One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.

Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a lindane-degrading bacterium. (1/439)

Lindane-degrading activity under aerobic conditions has been observed in two bacterial strains: UT26, phenotypically identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and a new single unidentified isolate named RP5557T. The rrs (16S rDNA) sequences for both strains and the phenotypic characteristics for the unidentified isolate RP5557T were determined. RP5557T does not have high identity (less than 90% in all cases) with any sequence in the GenBank or RDP databases. A phylogenetic analysis based on rrs sequences indicated that RP5557T belongs to the gamma-Proteobacteria in a coherent phylum that includes the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella (100% bootstrap), whereas UT26 is clearly separate from the Xanthomonas cluster. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and on the phenotypic characteristics, a new genus, Rhodanobacter, containing a single species, Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus, is proposed for strain RP5557T (= LMG 18385T), which becomes the type strain.  (+info)

Rubrimonas cliftonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from a saline lake. (2/439)

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed with two strains (OCh 317T and OCh 318; T = type strain) of aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria isolated from water of a saline lake located on the west coast of Australia. Both strains were Gram-negative, short rods and were motile by means of polar flagella. Catalase, oxidase, nitrate reductase, phosphatase and urease were produced. The cells utilized D-glucose, citrate, glycolate, pyruvate and ethanol. Acids were produced from L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-ribose and D-xylose. The strains could grow in media containing 0.5-7.5% NaCl. Bacteriochlorophyll a was synthesized under aerobic conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain OCh 317T represented a new lineage in the alpha-3 group of the class Proteobacteria. Strains OCh 317T and OCh 318 were identified as strains of the same species because of their very similar phenotypic characteristics and their previously described high DNA-DNA homology. Therefore, it was concluded that the two strains should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which the name Rubrimonas cliftonensis is proposed. The type strain is OCh 317T (= JCM 10189T).  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (3/439)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin administration decreases enhanced ethanol elimination in ethanol-fed rats. (4/439)

Many colonic aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. Accordingly, some ingested ethanol can be metabolized in the colon in vivo via the bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. By diminishing the amount of aerobic colonic bacteria with ciprofloxacin treatment, we recently showed that the bacteriocolonic pathway may contribute up to 9% of total ethanol elimination in naive rats. In the current study we evaluated the role of the bacteriocolonic pathway in enhanced ethanol metabolism following chronic alcohol administration by diminishing the amount of gut aerobic flora by ciprofloxacin treatment. We found that ciprofloxacin treatment totally abolished the enhancement in ethanol elimination rate (EER) caused by chronic alcohol administration and significantly diminished the amount of colonic aerobic bacteria and faecal ADH activity. However, ciprofloxacin treatment had no significant effects on the hepatic microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system, hepatic ADH activity or plasma endotoxin level. Our data suggest that the decrease in the amount of the aerobic colonic bacteria and in faecal ADH activity by ciprofloxacin is primarily responsible for the decrease in the enhanced EER in rats fed alcohol chronically. Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism by gastrointestinal bacteria may therefore contribute significantly to enhanced EER.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (5/439)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. (6/439)

AIM: To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors. METHODS: Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. RESULTS: By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity.  (+info)

Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria. (7/439)

The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested.  (+info)

Removal of cadmium from scallop hepatopancreas by microbial processes. (8/439)

A microbial process for removing cadmium from a homogenate of hepatopancreas, a waste of scallop processing, was devised to use this waste for value-added protein resources. Microorganisms were screened on the basis of the ability to remove cadmium from a medium with the initial concentration of 10 mg/l of cadmium. One soil isolate, identified as Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 by its taxonomical characteristics, removed 98% of the cadmium in the medium in 2 d. During cultivation of this strain in the homogenates of hepatopancreas digested by endopeptidases, 90% of cadmium was removed, while this strain had little effect on the simple non-digested homogenates. The mass balance of cadmium during homogenizations of the hepatopancreas tissues and cultivations in the protease-treated homogenate were examined. The content of crude proteins of culture supernatant treated by Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 was equivalent to those of various feedstuffs on the market.  (+info)

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The Decomposition of Aliphatic Esters by Aerobic Microorganisms W. D. LANGLEY, Engineering Research Associate W. B. DAVIS, Associate Professor and Head P. A. RICHARDS, Captain, USAF Environmental Engineering Division Civil Engineering Department Texas A&M University College Station, Texas INTRODUCTION Based on its ability to resolve and quantitatively analyze the various components of a multi-component system, gas chromatography is a valuable analytical technique for industrial wastewater characterization and treatment studies. Used in conjunction with the hydrogen flame ionization detector and with proper selection of operating variables the technique is capable of precise analysis of volatile organics in water solution at the part per million level without prior sample preparation. The technique and some of its applications to industrial wastes have been thoroughly described by Baker (1, 2). It has been shown to be of practical value in monitoring process waste streams and treatment plant ...
We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of early enteral compared with parenteral feeding are related to the increased variety of aerobic microorganisms that colonize the gut. Our aim was to describe the relationship, first, between the type of feeding and mucosal colonization and, second, betwe …
Anaerobe Systems manufactures anaerobic chambers, anaerobic tubes,anaerobic plates,anaerobic transport media, custom formulations, disks, and reagents for anaerobic diagnostic laboratories. Anaerobe Systems produces the only true Pre-Reduced Anaerobically Sterilized (PRAS) plated and tubed culture media in the USA. Anaerobe Systems also offers anaerobe chamber training seminars, advanced anaerobic microbiology courses and anaerobic microbiology workshops. The Anaerobe Systems website contains descriptions, pricing and ordering information for anaerobic chambers, agars, broths and transport media needed in the anaerobic diagnostic laboratory, as well as information on anaerobic microbiology education.
Looking for aerobic bacteria? Find out information about aerobic bacteria. Any bacteria requiring free oxygen for the metabolic breakdown of materials Explanation of aerobic bacteria
Sterility testing The sterility of all sterile products produced in accordance with GMP must be tested regularly. However, not all sterility testing methods are equivalent. Quality, convenience and application may vary significantly, affecting the reliability of results. False negative results may be related to the release of contaminated products and can have serious consequences for both patients and manufacturers. On the other hand, cross-contamination and false-positive results would mean long, costly tests, as well as the product delays or rejection. Merck offers a solution for sterility testing: closed membrane filtration system and a wide range of culture media and rinse buffers suitable for all sterility tests. Microbiological testing Bioburden testing is used for detection of viable aerobic microorganisms that are found in raw materials or final product, which has not been sterilized. The bioburden test is carried out in two stages. The total count of aerobic microorganisms, as well as ...
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:e_ezovicum.png,frame,right,Erythromicrobium ezovicum Image from [ V. V. Yurkov, Aerobic Phototrophic Proteobacteria, March, 2001. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Sphingomonadales; Erythrobacteraceae ===Species:=== Erythromicrobium ezovicum, E. hydrolyticum, E. ramosum, Erythromicrobium sp. {, , height=10 bgcolor=#FFDF95 , NCBI: [ Taxonomy] ,} ==Description and Significance== Despite the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), Erythromicrobium is not capable of growing photosynthetically, which distinguishes the bacterium from other Bchl a-containing groups. Other main features include low levels of photosynthetic units in cells and strong inhibition by light of Bchl a synthesis (Yurkov et al). Due to the ...
NOLA, Moïse et al. Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the equatorial region of Central Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.5, pp.737-746. ISSN 1816-7950.. The main purpose of this investigation was to assess, in situ, the hourly abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB), over a daily period, in 3 wells in Yaounde region, Cameroon. Sampling was done weekly, for 4 months. Water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles and incubated in situ for 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Isolation and enumeration of enterobacteria and THAB were performed on MacConkey agar (Bio-Rad) and standard agar (Bio-Rad) media, respectively, using the plate count method. Using a linear regression model, ln(number of CFUs) was plotted against time. The slope of each regression line was considered as the apparent increase or decrease in cell number. Concentrations of THAB and ...
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None of the seven GBs had all genes required for synthesizing all amino acids and vitamins, hinting at complex interdependencies among microorganisms in this oil reservoir (Fig. 5), similar to what has been described for communities of both long- and short-chain hydrocarbon-degrading communities from enrichment cultures [20, 22]. The absence of microbial members that synthesize specific vitamins and amino acids in the aerobic and anaerobic communities suggested that additional partners are needed for these communities to thrive. According to the result, intertwined dependencies based on amino acid auxotrophy thus seem to be more prevalent in the anoxic community. Interestingly, amino acids auxotrophies in the aerobic microorganisms were not as dominant as in the anaerobic microorganisms. Reduced energy yields for microorganisms growing with hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions might be responsible for dominant amino acid auxotrophies observed here and in a previous ...
As we can observed, the areas are more distinct than the previous time we saw the column As noted, at the bottom we can still notice a dark area due to anaerobic microorganisms and at the top we can also notice a green area due to aerobic microorganisms.The black coloured area at the bottom of the column is due to the presence of iron sulfide which degrades organic matter thus we can notice that black colour . In addition, a small pick coloured area can be observed in the middle region of the column and that is due to a substance produced by purple sulfur bacteria which are responsible for that pink colour. ...
Despite the fact that up to 80 percent of us will experience the living nightmare that is acne at some point in our lives, scientists still dont really understand what causes the condition, and more importantly, how to stop it. 
Discussion and conclusions.PCR is generally considered to be the most sensitive means of determining whether a fecal specimen or a food sample contains STEC. Although direct extracts of feces or foods can be used as templates for PCR, the best results are usually obtained by testing extracts of primary broth cultures (3, 14, 27). Broth enrichment serves two purposes: inhibitors in the sample are diluted, and bacterial growth increases the number of copies of the target sequence. Sensitivity is important when testing fecal samples, because although STEC numbers may be very high in the early stages of infection, they may drop dramatically as disease progresses. Sensitivity is also particularly important when testing suspected foods because, at least for certain O111 and O157 STEC strains, the infectious dose for humans may be of the order of 1 to 10 CFU (17,28). Thus, foods destined to be consumed without further cooking or processing need to be totally free of such STEC strains. Some of the PCR ...
The NSF Microbiology Lab offers testing & consulting in aerobic/anaerobic microbiology, cellular/molecular biology, mycology, virology & parasitology.
The NSF Microbiology Lab offers testing & consulting in aerobic/anaerobic microbiology, cellular/molecular biology, mycology, virology & parasitology.
Aerobic microorganisms. Determination in foods at 37 °C, 30 °C, 25 °C, 20 °C, 17/7 °C or 6.5 °C by the colony count method. (NMKL 86, 5. Ed., 2013 ...
Microbiological Examination tests, has outlined in USP 61 and 62 are intended to determine whether a substance or preparation complies with an established specifications for microbiological quality and are designed to allow determination of the absence of or limited occurrence of specified microorganisms that may be detected under the conditions described in the procedure. These tests methods can be applied to pharmaceuticals articles, both finished and raw materials, and may also be useful for evaluating the presence of organisms on select materials used in some medical devices or biologics. It is designed to provide an estimate of the number of viable aerobic microorganisms, both bacteria and fungus, and / or to screen for specific target microbial species ...
Patent pending Eco-tabs Grease Trap Tablets are solid, sustained release tablets which provide active oxygen, nutrients, buffers and safe aerobic microorganisms to help clean, deodorize and keep grease trap systems running efficiently with reduced downtime. ecotabs has developed this enhanced aerobic grease mitigation and digestion technology to address the challenges of grease traps operating under a variety of conditions in restaurant, food service and food processing plant applications. Eco-tabs are designed to clean an entire trap; not just the grease and fat on the traps surface. Eco-tabs built in effervescent action, releases active oxygen and effectively boosts the growth of grease busting bacteria and enzymes throughout the entire grease trap system. Eco-tabs also successfully treat grease trap bottom sediment through their effervescent active oxygen action. ...
The invention comprises a multi-chamber module-cap combination useful for measuring the impedance of samples of nutrient media in the chambers thereof, some of which samples include aerobic microorganisms. The module comprises a printed circuit board having a plurality of hollow cylinders upraised from one side thereof. The conductors of the circuitry provide a pair of spaced-apart contacts under each of the cylinders. The cylinders, before being sealed to the boards, are open at both ends so that the spaced-apart contacts are exposed within the chamber formed by the cylinders and the one side of the board. Caps are provided in combination with the board-cylinder structure, the caps serving to fit over the cylinders, the skirts of the caps being sufficiently long to extend against the one side of the board so that a gap exists between the tops of the caps and the tops of the cylinders. Interiorly of the skirts are a plurality of generally evenly spaced longitudinally placed upraised ribs. When the caps
Identify Diagnostics USA, and Identify Health drug testing cups provide accurate point of care urinalysis at great prices. 12 panel drug test cups as well as many other configurations are available.
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By picking up genetic material that contains instructions that code for antibiotic resistance. This genetic material can come from viruses, other bacterial cells or plasmids, which are loops of DNA in a bacterial cell that are separate from its chromosome (bacteria only have one single chromosome, unlike us humans who have 23 pairs in each cell). These plasmids can move from bacteria to bacteria, picking up and depositing bits of genetic material as they go. If the plasmid contains a bit of genetic material that codes for antibiotic resistance this can be spread to many other bacteria. ...
Call your Dr. and tell him antibiotic is not working on you. You would like him to call in Biaxin, 500 mg. take two a day . It will begin to help right away b/c it is in a diff. category than most. It attacks the bad bacteria only and attaches to each one, not letting go , and fights it until dead. Most work by trying to kill all bacteria good and bad which takes 3 days just to feel any diff. and then a lot of times you end up with yeast infections from not enough good bacteria left in your system!! They should call it in. If not , you may need a new Dr., one who isn`t out for making money off visits ...
Nov. 16, 2012: Results presented at 23rd Conference of the Society for Chromatographic Sciences-Mass spectrometry system for drug discovery and diagnostics : FIRST Program
The Fluorotek 200 is a low-cost fluorescence-based bacterial monitor. Using two light sources and custom designed enzyme assays, Fluorotek is able to detect a wide range of bacteria such as major Gram Negative, Aerobic Bacteria , and Total Aerobic Bacteria. The Fluorotek 200 can be used in a variety of context such as healthcare, water and sanitation testing, farms, and veterinary facilities. ADS will supply the entire test kit, which, along with the device, includes the assay for your bacteria of interest.. ...
Kire ci, E et al. Isolation of pathogenic aerobic bacteria from the blood of septicaemic neonatal calves and the susceptibility of isolates to various antibiotics. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2010, vol.81, no.2, p.110-113. ISSN 1019- ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of porphyrin biosynthesis by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. OCh 114. AU - Shioi, Yuzo. AU - Doi, Michio. AU - Tanabe, Kimiko. AU - Shimokawa, Keishi. PY - 1988/11/1. Y1 - 1988/11/1. N2 - Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose-dependent manner in the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain OCh 114, under dark growth conditions. The ALA concentration required for half-inhibition after 24-h growth was estimated to be about 3.0 mm. Porphyrin and Bchl precursors were not found in either the cells or the growth medium. The same inhibition was also observed with cytochrome c formation. When ALA was incubated with intact cells, a large amount of ALA was converted to an unknown metabolite. The pH optimum of the conversion was 7.8. The metabolite did not react with Ehrlichs reagent, but did so with ninhydrin, giving a ...
The problem with adding fertilisers like ammonium nitrate to the soil is that bacteria can use the nitrogen to help to make their bodies removing carbon from the soil. In the same way, adding carbon to the soil reduces the available nitrogen. So adding nitrogen removes carbon from the soil; adding carbon removes nitrogen from the soil and locks them into the bodies of microorganisms. As this process is driven mostly by bacteria and fungi and aerobic microorganisms do this much quicker than anaerobic micro organisms, adding air by digging or hoeing reduces both nitrogen and carbon as the aerobic microorganisms reproduce and take up more nitrogen and carbon. However this can be replaced by adding lots and lots of compost. (Also carbon and nitrogen are returned to the soil when the microorganisms die ...
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Patients with bacteremia after dental extraction, third-molar surgery, dental scaling, endodontic treatment, and bilateral tonsillectomy were studied by means of lysis-filtration of blood samples with subsequent aerobic and anaerobic incubation. Samples were obtained before, during, and 10 min after treatment. Bacteremia was observed in 100% of patients after dental extraction, 55% of patients after third-molar surgery, 70% of patients after dental scaling, 20% of patients after endodontic treatment, and 55% of patients after bilateral tonsillectomy. Anaerobic microorganisms were isolated more frequently than aerobic microorganisms were, and viridans group streptococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria. Ten minutes after treatment, the frequency as well as the magnitude of bacteremia showed pronounced reduction.. ...
Photo credit: Dr. Kim Stanford, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development Composting is a naturally occurring process in which bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms convert organic material into a stabilized product called compost. Composting of livestock mortalities involves two phases.. In the first phase, the animal carcasses are placed in a composting bin or on a windrow of straw. A bulking agent that is high in carbon, such as sawdust or straw, added to completely surround the carcasses. This heap is entirely covered with manure, which is full of microbes. Anaerobic microorganisms (those not requiring oxygen) work in the carcass to degrade it.. The second phase involves regularly turning the pile and introducing air to feed aerobic microorganisms (those requiring oxygen), which degrade these materials produced by the first stage into odour-free carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). This stage causes the temperature of the compost pile to rise, which kills common viruses and other ...
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Mtb has been residing in human lungs for forever - probably since humans have been a thing - (dont cite me on this, but it seems like mummies are always being found to have TB) and yet this bacterium is still widespread.
Use your compost tea within four hours of turning off the bubbler, since after that amount of time without oxygen your aerobic microorganisms will begin to die. At this point, you can bring the tea to your site and apply it directly onto the contaminated and/or damaged land, a spill area or onto your phytoremediating plants to increase their health. It is best to apply your tea to moist soil or after a rain, on a cloudy morning or in the evening as some microorganisms do not like baking in the hot sun. If you are applying your tea with a sprayer, make sure that the sprayer doesnt need too high a pressure and that the velocity of the spray is slow - the microbes you are working with benefit from gentle treatment. You can also take a digging fork or piece of rebar and make holes throughout your site to loosen soil and give the microorganisms a way to move more rapidly down to where the contamination may be ...
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In animal cells, the formation of plasmalogens requires molecular oxygen. But among bacteria only anaerobic species contain plasmalogens, so an oxygen-requiring reaction is not possible. Clearly another pathway is used, which evolved long before these lipids were made by animal cells. The early earth had an anaerobic atmosphere; hence the first living things were anaerobes, presumably the ancestors of present day anaerobes. Indeed, all reactions essential for making bacterial cells including amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases, lipids and the essential cofactors, are still anaerobic, in line with their anaerobic ancestry. Therefore, it is no surprise that an anaerobic mechanism for making plasmalogens arose first. Present evidence suggests that plasmalogen synthesis in bacteria follows the same pathway used for the formation of diacyl phospholipids starting with glycerol-P and ending with conversion of diacylphospholipids to the corresponding plasmalogens by an unknown mechanism ...
aquavitro® seed™ will rapidly and safely establish the aquarium biofilter in freshwater and marine systems, thereby preventing the #1 cause of fish death: new tank syndrome. seed™ is formulated specifically for the aquarium and contains a synergistic blend of aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria which facilitate the breakdown of waste organics, ammonia, nitrates and nitrites.. The bacteria used in competing products are inherently unstable. The conditions necessary for their growth and development fall into a very narrow range of temperatures, pH, organic loads, etc. When any of these parameters are not strictly within the proper range, the bacterial culture quickly crashes and dies. seed™ does not contain any of these short-lived bacteria. The species of bacteria in seed™ are a unique blend, specifically developed for hardiness and their ability to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions. The strains thrive in both fresh and saltwater.. seed™ contains both ...
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Chennai Pregnant Woman Dragged on Road and Robbed off Gold Chain CCTV viraL- બનાવ બાદ મહિલાને સારવાર માટે ખાનગી હૉસ્પિટલમાં ખસેડવામાં આવી હતી. ચેન સ્નેચરોના હુમલાથી મહિલાને હાથ અને પગમાં ઈજા પહોંચી છે.
When labor begins, vaginal douching with the use of chlorhexidine or Hibiclens soap has been proved to be effective against GBS. The effect of this soap is short-term and will not last for more than a couple of days. This is the reason why douching must be done only during active labor and not before.. A benefit is that it concentrates on the colonization of the bacteria only in the vaginal tract and not in the digestive tract. Because of this the bacteria will return to the vaginal tract sooner or later.. Another benefit is the fact that douching targets only GBS and leaves the other beneficial bacteria alone. Thus, you dont have to worry about overgrowth of yeast and thrush. Studies have shown that antibiotic use and douching the vaginal tract are equally effective.. Vaginal douching has an edge because of the fact that it does not come with side effects. If you dont fancy either of these treatments, you can go the natural way. Yes, there are a few natural remedies that you could use during ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
Salam petang Isnin. Sesiapa yang datang ke Amies Little Kitchen malam ini Amie hidangkan Ikan Lumahan Sumbat Serunding Udang. Sekiranya rakan-rakan pengunjung ingin menambah kosa kata atau perbendaharaan kata mengenai nama-nama ikan, Amie perkenalkan sejenis ikan yang memang ada dijual setiap hari di mana-mana pasar di tempat Amie atau pun di tempat rakan-rakan. Ada setengah tempat menamakannya sebagai ikang belaling. Ayahanda Amie memanggilnya ikan termenung. Tapi kebanyakan orang memanggilnya sebagai ikan kembung! Masyarakat di sini memanggilnya dengan nama ikan lumahan. Idea untuk membuat Ikan Lumahan Sumbat Serunding Udang muncul selepas berkunjung ke dapur sifu Che Mat Gebu kita. Kepada sesiapa yang berminat, bolehlah klik terus ke Ikan Kembong Sumbat Kelapa - Dapur Tanpa Sempadan untuk melihat hasil air tangan beliau. Kelmarin Amie sengaja menyimpan sedikit Serunding Udang untuk disumbatkan ke dalam perut ikan lumahan. Pelik ke bunyinya..... sumbat perut ikan dengan serunding udang? Apa ...
Hari ini Amie masak Kurma Ayam. Jarang benar Amie masak begini sebab kurang permintaan dalam rumah. Apa pun, sesekali masak begini, barulah terasa enaknya terutama kalau makan waktu lauk masih panas dan kebetulan perut kosong berkeroncong! Jadi, tak terdengarlah sedap atau tak sedap! Tapi, Amie kena angkat bakul berlubanglah pada petang Ahad ini sebab Amie rasa sedaplah pulak hasil masakan Kurma Ayam hari ini ha ha ha hah...... Oleh sebab jarang masak kurma, Amie masak berpandukan arahan di belakang bungkusan serbuk kurma, tapi Amie tambah sedikit rempah-rempahan lain termasuk asam jawa supaya kuahnya tak rasa muak. ...
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Bacterial blooms are caused by heterotrophic bacteria naturally present in aquariums which feed off the various wastes produced by the fish. These free floating aerobic bacteria can reproduce very rapidly, and an increase in available nutrients can trigger these blooms, usually described as a milky cloud in the aquarium. A build up of organic wastes, over feeding, or changing the gravel in the tank can all cause bacterial blooms. While the bacteria themselves are not dangerous, they can be a big drain on the oxygen content of the water.. ...
Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy during times of low oxygen levels. Your bodys oxygen level might drop during intense exercise or if you have an infection or disease. The test gives detailed information on the level of fitness and the aerobic-anaerobic border ...
2007-05-23T13:03:57Z Pixie 865x518 (17309 Bytes) {{Information ,Description=Aerobically different bacteria behave differently when grown in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. 2: Obliga ...
run into lakes or streams increasing the pH of the lake. As a result algal begin to bloom blocking light to the lake plants below - cannot photosynthesise so die. Aerobic bacteria use up all the oxygen and everything else in the river dies. ...
COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (CoPAN): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
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Sources of infection Infection is caused either by organisms from the hosts normal flora (endogenous infection) or by organisms transmitted from another source (exogenous infection). Endogenous infection The normal flora will only invade if circumstances permit, as in some of […]
ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਛੜੀ ਦੇ ਸਰੂਪ ਦਾ ਬੀਟਾ ਹੀਮੋਲਿਟਿਕ ਗਰਾਮ ਪਾਜਿਟਿਵ ਜੀਵਾਣੁ ਜੀਨਸ ਹੈ, ਫਰਮੀਕਿਊਟਸ ਉਪਜਾਤੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਇੱਕ ਮੈਂਬਰ ਹੈ। ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਜਾਂ ਤਾਂ ਬਾਧਯ ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ ਦੇ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਐੱਛਿਕ aerobe s, ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੀਖਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਕਾਰਾਤਮਕ ਏੰਜਾਇਮ catalase।. ...
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Malnutrition, Mortality, Patients, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Screening, Nutritional Status, Elderly, Nutrition Status, Nutritional Assessment, Person
Aerobic Mesophilic Sporeforming Bacteria (1946) Nathan Raymond Smith; Ruth Evelyn Gordon; Francis Eugene Clark (1946). Aerobic ... This research study worked to identify, classify and name types of aerobic sporeforming bacteria located in the soil. In 1953, ... Smith, Nathan Raymond; Gordon, Ruth Evelyn; Clark, Francis Eugene (1946). "Aerobic Mesophilic Sporeforming Bacteria". United ... In 1952, she was involved in a study focusing on aerobic sporeforming bacteria. ...
Yurkov, V. V.; Beatty, T. J. (1998). "Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 62 ... C. litoralis KT71 is described as a pleomorphic bacterium and has a size of 2 x 0.5 μm. When grown in culture, C. litoralis ... Congregibacter litoralis KT71 was one of the first cultured members of OM60/NOR5 clade and is part of the aerobic anoxygenic ... Congregibacter litoralis KT71 is an aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotroph (AAnPs). In general terms, this means that KT71 is a ...
nov., aerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (5): 1044-51. doi ... Chelativorans multitrophicus is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile bacteria from the genus of Chelativorans which was ...
nov., aerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (5): 1044-51. doi ... Chelativorans is a genus of Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Chelativorans". LPSN. UniProt ...
Both species are obligate aerobic bacteria; they require oxygen to grow. They are also halophilic and have varying degrees of ... nov., a mesophilic obligately chemolithotrophic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Fiji Basin". Archives ...
Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Khmelenina, Valentina N. (June 1, 2005). "Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria of cold ecosystems". FEMS ... They are Gram-negative, non-motile, and strictly aerobic. They use methane and methanol as substrates to produce energy, and ...
Both species are obligate aerobic bacteria; they require oxygen to grow. They are also halotolerant; they live in environments ...
Ventosa, A.; Nieto, J. J.; Oren, A. (1998-06-01). "Biology of moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria". Microbiology and ... Halotolerant and halophilic bacteria, like H. meridiana can also provide valuable information about species that have been ... H. meridiana is a commensal marine bacteria that is found living on reef-building corals as part of their surface microbiome. ... These metalloproteases specific to marine bacteria are important for cleavage of connective tissues as well as adhesion of ...
It is aerobic. Yabuuchi E, Yano I, Oyaizu H, Hashimoto Y, Ezaki T, Yamamoto H (1990). "Proposals of Sphingomonas paucimobilis ... Sphingomonas adhaesiva is a species of bacteria. Its type strain is JCM 7370 (= GIFU 11458). The cells are rods and it has one ...
This bacteria need oxygen to grow (aerobic). A growth free culture plate at the end of the process indicates a successful ... This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes). ...
nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov., aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Methylobacterium suomiense is a facultatively methylotrophic and aerobic bacteria from the genus of Methylobacterium which has ...
nov., new aerobic, yellow-pigmented, oxalotrophic bacteria". FEMS Microbiol Lett. 296 (2): 198-202. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... nov., new aerobic, yellow-pigmented, oxalotrophic bacteria". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 296 (2): 198-202. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... Oxalicibacterium horti is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium from the genus ...
... is a genus of Gram positive, nonmotile, non-sporeforming bacteria. The bacteria are strictly aerobic and ...
Aerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria utilize copper-molybdenum flavoenzymes. Anaerobic bacteria utilize nickel-iron based CODHs ... CODH containing a Mo-[2Fe-2S]-FAD active site have been found in aerobic bacteria, while a distinct class of Ni-[3Fe-4S] CODH ... aerobic carboxidotrophs, acetogens, sulfate-reducers, and hydrogenogenic bacteria. The bidirectional reaction catalyzed by CODH ... Multiple research groups have proposed crystal structures for the α2β2 tetrameric enzyme CODH/ACS from the acetogenic bacteria ...
The bacteria grows best under aerobic conditions; however, no research on aerobic-specific respiration pathways has been done. ... Within these plaques, the bacteria typically lives with a variety of other bacteria in a supragingival or subgingival biofilm. ... however it grows best under aerobic conditions. Three colony morphologies can be observed when the bacteria is cultured on ... The bacteria is shown to include between three and nine flagellum projecting from a single point of the cell wall. This ...
Nov., new aerobic, yellow-pigmented, oxalotrophic bacteria". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 296 (2): 198-202. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... Oxalicibacterium flavum is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented, and oxalotrophic bacterium from ...
nov., new aerobic, yellow-pigmented, oxalotrophic bacteria". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 296 (2): 198-202. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... nov., new aerobic, yellow-pigmented, oxalotrophic bacteria". FEMS Microbiol Lett. 296 (2): 198-202. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... and oxalotrophic bacterium from the genus Oxalicibacterium and family Oxalobacteraceae. A.C. Parte. "Oxalicibacterium". LPSN. ...
Aerobic bacteria feed on this organic matter; oxygen is used as part of the bacterial metabolic process, lowering its ... Another strategy used by some classes of bacteria in the oxygen minimum zones is to use nitrate rather than oxygen, thus ... Torres, J.J.; Grigsby, M.D.; Clarke, M.E. (2012). "Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in oxygen minimum layer fishes: the role of ... Leahy, Stephen (20 April 2010). "Giant Bacteria Colonise the Oceans". Inter Press Service. Tierramérica. Archived from the ...
Bowien, B.; Schlegel, H. (1981). "Physiology and biochemistry of aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 35 ... Cupriavidus necator is a hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium ("knallgas" bacterium) capable of growing at the interface of anaerobic ... Both organic compounds and hydrogen can be used as a source of energy C. necator can perform aerobic or anaerobic respiration ... Cupriavidus necator is a Gram-negative soil bacterium of the class Betaproteobacteria. Cupriavidus necator has gone through a ...
nov., Aerobic Pink-Pigmented Bacteria which Contain Bacteriochlorophyll a". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 14 (2): 140- ... Roseobacter denitrificans is a species of aerobic pink-pigmented bacteria. It contains Bacteriochlorophyll a. It contains ... spheroidenone, does not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll anaerobically, but shows aerobic phototrophic activity. Cells are ovoid ...
Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be causative. Commonly involved aerobic pathogens include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus ... They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria. Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis. They do not ... Brook I, Frazier EH, Thompson DH (March 1991). "Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of peritonsillar abscess". The Laryngoscope ...
... is a species of aerobic bacteria. Methylobacillus is a group of methylotrophic aerobic bacteria, ... nov., a novel non-pigmented, aerobic, obligately methylotrophic bacterium isolated from meadow grass" International Journal of ... "Methanotrophic bacteria" Microbiological Reviews. 1996. Vol 60, No. 2. p. 439-471. Methylobacillus flagellatus KT Doronina, ... Thus, it is imperative for researchers to classify, and study methylotrophic bacteria. One such important methylotroph of ...
These are strictly aerobic marine rod-shaped bacteria. They share many traits with the sister genus Alteromonas, the type genus ... bacterium and thus means a tidal-flat bacterium, as three species, except 'A. halophilus from the Yellow sea, were isolated in ... Aestuariibacter is a genus in the class Gammaproteobacteria (Bacteria), composed of four species, namely A. aggregatus, A. ...
nov.--novel aerobic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria utilizing dichloromethane". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 23 ( ... nov.--novel aerobic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria utilizing dichloromethane". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 23 ( ... Methylopila helvetica is a Gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methanotrophic, non-spore-forming, neutrophilic and mesophilic ... bacterium species from the genus of Methylopila which has been isolated from soil from Switzerland. LPSN ...
... is a bacterium. It is non-motile, strictly aerobic and saccharolytic. Bowman, J. P. (2003). " ...
... the aerobic bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. oxidizes ammonium to nitrite; the bacterium Nitrobacter sp. then converts nitrite to ... Most important is the biological filtration through a biofilm of aerobic or facultative bacteria. Coarse sand in the filter bed ... A thin film around each root hair is aerobic due to the leakage of oxygen from the rhizomes, roots, and rootlets. Aerobic and ... based on the action of two different bacteria types. Nitrification is strictly an aerobic process in which the end product is ...
... is a bacterium. It is Gram-negative, aerobic and psychrophilic. The type strain is BZ30T (=5DSM 22271T ... nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (11 ...
The Listeriaceae are a family of Gram-positive bacteria. The cells are short rods and can form filaments. They are aerobic or ...
It is also aerobic and oxidase test positive. A vacuole at the centre of the bacterium makes it resemble a "safety pin" when ... The bacteria replicate in the host cytoplasm. Inside the host cell, the bacteria move by inducing the polymerization of the ... Besides spreading from cell to cell, the bacteria can also spread through the bloodstream, causing sepsis. The bacteria can ... These drugs are designed to inhibit the growth of the bacteria. The bacteria are resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, first- ...
Finally, aerobic bacteria convert this by oxidation to pyrite. The requirement of early anaerobic and later aerobic bacteria ... When a carcass is buried in such sediment, sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria break down its organic matter producing sulfide ... Seawater sulfate ions diffusing toward animal carcasses enabled sulfate-reducing bacteria to oxidize the reactive organic ... means that the pyritisation must occur in the upper levels of the sediment, close to the aerobic-anaerobic interface. If the ...
The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes.[31] ... Aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in HbA1c and improved insulin sensitivity.[94] Resistance training is also useful and the ...
The increases in organic carbon and nitrogen increase aerobic, facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria populations.[18] ... Tilling over-pumps oxygen to local soil residents, such as bacteria and fungi. As a result, the chemistry of the soil changes. ... Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ... Some types of roots contribute directly to soil fertility by funding a mutualistic relationship with certain kinds of bacteria ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic ( ... However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may ... It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria ...
... is an aerobic yeast capable of respiro-fermentative metabolism that consists of simultaneously ... reducing the costs normally expended for cooling as well as the potential for contamination by other fungi or bacteria. In ...
Constitúe o punto de entrada á cadea de transporte electrónico nas bacterias e na membrana interna das mitocondrias das células ... Matsushita, K., Ohnishi, T. e Kaback, H. R. (1987): "NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases of the Escherichia coli aerobic ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by some bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.[1][2] The ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ...
Like bacteria, archaea lack interior membranes and organelles.[54] Like bacteria, the cell membranes of archaea are usually ... Various, including photosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, fermentation, and autotrophy. Photosynthesis, cellular ... the archaeal homologs are more closely related to those of gram-positive bacteria.[67] Archaea and gram-positive bacteria also ... Bacteria. Eukarya. Cell membrane. Ether-linked lipids, pseudopeptidoglycan. Ester-linked lipids, peptidoglycan. Ester-linked ...
In the history of Earth, the development of Earth's aerobic atmosphere resulted in an iron deficiency in plants.[46] Compared ... In bacteria, promoter regions may contain a Pribnow box, which serves an analogous purpose to the eukaryotic TATA box. The ... Promoter sequences vary between bacteria and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, the TATA box is located 25 base pairs upstream of the ...
Brown JM, McNeil MM (2003). "Nocardia, Rhodococcus,Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and other aerobic actinomycetes". ... November 2003). "Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-metabolizing bacterium". ... "Bacteria and human autoimmunity: the case of primary biliary cirrhosis". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 16 (4), s. 406-10. PMID 15201604 ...
Iron - Many bacteria contain a form of the enzyme with iron (Fe-SOD); some bacteria contain Fe-SOD, others Mn-SOD, and some ( ... Knockout or null mutations in SOD1 are highly detrimental to aerobic growth in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ... Bacteria[edit]. Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen ... During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves ...
One of a class of organic pigments produced by algae and plants, as well as certain bacteria and fungi.. catalase. An enzyme ... aerobic. Capable of surviving and growing in the presence of oxygen.. aerobiology. The study of organic particles which are ... A virus that infects and multiplies within bacteria.. Barr body. The inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered ... bacteria. An enormous and diverse clade of microscopic, prokaryotic, single-celled organisms which lack a true nucleus. They ...
Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport ... but very rarely in bacteria. In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of ... but also occurs in archaea and bacteria. ...
Phenotypic and genomic evolution during a 20,000-generation experiment with the bacterium Escherichia coli". Plant Breeding ... Când una din populații a dezvoltat capacitate de a metaboliza aerobic citratul din mediul ambiant și s-a produs o creștere ...
These results show substantial increases in urinary phenylacetic acid levels 24 hours after moderate to high intensity aerobic ... it is also produced by certain fungi and bacteria (genus: Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) and ... A 30 minute bout of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise increases phenylacetic acid levels in healthy regularly ...
... of Gram-negative and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus ... "Comparison of Etest with agar-dilution for testing the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and other MDR bacteria to Colistin." JAC ... and whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antimicrobial. This type ... species and fastidious bacteria, such as anaerobes, N. gonorrhoeae, S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus and Haemophilius species. ...
This Great Oxygenation Event led to the evolution of aerobic organisms.[8][9] It led also to the first great ice ages. ... Walcott was the first geologist to identify pre-Cambrian fossil bacteria, from microscopic examination of thin rock slices. He ...
The function of defensins is to cause lysis in pathogenic bacteria and viruses, but in platypuses they also are formed into ... Dives normally last around 30 seconds, but can last longer, although few exceed the estimated aerobic limit of 40 seconds. ...
Bacilli are partly or wholly aerobic. They do aerobic respiration. They are everywhere in nature. Bacillus includes both free- ... Bacillus is a genus of rod shaped bacteria. They are Gram-positive, meaning they have an extra outside cell layer. ...
The bacteria react with H2S from the vent and O2 from the water to produce energy to make food from H2O and CO2. The worms end ... There it releases the oxygen to permit aerobic respiration to provide energy to power the functions of the organism in the ... Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... In leguminous plants, such as alfalfa or soybeans, the nitrogen fixing bacteria in the roots are protected from oxygen by this ...
Planomicrobium is a bacterium.[1] The cells are coccoid or rod shaped. They can move with one or two flagella. They are aerobic ...
The reaction for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis and is simplified as: C. 6H. 12O. 6 + 6 O. 2 ... Iron in primeval seas rusted by bacteria, ScienceDaily, April 23, 2013 *^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology ( ... 2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms.[82] Cellular respiration of O. 2 occurs in all ... Free oxygen gas was almost nonexistent in Earth's atmosphere before photosynthetic archaea and bacteria evolved, probably about ...
They can be mixotrophs, capable of aerobic respiration and fermentation.[2] Location[edit]. Photosynthesis occurs at reaction ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their ... Then a dish of the bacteria was taken, and a light was focused on one part of the dish, leaving the rest dark. As the bacteria ... One type of purple bacteria, called purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), use sulfide or sulfur as electron donors.[10] Another type, ...
... which initiates H2 production by fermentative bacteria, which stimulates the growth of H2-oxidizing bacteria. The H2 generation ... Usually, aerobic decomposition is the first stage by which wastes are broken down in a landfill. These are followed by four ... Rotting food and other decaying organic waste creates decomposition gases, especially CO2 and CH4 from aerobic and anaerobic ... The decreasing O2 leads to less aerobic and more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during ...
In bacteria and ATP-producing organelles other than mitochondria, reducing equivalents provided by electron transfer or ... Complex III is present in the inner mitochondrial membrane of all aerobic eukaryotes and the inner membranes of most eubacteria ... This enzyme is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. It ...
a combination of bismuth subsalicylate and bismuth subcitrate is used to treat the bacteria causing peptic ulcers. ... 2015). "Bismuth(III) Volatilization and Immobilization by Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus clavatus During Aerobic Incubation". ... "Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 33 (12): 2075-82. doi:10.1128/AAC. ...
The bacteria is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe that can utilize some oxygen for aerobic respiration but usually produces ... Lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid as an indirect means of creating energy for the bacteria by ... a b c d Sibylle Krieger "The History of Malolactic Bacteria in Wine Archived 2012-09-15 at the Wayback Machine pgs 15-21. ... Tom Mansell "Buttery bacteria: Malolactic fermentation and you Archived 2016-04-06 at the Wayback Machine" Palate Press. 10 ...
The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, ... Two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) are recommended without delaying the initiation of antibiotics. Cultures ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial but may be fungal or viral.[21] Gram-positive bacteria were the primary ... The current terms are dependent on the microorganism that is present: bacteremia if bacteria are present in the blood at ...
Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in most forms of aerobic life.[105] It is not required in the diet and is ... bacillithiol in some Gram-positive bacteria,[107][108] or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids.[109][110] ... Davies KJ (1995). "Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life". Biochemical Society Symposium. 61: 1-31. doi:10.1042/ ... SOD enzymes are present in almost all aerobic cells and in extracellular fluids.[130] Superoxide dismutase enzymes contain ...
... (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of ... Infection occurs if the bacterium is ingested.[citation needed]. M. bovis is usually transmitted to humans by consuming raw, ... Actual infections in humans are nowadays rare in developed countries, mainly because pasteurisation kills M. bovis bacteria in ... tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB). It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes ...
"Metal-Mining Bacteria Are Green Chemists". Science Daily. 2. september 2010. *↑ Ishige T, Honda K, Shimizu S (2005). "Whole ... nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new ... DeLong E, Pace N (2001). "Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea". Syst Biol 50 (4): 470-8. PMID 12116647. doi:10.1080 ... Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, ...
... these aerobic BChl-containing bacteria represent an evolutionary transient phase from anaerobic phototrophs to aerobic non- ... Most are obligately aerobic, meaning they require oxygen to grow. One remarkable aspect of these novel bacteria is that they, ... 2003). Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems. Chinese Science Bulletin. Vol. 48 No.11 ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are photoheterotrophic (phototroph)microbes that exist in a variety of aquatic ...
Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present. ... Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present. ... Aerobic. Accessed June 12, 2019. ...
Bacteria How do aerobic bacteria differ from anaerobic bacteria. ?. aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic ... How do aerobic bacteria differ form anaerobic bacteria. ?. Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. ... Are bacteria anaerobic or aerobic. ?. Some bacteria in the world are considered to be anaerobic bacteria. Other bacteria in the ... Bacteria that do not require aerobic respiration. ?. Aerobic. They are anaerobic bacteria. There are bacteria,which do not ...
Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.. Zheng Q1, Zhang R, Koblížek M ... Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their ... Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, ...
... Published Online: 1984 ... Title Development of a Multiple Inoculator System for the Identification of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria. Symposium , ... Twenty-one species of environmental and culture collection bacteria were tested for the following characteristics: nitrate ... inoculator described was judged a simple and versatile device for the rapid identification of large numbers of bacteria. ...
... and antonyms of the term AEROBIC BACTERIA in the Online Dictionary. ... AEROBIC BACTERIA: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ...
Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory. By Gulimila Shabuer, Keishi Ishida, ... Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... Shabuer et al. now show that the bacteria also use clostrubin to protect themselves from the aerobic environment of the potato ...
San, Ka-Yiu, Bennett, George N. and Lin, Henry, "Aerobic succinate production in bacteria." Patent US7935511B2. issued 2011-05- ... Methods of increasing yields of succinate using aerobic culture methods and a multi-mutant E. coli strain are provided. Also ...
Expression of the puf operon in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans.. Nishimura K1, Shimada H, Ohta ... to represent a mode of adaptation that allowed the former cells to avoid photodynamic damage by light under highly aerobic ...
It is strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and this genus produces both insoluble and soluble ... The genus Microbacterium are common soil bacteria. Magnification: x6.665 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock ... bacterium that was recently discovered in 1999. It is a novel microbe that utilizes sucrose as its sole carbon source. ... Keywords: 06211213d, actinobacteria, actinomycetales, aerobe, aerobes, aerobic, aquatic, bacillus, bacteria, bacterial, ...
910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real time operational... ... The GreenLight 910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real time ... The GreenLight® 910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real ...
In Vitro Activities of Membrane-Active Peptides against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria A. Giacometti, O. ... Molecular β-Lactamase Characterization of Aerobic Gram-Negative Pathogens Recovered from Patients Enrolled in the Ceftazidime- ... In Vitro Susceptibility Tests for Cationic Peptides: Comparison of Broth Microdilution Methods for Bacteria That Grow ...
A novel indigenous bacterium, strain JM10, isolated from the oligotrophic Hei He reservoir was characterized and show... ... Article Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic ... Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic conditions. 0 ... No comments were found for Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under ...
Competition for oxygen and 3-chlorobenzoate between two aerobic bacteria using different degradation pathways. Krooneman, J., ... Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation ...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as food-grade microorganisms for production of a variety of fermented milk products. They ... Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5363- ... "Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture." Microbial Cultures and ... "Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture." In Microbial Cultures ...
The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing ... Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion ( ... Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion ( ... "Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion ( ...
... and bacteria testing of spore traps, culturable air, tape lift, bulk, and water samples. ERMI and DNA testing offered. ... Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME (NIOSH 0801). Description. This method is applicable to all viable and culturable bacteria ... The method is applicable to bulk solid and liquid samples containing culturable bacteria, as well as air samples. ... Microbiology Lab (Mold, Bacteria, Legionella, Allergens). Test. ... Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME (NIOSH 0801). Aerobic Bacteria by ...
He insists that there is no need for brewing aerobic bacteria that anaerobic is just ... He insists that there is no need for brewing aerobic bacteria that anaerobic is just fine and that more oxygen means nutrient ... He insists that there is no need for brewing aerobic bacteria that anaerobic is just fine and that more oxygen means nutrient ... Bacteria are everywhere, every time you breathe in air you are breathing in bacteria, we can not escape them unless we live in ...
During aerobic growth, bacteria consume O2 at high rates. The consumption of O2by oxidases takes place on the cytoplasmic side ... Availability of O2 as a Substrate in the Cytoplasm of Bacteria under Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions. Tanja Arras, Jan ... Availability of O2 as a Substrate in the Cytoplasm of Bacteria under Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions ... Availability of O2 as a Substrate in the Cytoplasm of Bacteria under Aerobic and Microaerobic Conditions ...
and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria increased. The corresponding values for Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic ... and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria. After 84 days, 16.3% and 22.4% of the total S0 applied to the soil were ... The results suggested that oxidation of residual S0 completely relied on aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria. ... heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria increased from 2.9 × 105 and 1.4 × 105 g−1 soil at the start of the experiment to 4 × 108 ...
bacteria. ID: 111298 Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) content and the number of PSUs [photosynthetic units] per AAP [aerobic ... Costs in AAP [aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic] bacteria to construct a PSU [photosynthetic unit]. Range. Table - link ... bacteria. ID: 111296 Fraction of bacteria in ocean surface waters that carry proteorhodopsin (depending on oceanic region and ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998 Sep62(3):695-724.PubMed ID9729607 ...
... ... Chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarchaeota are central players in the global nitrogen cycle. Obligate ... Taken together, this work identifies differences in ammonia-dependent chemolithotrophy between bacteria and the Thaumarchaeota ... unlike the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196(T). In particular, pulses of hydroxylamine into a ...
Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (AAnP) were recently proposed to be significant contributors to global oceanic ... Assessing diversity and biogeography of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific ...
Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial ... Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial ... as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing ... as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing ...
Distribution of aerobic bacteria which contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38 : 43-45. ... Control of Peripheral Light-Harvesting Complex Synthesis by a Bacteriophytochrome in the Aerobic Photosynthetic Bacterium ... Bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of aerobic bacteria, Erythrobacter longus and Erythrobacter species OCh114. Arch. ... Control of Peripheral Light-Harvesting Complex Synthesis by a Bacteriophytochrome in the Aerobic Photosynthetic Bacterium ...
... of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic protozoans. ... Comparative Evaluation of Fixed Dose Combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole Against Some Aerobic Bacteria ... for infusion against some aerobic bacteria in comparison with Ofloxacin and Ornidazole individually. Antibiotic Susceptibility ...
Keywords: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria ... Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from aerobic rice * QA Panhwar ... A study was conducted to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from aerobic rice grown in Penang Malaysia and to ... Key words: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria. ...
Production of Wax Esters during Aerobic Growth of Marine Bacteria on Isoprenoid Compounds. Jean-Francois Rontani, Patricia C. ... 26) during a study of the aerobic degradation of phytol by bacteria isolated from surface sediments, operates in the case of ... Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium isolated from marine ... In this paper, we report the formation of isoprenoid wax esters during aerobic growth of four marine bacteria: Acinetobacter sp ...
Figure 1: Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria of 71 samples from the output water of dental chair units. The boxplot diagram shows ...
... and anaerobic bacteria. Nitronaphthofurans inhibited the multiplication of aerobic bacteria at low concentrations (MIC for 50% ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ... Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria.. H Hof, J Ströder, J P ...
  • Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPBs) are alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria that are obligate aerobes that capture energy from light by anoxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are photoheterotrophic (phototroph)microbes that exist in a variety of aquatic environments. (
  • Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Blastomonas (synonym: Erythromonas), Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the -1, -3, and -4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. (
  • Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. (
  • The construction costs for a PSU in AAP bacteria is much higher (Table 5), about 10-fold higher than for PRP [proteorhodopsin (PR)-based phototrophic] bacteria. (
  • Assessing diversity and biogeography of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans using the Global Ocean Sampling expedition metagenomes. (
  • Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria have the ability to transform light energy into biochemical amenable energy for their growth and motion. (
  • A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil). (
  • It reveals that Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 possesses excellent capacity for aerobic nitrogen removal, regardless of whether nitrate, nitrite or N2O were taken as denitrification substrates. (
  • The deoxygenations proceeded simultaneously, with the expected dioxygenase-catalysed asymmetric sulfoxidation of sulfides, during some biotransformations with the aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas putida UV4. (
  • The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of active packaging with eugenol on growth of Pseudomonas and aerobic mesophilic bacteria in fresh chicken pieces. (
  • El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un envase antimicrobiano conteniendo eugenol en el desarrollo de Pseudomonas y bacterias mesofílicas aerobias (BMA) en piezas de pollo . (
  • Las piezas de pollo fueron envueltas en la película AAF2 y almacenadas a 5°C evaluando a los 5 días el efecto de la película en el desarrollo de Pseudomonas y en BMA. (
  • Las AAF2 mostraron un efecto moderado en la reducción del desarrollo de Pseudomonas (1.1 x 106 CFU g-1) comparadas con el control (6.0 x 106 CFU g-1) (P (
  • Water samples collected from the creek were taken to Environmental Microbiology Laboratory of University of Portharcourt for isolation of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria using serial dilution spread plate technique. (
  • Based on the microbiology pattern of community-acquired bacteremia, initial empiric treatment that requires coverage of a broad spectrum of both gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria, such as ertapenem, may be justified in moderately severe cases of community-acquired bacteremia in non-immunocompromised hosts. (
  • Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora) Chapter 11 The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans? (
  • The oxidase test is a test used in microbiology to determine if a bacterium produces certain cytochrome c oxidases. (
  • This debunks the view among some compost-tea producers that the aerobic bacteria in compost will inhibit growth of human pathogenic bacteria when aerobic conditions and nutrient additives are present," says Ingram. (
  • The results have shown that 0.1 % of Sodium hypochlorite is sufficient to disinfect common pathogenic bacteria with a minimum exposure time of 5 minutes. (
  • Expression of the puf operon in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans. (
  • One putative function of this LH complex could be to evacuate excess light energy in order to protect Bradyrhizobium strain BTAi1, an aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, against photooxidative damage during photosynthesis. (
  • Publications] Doi,M.,Shioi.Y.,Morita,M.& Takamiya: 'Two types of cytochrome cd_1 in the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium,Erythrobacter sp.OCh 114. (
  • Inhibition of porphyrin biosynthesis by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. (
  • Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose-dependent manner in the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. (
  • Therefore, we aimed for an experimental proof of the availability of O 2 in the bacterial cytoplasm under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. (
  • The aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterial guilds were studied from two multilevel samplers in an ammonium-contaminated aquifer in the UK. (
  • Real-time PCR was subsequently used to determine the relative size of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacterial guilds in relation to the whole bacterial community, showing large differences between the two multilevel samplers. (
  • Ajmal Khan, S. 2013-07-05 00:00:00 The culturable aerobic heterotrophic benthic bacterial population and community structure in relation to the physico-chemical parameters in the continental slope of the Bay of Bengal was studied. (
  • Bacterial population dynamics in dairy waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage. (
  • The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream, monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to those of waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. (
  • A type of Bacteria Single celled organisms that take the shape of spheres, rods, and spirals. Bacteria grow rapidly under the right conditions and they are found in different habitats. Bacteria play a role in the formation of hydrocarbons and the in-situ alteration/transformation processes such as biodegradation. Bacterial by-products are accumulated and preserved within the sediment and thus can increase the organic content and inherent petroleum source potential. This is because some petroleum molecules such as lipids are found in bacterial cell membranes. Bacteria can also cause the decay of deposited organic material by attacking hydrocarbon molecules in the absence or presence of oxygen. " >bacteria live or active only in the presence of oxygen that cause an aerobic biodegradation of the crude oils by attacking its hydrocarbons using the Oil See crude oil " >oil compounds as a source of energy. (
  • The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. (
  • The objective of the present study is to assess the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. (
  • The oxidase test is used to identify bacteria that produce cytochrome c oxidase, an enzyme of the bacterial electron transport chain. (
  • In this manuscript, we report that a bacterial multicopper oxidase (MCO) catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation on the cell surface, resulting in the surface deposition of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and the.Note: All bacteria that are oxidase positive are aerobic, and can use oxygen as a of the Enterobacteriaceae (all negative) and in identifying colonies suspected. (
  • Genus and species are reported on aerobic bacterial isolates, whenever possible. (
  • Green sulfur bacteria are one of two known bacterial families that use chlorosomes in the LHC. (
  • Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present. (
  • Most are obligately aerobic, meaning they require oxygen to grow. (
  • Aerobic is something that requires oxygen. (
  • Aerobic bacteria Because some anaerobic bacteria will die in the presence of oxygen. (
  • Aerobic bacteria uses oxygen for cellular respiration and anaerobic bacteria doesn't require oxygen to survive. (
  • Unlike aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria do not use oxygen. (
  • Types of bacteria: aerobic - oxygen is essential facultatively aerobic - use oxygen if available, but can do without it anaerobic - oxygen is toxic for them Anaerobic bacteria can be found especially in extreme environments such as thermal vents or deep-sea vents. (
  • aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic bacteria use either nonoxygen based respiration (e.g. nitrogen, sulfur) or fermentation. (
  • arrobic grows faster than anaerobic bacteria The root "aero-" refers to oxygen. (
  • Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen. (
  • Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria do not need oxygen to survive. (
  • Bacteria that require oxygen to survive are aerobic. (
  • Aerobic" means "with oxygen. (
  • Those that are aerobic need oxygen for cellular metabolism, while anaerobic do not. (
  • Obligate anaerobic bacteria cannot live with oxygen, facultative anaerobic bacteria can live with or without it, and obligate aerobic bacteria require oxygen to survive. (
  • Aerobic bacteria respire oxygen. (
  • The slimy pink rot of potatoes is caused by the bacterium Clostridium puniceum , which cannot grow in the presence of oxygen. (
  • The clostrubins, which act as antibiotics against other microbial plant pathogens, enable the anaerobic bacteria to survive an oxygen-rich plant environment. (
  • Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation of (halo)aromatic substrates for which oxygen is needed as co-substrate may have to compete with each other in such environments. (
  • He insists that there is no need for brewing aerobic bacteria that anaerobic is just fine and that more oxygen means nutrient loss. (
  • In aerobic respiration, the oxidizing agent is oxygen, which has one of the highest propensities in nature to accepting an electron. (
  • As a result, aerobic respiration processes occur readily and abundantly as long as oxygen is present. (
  • Once oxygen is carefully introduced and controlled in the septic tank,however, aerobic bacteria are able to generate much higher rates of nutrient consumption when compared to anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Aerobic bacteria and residual dissolved oxygen are also exported from the septic tank into the drainfield. (
  • In the typical septic tank environment, lack of oxygen causes the proliferation and dominance of anaerobic bacteria. (
  • By introducing oxygen into the closed environment of the septic tank, homeowners can encourage the growth of aerobic bacteria and their more efficient methods of organic decomposition. (
  • Instead of scavenging oxygen from the environment, like the aerobic methanotrophs, or driving methane oxidation by reverse methanogenesis, like the methanogenic archaea in sulfate-reducing systems, it produces its own supply of oxygen by metabolizing nitrite via nitric oxide into oxygen and dinitrogen gas. (
  • The intracellularly produced oxygen is then used for the oxidation of methane by the classical aerobic methane oxidation pathway involving methane mono-oxygenase. (
  • The Original Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) is an engineered, oxygen release compound designed specifically for enhanced, in situ aerobic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater or saturated soils. (
  • Aerobic refers to oxygen as it concerns an organism. (
  • Specifically, an organism that is described as being aerobic (or an aerobe) means that the organism needs oxygen to live. (
  • Aerobic also refers to the need for oxygen in the utilization of foods. (
  • Bacteria are not dependent on oxygen to use a food source for energy, but most other living organisms do need oxygen. (
  • If oxygen is present, maximum energy is released from the food, and the process is referred to as aerobic respiration. (
  • Aerobic bacteria require oxygen to live and grow. (
  • Since these bacteria require oxygen to live and grow, this is the defining factor for these tiny organisms. (
  • In contrast, bacteria that do not need oxygen, or are even harmed by oxygen, are called anaerobic bacteria . (
  • This intake of oxygen is vital for digestion and the other energy-consuming process occurring within the bacteria. (
  • All animals, including humans, also require the constant presence of oxygen, so humans and these bacteria share the same habitats. (
  • Where there is adequate oxygen and some form of matter to serve as a food source, aerobic bacteria will likely be present. (
  • Since the tuberculosis bacterium is aerobic, an oxygen lover, the lungs of an individual with a limited immune system make a hospitable habitat. (
  • Tuberculosis, an aerobic bacteria, tends to thrive in the oxygen-rich environment of the lungs. (
  • It's because water contains oxygen, and anaerobic bacteria cannot live in an oxygenated environment. (
  • Acidic environments and low oxygen are the same way that cancers survive in the human body, and as plants and people are so closely related, it gives you a good idea of how bad bacteria can enter a growing medium and thrive. (
  • Once you understand how each type of bacteria differ, then applying a pH chart to each will give you a clear idea of the oxygen content that should be present. (
  • Ensuring that a nutrient solution or water source is well oxygenated with adequate amounts of dissolved oxygen, is one way to ensure that you keep the aerobic bacteria at peak performance. (
  • note: All bacteria that are oxidase positive are aerobic, and can use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor in respiration. (
  • People refer to these exercises as aerobic because they require oxygen to generate energy. (
  • Aerobic exercises increase a person's heart rate and breathing rate to supply more oxygen to the body's muscles. (
  • Any bacteria requiring free oxygen for the metabolic breakdown of materials. (
  • The participants' underwent a static bike cycling test - a gold standard test which quantified their ability to use oxygen during exercise and their resulting individual aerobic fitness levels. (
  • Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. (
  • A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate. (
  • Taken together, this work identifies differences in ammonia-dependent chemolithotrophy between bacteria and the Thaumarchaeota, advances a central catabolic role of NO only in the Thaumarchaeotal pathway and reveals stark differences in how the two microbial cohorts contribute to N2O emissions. (
  • The data suggests that fixed dose combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole can be a good option for use in mixed microbial infection of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic protozoans. (
  • Microbial degradation of monoterpenes under both aerobic ( 24 ) and anaerobic ( 18 ) conditions has been described (reviewed in reference 28 ). (
  • Successful bioremediation of petroleum contamination through aerobic microbial respiration depends on a number of factors including the presence of appropriate microbes, nutrients, electron donors and terminal electron acceptors. (
  • For example, some types of green sulfur bacteria have been found in Black Sea about 80 meters below the surface 1 and also in the deep-sea microbial mat 2 , where only geothermal light is available. (
  • The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. (
  • This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria ( Acinetobacter sp. (
  • Many compounds were better removed in aerobic condition, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic organisms were involved in the degradation. (
  • Hence to address the limited data in Ethiopia on post surgical wound infections, we conducted this research to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of aerobic bacteria in post-surgical wound infected patients in Ayder teaching and referral hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia. (
  • However, data on the spectrum of bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to guide post operative wound infection in the region is scarce. (
  • also order ZMMLS Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Aerobic Bacteria, MIC. (
  • Instead, microbiological quality is determined by testing drinking water for Escherichia coli , a bacterium that is always present in the intestines of humans and other animals and whose presence in drinking water would indicate faecal contamination of the water. (
  • Relatively high yields of such bacteria as Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcesens were obtained. (
  • For instance, the bacterium Escherichia coli, which causes the majority of urinary tract infections, will appear as pink (gram-negative) rods under the microscope. (
  • We had worked on five aerobic species, isolated from tonsil 's core of children suffering from recurrent tonsillitis and undergoing tonsillectomy , three were Gram Positive Cocci [ Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus pyogenes ], and two were Gram Negative bacilli [ Klebsiella pneumonia , Escherichia coli ]. (
  • AV is caused by the overgrowth of aerobic pathogens such as Escherichia coli , Group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus , and Enterococcus faecalis that trigger a localized vaginal inflammatory immune response as evidenced by clinical signs and symptoms, including the presence of vaginal discharge, an elevation of the vaginal pH, inflammation with leukocyte infiltration and a marked depletion of healthy Lactobacillus species. (
  • Aerobic treatment resulted in the greatest change in the type of bacteria present, with the levels of eight out of nine phyla being significantly altered. (
  • Zymomonas mobilis which type of bacteria? (
  • Typically, this will be a single type of bacteria that will be present in relatively large numbers. (
  • Sometimes, more than one type of bacteria will be present. (
  • Others, such as gram-negative rods, represent groups of similar bacteria and will require additional testing to determine exactly which type of bacteria is present. (
  • Banixx will work on just about every type of bacteria infection that your horse may present - aerobic or anaerobic. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria is and organism. (
  • Aerobic oxidation in an organism, on the other hand, proceeds in a series of small and controlled steps. (
  • One notorious form of aerobic bacteria is Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the organism responsible for tuberculosis. (
  • Aerobic micro organism contribute largely to the technique of decomposition of the biological resources in the soil. (
  • Aerobic Treatments for Sewage Effluents It uses the naturally happening cardio micro organism for breaking the solids and treating its effluents. (
  • Aerobic micro organism require a time length of about24 to 72 hours to grow. (
  • A novel indigenous bacterium, strain JM10, isolated from the oligotrophic Hei He reservoir was characterized and showed aerobic denitrification ability. (
  • Selected monoterpenes inhibited methane oxidation by methanotrophs ( Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Methylobacter luteus ), denitrification by environmental isolates, and aerobic metabolism by several heterotrophic pure cultures. (
  • This study is of great significance for potential applications of aerobic denitrification in mitigating nitrogen oxides emissions from biological nitrogen removal systems. (
  • Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at low nutrient conditions by a newly isolated bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. (
  • This bacterium performs anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, but does so in a peculiar way. (
  • In natural environments, aerobic decomposition processes produce significant heat and can help to eliminate microscopic pathogens and parasites as well. (
  • This underscores for periodic surveillance of etiologic agent and antibiotic susceptibility to prevent further emergence and spread of resistant bacteria pathogens. (
  • The results presented in this chapter are based on the fate of the background levels of various pathogens in sludge when treated by an aerobic thermophdic system and a conventional mesophdic anaerobic digestion system. (
  • The study is focused on the comparison of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion, based on long term monitoring of all processes in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, with an emphasis on the efficiency in destroying pathogens. (
  • Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. (
  • Aerobic : If respiration takes place in the presence of O2, then it is called aerobic respiration/ aerobic activity. (
  • Eg: Plants and animals, protozoans, some bacteria Anaerobic: IF respiration takes place in the absence of O2, then it is called anaerobic respiration/ anaerobic activity. (
  • Thus, O 2 is able to reach the active sites of the oxidases at rates sufficient to support aerobic respiration even at very low O 2 tensions. (
  • The reason lies in the aerobic bacteria's faster metabolism and respiration rates. (
  • Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration processes have to have an electron transfer occur in order to have subsequent reactions occur. (
  • So, although respiration occurs, it proceeds at a considerably slower rate when compared to aerobic respiration. (
  • The AER-800 Research Respirometer System facilitates the automated, precision measuring, and continuous recording of respiration rates for both aerobic and anaerobic lab-scale cultures. (
  • Cellular respiration is the metabolic process by which aerobic bacteria exchange gases with their environment. (
  • Does Aerobic cellular respiration produce glucose? (
  • The results suggested that oxidation of residual S 0 completely relied on aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria. (
  • The major sink of atmospheric methane is its oxidation by OH radicals, but soils also serve as sink by about 5% due to the activity of methanotrophic bacteria ( IPCC, 2013 ). (
  • There are two major ways in which methane is removed from the environment: aerobic oxidation by a specialized group of bacteria and anaerobic oxidation by a specialized group of archaea. (
  • The biochemistry of aerobic methane oxidation is relatively well understood, following intensive research efforts with a number of model organisms, but the biochemistry of anaerobic methane oxidation is not yet fundamentally understood and no anaerobic methane-oxidizer has been isolated in pure culture so far. (
  • Two recent studies [ 1 , 2 ] have used a whole-genome-shotgun sequencing approach to complement the mounting dataset on the biochemistry and regulation of aerobic methane oxidation. (
  • This study demonstrated that nonisothermal chemiluminescence examining momentaneous oxidation state of the polymer surface is a valuable technique to follow the biodegradation dynamics on polymeric film, while the Ecoflex agar is able to select useful polymer-degrading bacteria. (
  • Oxidation of thiosulfate by a new bacterium, Bosea thiooxidans (strain BI-42) gen. nov., sp. (
  • Biological methane oxidation proceeds either through aerobic or anaerobic pathways. (
  • Before getting into the details of how aerobic bacteria live, it is first necessary to know the difference between aerobic and anaerobic. (
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the biodegradation process of dairy effluents using some locally isolated bacteria and fungi. (
  • Ichor T, Okerentugba PO, Okpokwasili GC (2014) Biodegradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon by Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Crude Oil Contaminated Brackish Waters of Bodo Creek. (
  • The initial quantity of TPH was 24091 and 6706 mg/l on day 0 for aerobic heterotrophic treatment and crude oil contaminated control and decreased progressively to 212.8 and 1174 mg/l respectively on day 49 indicating biodegradation in the treatment and control. (
  • The growth of bacteria cells increased progressively with decrease in TPH implying that the bacteria were responsible for biodegradation. (
  • The biodegradation dynamics of selected strains were evaluated mainly by the incubation of Ecoflex foils with a specific bacterium during a period from 3 days until 16 weeks and the change of the degradability of the Ecoflex surface in nitrogen has been assessed by nonisothermal chemiluminescence measurements from 40 to 250 °C. Scanning electron microscope observation of inoculated foils was applied too. (
  • An aerobic denitrifying bacterium isolated from a bio-trickling filter treating NOx, Bacillus sp. (
  • Role of aerobic sporogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus) in food products]. (
  • Bacillus species will be reported out as "Large spore-forming aerobic gram-positive Bacillus , not Bacillus cereus or Bacillus anthracis ," unless species identification is specifically requested on the request form. (
  • In this article, we outline the similarities and differences between aerobic and anaerobic exercise. (
  • Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. (
  • While the high water content of septic systems reduces the heat production caused by aerobic bacteria, these microorganisms provide much better protection against contaminants and dangerous microbes than their anaerobic counterparts. (
  • Aerobic bacteria are the ones that we find in everyday spots on the earth, like in the air, soil, and water. (
  • The genus Microbacterium are common soil bacteria. (
  • Example: The author talked about how there is always bacteria that causes Canker in the soil, it's only when it's population gets too big that it becomes a problem for plants. (
  • and aerobic heterotrophic S-oxidizing bacteria increased from 2.9 × 10 5 and 1.4 × 10 5 g −1 soil at the start of the experiment to 4 × 10 8 and 5.6 × 10 8 g −1 soil 14 days after S 0 application, respectively. (
  • These bacteria have been proposed as indicators of soil intrusion in distribution systems. (
  • Bacteria are also responsible for the constant breakdown of waste, which returns nutrients to the soil and completes the food chain. (
  • In this role, bacteria are classified as decomposers, and their presence in soil is vital to the health of the ecosystem. (
  • Already coexisting aerobic bacteria in soil will attach themselves to the hairs on the roots and form symbiotic relationship. (
  • A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. (
  • This research study worked to identify, classify and name types of aerobic sporeforming bacteria located in the soil. (
  • The aim of the study was to analyse the susceptibility of unique and non-duplicate aerobic and anaerobic isolates from surgical patients to a novel des-F(6)-quinolone (garenoxacin) and other selected antimicrobial agents. (
  • Eleven hundred and eighty-five aerobic and anaerobic isolates from general, vascular, cardiothoracic and otolaryngologic surgical patients were tested for susceptibility to garenoxacin and seven other antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole) using the referenced microbroth and agar-dilution method. (
  • Testing is done to identify which bacteria are present and susceptibility testing is done to identify antibiotics that are likely to cure the infection. (
  • 1. Perform isolation of infecting bacteria. (
  • Sykes, JE & Rankin, SC 2013, Isolation and Identification of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria . (
  • Four common types of bacteria. (
  • In this study, an electronic nose is proposed to recognize types of bacteria in the diabetic foot ulcer on patients with the aid of data analysis using PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) as the first step for feature extraction. (
  • Different types of bacteria will exhibit characteristic colors and shapes. (
  • In this study, she helped collaborate information on the presence of types of bacteria that grow quickly in acid, and helped with expressing the importance of naming and classifying these types of bacteria. (
  • ABSTRACT An improved and rapid biochemical identification of the culturable aerobic bacteria species associated with Galician oyster production was performed by the combination of numerical taxonomy and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. (
  • Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial diversity of organisms. (
  • The discovery of evolutionary related monooxygenases in non-methanotrophic bacteria and of pmoA paralogs in methanotrophs requires that sequence clusters of uncultivated organisms have to be interpreted with care. (
  • This may be related to the activity of nitrifying organisms, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), which could possibly co-metabolically oxidize micropollutants with their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). (
  • Analysis by t-tests showed that in the two aerobic genera investigated (Aquaspirillum and Vibrio) there is a significantly higher GC content in the nitrogen-fixing members of the genus than in those unable to Fix nitrogen, whilst in anaerobic genera there is either no GC bias, or in the case of two genera (Rhodospirillum and Clostridium) there is a significantly higher GC content in the non-fixing organisms. (
  • Aerobic bacteria are so abundant that they are actually the most numerous and widely distributed organisms on the planet. (
  • Aerobica bacteria are the most widely distributed organisms on the planet. (
  • These beneficial bacteria can be thought of as a personal army defending their host from more pathogenic organisms. (
  • Manuka honey has been found to be active against a broad spectrum of organisms--fungi, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria , and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Living in anoxygenic conditions, green sulfur bacteria are assumed to be one of the first organisms on Earth that started using solar light to drive intracellular metabolic reactions. (
  • Efficiency of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge in removing Salmonella spp. (
  • Species so far described are distributed rather widely within the α-subclass of Proteobacteria in which most of the purple nonsulfur bacteria as well as many non-photosynthetic bacteria are included. (
  • In fact, many species of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, can actually promote health and prevent disease. (
  • Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. (
  • tepidum species of green sulfur bacteria grown with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that provide spectrally tailored light in varied frequencies and intensities. (
  • A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. (
  • Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Achromobacter genus level. (
  • The bacteria genus Gordonia (formerly Gordona) and species Mycobacterium gordonae are named after her. (
  • In wet seasons and under humid storage conditions, potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium puniceum ). (
  • A strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, strain AMX 51 T , was isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. (
  • Aerobic Mesophilic Sporeforming Bacteria. (
  • Micrococcus is a gram-positive, aerobic prokaryote that is relatively harmless to humans. (
  • These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans. (
  • It is strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and this genus produces both insoluble and soluble exopolysaccharides (EPSs). (
  • nov., a strictly aerobic bacterium isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. (
  • A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. (
  • Margot J, Lochmatter S, Barry D, Holliger C. Role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in micropollutant removal from wastewater with aerobic granular sludge. (
  • Installing a septic aerator can help to promote the growth of these beneficial bacteria and increase the effectiveness of the cleaning and purifying process for wastewater and particulate matter inside the septic tank system. (
  • In particular the use of cultivation-independent methods targeting a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase ( pmoA ) as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing "unknown methanotrophic bacteria. (
  • Three types of aerobic methanotrophs are recognized. (
  • The aerobic methane oxidising bacteria (methanotrophs). (
  • R2 agar supplemented with triclosan was utilised to isolate triclosan resistant bacteria and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted to identify the isolates. (
  • Pigment synthesis is the least expensive component of PSU construction in AAP bacteria and would not increase much even if [researchers] assume that oceanic AAP bacteria have two light harvesting antenna complexes rather than the one (LH1) commonly observed in marine AAP isolates (Koblížek et al. (
  • A study was conducted to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from aerobic rice grown in Penang Malaysia and to determine some biochemical properties of the isolates such as, organic acids, enzymes, indoleacetic acid (IAA), siderophore production and its antagonistic effect against pathogen Rhizoctonia solani . (
  • Microaerophilic campylobacter isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which was as susceptible as aerobic bacteria (MIC50, 1 mg/liter) and the other of which was more highly susceptible (MIC50, 0.015 mg/liter). (
  • This method is applicable to all viable and culturable bacteria containing C9-C20 fatty acids. (
  • The method is applicable to bulk solid and liquid samples containing culturable bacteria, as well as air samples. (
  • These bacteria absorb photons very efficiently using the chlorosome antenna complexes and perform photosynthesis in extreme low-light environments. (
  • The structures and the molecular compositions of light-harvesting complexes LHCs are both dynamically regulated, which, in turn, allows the bacteria to adjust to their specific environments. (
  • The role of AOBs in micropollutant removal was investigated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a promising technology for municipal WWTPs. (
  • The hygienisation effect was evaluated as a removal of counts of indicator bacteria, thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci as CFU/g total sludge solids and a frequency of a positive Salmonella spp. (
  • Benedict RG, Carlson DA (1971) Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. (
  • For distribution systems in public supplies where fewer than 10 samples are collected in a given sampling period, no sample should contain total coliform bacteria. (
  • In distribution systems where greater than 10 samples are collected in a given sampling period, no consecutive samples from the same site or not more than 10% of samples should show the presence of total coliform bacteria. (
  • 0, the growth of coliform bacteria and aerobic bacteria is not inhibited (Cai et al. (
  • Bioenergetics of photoheterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. (
  • Most healthy people have immune systems that prevent these aerobic bacteria from taking up residence and causing infection. (
  • This is the bacteria group that can wipe out the good aerobic bacteria, causing an infection in vulnerable plants. (
  • The urine culture is a test that detects and identifies bacteria and yeast in the urine, which may be causing a urinary tract infection (UTI). (
  • Ideally, if a good clean catch sample was collected for the test (see below), then the only bacteria present should be due to an infection. (
  • Cooperative communities of anaerobic archaea and anaerobic and aerobic bacteria spawn fierce enzymes to help their symbiotic hosts digest wood into sugar in about twenty-four hours. (
  • In bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter , wax esters are generally considered to be energy storage components ( 3 , 22 ). (
  • A genus of aerobic, Gram negative bacterium assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Alcaligenaceae. (
  • A genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Alcaligenaceae. (
  • PSB inoculants with their beneficial traits would be considered as potential biofertilizer for the sustainable aerobic rice cultivation system. (
  • If you have a type of filter that uses media that you rinse out, rather than replace, rinse the filter media in chlorine free water (such as old pond water that you've removed during water changes) so that you don't kill the beneficial bacteria that live in the filter media. (
  • Beneficial bacteria that break down waste grow on just about every surface in the water, but are most numerous where there is porous material and the water flow is swift - conditions that exist inside a filter. (
  • If I dunked the filter parts in chlorinated water and scrubbed off the thin film that is all over the parts, I would be doing harm to my water quality because I would be removing beneficial bacteria that are helping and not in the way. (
  • I was told that it contained beneficial bacteria and that it was good for the stomach and intestines. (
  • In our BACTREX and MYCOTREX products are both biological agents that will introduce beneficial bacteria to the roots of a Cannabis plant, or any plant with a root system for that matter. (
  • Until the point of contact with a plant, the beneficial bacteria present will remain and only multiply as they have access to fresh air in an aerated growing medium such as fresh earth. (
  • Unfortunately hydrogen peroxide at any ratio will discourage the life of aerobic bacteria and should not be combined with a nutrient solution containing beneficial bacteria such as BACTREX and MYCOTREX . (
  • A 2017 review notes that both aerobic and anaerobic exercises are beneficial for the cardiovascular system. (
  • Aerobic exercises are beneficial for most people. (
  • You probably thought this white growth was some sort of fungus but it is actually a type of beneficial aerobic bacteria that assists in decomposition of organic material. (
  • One remarkable aspect of these novel bacteria is that they, unlike other similar bacteria, are unable to utilize BChl (bacteriochlorophyll) for anaerobic growth. (
  • Abundance, depth distribution, and composition of aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria in four basins of the central Baltic Sea. (
  • There were no bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria on sponges or corals. (
  • Publications] Shiba,T.,Shioi,Y.Takamiya,K.,Wilkinson C.R.,Sutton,D.C.: 'Distribution and physiology of aerobic bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll a on the east and west coast of Australia. (
  • Publications] Shiba,T.: 'Roseobacter litoralis,sp.nov.,and Roseobactor denitrificans sp.nov.,aerobic pinkーpigmented bacteria which contain bacteriochlorophyll. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify triclosan tolerant heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria from sewage effluent and to determine cross-resistance to antibiotics. (
  • This test is commonly referred to as Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Total Aerobic Plate Count. (
  • No MAC is specified for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in water supplied by public, semipublic, or private drinking water systems. (
  • Nitronaphthofurans inhibited the multiplication of aerobic bacteria at low concentrations (MIC for 50% of strains tested [MIC50], 1 mg/liter). (
  • Bacti-Bio 1100G is a granular concentrate composed of 10 synergistic strains of nonpathogenic bacteria and molds designed to digest crude petroleum, creosote, phenols, paraffins, and other aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • Effect of different nitroheterocyclic compounds on aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. (
  • The antibacterial activities of different nitroheterocyclic compounds were assessed by an agar dilution method against aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria are often associated with a high mortality rate, and if no action is taken to discover more new antibiotic compounds, antibiotic resistance is predicted to kill 10 million people every year globally by 2050 at a cost of $100 trillion. (
  • Sulfur in organic compounds typically is responsible for the strong unpleasant odor created by anaerobic bacteria in the septic tank environment. (
  • Obligate ammonia chemolithotrophy has been characterized for bacteria;however, large gaps remain in the Thaumarchaeotal pathway. (
  • The reason being aerobic bacteria require only a short amount of time to develop from millions in to billions, and it is the fungi present in a solution of microbes that require the full 24 hours. (
  • How aerobic bacteria and fungi interact with biochar is by allowing all of the microscopic hairs that are an extension of the root zone to push through into the tiniest crevices imaginable. (
  • With increasing depth, populations of aerobic bacteria , actinomycetes, and fungi decreased and the number of anaerobic bacteria increased. (
  • Methane-oxidizing bacteria are characterized by their capability to grow on methane as sole source of carbon and energy. (
  • The activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria contributes significantly to the global methane budget. (
  • All these ecosystems with source function for atmospheric methane are typical habitats of methane-oxidizing bacteria. (
  • Petri dishes and growth media surrounded by floating bacteria including aerobic and anaerobic bacteria: staphylococcus aureus. (
  • Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Preclinical in vitro studies have shown that this structurally unique carbapenem has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria that, in general, are associated with community-acquired infections [ 1 - 6 ]. (
  • Most infections were caused by gram-negative aerobic bacteria , which are inhabitants of the digestive tract. (
  • In Japan for example the use of U.V. cleaning lights for hotels and public bathrooms, ensure that no virus or bacteria can physically survive under the bandwidth of U.V.B. Using U.V. cleaning lights for maintaining nutrient reservoirs is an excellent method to keep your water source sterile clean. (
  • Methods of increasing yields of succinate using aerobic culture methods and a multi-mutant E. coli strain are provided. (
  • Strain JM10 displayed very high levels of activity in aerobic conditions, consuming over 94.3% NO 3 − -N (approximately 3.06 mg L −1 ) with a maximum reduction rate of 0.108 mg NO 3 − -N L −1 h −1 . (
  • The second strain, P.aeruginosa PCN-2 accumulated negligible NO during aerobic nitrate and nitrite removal and efficiently removed NO from flue gas. (
  • Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria. (
  • This book systematically investigates the nitrogen removal characteristics of two screened aerobic denitrifying bacteria and their applications in nitrogen oxides emissions reduction. (
  • Apparently, these aerobic BChl-containing bacteria represent an evolutionary transient phase from anaerobic phototrophs to aerobic non-phototrophs. (