/liter). All anaerobic bacteria tested were susceptible to nitronaphthofurans (MIC50, 0.125 mg/liter). Nitrothiazole exerted antibacterial activities similar to those of the nitronaphthofurans. Metronidazole, a nitroimidazole derivative, and nitrofurans were ...
Butyric acid fermentation is characteristic of several obligate anaerobic bacteria that mainly belong to the genus Clostridium; by means of glycolysis, these are able to oxidize sugar, and occasionally amylose and pectin, to pyruvate. Pyruvate is in turn oxidized to acetylCoA by the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme system, with the production of CO2 and H2. Part of the acetylCoA is converted into acetic acid, with ATP production. The other part generates acetoacetylCoA, which is reduced to butyrylCoA through the production of ^-oxybutyrylCoA and crotonylCoA. The transformation of butyrylCoA into butyrate leads to further ATP production. Thus, this fermentation process produces a relatively high yield of energy, with 3 mol of ATP for each mole of glucose. Small amounts of ethanol and isopropanol can also be produced (Figure 7). Butyric fermentation is quite common in silage when the pH is not low enough to ensure the exclusive activity of lactic acid bacteria. The carbon dioxide produced ...
Extra info for Anaerobic Infections: Diagnosis and Management Example text. These fatty acids may, however, play a deleterious role in the development of acne by causing inflammation (8). The numbers of P. acnes are higher in adults than in young children. Because of their prevalence in the skin and the ear canal, they can contaminate blood cultures and aspirates of cerebrospinal fluid, abscesses, and middle ear fluid. THE ORAL CAVITY The establishment of the normal oral flora is initiated at birth. Lactobacilli and Peptostreptococci, reach high numbers within a few days. Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, and Nocardia are acquired by six months. Collection, Transportation, and Processing of Specimens 33 6. Brook I. Percutaneous transtracheal aspiration in the diagnosis and treatment of aspiration pneumonia in children. J Pediatr 1980; 90:1000-4. 7. Bartlett JG, Rosenblatt JE, Finegold SM. Percutaneous transtracheal aspiration in the diagnosis of anaerobic pulmonary infection. Ann Intern Med 1973; ...
Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic bacterium that can be isolated from a variety of human infections (2). In the mid-1980s it was recognized that some strains produce an enterotoxin (ET) that can cause acute diarrhea in humans, young lambs, calves, pigs, and foals (6,7). Enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strains have also been isolated from the feces of children with diarrhea (9). Kato et al. (4) showed that B. fragilis blood culture isolates were more likely to be ETBF and suggested that ETBF strains are more virulent than enterotoxin-negative strains. Recently, the enterotoxin gene of B. fragilis has been cloned, sequenced, and identified as producing a zinc metalloprotease of 44.4 kDa (5).. In order to determine the relative frequency of ETBF in different geographic locations, 93 B. fragilis clinical isolates from Germany and Southern California were analyzed. Two PCR assays were used to detect two independent genetic sequences of the B. fragilis enterotoxin gene. In addition, ...
Clostridium innocuum (CLOIN) is an anaerobic, non-motile, gram-positive bacterium that reproduces by sporulation. While there are over 130 species of Clostridia, C. innocuum is the third most commonly isolated. Although it is not normally considered an aggressive human pathogen, it has been isolated in some disease processes. C. innocuum and other Clostrida line the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, and are considered normal gut flora. Anaerobic gram-positive bacilli affecting human beings are generally divided into two distinct groups, those that form spores (Clostridium spp) and those that do not form spores. Within the spore-forming group of Clostridium species, some are very pathogenic or toxigenic (C. perfringens) while others are rarely pathogenic. Identification and differentiation between anaerobic gram-positive bacteria in a clinical laboratory can be a very difficult task. C. innocuum forms white, glossy, raised colonies and exhibits a chartreuse fluorescence. It is a small, ...
When you develop a bacterial infection, doing nothing in terms of proper treatment will only make the infection grow worse and more difficult to treat. If you want to treat a bacterial infection or disease, the best course of treatment is to use antibiotic drugs like metronidazole. Basically, antibiotic drugs have antibacterial properties that eliminate bacteria from the body in different ways, depending on the type of antibiotic you are using. If you buy metronidazole, the antibiotic drug you are buying is great for treating anaerobic bacteria - bacterium that does not require oxygen to survive. Despite being more catered to treating anaerobic bacteria, metronidazole is effective in most cases of bacterial diseases and infections and is the reason why many buy metronidazole as their main source of treatment against bacteria.. People buy metronidazole because this antibiotic treatment drug is one of the most highly prescribed antibiotic remedy for bacterial diseases and infections. Doctors have ...
Anaerobic bacteria can live with out oxygen, while animals and humans cant. Anaerobic bacteria can sustain itself without the presence of oxygen. Almost all animals and humans are obligate aerobes that require oxygen for respiration, whereas anaerobic yeast is an example of facilitative anaerobe bacteria. Individual human cells are also facilitative anaerobes: They switch to lactic acid fermentation if oxygen is not available.
of waste treatment processes, such as the anaerobic digestion. This biochemical process converts organic substrates into biogas, with anaerobic microorganisms. However, some types of substrates have low bio-degradability due to its recalcitrance or the presence of inhibitors. This can be solved by the coupling of anaerobic digestion with gasification, a thermochemical process that can convert organic substrates into syngas (H2, CO, and CO2) regardless of the substrate´s degradability. Consequently, syngas can be converted into biogas and other fermentative products via anaerobic digestion, in a process known as syngas fermentation. In comparison to the catalytic conversion of syngas, syngas fermentation has several advantages such as lower sensitivity to CO/H2/CO2 ratio and to syngas contaminants as well as higher product specificity.. The main goal of this thesis was to improve the syngas conversion rate into CH4 and H2 by addressing the cell washout, the cell inhibition by syngas ...
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Digests double-stranded RNA. Involved in the processing of primary rRNA transcript to yield the immediate precursors to the large and small rRNAs (23S and 16S). Processes some mRNAs, and tRNAs when they are encoded in the rRNA operon. Processes pre-crRNA and tracrRNA of type II CRISPR loci if present in the organism.
However, while killing off the anaerobic bacteria in your mouth, these chemicals also tend to cause dehydration in your mouth. Saliva is the bodys natural defense against the very same bacteria because it is oxygen-rich and therefore makes the going tough for the bad breath bacteria. When your mouth is dehydrated by these chemicals, it can actually make the problem worse in the long term! If you really want to get rid of halitosis, you will need to control the anaerobic bacteria without dehydrating the mouth and robbing it of saliva. Ironically, this rules out most of todays remedies against bad breath ...
Treatment with Ciprofloxacin tablets may vary in dosages 250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg. Film-coated tablets may impair the patients ability to drive or to operate machinery. This risk is increased during the first days of treatment, particularly when taken with alcohol and if dosage of this medication is increased, therefore you should not drive or operate dangerous machinery in any of these situations ...
INDEX. ABBE condenser and oil-immersion lenses, hints as to the use of, 86 Acid, carbolic, value of, as a germi- cide, 118 Acids and alkalies, production of, by bacteria, 54 Actinomyces bo vis, 260 Actinomycosis, 260 fungus of, 261 growth of, 262 in man, 263 of human liver, 264 resemblance of, to tuberculosis, 262 Activity, vital, in bacteria, results of, 50 Adhesion preparation, 147 .Aerobic bacteria, 45 Aerogenic bacteria, 50, 54 Agar-agar as a culture-medium, 129 advantages of, over gelatin, 150 blood, 131 hemoglobin, 131 preparation of, 129 sedimentation of, 130 Air, bacteriologic examination of, 164 Hesses apparatus, 165 Petris filter for, 166 Sedgwicks expanded tube, i67 value of, 167 micro-organisms in, 164 pathogenic bacteria in, 164 Alexin, 78 Alkali albumin ate, Deyckes, 133 Alkaline blood-serum, 133 31 Alkaloids, animal, 51 putrefactive, 51 Anaerobic bacteria, 45 cultivation of, 153 cultures, Novys jars for, 156 Anilin dyes and bacteria, affinity between, 90 classification of, 90 ...
Bifidobacteria, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Bifidobacteria are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tract, vagina and mouth. They have a unique hexose (sugar) metabolism, called the bifid shunt, which can be used as a diagnostic test for bifidobacteria because it is not found in other gram-positive intestinal bacteria. Bifidobacteria are probiotic friendly bacteria, which means that they may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the intestinal microflora. Magnification: x18,000 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C035/7894
Call your Dr. and tell him antibiotic is not working on you. You would like him to call in Biaxin, 500 mg. take two a day . It will begin to help right away b/c it is in a diff. category than most. It attacks the bad bacteria only and attaches to each one, not letting go , and fights it until dead. Most work by trying to kill all bacteria good and bad which takes 3 days just to feel any diff. and then a lot of times you end up with yeast infections from not enough good bacteria left in your system!! They should call it in. If not , you may need a new Dr., one who isn`t out for making money off visits ...
CLINDAMYCIN PALMITATE HYDROCHLORIDE, INDICATIONS AND USAGE Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride for oral solution is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin is also indicated
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Background Corrinoids are an essential cofactor of reductive dehalogenases, the key enzymes of organohalide respiration (OHR). Dehalobacter restrictus is an obligate OHR bacterium (OHRB) able to conserve energy with tetrachloroethene, but is unable to de novo synthesize corrinoids. Genome analysis of D. restrictus strain PER-K23 however revealed the presence of the complete corrinoid biosynthesis pathway. Objectives The aim of the present study is to understand the corrinoid metabolism of D. restrictus strain PER-K23 at the level of biosynthesis, regulation and transport and to compare it to contrasting situations in other Dehalobacter strains. Methods Genome analysis was performed with standard bioinformatic tools. Both transcriptomic and proteomic approaches were applied on D. restrictus strain PER-K23 cells cultivated in media with alternative corrinoid conditions. Gene expression was further addressed using targeted reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. Growth and dechlorination of D. ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Results:. An outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea was caused by a clonal isolate of clindamycin-resistant C. difficile and was associated with increased use of clindamycin. Hospital-wide requirement of approval by an infectious disease consultant of clindamycin use led to an overall reduction in clindamycin use, a sustained reduction in the mean number of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (11.5 cases/month compared with 3.33 cases/month; P , 0.001), and an increase in clindamycin susceptibility among C. difficile isolates (9% compared with 61%; P , 0.001). A parallel increase was noted in the use of and costs associated with other antibiotics with antianaerobic activity, including cefotetan, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and imipenem-cilastin. The hospital realized overall cost savings as a result of the decreased incidence of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. ...
We studied the microbiology of pus from 10 infected sinuses and their corresponding intracranial abscess (IA) (22).BA and SE was present in 5 patients, and both BA and SE were present in one. Four of the patients were children and all had SE. Five had Polymicrobial flora was found in 9 sinuses and 8 IA. A total of 26 isolates (2.6 isolates per specimen, 19 anaerobic, 7 aerobic or facultative and 1 microaerophilic) were recovered from the sinuses, and 17 isolates (1.7 isolates per site, 13 anaerobic, 2 aerobic or facultative and 2 microaerophilic) were found in the IA. Concordance in the microbiological findings between the sinus and the IA was found in all instances The predominant anaerobes were Fusobacterium spp. Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. , S. aureus , H. influenzae type-b, micoaerophilic streptococci , Bacteroides ureolyticus , and S. pneumoniae . These data illustrate the concordance in the recovery of organisms from infected sinuses and their associated IA and confirm the ...
Using a polyphasic approach, a taxonomic study was performed on seven strains of an unknown Gram-reaction-positive, non-spore-forming, obligately anaerobic coccus-shaped bacterium, isolated from a swine-manure storage pit. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that all seven isolates were highly related to each other and formed a hitherto unknown lineage within the clostridial rRNA XI cluster of organisms. Pairwise analysis demonstrated that the novel organism was most closely related to Peptostreptococcus anaerobius CCUG 7835T and Peptostreptococcus stomatis CCUG 51858T with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 95.5 and 93.0 %, respectively. The peptidoglycan type of the cell wall was determined to be A4α l-Lys-d-Asp and glucose, xylose and traces of mannose were detected as the cell-wall sugars. Based on biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence the unknown bacterium represents a new species of the genus Peptostreptococcus, for which the name Peptostreptococcus russellii sp.
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Anaerobic bacteria: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAnaerobic bacteria: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ... Anaerobic. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765503/all/anaerobic. Accessed June 12, 2019. ...
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HELP-anaerobic bacteria genomic DNA isolationHELP-anaerobic bacteria genomic DNA isolation

... Dr. Shiyou Ding syding at post.tau.ac.il Sun Jun 8 02:50:43 EST 1997 *Previous ... Does anyone know how to isolate genomic DNA from anaerobic bacteria? Any suggestion or protocol are very appreciated! Thanks in ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/microbio/1997-June/009465.html

Identification, Anaerobic Bacteria with R1eflex to SusceptibilityIdentification, Anaerobic Bacteria with R1eflex to Susceptibility

Anaerobic Bacteria with R1eflex to Susceptibility,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader ... Identification, Aerobic Bacteria with Reflex to Susceptibility. 4. Identification, Anaerobic Bacteria. 5. Identification, ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Identification--Anaerobic-Bacteria-with-R1eflex-to-Susceptibility-23279-1/

Anaerobic bacteria - Biology-Online DictionaryAnaerobic bacteria - Biology-Online Dictionary

Other bacteria (referred to as obligate anaerobic bacteria) can neither use oxygen nor convert the lethal superoxide formed in ... referred to as facultative anaerobic bacteria) are capable of using oxygen when present, and carry out aerobic respiration. ... In general, these bacteria do not require oxygen for their growth and metabolism although some of them ( ... Bacteria that are capable of living in the absence of molecular oxygen. ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Anaerobic_bacteria

Anaerobic CulturingAnaerobic Culturing

Anaerobic bacteria are common causes of infection and will be missed in clinical diagnosis unless special precautions are taken ... Anaerobic and micro-aerophilic bacteria can also be beneficial to humans. These bacteria are used as "waste digesters" by ... Anaerobic bacteria are common causes of infection and will be missed in clinical diagnosis unless special precautions are taken ... During the anaerobic evacuation cycle, oxygen within the jar is replaced with hydrogen. After the anaerobic cycle, a mere 0.16 ...
more infohttps://www.aicompanies.com/education/microbiology/anaerobic-culturing/

A MODIFICATION OF THE BUCHNER METHOD OF CULTIVATING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA | ScienceA MODIFICATION OF THE BUCHNER METHOD OF CULTIVATING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA | Science

A MODIFICATION OF THE BUCHNER METHOD OF CULTIVATING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
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6003993 Anaerobic Bacteria Culture 2 | Infection | Public Health6003993 Anaerobic Bacteria Culture 2 | Infection | Public Health

6003993 Anaerobic Bacteria Culture 2 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. msc ... Anaerobic bacteria culture B.A. Linda D. Jones, PBT (ASCP) Definition An anaerobic bacteria culture is a method used to grow ... Purpose Anaerobic bacterial cultures are performed to identify bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen and which may ... several days may be required for bacterium identification. Key Terms Aerobic bacteria Bacteria that can grow freely in oxygen- ...
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Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory | SciencePlant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory | Science

... potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium puniceum). We found that these anaerobic ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
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Black Sea anaerobic bacteria, SEM - Stock Image - C032/2276 - Science Photo LibraryBlack Sea anaerobic bacteria, SEM - Stock Image - C032/2276 - Science Photo Library

... of Marine anaerobic spirillum and vibriod bacteria. This bacteria are unidentified spirillum-shaped and vibriod-shaped bacteria ... of Marine anaerobic spirillum and vibriod bacteria. This bacteria are unidentified spirillum-shaped and vibriod-shaped bacteria ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799095/view/black-sea-anaerobic-bacteria-sem

Frontiers | Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria | Microbiology

Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria ... Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. by Techtmann, S. M., Colman, A. S., Murphy, ... Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. Stephen M. Techtmann1, Albert S ... Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. Front. Microbiol. 9:1016. doi: 10.3389/fmicb ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01016/full

anaerobic bacteria Archives - Reef Builders | The Reef and Marine Aquarium Bloganaerobic bacteria Archives - Reef Builders | The Reef and Marine Aquarium Blog

Soil Bacteria F1 is a unique product from Japan that is an aerobic and anaerobic bacteria composite to reduce organic buildup ... Soil Bacteria F1 takes its cue from the land to clean up your tank. Brian Blank Feb 24, 2015. ...
more infohttps://reefbuilders.com/tag/anaerobic-bacteria/

Anaerobic bacteriaAnaerobic bacteria

In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. They play a role in conditions such as ... Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. ... Anaerobic bacteria Anaerobic bacteria. Tests Anaerobe. Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is ... Results for anaerobe, anaerobic, anaerobic bacteria, bacteria. * Gut Bacteria May Change Rapidly After Severe Injury. October ...
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Genome and proteome analysis of the C1 metabolism of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria - WURGenome and proteome analysis of the C1 metabolism of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria - WUR

The anaerobic degradation of these compounds can be coupled to industrial applications and waste(water) treatment. The ... My research focuses on the proteins involved in the anaerobic degradation of methanol, CO, and formate and the genes encoding ... of one carbon compounds in nature and application purposes make it important to study the C-1 metabolism of anaerobic ... Genome and proteome analysis of the C1 metabolism of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Status: Gepland Partners: * Laboratory ...
more infohttps://www.wur.nl/nl/project/Genome-and-proteome-analysis-of-the-C1-metabolism-of-Grampositive-anaerobic-bacteria.htm

Comparative in-vitro and in-vivo activity of AM-1155 against anaerobic bacteria.  - PubMed - NCBIComparative in-vitro and in-vivo activity of AM-1155 against anaerobic bacteria. - PubMed - NCBI

Comparative in-vitro and in-vivo activity of AM-1155 against anaerobic bacteria.. Kato N1, Kato H, Tanaka-Bandoh K, Watanabe K ... These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of AM-1155 against infections involving most anaerobic bacteria except for the ... against a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Although AM-1155 demonstrated only modest activity against the Bacteroides fragilis ... Institute of Anaerobic Bacteriology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan. [email protected] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9421310?dopt=Abstract

Black Sea anaerobic bacterium, SEM - Stock Image C032/2268 - Science Photo LibraryBlack Sea anaerobic bacterium, SEM - Stock Image C032/2268 - Science Photo Library

... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... The bacterium has non-cellular appendages called spinae that likely help the bacterium stay suspended in the water column. The ... of Marine anaerobic bacillus bacterium with spinae. This bacterium is an unidentified rod-shaped bacterium from the Black Sea ( ... Keywords: 03black, 281048b, alpha, anaerobic, anoxic, appendage, appendages, bacilli, bacillus, bacteria, bacterioplankton, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799087/view

Necrotizing Fasciitis by Two Anaerobic Bacteria in an Immunocompetent Patient after Minor Trauma: A Case ReportNecrotizing Fasciitis by Two Anaerobic Bacteria in an Immunocompetent Patient after Minor Trauma: A Case Report

These anaerobic bacteria are usually part of the normal oral and gut flora of humans and animals [7, 8]. The former is ... Necrotizing Fasciitis by Two Anaerobic Bacteria in an Immunocompetent Patient after Minor Trauma: A Case Report. Marco Sciarra, ... Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Atopobium parvulum, two anaerobic pansensitive bacteria, were isolated and identified by ... To our knowledge, this is the first report of these two scarcely virulent bacteria as etiological agents of anaerobic ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2018/4910292/

Mechanisms of resistance and resistance transfer in anaerobic bacteria: factors influencing antimicrobial therapy.  - PubMed -...Mechanisms of resistance and resistance transfer in anaerobic bacteria: factors influencing antimicrobial therapy. - PubMed -...

The resistance of anaerobic bacteria to a number of antimicrobial agents has an impact on the selection of appropriate therapy ... Anaerobic bacteria are resistant to aminoglycosides because these organisms lack the oxidative transport system for ... Mechanisms of resistance and resistance transfer in anaerobic bacteria: factors influencing antimicrobial therapy.. Tally FP, ... Chloramphenicol resistance is mediated by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and by nitroreduction in anaerobic bacteria. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6326243?dopt=Abstract

Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Thesis/Dissertation) |...Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Thesis/Dissertation) |...

ETDEWEB / Search Results / Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria ... Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 ... Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 ... Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria. Denmark: N. p., 1998. Web ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/351451

Compare Current Blood+Poisoning+Caused+By+Anaerobic+Bacteria Drugs and Medications with Ratings & ReviewsCompare Current Blood+Poisoning+Caused+By+Anaerobic+Bacteria Drugs and Medications with Ratings & Reviews

... anaerobic+bacteria? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria ... Considering taking medication to treat blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria? Below is a list of common medications used ... to treat or reduce the symptoms of blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria. Follow the links to read common uses, side ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/condition-98/blood+poisoning+caused+by+anaerobic+bacteria

Anaerobic bacteria commonly colonize the lower airways of intubated ICU patientsAnaerobic bacteria commonly colonize the lower airways of intubated ICU patients

... Agvald-Öhman, C ... in at least one site on day 1. Anaerobic bacteria, mainly peptostreptococci and Prevotella spp., were isolated from subglottic ... Objectives To investigate respiratory tract colonization by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in mechanically ventilated patients ... with special emphasis on elucidation of the role of anaerobic bacteria in the lower respiratory tract. Samples were taken from ...
more infohttp://sh.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A504728&c=3&searchType=SIMPLE&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%226755%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Frontiers | Genomic Analysis of Caldithrix abyssi, the Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium of the Novel Bacterial Phylum...Frontiers | Genomic Analysis of Caldithrix abyssi, the Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacterium of the Novel Bacterial Phylum...

The genomic analysis revealed mechanisms allowing this anaerobic bacterium to ferment peptides or to implement nitrate ... The genomic analysis revealed mechanisms allowing this anaerobic bacterium to ferment peptides or to implement nitrate ... Surprisingly, the genome of this anaerobic microorganism encoded all genes for cytochrome c oxidase, however its maturation ... Surprisingly, the genome of this anaerobic microorganism encoded all genes for cytochrome c oxidase, however its... ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00195/full

Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. | Antimicrobial Agents and...Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. | Antimicrobial Agents and...

... and anaerobic bacteria. Nitronaphthofurans inhibited the multiplication of aerobic bacteria at low concentrations (MIC for 50% ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/30/5/679

Are gram-positive bacteria aerobic or anaerobic - AnswersAre gram-positive bacteria aerobic or anaerobic - Answers

Are bacteria anaerobic or aerobic. ?. Some bacteria in the world are considered to be anaerobic bacteria. Other bacteria in the ... Bacteria How do aerobic bacteria differ from anaerobic bacteria. ?. aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic ... How do aerobic bacteria differ form anaerobic bacteria. ?. Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. ... Where might anaerobic bacteria live. ?. Unlike aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria do not use oxygen. Types of bacteria: ...
more infohttps://www.answers.com/Q/Are_gram-positive_bacteria_aerobic_or_anaerobic

CHANGES IN BACTERIAL PROFILE DURING AMEBIASIS: DEMONSTRATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN ALA PUS SAMPLES | The American Journal of...CHANGES IN BACTERIAL PROFILE DURING AMEBIASIS: DEMONSTRATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN ALA PUS SAMPLES | The American Journal of...

Two anaerobic genera, viz. Bacteroides and Peptostreptococcus, were detected in ALA pus samples, and this observation is ... Re-examination of the ameba-bacterium relationship in amebiasis is suggested. ... f CHANGES IN BACTERIAL PROFILE DURING AMEBIASIS: DEMONSTRATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN ALA PUS SAMPLES * REKHA RANI1, R.S. ... Mode of action of metronidazole on anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Surgery 93 : 165-170.. [Google Scholar] ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.880

Oribacterium parvum sp. nov. and Oribacterium asaccharolyticum sp. nov., obligately anaerobic bacteria from the human oral...Oribacterium parvum sp. nov. and Oribacterium asaccharolyticum sp. nov., obligately anaerobic bacteria from the human oral...

Adult, Bacteria, Anaerobic, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Base Composition, Dental Plaque, Diaminopimelic Acid, DNA, Bacterial, ... Three strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains ACB1(T), ACB7(T) ... nov., obligately anaerobic bacteria from the human oral cavity, and emended description of the genus Oribacterium.. ...
more infohttps://www.broadinstitute.org/publications/broad5735
  • The sulfate/sulfite reducing bacteria belonging to the Desulfotomaculum , Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium genera show differences in their CO utilization. (wur.nl)
  • Two anaerobic genera, viz. (ajtmh.org)
  • As for beer spoilage bacteria, four genera, Lactobacillus , Pediococcus , Pectinatus , and Megasphaera , can cause quality issues with beer production in the brewery, so it is important to discriminate beer spoilage bacteria from others to minimize the risk of spoilage incidents. (worldbrewingcongress.org)
  • Techtmann SM, Colman AS, Murphy MB, Schackwitz WS, Goodwin LA and Robb FT (2018) Corrigendum: Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent research on methanol utilization by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii revealed the presence of two methanol degrading pathways. (wur.nl)
  • I aim to purify one of the enzymes involved in the cobalt-independent pathway and try to assess if more sulfate reducing bacteria use two methanol degrading pathways. (wur.nl)
  • The genome contained genes of respiratory polysulfide/thiosulfate reductase, however, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate were not used as the electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration with acetate or H 2 , probably due to the lack of the gene of the maturation protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Packing of the filter media promotes the accumulation of lipolytic bacteria, acetate consuming methanogenic bacteria and hydrogen consuming methanogenic bacteria in the space where filter media were packed. (iwaponline.com)
  • My research focuses on the proteins involved in the anaerobic degradation of methanol, CO, and formate and the genes encoding these proteins. (wur.nl)
  • Methanol degradation in methanogens and acetogens is well described, which is not true for sulfate-reducing bacteria. (wur.nl)
  • Effects of packing of the filter media on substrate degradation and on behavior of anaerobic bacteria were investigated using an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor operated at 20°C. A low strength synthetic wastewater containing suspended solids was used as the substrate. (iwaponline.com)
  • Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Atopobium parvulum, two anaerobic pansensitive bacteria, were isolated and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), using the Bruker database as reference for the microorganism identification process (Bruker Daltonics GmbH, Bremen, Germany). (hindawi.com)
  • A second source of anaerobic infection occurs from the introduction of spores into a normally sterile site. (scribd.com)
  • Physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. (osti.gov)
  • These bacteria produce a polyphenolic metabolite known as clostrubin that functions as an antibiotic. (sciencemag.org)
  • With anaerobic culture, microbiologists are not only challenged with obtaining a good specimen, but also with ensuring that the specimen does not come in contact with air 3 . (aicompanies.com)
  • Chloramphenicol resistance is mediated by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and by nitroreduction in anaerobic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Clindamycin-erythromycin resistance in B. fragilis is probably similar to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance in aerobic bacteria. (nih.gov)