Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillin Amidase: An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 3.5.1.11.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.UreohydrolasesPenicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.CephalosporinaseDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria, AnaerobicAztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Aza CompoundsCefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Azlocillin: A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Bacteria, AerobicNeisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Ochrobactrum anthropi: A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.QuinolinesColony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Thermotoga neapolitana: A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.History of Medicine
The UK Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) recommends that treatments such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid preparations be ... it can overcome antibiotic resistance in bacteria that secrete β-lactamase, which otherwise inactivates most penicillins. In ... Clavulanic acid is a suicide inhibitor, covalently bonding to a serine residue in the active site of the β-lactamase. This ... which produces clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid arginine and the sugar glyceraldehyde 3- ...
... is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as: urinary ... Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in veterinary medicine. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is reported to be ... It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is ... It is not recommended in people with a history of a penicillin allergy. It is relatively safe for use during pregnancy. ...
... should consist of either a penicillin with a B-lactamase inhibitor such as amoxicillin/ticarcillin with clavulanic acid or a ... Report of a case and review of the literature". Archives of Internal Medicine. 148 (2): 461-6. PMID 3277567. Kurien M, Mathew J ... The empirical therapy should be effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria species commonly involved in Ludwig's ... Oral therapy can then commence to last for 2 weeks, with amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, ...
... such as penicillin. For this reason, it may be combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This drug combination is ... Amoxicillin attaches to the cell wall of susceptible bacteria and results in their death. It also is a bactericidal compound. ... It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health ... Use of the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination for more than one week has caused mild hepatitis in some patients. Young ...
For example, Augmentin (FGP) is made of amoxicillin (a β-lactam antibiotic) and clavulanic acid (a β-lactamase inhibitor). The ... As a response to the use of β-lactams to control bacterial infections, some bacteria have evolved penicillin binding proteins ... Rossi S (Ed.) (2004). Australian Medicines Handbook 2004. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook. ISBN 0-9578521-4-2. ... To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. β-lactam ...
... amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) and a macrolide antibiotic, such as azithromycin or clarithromycin, for seven to ... Primary microoganisms are viruses, atypical bacteria, penicillin-sensitive streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae ... October 1999). "Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza". The New England Journal of ... antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be prevented by vaccination and by abstaining from tobacco products. ...
... a penicillin (i.e. ticarcillin, ampicillin, piperacillin) and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (i.e. clavulanic acid, sulbactam, ... Penicillin is effective for bacteremia caused by non-beta lactamase producing bacteria. However, other agents should be used ... 2010 ,15;50:133-6. Anaerobic Infections Bacteroides infections in E Medicine Peptostreptococcus infections in E Medicine Brook ... Oral agents adequate for polymicrobial oral infections include the combinations of amoxicillin plus clavulanate, clindamycin ...
... such as penicillin. For this reason, it is eften combined wi clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This increases ... Amoxicillin is susceptible tae degradation bi β-lactamase-producin bacteria, which are resistant tae a broad spectrum o β- ... Warld Heal Organisation essential medicines. *Phenols. Skauk't categeries: *ECHA InfoCard ID frae Wikidata ... Amoxicillin (INN), umwhile amoxycillin (BAN), an abbreviatit amox, is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic ...
Use of clavulanic acid or tazobactam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, alongside penicillin gives penicillin activity against beta- ... While the number of penicillin-resistant bacteria is increasing, penicillin can still be used to treat a wide range of ... Grossman CM (July 2008). "The first use of penicillin in the United States". Annals of Internal Medicine. 149 (2): 135-6. doi: ... For example, amoxicillin tablets may be labelled as "a penicillin". Other derivatives such as procaine benzylpenicillin ( ...
Although the inhibitor-resistant TEM variants are resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid and sulbactam, thereby showing ... Abraham EP, Chain E (1940). "An enzyme from bacteria able to destroy penicillin". Nature. 46 (3713): 837-837. doi:10.1038/ ... Online Amino Acid Sequences for ESBL enzymes beta-Lactamases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... thereby showing clinical resistance to the beta-lactam-beta lactamase inhibitor combinations of amoxicillin-clavulanate (Co- ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/ ... penicillin antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Augmentin), ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen), dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen ... "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the ... Imipenem/cilastatin has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... The spectrum of action includes many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas) and anaerobic bacteria. ... It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health ... In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... "Penicillin V Potassium tablet: Drug Label Sections". U.S. National Library of Medicine, Daily Med: Current Medication ... It is less active than benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) against Gram-negative bacteria.[9][10] Phenoxymethylpenicillin has a ... DADAL/AR inhibitors (Cycloserine). *bactoprenol inhibitors (Bacitracin). Glycopeptide. *Inhibit PG chain elongation: Vancomycin ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... In the resistant bacteria, stable cross-links are formed. In the sensitive bacteria, cross-links cannot be formed and the cell ... Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3. *^ a b c d "Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of ... The rapid development of penicillin resistance by staphylococci led to its being fast-tracked for approval by the Food and Drug ...
Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying ... clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amoxicillin and clavulanic ... U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National ...
... clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in amoxicillin and clavulanic ... Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying ... HOW should this medicine be used?. The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, an ... The 250 mg and 500 mg tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. Do not substitute ...
Recent studies suggested animals as a putative source of such bacteria. We investigated 19,025 Escherichia coli, 1607 ... Recent studies suggested animals as a putative source of such bacteria. We investigated 19,025 Escherichia coli, 1607 ... and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, respectively, either prior to their admission to a clinic or during their stay. It has been ... or penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations might co-select for carbapenemase genes and contribute significantly to the ...
... penicillins explanation free. What is penicillins? Meaning of penicillins medical term. What does penicillins mean? ... Looking for online definition of penicillins in the Medical Dictionary? ... The drug Augmentin, for example, contains a combination of amoxicillin and a betalactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid. ... Related to penicillins: Cephalosporins. Penicillins. Definition. Penicillins are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their ...
The amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic.. The development of bacteria can be stopped by this drug. Clavulanic acid belongs ... to the class of medicines called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It prevents bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Composition of ... and succinic acid. Uses of Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid The amalgamation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is used to deal ... It prevents bacteria from destroying. Possible side effects The side acid The amalgamation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid ...
Blister from Quality Medicine Tablet, Wuhan uni-pharma bio-tech co.,ltd - a Wholesale Supplier from China. ... Latest Finished Medicine Tablet Amoxicillin And Clavulanic Acid Tablets 4 / 7 / 10 Tabs / ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. ... a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy ...
... for more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract consists of a new tablet containing 875 mg of amoxicillin ... amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Together, the drugs fight bacteria that would ordinarily be resistant to amoxicillin alone. ... Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. ...
Medicine Online at best price with Free Shipping Worldwide. Find Clavulanic Uses, Side effects, Price, Dosage, Interactions & ... Amoxicillin clavulanic acid is known to work by stopping the growth of bacteria. Remember that this medicine is only going to ... What is clavulanic acid uses? This medicine is primarily a penicillin antibiotic which effectively fights against the bacteria ... Clavulanic. This drug is mainly a beta-lactamase inhibitor which is frequently combined with Amoxicillin or Ticarcillin in ...
Brand: Mymox, Amoxin, The medicine is known to interact with other medicines, hence it is imperative that you share the details ... Clavulanic acid belongs to the class of medicines called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It prevents bacteria from destroying ... Erat ac non lorem justo amet primis dolor . 3/18/ · Amoxil (amoxicillin) is a penicillin antibiotic that fights bacteria. ... and succinic acid. Uses of Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid The amalgamation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is used to deal ...
Safe and effective medicines produced by approved and trustworthy producers are accessible at competitive prices here Select ... Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid. What are susceptible bacteria. There has been confusion when is taken will develop a combination ... Inhibitor of a combination medicine but is used to clavulanic acid is a combination was developed in breast milk peak? Mean ... Amoclan/Amoxicillin trihydrate, urinary tract after oral suspension. G. Beta-Lactamase blocker. How much to penicillin family. ...
Amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 250 mg amoxicillin. Potassium clavulanate equivalent to 125 mg clavulanic acid ... Pharmacotherapeutic group: Combinations of penicillins, incl. beta-lactamase inhibitors; ATC code: J01CR02. ... Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamases produced by resistant bacteria and therefore the spectrum of ... those that provide higher doses of amoxicillin and/or different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid) should be considered ...
Lets consider features of its treatment by means of antibiotics, kinds of medicines and a rule of their application. ... Contains two active substances: amoxicillin (a broad-spectrum penicillin) and clavulanic acid (an inhibitor of beta-lactamase ... It is also possible to use methods of alternative medicine, that is, medicines on a plant basis. Such therapy is combined with ... It acts on strains of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics and even chemotherapy drugs. The drug is available as a ...
The UK Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) recommends that treatments such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid preparations be ... it can overcome antibiotic resistance in bacteria that secrete β-lactamase, which otherwise inactivates most penicillins. In ... Clavulanic acid is a suicide inhibitor, covalently bonding to a serine residue in the active site of the β-lactamase. This ... which produces clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid arginine and the sugar glyceraldehyde 3- ...
... an Antibiotic medicine. Why it is prescribed, dosage and possible side-effects of Clavam 625 ... Clavulanic acid is a beta-inhibitor drug.. Amoxicillin is a potent antibiotic drug derived from the penicillin family. ... Eventually, the harmful bacteria are not capable of surviving and replicating.. Clavulanic acid belongs to a group of medicines ... Clavulanic acid doesnt pose any antibiotic properties. But when used in combination with Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid works to ...
A beta-lactamase combined with a beta-lactam inhibitor (i.e., amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole ... 27) Fluoroquinolones or TMP-SMZ can be given for the adult with a penicillin allergy. Children with penicillin allergies can be ... Emergency Medicine Animal Bite Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 14;340(2):85-92. (28.) Maimaris C, Quinton DN. Dog ... Puncture wounds should have marginal excision as the wounds tend to heal quickly and can entrap bacteria. All hand wounds, dog ...
... pharmacy equivalent name for a combination of amoxicillin, an antibiotic, and clavulanate potassium, a β lactamase inhibitor; ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid - Combination of Amoxicillin Penicillin antibiotic Clavulanic acid Beta lactamase inhibitor ... produced by some bacteria and are responsible for their resistance to beta lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins ... Co-amoxiclav - drugbox type = combo component1 = Amoxicillin class1 = Penicillin antibiotic component2 = Potassium clavulanate ...
... however a combination medicine containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (a beta-lactamase inhibitor) may get around this ... Penicillins are a beta-lactam antibiotic that kill bacteria by inhibiting their ability to form a cell wall. Amoxicillin is ... Pet amoxicillin. Amoxicillin Allergies in Dogs - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis. - Wag!, Amoxicillin Capsules; Antibiotic - Pet ... Home Overseas Pharmacies , Pet amoxicillin , Pet amoxicillin. Discussion in Overseas Pharmacies started by kjsdhk, 01-Sep- ...
... over the classification of antimicrobials and their use in human and veterinary medicine. ... should be separated out from the beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid into Category 1, rather than Category 2? ... penicillin G and V) and the aminopenicillins, ampicillin and amoxicillin, some of our frontline pig medicines. ... So if the penicillins and cephalosporins can be broken down into different sub-groups, (see article Bacteria and antimicrobials ...
It attacks the membrane around bacteria, which stops bacteria from growing. ... Amoxicillin (Amoxil) is a prescription drug used for treating bacterial infections. ... lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin. ... A: Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat ...
Augmentin is a combination drug containing the beta-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin along with clavulanic acid, an adjuvant that ... a penicillin-class drug that targets cell-wall synthesis in pathogenic bacteria. ... and leading to ultimate limits in nucleic acid sequencing, drug discovery, and personalized medicine. Microfluidics-based ... Further, isoform-selective inhibitors can delay (and partially reverse) the onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Although ...
Amoxicillin works by killing the bacteria that is causing the infection. Clavulanic acid helps make the amoxicillin more ... Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Clavulanate potassium is a beta-lactamase inhibitor ... Amoxicillin CS Mott Childrens Hospital Michigan Medicine Amoxicillin. slide 1 of 37, Amoxicillin. 500 mg, oval, white, ... Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is a combination medicine used to treat many different infections caused by bacteria, ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as: urinary ... Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in veterinary medicine. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is reported to be ... It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is ... It is not recommended in people with a history of a penicillin allergy. It is relatively safe for use during pregnancy. ...
Combination of amoxicillin and B-lactamse enzyme inhibitor (clavulanic acid) Covers B-lactamase producing coliforms ... How does the antibiotic cephalosporins activity differ in gram negative compared to gram positive bacteria ... Decks in Medicine Term One Class (59): * Tissues * Autonomic Nervous System (Plus Pharmacology Of Ans And Nmj) ... What spectrum does Benzyl Penicillin cover and how is it taken Largely again gram positive organisms e.g.. pneumoccal, and ...
Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium tablets contain semi synthetic penicillin (amoxicillin) and has the pote. ... amoxicillin clavulanic acid half life. Amoxicillin-Clavulanate and breastfeeding. Are they.... Amoxicillin and clavulanate ... potassium is a combination medicine used to treat many different infections caused by bacteria, such as sinusitis, pneumonia, ... precautio.Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium generic contains semisynthetic antibiotic amoxicillin and βlactamase inhibitor ...
Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. ... Ledviclear medicine out of the reach of children and away from pets, never share your medicines with others, and use this ... The 250 mg and 500 mg tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid contain the same amount of clavulanic acid. Do not substitute ...
  • According to the World Health Organization, carbapenems (CP) are intended to be restrictively used for the treatment of serious human diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacteria ( Anonymous, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • You can use amoxicillin with certain other medications for treating stomach or intestinal ulcers that are caused by bacteria H.pylori as well as to prevent the ulcers from returning. (pillsfind.com)
  • Tell your healthcare provider about all medicines you are taking, including prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements. (emedtv.com)
  • Apr 07, 2018 · Medications and supplements that help to coat what medicine is prescribed for a uti the lining of the bladder (similar to how Pepto Bismol can protect stomach lining) could greatly reduce these symptoms. (osmanliocaklari.org.tr)
  • After further experiments, Fleming was convinced that penicillin could not last long enough in the human body to kill pathogenic bacteria and stopped studying penicillin after 1931, but restarted some clinical trials in 1934 and continued to try to get someone to purify it until 1940. (bionity.com)
  • preparations This term means substances of different origin that suppress the development of pathogenic bacteria and lead to their death. (treat-simply.com)