Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Intermittent Urethral Catheterization: Insertion of a catheter into the urethra to drain the urine from the bladder at intervals as needed.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Metallochaperones: A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Endospore-Forming Bacteria: A group of rods or cocci whose taxonomic affinities are uncertain. They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods.

Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a lindane-degrading bacterium. (1/439)

Lindane-degrading activity under aerobic conditions has been observed in two bacterial strains: UT26, phenotypically identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and a new single unidentified isolate named RP5557T. The rrs (16S rDNA) sequences for both strains and the phenotypic characteristics for the unidentified isolate RP5557T were determined. RP5557T does not have high identity (less than 90% in all cases) with any sequence in the GenBank or RDP databases. A phylogenetic analysis based on rrs sequences indicated that RP5557T belongs to the gamma-Proteobacteria in a coherent phylum that includes the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella (100% bootstrap), whereas UT26 is clearly separate from the Xanthomonas cluster. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and on the phenotypic characteristics, a new genus, Rhodanobacter, containing a single species, Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus, is proposed for strain RP5557T (= LMG 18385T), which becomes the type strain.  (+info)

Rubrimonas cliftonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from a saline lake. (2/439)

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed with two strains (OCh 317T and OCh 318; T = type strain) of aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria isolated from water of a saline lake located on the west coast of Australia. Both strains were Gram-negative, short rods and were motile by means of polar flagella. Catalase, oxidase, nitrate reductase, phosphatase and urease were produced. The cells utilized D-glucose, citrate, glycolate, pyruvate and ethanol. Acids were produced from L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-ribose and D-xylose. The strains could grow in media containing 0.5-7.5% NaCl. Bacteriochlorophyll a was synthesized under aerobic conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain OCh 317T represented a new lineage in the alpha-3 group of the class Proteobacteria. Strains OCh 317T and OCh 318 were identified as strains of the same species because of their very similar phenotypic characteristics and their previously described high DNA-DNA homology. Therefore, it was concluded that the two strains should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which the name Rubrimonas cliftonensis is proposed. The type strain is OCh 317T (= JCM 10189T).  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (3/439)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin administration decreases enhanced ethanol elimination in ethanol-fed rats. (4/439)

Many colonic aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. Accordingly, some ingested ethanol can be metabolized in the colon in vivo via the bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. By diminishing the amount of aerobic colonic bacteria with ciprofloxacin treatment, we recently showed that the bacteriocolonic pathway may contribute up to 9% of total ethanol elimination in naive rats. In the current study we evaluated the role of the bacteriocolonic pathway in enhanced ethanol metabolism following chronic alcohol administration by diminishing the amount of gut aerobic flora by ciprofloxacin treatment. We found that ciprofloxacin treatment totally abolished the enhancement in ethanol elimination rate (EER) caused by chronic alcohol administration and significantly diminished the amount of colonic aerobic bacteria and faecal ADH activity. However, ciprofloxacin treatment had no significant effects on the hepatic microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system, hepatic ADH activity or plasma endotoxin level. Our data suggest that the decrease in the amount of the aerobic colonic bacteria and in faecal ADH activity by ciprofloxacin is primarily responsible for the decrease in the enhanced EER in rats fed alcohol chronically. Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism by gastrointestinal bacteria may therefore contribute significantly to enhanced EER.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (5/439)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. (6/439)

AIM: To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors. METHODS: Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. RESULTS: By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity.  (+info)

Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria. (7/439)

The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested.  (+info)

Removal of cadmium from scallop hepatopancreas by microbial processes. (8/439)

A microbial process for removing cadmium from a homogenate of hepatopancreas, a waste of scallop processing, was devised to use this waste for value-added protein resources. Microorganisms were screened on the basis of the ability to remove cadmium from a medium with the initial concentration of 10 mg/l of cadmium. One soil isolate, identified as Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 by its taxonomical characteristics, removed 98% of the cadmium in the medium in 2 d. During cultivation of this strain in the homogenates of hepatopancreas digested by endopeptidases, 90% of cadmium was removed, while this strain had little effect on the simple non-digested homogenates. The mass balance of cadmium during homogenizations of the hepatopancreas tissues and cultivations in the protease-treated homogenate were examined. The content of crude proteins of culture supernatant treated by Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 was equivalent to those of various feedstuffs on the market.  (+info)

*Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

Most are obligately aerobic, meaning they require oxygen to grow. One remarkable aspect of these novel bacteria is that they, ... 2003). Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems. Chinese Science Bulletin. Vol. 48 No.11 ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are photoheterotrophic (phototroph)microbes that exist in a variety of aquatic ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPBs) are alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria that are obligate aerobes that ...

*Aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotroph bacteria

Aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria (AAPB), also named aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs (AAPs), is a group of ... these aerobic BChl-containing bacteria represent an evolutionary transient phase from anaerobic phototrophs to aerobic non- ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater ( ... Vladimir V. Yurkov, J. Thomas Beatty (1998). "Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...

*Guyparkeria

Both species are obligate aerobic bacteria; they require oxygen to grow. They are also halophilic and have varying degrees of ... nov., a mesophilic obligately chemolithotrophic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Fiji Basin". Archives ...

*Halothiobacillus

Both species are obligate aerobic bacteria; they require oxygen to grow. They are also halotolerant; they live in environments ...

*Halomonas meridiana

Ventosa, A.; Nieto, J. J.; Oren, A. (1998-06-01). "Biology of moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria". Microbiology and ... Halotolerant and halophilic bacteria, like H. meridiana can also provide valuable information about species that have been ... H. meridiana is a commensal marine bacteria that is found living on reef-building corals as part of their surface microbiome. ... These metalloproteases specific to marine bacteria are important for cleavage of connective tissues as well as adhesion of ...

*Oxygen minimum zone

Aerobic bacteria feed on this organic matter; oxygen is used as part of the bacterial metabolic process lowering its ... Another strategy used by some classes of bacteria in the oxygen minimum zones is to use nitrate rather than oxygen, thus ... Torres, J.J.; Grigsby, M.D.; Clarke, M.E. (2012). "Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in oxygen minimum layer fishes: the role of ... Leahy, Stephen (20 April 2010). "Giant Bacteria Colonise the Oceans". Inter Press Service. Tierramérica. Archived from the ...

*Methylobacillus flagellatus

... is a species of aerobic bacteria. Methylobacillus is a group of methylotrophic aerobic bacteria, ... nov., a novel non-pigmented, aerobic, obligately methylotrophic bacterium isolated from meadow grass" International Journal of ... "Methanotrophic bacteria" Microbiological Reviews. 1996. Vol 60, No. 2. p. 439-471. Methylobacillus flagellatus KT Doronina, ... Thus, it is imperative for researchers to classify, and study methylotrophic bacteria. One such important methylotroph of ...

*Beecher's Trilobite type preservation

Finally, aerobic bacteria convert this by oxidation to pyrite. The requirement of early anaerobic and later aerobic bacteria ... When a carcass is buried in such sediment, sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria break down its organic matter producing sulfide ... Seawater sulfate ions diffusing toward animal carcasses enabled sulfate-reducing bacteria to oxidize the reactive organic ... means that the pyritisation must occur in the upper levels of the sediment, close to the aerobic-anaerobic interface. If the ...

*Stephen J. Lippard

Methane monooxygenases are enzymes that occur in aerobic bacteria. They are involved in mitochondrial metabolism and can ...

*Aquamicrobium

... is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Aquamicrobium". www.bacterio.net. Lipski, A.; Kampfer ...

*Brachymonas

... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. A.C. Parte (1998-01-01). "Brachymonas". Bacterio.cict.fr. Retrieved ...

*Erythrobacter longus

nov., an Aerobic Bacterium Which Contains Bacteriochlorophyll a". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 32 (2): 211 ... Takaichi, Shinichi; Shimada, Keizo; Ishidsu, Jun-ichi (1990). "Carotenoids from the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, ... Shimada, Keizo; Hayashi, Hidenori; Tasumi, Mitsuo (1985). "Bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of aerobic bacteria, ... "Monocyclic cross-conjugated carotenal from an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter longus". Phytochemistry. 27 (11 ...

*Carbohydrate-binding module

Those found in aerobic bacteria bind cellulose (or other carbohydrates); but in anaerobic fungi they are protein binding ... NodB homologues and conserved modular architecture in xylanases from the aerobic soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. ... similar to the cellulosome found in certain anaerobic bacteria. In anaerobic bacteria that degrade plant cell walls, ... Finally, the interaction between cohesin and dockerin appears to be species specific in bacteria, there is almost no species ...

*Bdellovibrio

... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. One of the more notable characteristics of this genus is ... ISBN 978-3-540-38577-6. Chen, H; Williams, HN (2012). "Sharing of prey: coinfection of a bacterium by a virus and a prokaryotic ... After entering the periplasmic space of its host the Bdellovibrio bacterium forms a structure called a bdelloplast which ... This is a rare characteristic among bacteria. Flagellar motility stops after Bdellovibrio penetrates its prey. In some cases ...

*Vitreoscilla

... is a genus of Gram-negative aerobic bacterium. The bacterial haemoglobin (VHb) was first discovered from ... 1986 Vitreoscilla stercoraria Pringsheim 1951 Members of Vitreoscilla are obligate aerobic bacteria, which are morphologically ... Thus Vitreoscilla is used to describe the bacterium as the transparent swing or oscillator, the way it exhibits locomotion. ... Vitreoscilla bacteria have a unique property in that they produces a type of haemoglobin, VHb. This molecule unlike classic ...

*Clavibacter michiganensis

Clavibacter is an aerobic bacterium with a coryneform morphology. There is no mycelium and no spores are produced. Clavibacter ... The entire system of xylem within the plant allows the bacteria to form titers of up to 10^9 bacteria per gram of plant tissue ... If colonization is successful, the bacteria may plug the xylem vessels. In advanced stages of infection, the bacteria will move ... This complex history stems from the difficulty in characterizing bacteria. Unlike fungi, the morpholology of bacteria is not ...

*Oxygen saturation

Fish, invertebrates, plants, and aerobic bacteria all require oxygen for respiration. In aquatic environments, oxygen ... The net effect is to alter the balance of nature by increasing the concentration of anaerobic over aerobic species. Oxygen ... Deoxygenation increases the relative population of anaerobic organisms such as plants and some bacteria, resulting in fish ... tending to suppress the presence of aerobic organisms such as fish. ...

*Marinomonas

... is an aerobic bacteria genus from the family of Oceanospirillaceae. Parte, A.C. "Marinomonas". www.bacterio.net. " ...

*Glaciecola

... is a aerobic bacteria genus from the family of Alteromonadaceae. Yin, J.; Chen, J.; Liu, G.; Yu, Y.; Song, L.; Wang ... "Complete genome sequence of seawater bacterium Glaciecola nitratireducens FR1064(T)". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (24): 7006-7 ...

*Luteimonas lutimaris

... is yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium. Its type strain is G3(T) (= KACC 14929(T ...

*Bosea minatitlanensis

nov., a strictly aerobic bacterium isolated from an anaerobic digester". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Bosea minatitlanensis is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, strictly aerobic non-spore-forming motile bacteria ...

*Windrow composting

The oxygen feeds the aerobic bacteria and thus speeds the composting process. Utilization To properly use a compost windrow ... Heavy-duty compost windrow turners allow the user to obtain optimum results with the aerobic hot composting process. By using ...

*Obligate aerobe

Examples of obligately aerobic bacteria include and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nocardia asteroides. With the exception of ... Aerobic respiration has the advantage of yielding more energy (adenosine triphosphate or ATP) than fermentation or anaerobic ... Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Obligate anaerobe Facultative anaerobe Microaerophile Prescott LM, ...

*Ancylobacter

... is a genus of aerobic bacteria from the family of Xanthobacteraceae. editors, Don J. Brenner, Noel R. Krieg, James ...

*Bioclogging

"Saturated hydraulic conductivity reduction caused by aerobic bacteria in sand columns" (PDF). Soil Science Society of America ... Algae and bacteria may be inoculated to promote bioclogging in irrigation channel for seepage control. Bioclogging is also ... Iron bacteria stimulates ferric oxyhydroxides deposition which may cause clogging of soil pores. This is an indirect biological ... van Beek, C.G.E.M.; van der Kooij, D. (1982). "Sulfate-reducing bacteria in ground water from clogging and non-clogging shallow ...

*Fermented tea

... first with aerobic fungi, then with anaerobic bacteria. Tteokcha (떡차; lit. "cake tea"), also called byeongcha (병차; 餠茶; lit. " ... Other fermented teas, called pickled teas, are fermented in a wet process with lactic acid bacteria. Pickled teas include miang ... Raloff, Janet (January 28, 2004). "Bacteria Brew a B Vitamin Boost". Retrieved 11 August 2014. "Saijo City Sightseeing ...
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Anaerobe Systems manufactures anaerobic chambers, anaerobic tubes,anaerobic plates,anaerobic transport media, custom formulations, disks, and reagents for anaerobic diagnostic laboratories. Anaerobe Systems produces the only true Pre-Reduced Anaerobically Sterilized (PRAS) plated and tubed culture media in the USA. Anaerobe Systems also offers anaerobe chamber training seminars, advanced anaerobic microbiology courses and anaerobic microbiology workshops. The Anaerobe Systems website contains descriptions, pricing and ordering information for anaerobic chambers, agars, broths and transport media needed in the anaerobic diagnostic laboratory, as well as information on anaerobic microbiology education.
Looking for aerobic bacteria? Find out information about aerobic bacteria. Any bacteria requiring free oxygen for the metabolic breakdown of materials Explanation of aerobic bacteria
Sterility testing The sterility of all sterile products produced in accordance with GMP must be tested regularly. However, not all sterility testing methods are equivalent. Quality, convenience and application may vary significantly, affecting the reliability of results. False negative results may be related to the release of contaminated products and can have serious consequences for both patients and manufacturers. On the other hand, cross-contamination and false-positive results would mean long, costly tests, as well as the product delays or rejection. Merck offers a solution for sterility testing: closed membrane filtration system and a wide range of culture media and rinse buffers suitable for all sterility tests. Microbiological testing Bioburden testing is used for detection of viable aerobic microorganisms that are found in raw materials or final product, which has not been sterilized. The bioburden test is carried out in two stages. The total count of aerobic microorganisms, as well as ...
Curated}} {{Biorealm Genus}} [[Image:e_ezovicum.png,frame,right,Erythromicrobium ezovicum Image from [http://141.150.157.117:8080/prokPUB/chaphtm/309/COMPLETE.htm V. V. Yurkov, "Aerobic Phototrophic Proteobacteria", March, 2001. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC.]]] ==Classification== ===Higher order taxa:=== Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Sphingomonadales; Erythrobacteraceae ===Species:=== Erythromicrobium ezovicum, E. hydrolyticum, E. ramosum, Erythromicrobium sp. {, , height="10" bgcolor="#FFDF95" , NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=35810 Taxonomy] ,} ==Description and Significance== Despite the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), Erythromicrobium is not capable of growing photosynthetically, which distinguishes the bacterium from other Bchl a-containing groups. Other main features include low levels of photosynthetic units in cells and strong inhibition by light of Bchl a synthesis (Yurkov et al). Due to the ...
NOLA, Moïse et al. Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the equatorial region of Central Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.5, pp.737-746. ISSN 1816-7950.. The main purpose of this investigation was to assess, in situ, the hourly abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB), over a daily period, in 3 wells in Yaounde region, Cameroon. Sampling was done weekly, for 4 months. Water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles and incubated in situ for 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Isolation and enumeration of enterobacteria and THAB were performed on MacConkey agar (Bio-Rad) and standard agar (Bio-Rad) media, respectively, using the plate count method. Using a linear regression model, ln(number of CFUs) was plotted against time. The slope of each regression line was considered as the apparent increase or decrease in cell number. Concentrations of THAB and ...
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None of the seven GBs had all genes required for synthesizing all amino acids and vitamins, hinting at complex interdependencies among microorganisms in this oil reservoir (Fig. 5), similar to what has been described for communities of both long- and short-chain hydrocarbon-degrading communities from enrichment cultures [20, 22]. The absence of microbial members that synthesize specific vitamins and amino acids in the aerobic and anaerobic communities suggested that additional partners are needed for these communities to thrive. According to the result, intertwined dependencies based on amino acid auxotrophy thus seem to be more prevalent in the anoxic community. Interestingly, amino acids auxotrophies in the aerobic microorganisms were not as dominant as in the anaerobic microorganisms. Reduced energy yields for microorganisms growing with hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions might be responsible for dominant amino acid auxotrophies observed here and in a previous ...
As we can observed, the areas are more distinct than the previous time we saw the column As noted, at the bottom we can still notice a dark area due to anaerobic microorganisms and at the top we can also notice a green area due to aerobic microorganisms.The black coloured area at the bottom of the column is due to the presence of iron sulfide which degrades organic matter thus we can notice that black colour . In addition, a small pick coloured area can be observed in the middle region of the column and that is due to a substance produced by purple sulfur bacteria which are responsible for that pink colour. ...
Discussion and conclusions.PCR is generally considered to be the most sensitive means of determining whether a fecal specimen or a food sample contains STEC. Although direct extracts of feces or foods can be used as templates for PCR, the best results are usually obtained by testing extracts of primary broth cultures (3, 14, 27). Broth enrichment serves two purposes: inhibitors in the sample are diluted, and bacterial growth increases the number of copies of the target sequence. Sensitivity is important when testing fecal samples, because although STEC numbers may be very high in the early stages of infection, they may drop dramatically as disease progresses. Sensitivity is also particularly important when testing suspected foods because, at least for certain O111 and O157 STEC strains, the infectious dose for humans may be of the order of 1 to 10 CFU (17,28). Thus, foods destined to be consumed without further cooking or processing need to be totally free of such STEC strains. Some of the PCR ...
The NSF Microbiology Lab offers testing & consulting in aerobic/anaerobic microbiology, cellular/molecular biology, mycology, virology & parasitology.
The NSF Microbiology Lab offers testing & consulting in aerobic/anaerobic microbiology, cellular/molecular biology, mycology, virology & parasitology.
Aerobic microorganisms. Determination in foods at 37 °C, 30 °C, 25 °C, 20 °C, 17/7 °C or 6.5 °C by the colony count method. (NMKL 86, 5. Ed., 2013 ...
Microbiological Examination tests, has outlined in USP 61 and 62 are "intended to determine whether a substance or preparation complies with an established specifications for microbiological quality" and are designed to "allow determination of the absence of or limited occurrence of specified microorganisms that may be detected under the conditions described" in the procedure. These tests methods can be applied to pharmaceuticals articles, both finished and raw materials, and may also be useful for evaluating the presence of organisms on select materials used in some medical devices or biologics. It is designed to provide an estimate of the number of viable aerobic microorganisms, both bacteria and fungus, and / or to screen for specific target microbial species ...
Patent pending Eco-tabs Grease Trap Tablets are solid, sustained release tablets which provide active oxygen, nutrients, buffers and safe aerobic microorganisms to help clean, deodorize and keep grease trap systems running efficiently with reduced downtime. ecotabs has developed this enhanced aerobic grease mitigation and digestion technology to address the challenges of grease traps operating under a variety of conditions in restaurant, food service and food processing plant applications. Eco-tabs are designed to clean an entire trap; not just the grease and fat on the traps surface. Eco-tabs built in effervescent action, releases "active oxygen" and effectively boosts the growth of grease busting bacteria and enzymes throughout the entire grease trap system. Eco-tabs also successfully treat grease trap bottom sediment through their effervescent "active oxygen" action. ...
The invention comprises a multi-chamber module-cap combination useful for measuring the impedance of samples of nutrient media in the chambers thereof, some of which samples include aerobic microorganisms. The module comprises a printed circuit board having a plurality of hollow cylinders upraised from one side thereof. The conductors of the circuitry provide a pair of spaced-apart contacts under each of the cylinders. The cylinders, before being sealed to the boards, are open at both ends so that the spaced-apart contacts are exposed within the chamber formed by the cylinders and the one side of the board. Caps are provided in combination with the board-cylinder structure, the caps serving to fit over the cylinders, the skirts of the caps being sufficiently long to extend against the one side of the board so that a gap exists between the tops of the caps and the tops of the cylinders. Interiorly of the skirts are a plurality of generally evenly spaced longitudinally placed upraised ribs. When the caps
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By picking up genetic material that contains instructions that code for antibiotic resistance. This genetic material can come from viruses, other bacterial cells or plasmids, which are loops of DNA in a bacterial cell that are separate from its chromosome (bacteria only have one single chromosome, unlike us humans who have 23 pairs in each cell). These plasmids can move from bacteria to bacteria, picking up and depositing bits of genetic material as they go. If the plasmid contains a bit of genetic material that codes for antibiotic resistance this can be spread to many other bacteria. ...
Call your Dr. and tell him antibiotic is not working on you. You would like him to call in Biaxin, 500 mg. take two a day . It will begin to help right away b/c it is in a diff. category than most. It attacks the bad bacteria only and attaches to each one, not letting go , and fights it until dead. Most work by trying to kill all bacteria good and bad which takes 3 days just to feel any diff. and then a lot of times you end up with yeast infections from not enough good bacteria left in your system!! They should call it in. If not , you may need a new Dr., one who isn`t out for making money off visits ...
The Fluorotek 200 is a low-cost fluorescence-based bacterial monitor. Using two light sources and custom designed enzyme assays, Fluorotek is able to detect a wide range of bacteria such as major Gram Negative, Aerobic Bacteria , and Total Aerobic Bacteria. The Fluorotek 200 can be used in a variety of context such as healthcare, water and sanitation testing, farms, and veterinary facilities. ADS will supply the entire test kit, which, along with the device, includes the assay for your bacteria of interest.. ...
Kire ci, E et al. Isolation of pathogenic aerobic bacteria from the blood of septicaemic neonatal calves and the susceptibility of isolates to various antibiotics. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2010, vol.81, no.2, p.110-113. ISSN 1019- ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of porphyrin biosynthesis by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. OCh 114. AU - Shioi, Yuzo. AU - Doi, Michio. AU - Tanabe, Kimiko. AU - Shimokawa, Keishi. PY - 1988/11/1. Y1 - 1988/11/1. N2 - Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose-dependent manner in the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain OCh 114, under dark growth conditions. The ALA concentration required for half-inhibition after 24-h growth was estimated to be about 3.0 mm. Porphyrin and Bchl precursors were not found in either the cells or the growth medium. The same inhibition was also observed with cytochrome c formation. When ALA was incubated with intact cells, a large amount of ALA was converted to an unknown metabolite. The pH optimum of the conversion was 7.8. The metabolite did not react with Ehrlichs reagent, but did so with ninhydrin, giving a ...
The problem with adding fertilisers like ammonium nitrate to the soil is that bacteria can use the nitrogen to help to make their bodies removing carbon from the soil. In the same way, adding carbon to the soil reduces the available nitrogen. So adding nitrogen removes carbon from the soil; adding carbon removes nitrogen from the soil and locks them into the bodies of microorganisms. As this process is driven mostly by bacteria and fungi and aerobic microorganisms do this much quicker than anaerobic micro organisms, adding air by digging or hoeing reduces both nitrogen and carbon as the aerobic microorganisms reproduce and take up more nitrogen and carbon. However this can be replaced by adding lots and lots of compost. (Also carbon and nitrogen are returned to the soil when the microorganisms die ...
Patients with bacteremia after dental extraction, third-molar surgery, dental scaling, endodontic treatment, and bilateral tonsillectomy were studied by means of lysis-filtration of blood samples with subsequent aerobic and anaerobic incubation. Samples were obtained before, during, and 10 min after treatment. Bacteremia was observed in 100% of patients after dental extraction, 55% of patients after third-molar surgery, 70% of patients after dental scaling, 20% of patients after endodontic treatment, and 55% of patients after bilateral tonsillectomy. Anaerobic microorganisms were isolated more frequently than aerobic microorganisms were, and viridans group streptococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria. Ten minutes after treatment, the frequency as well as the magnitude of bacteremia showed pronounced reduction.. ...
Photo credit: Dr. Kim Stanford, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development Composting is a naturally occurring process in which bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms convert organic material into a stabilized product called compost. Composting of livestock mortalities involves two phases.. In the first phase, the animal carcasses are placed in a composting bin or on a windrow of straw. A bulking agent that is high in carbon, such as sawdust or straw, added to completely surround the carcasses. This heap is entirely covered with manure, which is full of microbes. Anaerobic microorganisms (those not requiring oxygen) work in the carcass to degrade it.. The second phase involves regularly turning the pile and introducing air to feed aerobic microorganisms (those requiring oxygen), which degrade these materials produced by the first stage into odour-free carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). This stage causes the temperature of the compost pile to rise, which kills common viruses and other ...
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Use your compost tea within four hours of turning off the bubbler, since after that amount of time without oxygen your aerobic microorganisms will begin to die. At this point, you can bring the tea to your site and apply it directly onto the contaminated and/or damaged land, a spill area or onto your phytoremediating plants to increase their health. It is best to apply your tea to moist soil or after a rain, on a cloudy morning or in the evening as some microorganisms do not like baking in the hot sun. If you are applying your tea with a sprayer, make sure that the sprayer doesnt need too high a pressure and that the velocity of the spray is slow - the microbes you are working with benefit from gentle treatment. You can also take a digging fork or piece of rebar and make holes throughout your site to loosen soil and give the microorganisms a way to move more rapidly down to where the contamination may be ...
In animal cells, the formation of plasmalogens requires molecular oxygen. But among bacteria only anaerobic species contain plasmalogens, so an oxygen-requiring reaction is not possible. Clearly another pathway is used, which evolved long before these lipids were made by animal cells. The early earth had an anaerobic atmosphere; hence the first living things were anaerobes, presumably the ancestors of present day anaerobes. Indeed, all reactions essential for making bacterial cells including amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases, lipids and the essential cofactors, are still anaerobic, in line with their anaerobic ancestry. Therefore, it is no surprise that an anaerobic mechanism for making plasmalogens arose first. Present evidence suggests that plasmalogen synthesis in bacteria follows the same pathway used for the formation of diacyl phospholipids starting with glycerol-P and ending with conversion of diacylphospholipids to the corresponding plasmalogens by an unknown mechanism ...
aquavitro® seed™ will rapidly and safely establish the aquarium biofilter in freshwater and marine systems, thereby preventing the #1 cause of fish death: "new tank syndrome". seed™ is formulated specifically for the aquarium and contains a synergistic blend of aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria which facilitate the breakdown of waste organics, ammonia, nitrates and nitrites.. The bacteria used in competing products are inherently unstable. The conditions necessary for their growth and development fall into a very narrow range of temperatures, pH, organic loads, etc. When any of these parameters are not strictly within the proper range, the bacterial culture quickly crashes and dies. seed™ does not contain any of these short-lived bacteria. The species of bacteria in seed™ are a unique blend, specifically developed for hardiness and their ability to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions. The strains thrive in both fresh and saltwater.. seed™ contains both ...
The ACQUITY UPLC System provides UPLC/UHPLC chromatographic resolution and sensitivity, and high throughput using sub-2-µm particles. This is the original UPLC system and remains in production to support user validated methods in clinical chemistry.
When labor begins, vaginal douching with the use of chlorhexidine or Hibiclens soap has been proved to be effective against GBS. The effect of this soap is short-term and will not last for more than a couple of days. This is the reason why douching must be done only during active labor and not before.. A benefit is that it concentrates on the colonization of the bacteria only in the vaginal tract and not in the digestive tract. Because of this the bacteria will return to the vaginal tract sooner or later.. Another benefit is the fact that douching targets only GBS and leaves the other beneficial bacteria alone. Thus, you dont have to worry about overgrowth of yeast and thrush. Studies have shown that antibiotic use and douching the vaginal tract are equally effective.. Vaginal douching has an edge because of the fact that it does not come with side effects. If you dont fancy either of these treatments, you can go the natural way. Yes, there are a few natural remedies that you could use during ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
Salam petang Isnin. Sesiapa yang datang ke Amies Little Kitchen malam ini Amie hidangkan Ikan Lumahan Sumbat Serunding Udang. Sekiranya rakan-rakan pengunjung ingin menambah kosa kata atau perbendaharaan kata mengenai nama-nama ikan, Amie perkenalkan sejenis ikan yang memang ada dijual setiap hari di mana-mana pasar di tempat Amie atau pun di tempat rakan-rakan. Ada setengah tempat menamakannya sebagai ikang belaling. Ayahanda Amie memanggilnya ikan termenung. Tapi kebanyakan orang memanggilnya sebagai ikan kembung! Masyarakat di sini memanggilnya dengan nama ikan lumahan. Idea untuk membuat Ikan Lumahan Sumbat Serunding Udang muncul selepas berkunjung ke dapur sifu Che Mat Gebu kita. Kepada sesiapa yang berminat, bolehlah klik terus ke Ikan Kembong Sumbat Kelapa - Dapur Tanpa Sempadan untuk melihat hasil air tangan beliau. Kelmarin Amie sengaja menyimpan sedikit Serunding Udang untuk disumbatkan ke dalam perut ikan lumahan. Pelik ke bunyinya..... sumbat perut ikan dengan serunding udang? Apa ...
Hari ini Amie masak Kurma Ayam. Jarang benar Amie masak begini sebab kurang permintaan dalam rumah. Apa pun, sesekali masak begini, barulah terasa enaknya terutama kalau makan waktu lauk masih panas dan kebetulan perut kosong berkeroncong! Jadi, tak terdengarlah sedap atau tak sedap! Tapi, Amie kena angkat bakul berlubanglah pada petang Ahad ini sebab Amie rasa sedaplah pulak hasil masakan Kurma Ayam hari ini ha ha ha hah...... Oleh sebab jarang masak kurma, Amie masak berpandukan arahan di belakang bungkusan serbuk kurma, tapi Amie tambah sedikit rempah-rempahan lain termasuk asam jawa supaya kuahnya tak rasa muak. ...
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Bacterial blooms are caused by heterotrophic bacteria naturally present in aquariums which feed off the various wastes produced by the fish. These free floating aerobic bacteria can reproduce very rapidly, and an increase in available nutrients can trigger these blooms, usually described as a milky cloud in the aquarium. A build up of organic wastes, over feeding, or changing the gravel in the tank can all cause bacterial blooms. While the bacteria themselves are not dangerous, they can be a big drain on the oxygen content of the water.. ...
run into lakes or streams increasing the pH of the lake. As a result algal begin to bloom blocking light to the lake plants below - cannot photosynthesise so die. Aerobic bacteria use up all the oxygen and everything else in the river dies. ...
An electronic network is disclosed for effectively providing a technique to administer medical treatment. The technique pertains to at least one patient and at least one unit for medical treatment. Th
Sources of infection Infection is caused either by organisms from the hosts normal flora (endogenous infection) or by organisms transmitted from another source (exogenous infection). Endogenous infection The normal flora will only invade if circumstances permit, as in some of […]
ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਛੜੀ ਦੇ ਸਰੂਪ ਦਾ ਬੀਟਾ ਹੀਮੋਲਿਟਿਕ ਗਰਾਮ ਪਾਜਿਟਿਵ ਜੀਵਾਣੁ ਜੀਨਸ ਹੈ, ਫਰਮੀਕਿਊਟਸ ਉਪਜਾਤੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਇੱਕ ਮੈਂਬਰ ਹੈ। ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਜਾਂ ਤਾਂ ਬਾਧਯ ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ ਦੇ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਐੱਛਿਕ aerobe s, ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੀਖਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਕਾਰਾਤਮਕ ਏੰਜਾਇਮ catalase।. ...
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Malnutrition, Mortality, Patients, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Screening, Nutritional Status, Elderly, Nutrition Status, Nutritional Assessment, Person
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Peptostreptococcus spp. (and pathogens formerly designated as Peptostreptococcus, including species now in genera Anaerococcus, Atopobium, Blautia, Finegoldia, Peptoniphilus and Parvimonas, collectively referred to as the peptostreptococci below). SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Finegoldia magnus, Parvimonas micros, Atopobium parvulum, Blautia producta . CHARACTERISTICS: Peptostreptococci are anaerobic, non-sporing, gram-positive cocci that are 0.3-1.8 μm in diameter, depending on the species(1-3). They are usually arranged in chains, pairs, tetrads, or clumps(1,3). SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Peptostreptococci are part of the normal microbial flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary system, and skin(1-5). This type of bacteria causes a wide variety of infections, including oropharyngeal, sinus, ear, ...
Conversion of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c(552) into a b-type cytochrome by mutagenesis of both heme-binding cysteines to alanines significantly reduces the stability of the protein (Tomlinson, E. J., and Ferguson, S. J. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 5156-5160). To understand the effects of this change on the structure and dynamics of the protein, hetero-nuclear (15)N-edited NMR techniques have been used to characterize this b-type variant. The backbone (15)N, (1)H(N), and (1)H(alpha), and (1)H(beta) resonances of the protein have been assigned. Analysis of (3)J(HN)alpha coupling constants, nuclear Overhauser enhancement intensities, and chemical shift index data demonstrates that the four alpha-helices present in the wild-type protein are retained in the b-type variant. Comparison of the chemical shifts for the b-type and wild-type proteins indicates that the tertiary structures of the two proteins are closely similar. Some subtle differences are, however, observed for
We studied the microbiology of pus from 10 infected sinuses and their corresponding intracranial abscess (IA) (22).BA and SE was present in 5 patients, and both BA and SE were present in one. Four of the patients were children and all had SE. Five had Polymicrobial flora was found in 9 sinuses and 8 IA. A total of 26 isolates (2.6 isolates per specimen, 19 anaerobic, 7 aerobic or facultative and 1 microaerophilic) were recovered from the sinuses, and 17 isolates (1.7 isolates per site, 13 anaerobic, 2 aerobic or facultative and 2 microaerophilic) were found in the IA. Concordance in the microbiological findings between the sinus and the IA was found in all instances The predominant anaerobes were Fusobacterium spp. Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. , S. aureus , H. influenzae type-b, micoaerophilic streptococci , Bacteroides ureolyticus , and S. pneumoniae . These data illustrate the concordance in the recovery of organisms from infected sinuses and their associated IA and confirm the ...
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If you are still looking for a face cream for sensitive skin then you will definitely benefit from reading this article. You can find out the ingredients you should avoid and get some great tips to find a safe and effective face cream for men. Face cream for sensitive skin will be designed a certain way in order to be effective and safe.. Best face cream for sensitive skin:. Finding a face cream in winter for dry and sensitive skin will be tricky. As many with sensitive skin will know an unsuitable face cream will cause burning rashes and irritation.. ...
Multiple species of bacteria have been isolated from chronic and acute wounds, including wounds without any signs of infection. A literature review by Bowler examined culture data from 62 published studies dating between 1969 and 1997 (Bowler, 1998). The most predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (reported in 63% of the studies), followed by coliforms (45%), Bacteroides spp. (39%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%), Enterococcus spp. (26%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (13%).. This literature review also indicated that anaerobic bacteria were more commonly reported isolates from infected wounds. A later culture-based study compared the microflora of chronic and acute wounds (Bowler and Davies, 1999). In this study, Staphylococcus aureus predominated in infected acute wounds, while infected chronic wounds were primarily colonized by anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., Prevotella/ Porphyromonas spp., Clostridium spp.), coliforms, and fecal ...
87077-Organism Referred for Identification, Aerobic Bacteria. 87077-Identification Commercial Kit (if appropriate). 87077-Ident by MALDI-TOF mass spec (if appropriate). 87077-Bacteria Identification (if appropriate). 87153-Aerobe Ident by Sequencing (if appropriate). 87077-Additional Identification Procedure (if appropriate). 87147 x 3-Serologic Agglut Method 1 Ident (if appropriate). 87147-Serologic Agglut Method 2 Ident (if appropriate). 87147 x 4-Serologic Agglut Method 3 Ident (if appropriate). 87147 x 2-6 - Serologic Agglut Method 4 Ident (if appropriate). 87077-Identification Staphylococcus (if appropriate). 87077-Identification Streptococcus (if appropriate). 87798-Identification by PCR (if appropriate). ...
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Our laboratories are particularly well placed to conduct this interdisciplinary study. The PI, Dr Abratt at the University of cape Town, has specialised anaerobic growth facilities available, and a proven track record of research in the areas of anaerobic microbiology and molecular genetics, particularly of the Bacteroides nitrogen metabolism.. In addition, we have established the capability to determine protein structure in Africa for the first time through a grant by the Carnegie Corporation of New York to B.T. Sewell (co-investigator). This grant has enabled the creation of the joint UCT/UWC Masters programme in Structural Biology and has, in particular led to the establishment of a facility for protein X-ray crystallography at the University of the Western Cape and the establishment of a protein NMR facility at the University of Stellenbosch. Six masters students have been recruited to the programme in its first year (2003). Each student cohort will take two years, including a year of ...
D8070 - 16 Standard Test Method for Screening of Fuels and Fuel Associated Aqueous Specimens for Microbial Contamination by Lateral Flow Immunoassay , aerobic microorganisms, antibodies, antigens, aviation, bacteria, biocontamination, biodeterioration, colony forming units, diesel, fuels, fungi, Hormoconis resinae, kerosene, lateral flow devices, metabolites, microbes, microbial contamination, microbial growth, microbiology, molds, water, yeasts,,
0016]In operation, before coming into the primary sedimentation tank by neutralization, the sewage is filtered by bar screen and strainer, to intercept the suspension of pollutant, and to protect the devices such as water pump unit used in the following process. The sewage coming into the primary sedimentation tank by neutralization is sampled, detected, added a suitable preparation to neutralize to make PH value be between 6-9. The sewage coming into the aeration tank is sampled, detected, added a suitable sewage treatment agent of LTC-A developed by Shanghai LianTan Chemical Ltd according to the detected result, which is pumped into the aerobic biological process tank together with the sewage in the aeration tank. The blaster unit supplies oxygen to the sewage in the primary sedimentation tank by neutralization, the aeration tank, and aerobic biological process tank respectively, so that fully with the various aerobic microorganism in the sewage the colloid-shaped and dissoluted organic matter ...
The present invention is directed to a sensor system for monitoring metabolic activity of an anaerobic or aerobic microorganism. The present invention further relates to a sensor system that can individually and simultaneously monitor oxygen and carbon dioxide levels of a gas composition. Also provided is a sensor formulation for use with the sensor system of the present invention and a method of making the same.
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Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Objective: To examine the growth of aerobic bacteria in swine manure when used as manure additives for odor control.. Methods: Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxygen provider added to the test manure at fixed time intervals to enhance the dissolved oxygen level in manure, simulating intermittent aeration.. Results: Adding hydrogen peroxide failed to establish an aerobic environment in the top liquid. The added aerobes could not outgrow the indigenous anaerobes even when the dissolved oxygen levels in the manure were raised for short intervals on a regular basis.. Implications: The frequency of running intermittent aeration in order to maintain an active aerobic flora requires further study. Without enough aeration, the effectiveness of microbial-based manure additives for odor control purposes in actual manure storage systems is questionable.. Keywords: manure, odor, microbes. ...
S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were the most common causes of diabetic foot infections. Anaerobic organisms are still a common cause for infection, although the prevalence is less.
Pond Stability® will rapidly and safely establish the pond biofilter in new ponds, thereby preventing fish deaths due to incomplete biofilter cycling. Pond Stability® will also prevent and reduce sludge build up. Pond Stability® is formulated specifically for the pond and contains a synergistic blend of aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria which facilitate the breakdown of waste organics, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate. The bacteria employed by Pond Stability® are non-sulfur fixing and will not produce toxic hydrogen sulfide. Pond Stability® is completely harmless to all aquatic organisms as well as aquatic plants, thus there is no danger of over use. Pond Stability® is the culmination of nearly a decade of research and development and represents the current state of the art in natural biological management.. The bacteria used in competing products are inherently unstable. The conditions necessary for their growth and development fall into a very narrow range of temperatures, pH, ...
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The next question is about neb care and breathing treatments. Ive asked this to Ginger before but I still dont totally understand it so maybe someone else might. It is suggested that after sterilizing your nebs, you rinse them with sterile water. Arent they already sterile? Also, I think that we use more neb cups in a day than average and here is why. Once we use a neb, it is damp. We set it aside until its time for our next treatment. For us, the place we keep it is with the nebulizer machine which is on the bottom shelf of a table where we keep all of Drews meds and equiptment. So now the damp neb is in a dark place. He was just breathing into it - if he has got some bacteria in his airways and is coughing into the mask/cup, couldnt this neb just be growing bacteria only to be inhaled again during our next treatment? I feel like Im paranoid that hes going to re-colonize himself with whatever bacteria he has so I end up using new nebs almost every time. I swear Im not totally neurotic, ...
Ciproace 500 MG Tablet is an antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, gonococcal infection, etc. This medicine is not recommended for use in case of a common cold, flu, or other viral infections since it is active against infections caused by bacteria only. This medicine should be used with caution in the elderly population as it increases the risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. Buy Ciproace 500 MG Tablet Online. Know uses, side effects, dosage, contraindications, substitutes, benefit, interactions, purpose, drug interactions, precautions, warnings etc. Download Practo app & get your medicines home delivered.
Xynolev 250 mg Tablet is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a variety of conditions such as bronchitis, pneumonia, infections of the bladder, etc. This medicine is not recommended for use in case of a common cold, flu, or other viral infections since it is active against infections caused by bacteria only. This medicine should be used with caution in the elderly population as it increases the risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. Buy Xynolev 250 mg Tablet Online. Know uses, side effects, dosage, contraindications, substitutes, benefit, interactions, purpose, drug interactions, precautions, warnings etc. Download Practo app & get your medicines home delivered.
This post was most recently updated on October 17th, 2018. Specimens for anaerobic culture should be properly collected and transported. Indigenous anaerobes are often present in large numbers as normal flora on mucosal surfaces (e.g. mouth). So the sample from sites known to have anaerobes as part of the normal flora is unacceptable for anaerobic culture. ...
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What is the difference between Obligate and Facultative Anaerobe? Obligate anaerobe cannot survive in oxygen while facultative anaerobe can survive in oxygen...
IR Biotyper is Brukers infrared spectroscopy solution matching the needs for fast, easy-to-apply and economical strain typing methods with high discriminatory power on the level of routine molecular methods. Sample preparation is easy and up to 30 isolates can be analyzed within one run with a processing time from culture harvesting to result of just three hours. Running costs are significantly lower in comparison to other methods. IR spectroscopy is very well suited for strain typing and could ideally be combined with Brukers MALDI Biotyper MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry system, to meld the strength of rapid and easy microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF with IR strain typing into one workflow. ...
IR Biotyper is Brukers infrared spectroscopy solution matching the needs for fast, easy-to-apply and economical strain typing methods with high discriminatory power on the level of routine molecular methods. Sample preparation is easy and up to 30 isolates can be analyzed within one run with a processing time from culture harvesting to result of just three hours. Running costs are significantly lower in comparison to other methods. IR spectroscopy is very well suited for strain typing and could ideally be combined with Brukers MALDI Biotyper MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry system, to meld the strength of rapid and easy microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF with IR strain typing into one workflow. ...
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Flagyl is an effective antimicrobial drug which contains the active component Metronidazole. This drug is effective in respect of the broad-spectrum anaerobic microorganisms and inhibits the development of protozoa.
OpenChrom is an open source software for chromatography and mass spectrometry based on the Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP). Its focus is to handle mass spectrometry systems (e.g. GC/MS, LC/MS, Py-GC/MS, HPLC-MS) data files natively. OpenChrom is able to import … Continue reading →. ...
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View Notes - chapters 30 and 31 from MIBO 3500 at UGA. Chapters 30 & 31: Normal Flora of the Human Body and Nonspecific Immunity Do you have to know all the species of normal flora for every region?
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Animal Bite Infections at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Animal Bite Infections easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
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Title:An Overview on Diabetic Foot Infections, including Issues Related to Associated Pain, Hyperglycemia and Limb Ischemia. VOLUME: 24 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):Ilker Uckay*, Francois R. Jornayvaz, Dan Lebowitz, Giacomo Gastaldi, Karim Gariani and Benjamin A. Lipsky. Affiliation:Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Diabetic Foot Infection Pathway, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Diabetic Foot Infection Pathway, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva. Keywords:Diabetic foot infection, ...
Preliminary evidence suggests that the enteric microbiota may play a role in the expression of neurological symptoms in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Overlapping symptoms with the acute presentation of d-lactic acidosis has prompted the use of antibiotic treatment to target the overgrowth of species within the Streptococcus genus found in commensal enteric microbiota as a possible treatment for neurological symptoms in ME/CFS. An open-label, repeated measures design was used to examine treatment efficacy and enable sex comparisons. Participants included 44 adult ME/CFS patients (27 females) from one specialist medical clinic with Streptococcus viable counts above 3.00 × 105 cfu/g (wet weight of faeces) and with a count greater than 5% of the total count of aerobic microorganisms. The 4-week treatment protocol included alternate weeks of Erythromycin (400 mg of erythromycin as ethyl succinate salt) twice daily and probiotic (d-lactate free multistrain probiotic, 5 × 1010
Recommended standards for the description of new species of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are proposed in accordance with Recommendation 30b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. These standards include information on the natural habitat, ecology and phenotypic properties including morphology, physiology and pigments and on genetic information and nucleic acid data. The recommended standards were supported by the Subcommittee on the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. They are considered as guidelines for authors to prepare descriptions of new species.
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for studying the food preparation process was conducted in four households in an environmentally poor urban neighborhood of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The analysis consisted of observing all of the steps in the food preparation process, measuring food temperatures at each step, and collecting food and water samples. Food and water samples were tested for total aerobic microorganisms, molds and yeast, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Temperatures reached during the cooking process were high enough to kill vegetative forms of foodborne pathogens; however, heat-resistant spores could have survived. Leftover food was held at room temperature for long periods of time which allowed multiplication of vegetative forms from spores or from contaminated food utensils. Leftover food was eaten either cold or reheated to warm temperatures. Water samples were taken from water delivery trucks and from each family. Water was identified as one of the ...
article{cf46fba3-5796-4634-acdf-dfa4d578d20e, abstract = {This chapter discusses the molecular properties, genetics, and biosynthesis of Bacillus subtilis succinate dehydrogenase complex. The citric acid cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a membrane-bound iron-sulfur flavoprotein. Mitochondrial and bacterial SDH and membrane-bound fumarate reductase in anaerobic and facultative bacteria are similar in composition. SDH and also fumarate reductase can be extracted with detergent from the membrane in a complex with one or two (depending on the organism) small hydrophobic polypeptides. These small associated polypeptides are integral membrane proteins that anchor each enzyme to the membrane and are, at least in mitochondria, required for electron transfer from enzyme to quinone. The chapter discusses about the (1) growth of B. subtilis and isolation of membranes, (2) immunoprecipitation and composition of B. subtilis SDH Complex, (3) genetics of B. subtilis SDH-protoplast fusion, and (4) ...

Proteomic Insights into the Cellulose Degradation Systems of Cytophaga hutchinsonii and Sporocytophaga myxococcoidesProteomic Insights into the Cellulose Degradation Systems of Cytophaga hutchinsonii and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides

... cellulose degrading bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Despite both of these organisms being isolated for almost ... em,Cytophaga hutchinsonii,/em, and ,em,Sporocytophaga myxococcoides,/em, are both Gram-negative, aerobic, mesophilic, ... Cytophaga hutchinsonii and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides are both Gram-negative, aerobic, mesophilic, cellulose degrading ... Mapping of unstudied cellulose-degrading mechanisms in soil bacteria. Swedish Energy Agency, 2016-01-01 -- 2018-12-31. ...
more infohttps://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/510631

Corynebacterium macginleyi: a conjunctiva specific pathogen | British Journal of OphthalmologyCorynebacterium macginleyi: a conjunctiva specific pathogen | British Journal of Ophthalmology

The aerobic cultures were inspected for the first time after overnight incubation. Total incubation time for all media was 48 ... We found pathogenic bacteria in following frequency: 18.7% Staphylococcus aureus, 12.1 % C macginleyi, 10.3%Streptococcus ... Bacteria of apparently low pathogenic characteristics had been isolated as follows: 40.1% Staphylococcus epidermidis, 13.1% ... Here we show for the first time more resistant species of this bacterium, especially to erythromycin and kanamycin, making ...
more infohttp://bjo.bmj.com/content/84/12/1420

Are gram-positive bacteria aerobic or anaerobic - AnswersAre gram-positive bacteria aerobic or anaerobic - Answers

Bacteria How do aerobic bacteria differ from anaerobic bacteria. ?. aerobic bacteria use oxygen based respiration, anaerobic ... How do aerobic bacteria differ form anaerobic bacteria. ?. Aerobic bacteria use respiration and anaerobic bacteria do not. ... Are bacteria anaerobic or aerobic. ?. Some bacteria in the world are considered to be anaerobic bacteria. Other bacteria in the ... Bacteria that do not require aerobic respiration. ?. Aerobic. They are anaerobic bacteria. There are bacteria,which do not ...
more infohttps://www.answers.com/Q/Are_gram-positive_bacteria_aerobic_or_anaerobic

Aerobic bacteria: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAerobic bacteria: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present. ... Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present. ... Aerobic. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/760767/all/aerobic. Accessed June 12, 2019. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003437.htm

GreenLight 910- Live Aerobic Bacteria Load CalculatorGreenLight 910- Live Aerobic Bacteria Load Calculator

910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real time operational... ... The GreenLight 910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real time ... The GreenLight® 910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real ...
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Definition of AEROBIC BACTERIA (Meaning of AEROBIC BACTERIA) in the Online DictionaryDefinition of AEROBIC BACTERIA (Meaning of AEROBIC BACTERIA) in the Online Dictionary

... and antonyms of the term AEROBIC BACTERIA in the Online Dictionary. ... AEROBIC BACTERIA: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ...
more infohttp://www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/aerobic+bacteria

Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME  (NIOSH 0801)Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME (NIOSH 0801)

... and bacteria testing of spore traps, culturable air, tape lift, bulk, and water samples. ERMI and DNA testing offered. ... Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME (NIOSH 0801). Description. This method is applicable to all viable and culturable bacteria ... The method is applicable to bulk solid and liquid samples containing culturable bacteria, as well as air samples. ... Microbiology Lab (Mold, Bacteria, Legionella, Allergens). Test. ... Aerobic Bacteria by GC-FAME (NIOSH 0801). Aerobic Bacteria by ...
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Microbacterium kitamiense, aerobic bacterium, SEM - Stock Image C032/1773 - Science Photo LibraryMicrobacterium kitamiense, aerobic bacterium, SEM - Stock Image C032/1773 - Science Photo Library

It is strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and this genus produces both insoluble and soluble ... The genus Microbacterium are common soil bacteria. Magnification: x6.665 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock ... bacterium that was recently discovered in 1999. It is a novel microbe that utilizes sucrose as its sole carbon source. ... Keywords: 06211213d, actinobacteria, actinomycetales, aerobe, aerobes, aerobic, aquatic, bacillus, bacteria, bacterial, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/798592/view/microbacterium-kitamiense-aerobic-bacterium-sem

Bacteria, Aerobic Stock Image Search ResultsBacteria, Aerobic Stock Image Search Results

Aerobic,Medical Illustration database of the best portfolios and stock images now features General and Commercial Illustration ... Petri dishes and growth media surrounded by floating bacteria including aerobic and anaerobic bacteria: staphylococcus aureus ... Various aerobic bacteria explode toward the viewer against a blue sky with clouds. Microorganisms included are haemophilus in ... Rrod shaped bacteria. Anthrax, botulism and tetanus are all caused by rod shaped bacteria. ...
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Identification of Microorganisms - Aerobic Bacteria/Yeast - NAMSAIdentification of Microorganisms - Aerobic Bacteria/Yeast - NAMSA

Welcome to the NAMSA Network. Please log in here to update your profile, post comments on the blog; sign-up for events, webinars and classes; and receive email alerts to stay informed on the latest insights and updates.. If you are experiencing log in issues, please contact us at [email protected] or click here. We apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused.. ...
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Competition for oxygen and 3-chlorobenzoate between two aerobic bacteria using different degradation pathways - Research...Competition for oxygen and 3-chlorobenzoate between two aerobic bacteria using different degradation pathways - Research...

Competition for oxygen and 3-chlorobenzoate between two aerobic bacteria using different degradation pathways. Krooneman, J., ... Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation ...
more infohttps://www.rug.nl/research/portal/publications/competition-for-oxygen-and-3chlorobenzoate-between-two-aerobic-bacteria-using-different-degradation-pathways

Comparative Evaluation of Fixed Dose Combination of Ofloxacin and 
        Ornidazole Against Some Aerobic BacteriaComparative Evaluation of Fixed Dose Combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole Against Some Aerobic Bacteria

... of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic protozoans. ... Comparative Evaluation of Fixed Dose Combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole Against Some Aerobic Bacteria ... for infusion against some aerobic bacteria in comparison with Ofloxacin and Ornidazole individually. Antibiotic Susceptibility ...
more infohttps://scialert.net/asci/ascidetail.php?doi=tmr.2009.30.34&kw=

MarineTerms.com | A-Z Shipping dictionary and Abbreviation Finder - Aerobic BacteriaMarineTerms.com | A-Z Shipping dictionary and Abbreviation Finder - Aerobic Bacteria

Aerobic Bacteria Listing Details. Microorganisms that require free oxygen, or air, to live, and that which contribute to the ...
more infohttps://marineterms.com/terms-dictionary/energy-terms/aerobic-bacteria.html

A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea | Genome Biology | Full TextA genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea | Genome Biology | Full Text

Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus ( ... Pathways in the aerobic methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus involved in the metabolism of single-carbon compounds ... There are two major ways in which methane is removed from the environment: aerobic oxidation by a specialized group of bacteria ... Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus ( ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2005-6-2-208

Development of a Multiple Inoculator System for the Identification of Aerobic Heterotrophic BacteriaDevelopment of a Multiple Inoculator System for the Identification of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria

... Published Online: 1984 ... Title Development of a Multiple Inoculator System for the Identification of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria. Symposium , ... Twenty-one species of environmental and culture collection bacteria were tested for the following characteristics: nitrate ... inoculator described was judged a simple and versatile device for the rapid identification of large numbers of bacteria. ...
more infohttps://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/JOURNALS/TESTEVAL/PAGES/JTE10724J.htm

Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria - Semantic ScholarGram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria - Semantic Scholar

This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain ... A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria. Known as: Gram Negative Aerobic Bacteria A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as ... Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.. *Julia Ling, Lefan Zhang, Yim W Hui, Gary Lawrence ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Gram-Negative-Aerobic-Bacteria/4575026

Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from aerobic rice
							| African Journal of Biotechnology
	...Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from aerobic rice | African Journal of Biotechnology ...

Keywords: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria ... Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from aerobic rice * QA Panhwar ... A study was conducted to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from aerobic rice grown in Penang Malaysia and to ... Key words: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria. ...
more infohttps://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/100662

Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the...Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the...

NOLA, Moïse et al. Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in ... the hourly abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB), over a daily period, in 3 ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1816-79502012000500013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Expression of the puf operon in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans.  - PubMed - NCBIExpression of the puf operon in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans. - PubMed - NCBI

Expression of the puf operon in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans.. Nishimura K1, Shimada H, Ohta ... to represent a mode of adaptation that allowed the former cells to avoid photodynamic damage by light under highly aerobic ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8665093?dopt=Abstract

aerobic bacteria Archives - Schnarrs Blogaerobic bacteria Archives - Schnarr's Blog

Tag Archives: aerobic bacteria by Carolyn Hasenfratz Help - My Pond is Full of Algae! Help - My Pond is Full of Algae!. by ... Oxygen is important for the health of the aquatic community as a whole, including the aerobic bacteria that are doing most of ... so that you dont kill the beneficial bacteria that live in the filter media. Beneficial bacteria that break down waste grow on ... These bacteria are what make most filters function. This is called biological filtration. Other types of filtration include ...
more infohttp://schnarrsblog.com/tag/aerobic-bacteria/

Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.  - PubMed - NCBIDiverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. - PubMed - NCBI

Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.. Zheng Q1, Zhang R, Koblížek M ... Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic ... Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their ... Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949847?dopt=Abstract

Rapid Identification Method of Aerobic Bacteria in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Using an Electronic Nose! | DF BlogRapid Identification Method of Aerobic Bacteria in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Using an Electronic Nose! | DF Blog

Rapid Identification Method of Aerobic Bacteria in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Using an Electronic Nose!. Posted on August 20, 2013. ... In this study, an electronic nose is proposed to recognize types of bacteria in the diabetic foot ulcer on patients with the ... Bacteria classification is also enhanced by pattern analysis using FFBP (Feed Forward Back Propagation) and SOM (Self ... nose in identifying bacteria on diabetic foot ulcers works effectively as the high accuracy obtained for the bacteria ...
more infohttps://diabeticfootonline.com/2013/08/20/rapid-identification-method-of-aerobic-bacteria-in-diabetic-foot-ulcers-using-an-electronic-nose/

Aerobic bacteria in post surgical wound infections and pattern of their antimicrobial susceptibility in Ayder Teaching and...Aerobic bacteria in post surgical wound infections and pattern of their antimicrobial susceptibility in Ayder Teaching and...

... we conducted this research to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of aerobic bacteria in post- ... Isolated bacteria showed 102/123 (82.92%) multi drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics in the hospital. However, 54/ ... surveillance of etiologic agent and antibiotic susceptibility to prevent further emergence and spread of resistant bacteria ... Aerobic bacteria in post surgical wound infections and pattern of their antimicrobial susceptibility in Ayder Teaching and ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-7-575

Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic conditions on...Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic conditions on...

A novel indigenous bacterium, strain JM10, isolated from the oligotrophic Hei He reservoir was characterized and show... ... Article Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic ... Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under oligotrophic conditions. 0 ... No comments were found for Denitrification characteristics of a newly isolated indigenous aerobic denitrifying bacterium under ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/denitrification-characteristics-of-a-newly-isolated-indigenous-aerobic-denitrifying-bacterium-under--663172
  • A study was conducted to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from aerobic rice grown in Penang Malaysia and to determine some biochemical properties of the isolates such as, organic acids, enzymes, indoleacetic acid (IAA), siderophore production and its antagonistic effect against pathogen Rhizoctonia solani . (ajol.info)
  • Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has revealed a highly versatile metabolic potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular the use of cultivation-independent methods targeting a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase ( pmoA ) as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing "unknown methanotrophic bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • The discovery of evolutionary related monooxygenases in non-methanotrophic bacteria and of pmoA paralogs in methanotrophs requires that sequence clusters of uncultivated organisms have to be interpreted with care. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review article describes the present diversity of cultivated and uncultivated aerobic methanotrophic bacteria based on pmoA gene sequence diversity. (frontiersin.org)
  • It summarizes current knowledge about cultivated and major clusters of uncultivated methanotrophic bacteria and evaluates habitat specificity of these bacteria at different levels of taxonomic resolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • The major sink of atmospheric methane is its oxidation by OH radicals, but soils also serve as sink by about 5% due to the activity of methanotrophic bacteria ( IPCC, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacteria possessing different kinetic characteristics for oxygen and employing distinct metabolic pathways for the degradation of (halo)aromatic substrates for which oxygen is needed as co-substrate may have to compete with each other in such environments. (rug.nl)
  • All these ecosystems with source function for atmospheric methane are typical habitats of methane-oxidizing bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the start of the test, the Sample Bactericide at 100 mg / liter concentration in duplicate bottels is inculated with Aerobic Bacteria challeng, i. e. 1% Inoculum taken from a fully grown culture, Test Solution contains 8.9 ml Sterile Injection Water + 1.0 ml (1000 mg/litir) Sample Solution + 1.0 ml Culture. (oilfieldchemicals.in)
  • The realization that the synthesized BChl a by obligately aerobic heterotrophs led to further research to determine their phylogenetic and taxonomic positions, in order to hopefully reveal their evolutionary origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apparently, these aerobic BChl-containing bacteria represent an evolutionary transient phase from anaerobic phototrophs to aerobic non-phototrophs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane-oxidizing bacteria are characterized by their capability to grow on methane as sole source of carbon and energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Isolated bacteria showed 102/123 (82.92%) multi drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics in the hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel indigenous bacterium, strain JM10, isolated from the oligotrophic Hei He reservoir was characterized and showed aerobic denitrification ability. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Strain JM10 displayed very high levels of activity in aerobic conditions, consuming over 94.3% NO 3 − -N (approximately 3.06 mg L −1 ) with a maximum reduction rate of 0.108 mg NO 3 − -N L −1 h −1 . (environmental-expert.com)
  • Methods of increasing yields of succinate using aerobic culture methods and a multi-mutant E. coli strain are provided. (rice.edu)
  • It is strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and this genus produces both insoluble and soluble exopolysaccharides (EPSs). (sciencephoto.com)
  • There are two major ways in which methane is removed from the environment: aerobic oxidation by a specialized group of bacteria and anaerobic oxidation by a specialized group of archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biochemistry of aerobic methane oxidation is relatively well understood, following intensive research efforts with a number of model organisms, but the biochemistry of anaerobic methane oxidation is not yet fundamentally understood and no anaerobic methane-oxidizer has been isolated in pure culture so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two recent studies [ 1 , 2 ] have used a whole-genome-shotgun sequencing approach to complement the mounting dataset on the biochemistry and regulation of aerobic methane oxidation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria contributes significantly to the global methane budget. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3M Food Safety has announced the global launch of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Aerobic Count Plate, the next generation of a trusted, accurate and easy test that can detect aerobic bacteria counts in just 24 hours for most food matrices. (tri-mach.com)
  • Proven to be as reliable as Standard Methods Agar, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Aerobic Count Plate offers a faster time-to-result, technology that reduces the impact of spreader colonies, and a simplified inoculation area to drive greater efficiency and reduce costly retesting and delayed results. (tri-mach.com)
  • The new 3M Petrifilm Rapid Aerobic Count Plate has received certification (#121403) from the AOAC® INTERNATIONAL Performance Tested Methods℠ (PTM) program inserts. (tri-mach.com)
  • The GreenLight® 910 can calculate live aerobic bacteria loads in as little as 45 minutes making it possible to perform real time operational changes to processes and automatically record results. (safetyonline.com)
  • If you have a type of filter that uses media that you rinse out, rather than replace, rinse the filter media in chlorine free water (such as old pond water that you've removed during water changes) so that you don't kill the beneficial bacteria that live in the filter media. (schnarrsblog.com)
  • For example the sponge picks up large particles and takes them out of circulation while the bacteria that live in the tiny holes in the sponge digest the water pollutants and turn them into less toxic substances. (schnarrsblog.com)
  • At the start of the test the Sample Bactericide at 100 mg/litre concentration in duplicate bottles, is inoulated with Sulphate Reducing Bacteria challenge i.e 1% Inculum taken from a fully grown culture. (oilfieldchemicals.in)
  • Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial diversity of organisms. (frontiersin.org)