One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/19400)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (2/19400)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (3/19400)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (4/19400)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (5/19400)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems. (6/19400)

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (7/19400)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement. (8/19400)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement.  (+info)

Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin (2000): Bacterial activity parameters in sediment core SO129_MC-17. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Boetius, A et al. (2000): Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea in relation to vertical flux. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 47(14), 2835-2875,
Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin (2000): Bacterial activity parameters in sediment core SO118_MC-20. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Boetius, A et al. (2000): Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea in relation to vertical flux. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 47(14), 2835-2875,
Marine microorganisms and their extracellular enzymes (ECEs) play an important role in the remineralization of organic material by hydrolyzing high-molecular-weight substrates to sizes sufficiently small to be transported through cell membrane, yet the diversity of the enzyme-producing bacteria and the types of ECEs involved in the degradation process are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the diversity of cultivable bacteria and their ECEs and the potential activities of aminopeptidase in the water column at eight different depths of the New Britain Trench. There was a great diversity of cultivable bacteria and ECEs, and depth appears an important driver of the diversity. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the cultivable bacteria were affiliated mostly with the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the predominant genera were Pseudoalteromonas (62.7%) and Halomonas (17.3%). Moreover, 70.7% of the isolates were found to produce hydrolytic zone on casein and gelatin plates,
The cell wall also makes Gram staining possible. Gram staining is a method of staining bacteria involving crystal violet dye, iodine, and the counterstain safranin. Many bacteria can be classified into one of two types: gram-positive, which show the stain and appear violet in color under a microscope, and gram-negative, which only show the counterstain, and appear red. Gram-positive bacteria appear violet because they have thick cell walls that trap the crystal violet-iodine complex. The thin cell walls of gram-negative bacteria cannot hold the violet-iodine complex, but they can hold safranin. This makes gram-negative bacteria appear red under Gram staining. Gram staining is used for general identification of bacteria or to detect the presence of certain bacteria; it cannot be used to identify bacteria in any specific way, such as at a species level. Examples of gram-positive bacteria include the genera Listeria, Streptococcus, and Bacillus, while gram-negative bacteria include Proteobacteria, ...
Previous work has explored the use of bacteria as biosensors to report information from their environments. However, these efforts have typically used electrochemical or optical properties of well-characterized strains in response to defined targets that are generally metabolized. In contrast, this study built on previous analyses of the relationships between bacterial communities and their environments (8, 30) to show that, with appropriate training data and analytical models, natural bacterial communities can be used as biosensors for a diverse array of geochemical measurements, including many which are not directly metabolized. There is no need for prior knowledge of the relevant strains or pathways-these are identified as a product of the statistical models employed.. In this effort, we have focused on samples collected from within a single geographic area. Future efforts should prioritize the evaluation of biosensors trained in one environment against data collected from a similar ...
A standardized bacterial taxonomy based on genome ...Development of a robust bacterial taxonomy has been hindered by an inability to obtain most bacteria in pure culture and, to a lesser extent, by the historical use of phenotypes to guid … A standardized bacterial taxonomy based on genome phylogeny substantially revises the tree of life
Beneficial changes in rumen bacterial community profile in sheep and dairy calves as a result of feeding the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ...
Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables can harbor large and diverse populations of bacteria. However, most of the work on produce-associated bacteria has focused on a relatively small number of pathogenic bacteria and, as a result, we know far less about the overall diversity and composition of those bacterial communities found on produce and how the structure of these communities varies across produce types. Moreover, we lack a comprehensive view of the potential effects of differing farming practices on the bacterial communities to which consumers are exposed. We addressed these knowledge gaps by assessing bacterial community structure on conventional and organic analogs of eleven store-bought produce types using a culture-independent approach, 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Our results demonstrated that the fruits and vegetables harbored diverse bacterial communities, and the communities on each produce type were significantly distinct from one another. However, certain produce types (i.e., ...
Abstract : The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to ...
Bacteria help our bodies with digestion and produce needed vitamins. Bacteria also help us by destroying harmful organisms within our bodies.. There are more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells.. Most bacteria reproduce using a process called binary fission. To do this, a single bacterium will grow to twice its normal size and then split into two daughter cells. The two new cells are exact copies of the original bacterium.. Bacteria are used to make cheese, milk, sourdough bread and yogurt.. 99% of all bacteria are helpful.. Dead or weakened bacteria and viruses are used for making helpful vaccines.. Scientists estimate that bacteria produce nearly half the oxygen found in the atmosphere.. Helpful bacteria are used to purify water at sewage treatment plants and to break down oil after oil spills.. One healthy bacterium, given the proper environment, could reproduce into a colony of more than 2 million in just seven hours.. There are more microbes on your body than there ...
Dr. Sayeed Ahmad D. I. Hom. (London). Bacteria are simple organisms that consist of one cell. They are among the smallest living things. Most bacteria measure from 0.3 to 2.0 microns in diameter and can be seen only through a microscope. (One micron equals 0.001 millimeter or 1/25,400 inch.) Scientists classify bacteria as prokaryotes.. Bacteria exist almost everywhere. There are thousands of kinds of bacteria, most of which are harmless to human beings. Large numbers of bacteria live in the human body but cause no harm. Some species cause diseases, but many others are helpful.. The importance of bacteria. Helpful bacteria. Certain kinds of bacteria live in the intestines of human beings and other animals. These bacteria help in digestion and in destroying harmful organisms. Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins needed by the body.. Bacteria in soil and water play a vital role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other chemical elements used by living things. Many bacteria help ...
Many studies on bacterial community composition (BCC) do not distinguish between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria or neglect the PA fraction by pre-filtration removing most particles. Although temporal and spatial gradients in environmental variables are known to shape BCC, it remains unclear how and to what extent PA and FL bacterial diversity responds to such environmental changes. To elucidate the BCC of both bacterial fractions related to different environmental settings, we studied surface samples of three Baltic Sea stations (marine, mesohaline and oligohaline) in two different seasons (summer and fall/winter). Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed significant differences in BCC of both bacterial fractions among stations and seasons, with a particularly high number of PA operational taxonomic units (OTUs at genus-level) at the marine station in both seasons.
What: Academic Seminar, Dr. Emma Allen Vercoe, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph Topic: Understanding gut microbial community dynamics using an in vitro bioreactor model When: Monday, August 14, 10:30-11:30 a.m. Where: Robert B. Schultz Lecture Theatre
This bacterium can be airborne so if you are around someone with TB, then there is a good chance that you will get it as well. When you do, the bacterium enters and if you have a strong immune system, you may not notice the disease right away because your immune is fighting off the bacteria. when the bacteria cant take over, it starts to reproduce more of its kind and sooner or later, your immune system wont stand a chance against the bacteria. As this battle continues, bacteria reproduces its kind to make a large group.When the immune system cannot take anymore, the bacteria invades and since there are so many bacteria cells, it is like an explosion of disease in the body. The macrophage are phagocytic cells and if they cant kill the bacteria, then the bacteria will replicate by cell division until the macrophage bursts. The bacteria are then taken over by the macrophage and soon the bacteria is being eaten by macrophage in the bloodstreams. The bacteria spreads into the bloodstream but the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of conditions for culture of test bacteria used for direct bioautographic TLC detection. 2. Gram-negative test bacterium. T2 - Escherichia coli. AU - Nagy, Sándor. AU - Koszegi, Tamás. AU - Botz, Lajos. AU - Kocsis, Béla. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - Direct bioautography is a potent means of obtaining information about the antimicrobial activity of a compound separated from a complex mixture. In this process the developed TLC plate is dipped into a broth culture of a test bacterium and the bacterium will grow directly on the plate. Optimum experimental conditions must, however, be used for each test bacterium. The main purpose of this study was to find optimum culture conditions for a Gram-negative test bacterium, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) enabling us to establish a direct bioautographic method with the shortest possible performance time. Because the intracellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) level is a direct and sensitive measure of bacterial ...
Bacteria are tiny cells that can enter the human body and cause infections that make humans sick. In order to get better, the body needs to kill or stop the growth of these bacteria. Doctors give medicines called antibiotics to help the body get rid of an infection. Penicillin is a common antibiotic often used to stop bacteria from growing. It does this by preventing the bacteria from building a cell wall, which makes it difficult for it to grow and reproduce. However, bacteria can build resistance, or develop a defense against antibiotics. This makes the antibiotic less effective at killing the bacteria.. Humans are currently overusing antibiotics, and as a result there are more antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Penicillin, and other antibiotics in the same family, are becoming less effective at killing bacteria. Therefore, scientists have to find a new kind of antibiotic that will stop the growth of bacteria in other ways. One current approach is to disrupt cell division, which prevents bacteria ...
Introduction. Experiment 4 Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives: * Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for measuring microbial numbers. * Study the theoretical relationship of one bacterial cell, or clump of cells. * Study the effect of dilution to the bacteria growth. * Determine the cell masses of a culture in order estimates the total cellular protoplasm per milliliter of culture. * To learn both quantitative plating methods which are spread plate and pour plate to measure the number of bacteria. * To understand the measurement for the number bacteria by performing plate and dilution count. Result and Observations: Part I: Spread Plate Unlabelled sample - Dilution factor 10-1 Sample A - Dilution factor 10-2 Sample B - Dilution factor 10-3 Sample C - Dilution factor 10-4 Observation: According to the observation, the result is showed that the colonies of E.coli cultures are too numerous to count via normal visible with density diminish from sample A to ...
In nitritationammox reactors, several bacterial groups contribute to the overall nitrogen conversion. Knowing the activity of the main bacterial groups, especially of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AMX), is extremely helpful to understand the process and optimise its operation. Mass balances of dissolved compounds such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate commonly allow the determination of bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process, but the activity of heterotrophic bacteria (HET) is usually neglected. However, even in wastewater with a low organic substrate content, heterotrophic denitrification can contribute substantially to nitrogen removal. The goal of this study was to critically evaluate the applicability of mass balances for the determination of the relevant bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process with high HET activity. We set up and solved mass balances of different degrees of complexity. Both linear equation systems, with catabolic reactions alone and with ...
This chapter provides a brief summary of a classification system for medically important bacteria, based on a traditional phenotypic approach. The primary focus is on organisms that are significant causes of disease in the tropics and subtropics.
There is no escape, as they follow you everywhere. Your body is riddled with bacteria. There are armpit bacteria, mouth bacteria, nose bacteria, hair bacteria and many more. In fact around 100 trillion bacteria give or take a few call you home. Scientists have now compiled a huge list of bacteria on the human body, and it has revealed that everyone has their own personalized community of bacteria. Find out more about this research and some key bacteria facts in this article.
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Antibiotics are used to kill the growth of bacteria. It is basically used to cure diseases. Antibiotics do not harm us.. Today, people fear that bacteria do not die from antibiotics, because bacteria are too strong. This can happen when antibiotics are used too much. If they are regularly used, some bacteria may develop an immunity to the antibiotic. These bacteria can then reproduce and make a large colony of bacteria immune from the antibiotic. Now, scientists find out that antibiotics losing war against germs. Many bacteria got antibiotic resistance and they love to feast on antibiotics. According to wikipedia, Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called ...
Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Newcastle University. Widespread antibiotic use is largely to blame for the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which is currently one of the biggest threats to global health. Not only does antibiotic resistance already cause an estimated 700,000 deaths a year, its also made numerous infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhoea, harder to treat. Without knowing how to stop bacteria from developing antibiotic resistance, its predicted that preventable diseases could cause 10m deaths a year by 2050. Some of the ways that bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through changes in the bacterias genome. For example, bacteria can pump the antibiotics out, or they can break the antibiotics down. They can also stop growing and divide, which makes them difficult to spot for the immune system.. However, our research has focused on another little known method that bacteria use to become antibiotic resistant. We have directly shown that bacteria can ...
So what are these key features? First, we showed that bacterial community in the distribution system is highly similar to the community leaving the drinking water treatment plant (~80% shared bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU)). Second, the richness of the bacterial community (i.e., how many different OTUs) is strongly correlated with both temperature and the composition of the source water - with colder months showing lower richness as compared to the warmer months. Third, we detected a strong correlation between the change in drinking water bacterial community and the distance travelled by the water along a linear flow path in the drinking water distribution system. Fourth, the bacterial community changes seasonally and shows annual reproducibility (i.e., bacterial communities are highly similar one year apart). Fifth, we showed that these seasonal changes are driven by specific bacterial clusters - a cluster that dominates in the winter and one that dominates in the summer, with a ...
Antibiotics cant distinguish between the good and the bad bacteria. There is a delicate balance of billions of bacteria inside our digestive tract. Bifido bacteria in the large intestine and acidophilus in the small intestine and vagina protect against infection by yeast and other bad bacteria. Also friendly bacteria found on the skin protect against bad bacteria, yeast and fungal infections. Continued use of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, can seriously disrupt the normal ecology of the body and render anyone more susceptible to pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria, yeast, viral and parasitic infection.. The worst thing one can do is to take only a few of the antibiotic prescribed. Shortened course of antibiotics often wipes out only the most vulnerable bacteria, while allowing relatively resistant bacteria to survive. Naturally, youll begin to feel better quickly. Then most people either forget to take pills, or stop taking them intentionally because they think the ...
Bacteria are living organisms. They come in different shapes and sizes but are only ever one cell. Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two, to produce two bacteria genetically identical to the original. In the right conditions (usually warm, moist conditions), bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes, which means if you start with one bacterium, in one hour you could have 8. Bacteria live all over our skin and right through our alimentary canal. Most bacteria are harmless to us and some can even help us digest food. These harmless bacteria can also help prevent harmful ones from having the opportunity to attack us.. See a video of how bacteria multiply below.. ...
The bacteria produce compounds, called cephalosporinases, which inactivate and destroy certain antibiotics such as penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins, protecting themselves and other beneficial bacteria that live in close proximity. However, they may also give protection from these antibiotics to harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella.. The gut is home to hundreds of trillions of bacteria, which have important roles in maintaining our health. But a side effect of taking antibiotics is that these may also kill off some of our beneficial gut bacteria, allowing harmful bacteria to gain a foothold and cause an infection. Susceptibility to antibiotics isnt uniform in the hundreds of species that colonise our guts, and some of the most common bacteria, the Bacteroides, are among the most resistant.. By scanning the genome of strains of Bacteroides bacteria that live in the gut, the researchers found genes that produce an enzyme called cephalospoprinase, which specifically destroys certain ...
INITIAL-#-BACTERIA-PER-VARIATION is the number of bacteria you start with in each of the six possible variations in flagella number. The overall population of bacteria is determined by multiplying this value by 6.. ENERGY-COST-PER-FLAGELLA determines how much energy is lost for every flagella that a bacteria has, each time step. Bacteria with 6 flagella will lose 6 times this value, whereas bacteria with one flagellum will lose 1 times this value. This energy loss is deducted on top of a base metabolism energy loss for all bacteria each time step.. VISUALIZE-VARIATION helps you apply different visualization cues to see which variation each a bacterium has. When set to flagella and color, the number of flagella will appear on each bacterium and these will flap/twist back and forth as the bacteria moves. The color of the bacteria will correspond to how many flagella it has (red = 6, orange = 5, yellow = 4, green = 3, blue = 2, and violet = 1). When set to either flagella only or color only ...
Drugs that stop bacteria from talking might be new, powerful antibiotics - a much needed weapon in our never-ending struggle against bacterial infections. On the other hand, drugs that make bacteria chat more could boost the production of biofuels and other industrial goods that bacteria make for us. In 1990 a young Bonnie Bassler, mesmerized by glow-in-the-dark bacteria that could talk to their peers to coordinate light production, wondered whether other bacteria could talk too. The answer, she soon found out, was yes - including all the nasty bacteria that cause disease. Today, Bonnie Bassler is a professor in molecular biology at Princeton University and an authority in the field of bacterial communication. Her findings, that all bacteria can talk, revolutionized the way we think of bacteria and opened the doors to important medical and industrial applications. But the discovery of bacterial communication has given us much more than new drugs. It has shown us how bacteria live in the real
Medical News Today explains exactly what bacteria are and what their function is in the body:. Bacteria are single-cell organisms that are neither plants nor animals.. They usually measure a few micrometers in length and exist together in communities of millions. …. There are many different types of bacteria. One way of classifying them is by shape. There are three basic shapes. …. Bacteria are often thought of as bad, but many are helpful. We would not exist without them. The oxygen we breathe was probably created by the activity of bacteria.. The good bacteria in the gut are essential to human survival because they break down nutrients like complex sugars in such a way that they can be used by the body.. These beneficial bacteria also help to prevent disease by occupying spaces that bad, pathogenic bacteria would like to occupy, and in some cases by directly attacking these pathogens.. Bacteria are essential to the survival of plant life because they release nitrogen when they die, and ...
Taking propionate wont do much good if your gut bacteria is infectious and inflammatory - bad bacteria produce highly inflammatory compounds called lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The key to a gut microbiome that promotes heart health is to eat about 25-30 grams of fiber a day. Its also key for that produce to be as diverse as possible; dont eat the same veggies over and over. Also, moderate your intake of fruit (fruits are high in sugar, which is inflammatory). Its the diversity of vegetables that matters most. Studies show a diverse gut microbiome is what lowers risk of disease. Change up the vegetables you eat regularly and shop at different types of ethnic markets to try new types of produce. Even a teaspoon of different veggies each day is enough to help colonize the anti-inflammatory bacteria that will keep your heart healthy. When you eat diverse plant fibers, supplementing with butyrate and propionate will help your gut bacteria their own SCFAs. Also, make sure to stabilize your blood ...
Translation for: neutrophil bacterial activity in English->Croatian dictionary. Search over 14 million words and phrases in more than 490 language pairs.
Most of the around 100 trillion bacteria living in hiding in our intestines - the gut microbiota - are difficult to grow using traditional methods, because they do not tolerate atmospheric oxygen. Within the past few years, new research based on gene technology and advanced bioinformatics has made it possible to analyse the composition and function of intestinal bacteria from their DNA. The bacteria produce many different types of substances that affect our physiology and health in numerous ways.. In the field of disease research, changes in the composition and function of the complex intestinal bacterial communities - so-called dysbioses - have become a focus area. It is, however, a weakness of the studies that researchers have not taken into account the potential effects of drugs on the patients intestinal bacteria. For that reason, it is not possible to determine which dysbiosis is associated with specific diseases and which changes in intestinal bacteria are associated with medical ...
What makes a bad bacteria bad? The worst bacteria (the ugly) either directly destroy tissue by feeding upon it or produce a toxin that destroys tissue. Other bacteria (the bad) react negatively to food, or are poor fermenters of food, creating IBS symptoms like gas and diarrhea. And some species of yeast and bacteria are bad simply because they take up space, thereby crowding out the good bacteria and depriving your body of all the health-giving benefits that friendly bacteria provide, resulting in the poor digestion of food and the poor absorption of nutrients.. The ugly bacteria are never regarded as normal flora within the body. They are not usually considered to be causes of IBS, but they do cause severe, often life-threatening, conditions. Ugly bacteria include Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter, and certain strains of E. coli. Just a tiny amount of the most virulent strains of bacteria in a persons body is enough to begin the process of infestation. The ...
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. For example, some Lactobacillus species are used in cheese making. Professional Version The trusted provider of medical information since 1899. Examples of aerotolerant bacteria include: Streptococcus spp; Clostridium spp like C. perfringens; Characteristics of aerotolerant bacteria include: Anaerobic in nature; Use fermentation (in the presence or absence of oxygen) 0 thank. protozoans, bacteria) or multicellular. Gram-negative bacteria refers to a broad category of bacteria that are unable to retain the crystal violet dye owing to their distinct cell wall structure. Soft tissue damage can also occur due to endotoxins, produced by the bacteria. Throat infections are often accompanied by pain, swelling, choking sensation, fever, and bad breath. Bacteria are of different shapes and are measured in micro-meter (a millionth part of a meter). Types of Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria. C. tetani, is found as ...
The terms Nus-G [nuss-G] and R-F-A-H probably sound like little more than alphabet mumbo jumbo to most folks. But scientists say these molecules might be the keys to survival for disease-causing bacteria like E. coli.. Nus-G and R-F-A-H help regulate growth and determine how effectively bacteria can infect a host. Understanding how bacteria grow and ward off immune system attacks could lead to drugs that keep infections at bay.. In the molecular world, Nus-G and R-F-A-H act like light switches. They latch on to a cells DNA and turn genes on or off. Found in all bacteria, Nus-G regulates about ninety-seven percent of a bacteriums genetic code. Without it, bacteria would die. Scientists recently discovered that R-F-A-H oversees the remaining three percent of the genome. Its sole purpose? To make bacteria infectious.. Once triggered, R-F-A-H allows bacteria to infect a host, arming them with enough power to resist the immune systems defenses.. Its a delicate balancing act. Too little R-F-A-H ...
Bacteria are tiny one-celled organisms present throughout the environment that require a microscope to be seen. The vast majority of bacteria are not harmful to human beings. Many of them are normally found on or in the human body, and not only do not cause disease, but provide some benefit. For example, the human gut normally contain a complement of intestinal flora which assist digestion. Some food products involve bacteria in their production. Sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt, and some kinds of cheese contain living cultures of live bacteria when eaten. Vinegar is traditionally produced by the growth of the Acetobacter bacterium in wine. (Wine itself is produced, not by bacteria, but by yeast, which is also a microorganism that is classified as a fungi.) While not all bacteria are harmful, some cause disease. The technical term for these is pathogenic bacteria (pathogenic being nothing more than a combination of the Greek roots for disease and causing). Examples of bacterial disease include ...
Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York have uncovered the unique way in which a type of Gram-negative bacterium delivers the toxins that make us sick. Understanding this mechanism may help design better ways to block and eventually control those toxins.
There are bacteria in the soil that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable - these drugs are our versions of natural compounds that bacteria have been assaulted with for millions of years. Of course, they would have evolved resistance.. There are also disease-causing bacteria in our hospitals and clinics that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable too - we expose ourselves, often unnecessarily, to high doses of such drugs. Of course, bacteria would have evolved resistance.. Heres something fascinating though: some of the genes that confer resistance to the harmless soil bacteria are exactly the same as the ones that confer resistance to the devastating clinical ones. Exactly the same, DNA letter for DNA letter.. This new discovery, by Gautam Dantas, suggests that environmental bacteria may be supplying genetic weapons to the ones that kill us (or the other way around). Ive written about this secret arms trade for The Scientist. Check it out.. ...
As our understanding of healthy gut bacteria evolves, so does the information on how to cultivate your own microbiome while inhibiting overgrowth of bad bacteria that are infectious and inflammatory. Initially, fermented foods and probiotics were thought to be the main recourse.. Then we learned eating a diet comprised primarily of vegetables and fruits and continually changing up the produce you eat is a great way to develop a rich and diverse gut bacteria population.. Now, scientists have used both a mouse study and a human study to show regular exercise, independent of diet or other factors, also promotes healthy gut bacteria.. In the first study, researchers transplanted fecal material from both exercised and sedentary mice into mice with sterile guts. The activity level of the mice receiving the transplants clearly mirrored that of their donors, showing that the kind of gut bacteria we have plays a role in how inclined we are to be sedentary or active.. The exercised mice recipients ...
Natural News) A recent study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine has identified a bacterial enzyme called urease that plays a central role in the gut microbiome imbalance commonly associated with Crohns disease. A team of health experts at the Penn Medicine and Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has carried out an analysis of fecal samples from Crohns disease patients ...
Then, in the first decade of the 20th century, German physician Paul Ehrlich noticed that certain chemical dyes coloured some bacteria but not others, meaning that certain bacteria could be selectively targeted, which is pretty important in a medicine. (The selectivity principle, by the way, is how the gram test works. It differentiates between gram positive bacteria, which have a thick cell wall made of a protein called peptidoglycan, and gram negative bacteria, which dont, because a violet stain stays on the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacteria and not on the gram-negatives ones. So you just add the chemicals and check if the bacteria are violet or not.) Anyway, Ehrlich then tested a ton of drugs on rabbits infected with syphilis and eventually came up with Salvarsan, a literal lifesaver for sufferers of syphilis, which was extremely common at the time ...
This happens because bacteria reproduce very quickly, and many generations can come and go in a relatively short amount of time. Combine this with the high level of bacteria that seem to swap genes and you have a recipe for disaster. Currently about 700.000 people a year are dying due to infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Predictions are that the number will reach 10 million a year by the year 2050. Thats, of course, assuming that the level of resistance stays on the same curve and that there are not any unforeseen changes in bacteria behavior.. While these predictions look dire, there is new hope in the form of a new treatment for bacteria by using micro polymers called SNAPPs, which is an acronym for structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers. SNAPPs work by targeting the cellular walls of bacteria and damaging them, which ultimately kills the bacteria. SNAPPs are still in the early phases of testing and thus far have only been tested on lab mice. But ...
What color do Gram + bacteria stain? Gram-? How do bacterial cells differ from other types of cells? How are chickenpox & shingles alike? Why do people get the flu more than once? What scientist discovered that viruses arent cellular? Name several things used to classify viruses. What are the 3 shapes for bacteria & give the name for each shape? Can bacteria survive without oxygen? with oxygen? How does the size of bacterial cells compare to the size of eukaryotic cells? If a virus enters the Lysogenic cycle, can it change to the lytic cycle? Explain. What 2 things make up a virus? Why dont antibiotics kill some bacteria? What is necessary for a virus to reproduce? Are viruses cellular? Which bacteria are least responsive to antibiotics - Gram+ or Gram-? What are prions? What is a capsid? How does forming an endospore help bacteria? Describe the DNA of a bacterium. What are pili? What whiplike projections do some bacteria for movement use? What occurs during conjugation? What are retroviruses ...
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices, said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.. It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can only be seen through a microscope. However, bacteria have evolved ways to gather into ...
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The meeting of International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium , Lactobacillus and related organisms was held within the frame of the FoodMicro 2018 Congress (FoodMicro 2018, 3-6 September 2018, Berlin, Germany). The meeting comprised an open session with a workshop entitled Modern approaches of LAB identification and conservation and a closed session on issues related to ICSP Subcommittee activities.
article{6a5935e7-cef5-41b4-83a4-8e7a5354ed16, abstract = {Bacterial activity was studied in a growth system containing Pinus contorta seedlings inoculated with different mycorrhizal fungi. Nylon nets enabled separation of soil compartments with extramatrical mycorrhizal hyphae from soil compartments with roots and mycelium. In three separate experiments bacterial activity, estimated as thymidine incorporation, was reduced in soils with Paxillus involutus hyphae compared to controls without mycorrhizal hyphae. This effect was found irrespective of compartments with and without roots were compared. Laccaria bicolor only reduced the activity in one of these three experiments. Thelephora terrestris (tested in two experiments), Laccaria proxima, Suillus variegatus and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (one experiment), also reduced the thymidine and leucine incorporation rates of bacteria. The reduction for these fungi varied between 20% and 50% in all experiments. Numbers of viable bacteria appeared to be ...
Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, a thermophilic and obligately chemoautotrophic bacterium, assimilates ammonium using glutamine synthetase (GS). GS was purified using three chromatography steps. The purified GS was found to belong to GS type I on the basis of its subunit composition and molecular …
6,7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine is the biosynthetic precursor of riboflavin, which, as a coenzyme, plays a vital role in the electron transfer process for energy production in all cellular organisms. The enzymes involved in lumazine biosynthesis have been studied in considerable detail. However, the conclusive mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by lumazine synthase has remained unclear. Here, we report four crystal structures of the enzyme from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus in complex with different inhibitor compounds. The structures were refined at resolutions of 1.72 Angstrom, 1.85 Angstrom, 2.05 Angstrom and 2.2 Angstrom, respectively. The inhibitors have been designed in order to mimic the substrate, the putative reaction intermediates and the final product. Structural comparisons of the native enzyme and the inhibitor complexes as well as the kinetic data of singlesite mutants of lumazine synthase from Bacillus subtilis showed that several highly conserved residues at ...
Tindall,B.J. ( 2008 ) Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Bacteria. The type strain of Lactobacillus casei is ATCC 393, ATCC 334 cannot serve as the type because it represents a different taxon, the name Lactobacillus paracasei and its subspecies names are not rejected and the revival of the name Lactobacillus zeae contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 82 International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58 (7) :1764-1765 ...
ABSTRACT: The relationship between bacterial community profile in biofilm and attachment of the acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite was investigated using a double-dish choice larval attachment bioassay and the DNA fingerprinting technique T-RFLP (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism). Biofilms for bioassays were either developed at 3 intertidal heights (i.e. high, mid and low) for 6 d or at the mid-intertidal height for 3 to 12 d. A clear distinction among biofilm communities at the 3 intertidal heights was revealed in the bacterial community profiles (determined by T-RFLP), biomass (determined by total organic carbon analysis), and abundance of bacteria and diatoms. Overall, cyprids of B. amphitrite preferred intertidal biofilms (i.e. 6 d old) over unfilmed surfaces for attachment. Moreover, cyprids also preferred to attach on biofilms of mid-intertidal height over high-intertidal or subtidal heights. There was no correlation between cypris attachment and any of the 3 biofilm ...
A quantitative molecular technique was developed for rapid analysis of microbial community diversity in various environments. The technique employed PCR in which one of the two primers used was fluorescently labeled at the 5 end and was used to amplify a selected region of bacterial genes encoding 16S rRNA from total community DNA. The PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes, and the fluorescently labeled terminal restriction fragment was precisely measured by using an automated DNA sequencer. Computer-simulated analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) for 1,002 eubacterial sequences showed that with proper selection of PCR primers and restriction enzymes, 686 sequences could be PCR amplified and classified into 233 unique terminal restriction fragment lengths or ribotypes. Using T-RFLP, we were able to distinguish all bacterial strains in a model bacterial community, and the pattern was consistent with the predicted outcome. Analysis of complex ...
Bacteria are common single-celled organisms and are a natural component of lakes, rivers, and streams. Most of these bacteria are harmless to humans; however, certain bacteria, some of which normally inhabit the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, have the potential to cause sickness and disease in humans. High numbers of these harmless bacteria often indicate high numbers of harmful bacteria as well as other disease-causing organisms such as viruses and protozoans.. One method of determining bacteria counts is to count the number of bacteria colonies that grow on a prepared medium.. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses.. Total ...
Some taxonomic recommendations and a proposal of neotype strains for nineteen species of Enterobacteriaceae. ICSB Subcommittee on taxonomy of ...
Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) - Science Exchange Lets You Compare Quotes From Leading Service Providers.
By Michael Biamonte CCN. While bacteria are an essential part of a healthy small bowel and perform important functions, the growth of the wrong small intestinal bacteria can lead to leaky gut and a number of other symptoms. This is a different yet similar condition to candida.. The predominant bacteria in the small intestines are from the Lactobacillus family. There are many types. Lactobacillus Acidophilus is the most well know. This is the bacteria found in yogurt and many supplements. It prevents candida growth in the small intestines, or small bowel. The normal small bowel, which connects the stomach to the large bowel, is approximately 20 feet long. Bacteria are normally present throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, but in varied amounts. Relatively few bacteria normally live in the small bowel (less than 10,000 bacteria per milliliter of fluid) when compared with the large bowel, or colon (at least 1,000,000,000 bacteria per milliliter of fluid). And the types of bacteria normally ...
URBANA, Ill. - One in three American adults suffers from high blood pressure, or hypertension. The disease can be passed down in families, and certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, high-sodium diets, and stress can increase the risk. In recent years, scientists have discovered that certain gut bacteria may contribute to hypertension, as well. In a few studies, when gut bacteria were killed off with antibiotics, patients with hypertension saw a drop in blood pressure. And when gut bacteria were transplanted from hypertensive people into normal mice, they developed high blood pressure. The evidence is compelling, but until now, scientists have not identified a mechanism to explain how bacteria increase blood pressure. Researchers from the University of Illinois and Brown University are pursuing a promising lead. Jason Ridlon, an assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences at U of I, first discovered the gene for an enzyme in certain bacteria that changes cortisol, a steroid ...
The composition of bacterial communities in Lake Baikal in different hydrological periods and at different depths (down to 1515 m) has been analyzed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 variable region. Most of the resulting 34 562 reads of the Bacteria domain have clustered into 1693 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified with the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Cyanobacteria. It has been found that their composition at the family level and relative contributions to bacterial communities distributed over the water column vary depending on hydrological period. The number of OTUs and the parameters of taxonomic richness (ACE, Chao1 indices) and diversity (Shannon and inverse Simpson index) reach the highest values in water layers. The composition of bacterial communities in these layers remains relatively constant, whereas that in surface layers differs between hydrological seasons. The dynamics of physicochemical conditions
Introduction to state-of-the-art technologies that are being used to study microbial systems biology Provides step-by-step detail essential for
Paneth cells are like the guardians of the intestine and autophagy is like their armor, said Yarovinsky, associate professor in the Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at URMC. When we removed their armor, the Paneth cells couldnt control the intestinal bacteria and it went wild, causing severe disease.. The study suggests that normal autophagy in Paneth cells is required to regulate bacteria in the gut, keeping it at bay and preventing the gut bacteria from invading host tissue. Paneth cells make up just 2 percent of the cells in the intestine, and the fact that restricting autophagy in these cells led to big problems was an unexpected result.. Gut bacteria play a role in inflammatory bowel disease. Scientists know that gut bacteria play a role in the development of IBD, which includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. But how bacteria in the gut are controlled in these conditions remains elusive. This study and others point to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corrigendum to Rates of susceptibility of carbapenems, ceftobiprole, and colistin against clinically important bacteria collected from intensive care units in 2007. T2 - Results from the Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART) [J Microbiol Immunol Infect 49. AU - Jean, Shio Shin. AU - Lee, Wen Sen. AU - Yu, Kwok Woon. AU - Liao, Chun Hsing. AU - Hsu, Chin Wan. AU - Chang, Feng Yi. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Chen, Ray Jade. AU - Wu, Jiunn Jong. AU - Chen, Yen Hsu. AU - Chen, Yao Shen. AU - Liu, Jien Wei. AU - Lu, Min Chi. AU - Lam, Carlos. AU - Liu, Cheng Yi. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2018/6. Y1 - 2018/6. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.jmii.2017.01.001. DO - 10.1016/j.jmii.2017.01.001. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85015290210. VL - 51. SP - 423. EP - 424. JO - Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and ...
Bacteriophages escaping from a dying bacterial cell (Streptococcus sp.), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This bacteriophage was discovered in freshwater near a sewage outlet. A bacteriophage, also known as a phage, is a virus (virion) that infects a bacterium. It consists of a head (capsid), containing the genetic material (either RNA or DNA) and usually a tail and tail fibres (not seen), which the phage uses to attach to a specific receptor sites on the bacterium. This specific binding means that a bacteriophage can only infect certain bacteria bearing specific receptors. Once attached to the cell surface genetic material is injected into the bacterium, taking over the bacteriums own cellular machinery and forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When sufficient numbers have been produced the phages escape from the bacterium by cellular lysis, killing the bacterium in the process. Magnification: x21,335 when shortest - Stock Image C032/0258
On the basis of Gram staining method bacteria are classified into two types. They are Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. Bacteria are also classified according to their growth and reproduction. Such classification includes Autotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. Autotrophic bacteria take the required carbon from carbon dioxide by itself. Some types of autotrophs will use sunlight to transform carbon dioxide to sugar. While heterotrophic bacteria will take sugar or carbon from the environment they live ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of phylogenetically different bacteria on the fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens in sand microcosms. AU - Tyc, Olaf. AU - Wolf, Alexandra. AU - Garbeva, Paolina. N1 - 5773, ME.; Data archiving: data archived at publisher.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - n most environments many microorganisms live in close vicinity and can interact in various ways. Recent studies suggest that bacteria are able to sense and respond to the presence of neighbouring bacteria in the environment and alter their response accordingly. This ability might be an important strategy in complex habitats such as soils, with great implications for shaping the microbial community structure. Here, we used a sand microcosm approach toinvestigate how Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 responds to the presence of monocultures or mixtures of two phylogenetically different bacteria, a Gram-negative (Pedobacter sp. V48) and a Gram-positive (Bacillus sp. V102) under two nutrient conditions. Results revealed that under ...
Johnson, Leander Floyd, The Effect of Antagonistic Soil Microorganisms on the Severity of Pythium Root Rot of Sugarcane. (1954). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 8087 ...
Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot ...
Newborns delivered by C-section acquire human skin microbes just after birth, but the sources remain unknown. We hypothesized that the operating room (OR) environment contains human skin bacteria that could be seeding C-section born infants. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 11 sites in four operating rooms from three hospitals in two cities. Following a C-section procedure, we swabbed OR floors, walls, ventilation grids, armrests, and lamps. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of 44 samples using Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences were analyzed using the QIIME pipeline. Only 68 % of the samples (30/44, |1000 sequences per site) yielded sufficient DNA reads to be analyzed. The bacterial content of OR dust corresponded to human skin bacteria, with dominance of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Diversity of bacteria was the highest in the ventilation grids and walls but was also present on top of the surgery lamps. Beta diversity analyses showed OR dust bacterial content clustering first
Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polymers forming variable outer layer when growing in their natural environment. (i) Capsule. Capsule forms a well-defined layer closely surrounding the cell. Functions: Capsule plays role in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria by contributing to invasiveness and preventing phagocytosis. Typing of certain bacteria are done on antigenic character of the capsule. Capsulated bacteria form smooth or mucoid colonies, and if they become noncapsulated then form rough colonies, e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extracellular material is polysaccharide except the capsule of Bacillus anthraces which is poly D-glutamic acid, a polypeptide. Capsule is demonstrated by special stain. (2) Glycocalyx. When the polymer forms a loose meshwork of fibrils, it is called glycocalyx. Glycocalyx plays role in adherence of bacteria on surface, e.g. Streptococcus mutans adheres to tooth enamel. (3) If the polymer is detached from the cells then it is called ...
I worked in different labs, and in 2008, at the Wageningen University, I grew my skins bacteria using agar from 30 different parts of my body.. This was aesthetically pleasing to the eye. It was amazing to see my bodys bacteria growing independently of my body in a Petri dish.. In another project, Cartography of the Human Body, I walked outside on one day in Vienna to cultivate bacteria from my own skin. I (came back inside) then collected the bacteria of my temporary skin flora and grew them first on agar plates. The different morphologies, colors and quantities of bacteria on different body areas were examined, analyzed, counted and documented. The bacteria were bred, partially reanimated and stored at -70 degrees C. In the framework of an interaction study, experiments were made to study the bacterias hierarchies. Weak bacteria that didnt seem to grow much at all or grew smaller were applied first to guarantee their unhindered growth and to achieve the desired colors on the bacterias ...
Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key one of Chessmuseum Template Library - free resume template for word education on a resume example ideas, to explore this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key idea you can browse by and . We hope your happy with this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key idea. You can download and please share this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key ideas to your friends and family via your social media account. Back to 50 Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet. ...
In this study, we have revealed novel and important aspects of the role of Nod2 for the development and composition of the mammalian intestinal microbiota. A detailed view into the colonisation process during mouse development highlights that microbial composition is not only influenced by genotype, but also by stage of development. Previous studies based on fingerprinting approaches found that the caecal microbiota in SPF mice changes drastically with age, but stabilises after 4 weeks.45 In our study based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, the microbial community continued to change after week 4b, fluctuating in the proportions of the three most abundant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria; figure 1B) until 10 weeks of age, at which point stable Firmicutes-dominated communities became apparent. Earlier culture-based studies found that the caecal microbiota matures as early as 4-5 weeks of age. These differences likely highlight the limitations of culture-dependent methods.46 Our ...
Modern molecular ecology techniques were used to demonstrate the effects of plant genotype and environmental conditions prior to harvest on the spinach epiphytic bacterial community. Three cultivars of spinach with different leaf topographies were collected at three different periods during the fall growing season. Leaf surface topography had an effect on diversity and number of culturable bacteria on the phylloepiphtyic community of spinach. Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. Bacterial community richness was compared using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), while abundance was quantified using 16s rRNA primers for major phyla. The most diverse communities, both in richness and abundance, were observed during the first sampling period, immediately following a period of
0126] It is another object of the present invention to provide a system 2000 adapted to detect and/or identify specific bacteria within an uncultured sample; said system 2000 comprising: [0127] a. means 100 for obtaining an absorption spectrum (AS) of said uncultured sample; said AS containing water influence; [0128] b. statistical processing means 200 for acquiring the n dimensional volume boundaries for said specific bacteria; said means 200 are characterized by: [0129] i. means 201 for obtaining at least one absorption spectrum (AS2) of known samples containing said specific bacteria; [0130] ii. means 202 for extracting x features from said entire AS2; said x features are selected from a group consisting of Correlation, peaks wavelength, peaks height, peaks width, peaks cross section, peaks area, at least one of the coefficients of a fitted polynomial curve, the total sum of areas under at least two peaks of the signal, linear prediction coefficient (LPC), mean value of the signal, ...
Within the Bacteria domain, there has been less consensus among taxonomists on how to organize bacteria into higher taxa (e.g., Kingdom, Sub-Kingdom, etc.).The Ninth Edition of Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (published in 1994) described three major categories of bacteria and one of archaeobacteria, and then further divided the bacteria categories into thirty different descriptive groups. According to the most current taxonomy (Garrity, et al., 2004), the Bacteria are now divided into twenty-four different phyla. Nearly all of the bacteria important in food fermentations, including lactic acid bacteria, belong to a single phylum, the firmicutes.Beyond the phyla, bacteria can be further divided into classes (and subclasses), orders (and sub-orders), families, and genera. Other details on their taxonomic positions will be described below.. ...
Original publication: McClung LS, McCoy E. Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: Breed RS, Murray EGD, Smith NR (eds), Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1957, p. 634-693. IJSEM list: Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA. Approved lists of bacterial names. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1980; 30:225-420. ...
Effect of microorganisms on rate of liquid extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths | P. G. Crabbe; C. W. Tse; P. A. Munro | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
API 20EIdentification System for Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram Negative Rods.1.The culture that I was given was culture B. The 7-digit numerical profile of my organism was 3604132. This organism is known as citrobater freudndii.2.Escherichia.Escher...
The development of continuously monitored blood culture instruments has led to a decrease in the detection time of bloodstream infections. However, specific identification of bacteria still requires conventional phenotypic methods. DNA probe assays have been developed for a limited number of pathogens that are frequently isolated from blood cultures (3, 13). For fastidious bacteria, subculture of the bacteria from blood culture bottles to solid media may require several days to weeks before phenotypic assays can provide an identification. These organisms are infrequently a cause of infection, and so immunologic or DNA probe assays have not been developed.. Recently, Turenne et al. (23) reported a rapid identification method for bacteria from blood cultures by using multiplex PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and analysis of the amplified fragments using nondenaturing electrophoresis. Their method could not differentiate two important pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PCR primers and probes for the 16S rRNA gene of most species of pathogenic bacteria, including bacteria found in cerebrospinal fluid. AU - Greisen, K.. AU - Loeffelholz, M.. AU - Purohit, A.. AU - Leong, D.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - A set of broad-range PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene in bacteria were tested, along with three series of oligonucleotide probes to detect the PCR product. The first series of probes is broad in range and consists of a universal bacterial probe, a gram-positive probe, a Bacteroides- Flavobacterium probe, and two probes for other gram-negative species. The second series was designed to detect PCR products from seven major bacterial species or groups frequently causing meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. The third series was designed for the detection of DNA from species or genera ...
The bacterial microflora of maple sap and biofilms in collection system tubing were studied through the use of bacterial counts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of surfaces and the analysis of 16S rRNA gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Samples were taken at five times during the 2002 and 2003 seasons in order to follow the changes in the microflora of this complex ecosystem. Bacterial counts showed the growth of bacterial populations as the season advanced. These populations were mainly composed of psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. SEM results confirmed the suspected presence of biofilms on the inner surfaces of tubing samples. Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation progressively increased during the season for both lateral and main line surfaces, and biofilms were mainly composed of rod shape bacteria. The bacterial microflora profiles obtained for sap and corresponding biofilm by DGGE showed up to 12 major bands. The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity ...
Freshwater streams display both temporal (time) and spatial (space) differences. Time variation is a result of seasonal influences and space variation is due to flow regime, substrate type, water solutes, suspended materials and incident light exposure. It is believed that bacterial communities are good indicators due to their rapid life cycle. However, if we cant see them, how do we know that they are present and observe changes? Bacteria can be detected using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) which creates fingerprints of microbial communities. The fingerprint produced is just like a human fingerprint, because it is unique to a bacteria species just like a fingerprint is unique to a person ...
Segmented filamentous bacteria or Candidatus Savagella are members of the gut microbiota of rodents, fish and chickens, and have been shown to potently induce immune responses in mice.[1] They form a distinct lineage within the Clostridiaceae and the name Candidatus Savagella has been proposed for this lineage.[2]. They were previously named Candidatus Arthromitus because of their morphological resemblance to bacterial filaments previously observed in the guts of insects by Joseph Leidy.[3]. Despite the fact that they have been widely referred to as segmented filamentous bacteria, this term is somewhat problematic as it does not allow one to distinguish between bacteria that colonize various hosts or even if segmented filamentous bacteria are actually several different bacterial species. In mice, these bacteria grow primarily in the terminal ileum in close proximity to the intestinal epithelium where they are thought to help induce T helper 17 cell responses.[4]. Intriguingly, Segmented ...
The genetics of bacteria is the study of the reproductive capabilities of bacteria and the mechanisms which they utilize to diversify their genetic composition. Similar to eukaryotic cells, bacterial cells are capable of retaining function and variation, which gets passed on through generations. Despite the fact that the development of bacteria resistant strains is a major issue, bacteria actually do not have a high mutation rate. Rather, bacteria are capable of proliferating rapidly which allows them to increase genetic diversity, along with the effects of genetic recombination. Furthermore, bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis. Instead they use binary fission to replicate themselves, which is a form of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is common of prokaryotic organisms.. Bacteria can alter their genetic information through transformation, transduction and conjugation.. ...
Most of us associate the bacteria E. coli with nasty stomach ailments. But a new study published in Nature magazine suggests E. coli can not just turn stomachs, but could potentially turn the wheels of your car, since a genetically engineered strain of the bacteria has produced clean, road-ready biodiesel.. The bacteria can work on any type of biomass, including wood chip, switchgrass, and the plant parts that are left behind after a harvest-all contain cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of a plants mass. Study coauthor Jay Keasling and his colleagues report engineering E. coli bacteria to synthesize and excrete the enzyme hemicellulase, which breaks down cellulose into sugars. The bacteria can then convert those sugars into a variety of chemicals-diesel fuel among them. The final products are excreted by the bacteria and then float to the top of the fermentation vat before being siphoned off [Technology Review]. E. coli bacteria naturally turn sugars into fatty acids to build ...
Fulltext - Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Water Deficit Stress
Exam Review - Monera, Viruses and Protists 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1) 2) 3) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. List 6 general things bacteria do (from your notes). List 5 characteristics of prokaryotes What are the differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria. Archaebacteria: List properties of Methanogens, Thermoacidophiles, Halophiles. What are these and where are they found? Eubacteria: What are the characteristics of gram positive and gram negative bacteria? Fill in the chart below. Ways that bacteria are helpful Ways that bacteria are harmful 1) 2) 3) Draw the 3 shapes of bacteria (Cocci, Bacilli, Spirilla) Where and under what conditions do bacteria thrive? Compare and contrast the terms: clean, sanitized, and sterile. Define disease, pathology and pathogen. List the 6 types of diseases. (ways in which you might get a disease) What is meant by host to host transmission? ...
In the ongoing war against antibiotic resistant bacteria, a change in battle tactics may prove effective for controlling common scab of potatoes and potentially other toxins that affect humans and animals, according to Canadian Light Source Inc.. Although bacterial toxins cause serious, often deadly diseases, bacteria arent trying to be nasty, said Dr. Rod Merrill, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph. Theyre hungry and looking for food, and were often the food. He added that 99 per cent of bacteria are helpful - like gut flora - so the battle is against the remaining one per cent.. The usual approach is to develop antibiotics that kill the bacteria but not us, or the plant, or the animal, stated Merrill. However, bacteria mutate quickly, as quickly as every 30 minutes, which leads to antibiotic resistance. And unfortunately, the pipeline for new antibiotics is empty.. The approach that Merrill and his research group are pursuing is an anti-virulence ...
We often think of bacteria as something to avoid but there are 100 trillion viable bacteria in the colon comprised of 400-1000 different species. This microbiome is often referred to as the gut flora and we need these bacteria healthy to help keep us disease free.. The bacteria in our digestive system create many benefits. When we have a good balance of bacteria we have a very symbiotic relationship with them. We provide them with food and they provide us with myriad benefits such as the synthesis of biotin, vitamins B12, B6, B5, B2 and vitamin K2. They also synthesize the short chain fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, and acetate).. When our beneficial bacteria have a stable colony count they prevent other pathogens from thriving by using up all available food sources. Bacteria help to control the set point for inflammation, regulate the pH of the intestine, and help maintain the cell integrity of the entire digestive tract. A healthy gut flora also helps our immune system by stimulating the ...
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For my freshman science fair project, my topic is: How effective are different antibacterials and disinfectants on bacteria. I will measure how effective they are by putting the antibacterial/disinfectant in the middle of the petri dish while the bacteria are growing, and see if they spread away from the centerpiece. The more effective the antibacterial/disinfectant is, the further the bacteria will back away. However, I have some questions. 1.) Does this have any glitches/major or minor problems? 2.) How should I go about staining, is Methylene Blue fine? 3.) is 1 oz of this stain enough for 15 full Petri dishes full of bacteria? 4.)My major question is, what bacteria should I use? I thought of E. coli, but the local public Health Center says it could become hazardous and dangerous. Which bacteria would be the best? I great list of pure types of bacteria I could get is at ...
The results shed light on the complicated interaction between humans and the microbes that live on and around us. Mounting evidence suggests that these microscopic, teeming communities play a role in human health and disease treatment and transmission. We know that certain bacteria can make it easier for mice to put on weight, for example, and that others influence brain development in young mice, says Argonne microbiologist Jack Gilbert, who led the study. We want to know where these bacteria come from, and as people spend more and more time indoors, we wanted to map out the microbes that live in our homes and the likelihood that they will settle on us. They are essential for us to understand our health in the 21st century.. The Home Microbiome Project followed seven families, which included 18 people, three dogs and one cat, over the course of six weeks. The participants in the study swabbed their hands, feet and noses daily to collect a sample of the microbial populations living in and on ...
Bacteria in the gut do far more than help digest food in the stomachs of their hosts, they can also tell the genes in their mammalian hosts what to do.. A study published today in Cell describes a form of interspecies communication in which bacteria secrete a specific molecule-nitric oxide-that allows them to communicate with and control their hosts DNA, and suggests that the conversation between the two may broadly influence human health.. The researchers out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School tracked nitric oxide secreted by gut bacteria inside tiny worms (C. elegans, a common mammalian laboratory model). Nitric oxide secreted by gut bacteria attached to thousands of host proteins, completely changing a worms ability to regulate its own gene expression.. The study is the first to show gut bacteria can tap into nitric oxide networks ubiquitous in mammals, including humans. Nitric oxide attaches to ...
These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which ... There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, that classify bacteria into Gram-positive bacteria and ... In fact, his Bacterium was a genus that contained non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria, as opposed to Bacillus, a genus of ... Bacteria can use flagella in different ways to generate different kinds of movement. Many bacteria (such as E. coli) have two ...
Because these bacteria play a role in decomposition after death, putrefying bacteria also play a key role in the nitrogen cycle ... Bacteria aid in digestion of nutrients that a human's gastrointestinal tract could not process on its own. Putrefying bacteria ... Putrefying/decay bacteria are bacteria involved in putrefaction of living matter. Along with other decomposers, they play a ... Putrefying bacteria is a broad term used to define several species of bacteria involved in decomposition and fermentation. ...
Cancer bacteria are bacteria infectious organisms that are known or suspected to cause cancer. While cancer-associated bacteria ... there is some evidence that bacteria may be directly carcinogenic. The strongest evidence to date involves the bacterium H. ... Bacteria found in the gut may be related to colon cancer but may be more complicated due to the role of chemoprotective ... A number of bacteria have associations with cancer, although their possible role in carcinogenesis is unclear. Salmonella Typhi ...
... may refer to: Green sulfur bacteria Purple sulfur bacteria Sulfate-reducing bacteria Sulfur-reducing bacteria ... Look up sulfur bacteria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. ... Frigaard, NU; Bryant, DA (2004). "Seeing green bacteria in a new light: genomics-enabled studies of the photosynthetic ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in specialised antenna complexes called chlorosomes. Salton, MR (1987). " ...
... emit light as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy ... Luminescent bacteria exist as symbiotic organisms carried within a larger organism, such as many deep sea organisms, including ... Some species of luminescent bacteria possess quorum sensing, the ability to determine local population by the concentration of ... Bioluminescence Lecture Notes Bioluminescence Webpage Isolation of Vibrio phosphoreum Luminescent Bacteria Scripps Institution ...
... are forms of bacteria that directly consume and excrete electrons at different energy potentials without ... v t e (Orphaned articles from August 2020, All orphaned articles, Bacteria, All stub articles, Bacteria stubs). ... Instead, electric bacteria "breathe" metals instead of oxygen, which effectively results in both an intake of and excretion of ... Shewanella and Geobacter are two known types of electric bacteria. This form of life appears to be especially adapted to low- ...
Even if sometimes the two major groups of purple bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria and purple nonsulfur bacteria, coexist in the ... Then a dish of the bacteria was taken, and a light was focused on one part of the dish, leaving the rest dark. As the bacteria ... Purple bacteria are anoxygenic because they do not use water as electron donor to produce oxygen. Purple sulfur bacteria (PSB ... Purple sulfur bacteria (like green sulfur bacteria) typically form blooms in non-thermal aquatic ecosystems, some members have ...
M. oxyfera-like bacteria are bacteria similar to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, which is a species of bacteria that acts ... Denitrifying bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that encompass many different phyla. This group of bacteria, together ... Since denitrifying bacteria are heterotrophic, an organic carbon source is supplied to the bacteria in an anoxic basin. With no ... Denitrifying bacteria are a part of the N cycle, and consists of sending the N back into the atmosphere. The reaction above is ...
Types include ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Many species of nitrifying bacteria have ... Nitrifying bacteria are chemolithotrophic organisms that include species of genera such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, ... The first reaction is oxidation of ammonium to nitrite by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) represented by members of ... Ammonia can be also oxidized completely to nitrate by one comammox bacterium. Ammonia oxidation in autotrophic nitrification is ...
... (or MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that orient themselves along the magnetic field lines of ... In contrast to the magnetoreception of animals, the bacteria contain fixed magnets that force the bacteria into alignment-even ... The sensitivity of magnetotactic bacteria to the Earth's magnetic field arises from the fact these bacteria precipitate chains ... contain amounts of iron comparable to any other species of bacteria. Symbiosis with magnetotactic bacteria has been proposed as ...
... are types of bacteria used to detect and estimate the level of fecal contamination of water. They are not ... These bacteria may include species of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella or Campylobacter, associated with gastroenteritis ... Aside from bacteria being found in fecal matter, it can also be found in oral and gut contents. The US Environmental Protection ... Commonly used indicator bacteria include total coliforms, or a subset of this group, fecal coliforms, which are found in the ...
... , bacteria of spiral (helical) shape, form the third major morphological category of prokaryotes along with the ... Spiral bacteria can be subclassified by the number of twists per cell, cell thickness, cell flexibility, and motility. The two ... A spirillum (plural spirilla) is a rigid spiral bacterium that is Gram-negative and frequently has external amphitrichous or ... Borrelia species, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, a tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme disease Treponema species, such as ...
... is a collaborative album by Faith No More's Mike Patton and the Norwegian composer John Erik Kaada, within their ...
... (fat-loving bacteria) are bacteria that may proliferate in lipids. They include lipophilic corynebacteria. ... Lipophilic bacteria may also proliferate in diet fat. However, in modern food industry this is very rare and at worst causes a ... Some bacteria do not only accelerate their metabolism using lipids prevailing in their environment, some of them cannot ... Many lipophilic bacteria are a good source of biosurfactants, hence are used commercially, e.g. Bacillus licheniformis. These ...
Speed of motility in cable bacteria is not related to size of the bacteria. The average distance a cable bacterium glides is ... Cable bacteria are defined by their function rather than their phylogeny, and it is possible that further cable bacteria taxa ... Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that conduct electricity across distances over 1 cm in sediment and groundwater ... Media related to Cable bacteria at Wikimedia Commons (Commons category link from Wikidata, Microorganisms, Bacteria, ...
... are bacteria that require or are facilitated by free iron. They may include Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria ... Iron-oxidizing bacteria Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria Ganz T, Nemeth E (2015). "Iron homeostasis in host defence and ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Bacteria, All stub articles, Bacteria stubs). ...
"Exogenous Bacteria." Bacteria Microbes. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2012. . Willey, Sherwood & Woolverton 2011, pp. 964-5. "Bacteria ... Exogenous bacteria can be either benign or pathogenic. Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and ... Bacteria that are part of normal internal ecosystems, also known as bacterial flora, are called Endogenous Bacteria. A ... Bacterial flora is endogenous bacteria, which is defined as bacteria that naturally reside in a closed system. Disease can ...
... are bacteria, which have the capability to enter and survive in the cells of the host organism. Many of ... v t e (Bacteria, Microbiology, Infectious diseases, Cells, All stub articles, Bacteria stubs). ... Besides bacteria, there are other types of intracellular microorganisms . Examples of non-obligate intracellular bacteria ... Examples of obligate intracellular parasite bacteria. Rickettsiales (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Coxiella) Mycoplasma spp ...
Look up bacteria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bacteria are a major group of prokaryotic living organisms. Bacteria may ... a type of malicious software Bacteria, a fictional country in The Great Dictator Bacteria (Asterix character), the wife of ... a family of South American stick insects This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bacteria. If an ... also refer to: Bacteria (malware) or Rabbit Programs, ...
... (also known as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, oil degrading bacteria or HCB) are a heterogeneous ... The rest is attacked by bacteria that are able to do this. These bacteria do not adhere to the oil and do not have a high ... Anaerobic bacterium strain HD-1 grows on CO2 in the presence of H 2 or tetradecane. In the absence of H 2, tetradecane is ... pH and oxygen: Bacteria require a neutral pH, and in this the same oil can help neutralize environments that are too acidic for ...
... / Mr. Scruff / Releases / Ninja Tune Mr. Scruff - Render Me Friendly Bacteria at Ninja Tune Mr. Scruff's ... Friendly Bacteria is the fifth studio album by the British musician and DJ Mr. Scruff. It was released on 19 May 2014 by the ...
... are a non-phylogenetically related group of Gram-negative bacteria that possess appendages, termed ... These bacteria will attach to surfaces with their prosthecae, allowing a greater surface area with which to take up nutrients ( ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Bacteria). ... Caulobacter Oligotrophic Flagella Pilus Poindexter, Jeanne S. Dimorphic Prosthecate Bacteria: The Genera Caulobacter, ...
... are light-producing bacteria that are predominantly present in sea water, marine sediments, the surface ... While not as common, bacterial bioluminescence is also found in terrestrial and freshwater bacteria. These bacteria may be free ... It has been hypothesized that enteric bacteria (bacteria that survive in the guts of other organisms) - especially those ... List from Dunlap and Henryk (2013), "Luminous Bacteria", The Prokaryotes ) Bioluminescent bacteria are most abundant in marine ...
... are bacteria that are typically soil-dwelling and utilize saprotrophic nutrition as their primary energy ... Some saprotrophic bacteria may be vectors for food borne illnesses such as Escherichia coli. They are common pathogens in ... Saprotrophic bacteria are often associated with soil fungi that also use saprotrophic nutrition and both are classified as ... When cultivating a new environment, the population of a saprotrophic strain of bacteria initially decreases and then reaches a ...
While coliform bacteria are not normally causes of serious illness, they are easy to culture, and their presence is used to ... Coliform bacteria are defined as either motile or non-motile Gram-negative non-spore forming Bacilli that possess β- ... The bacteria can also cause pneumonia, other respiratory illnesses and urinary tract infections. An easy way to differentiate ... Other coliform bacteria will appear as thick, slimy colonies, with non-fermenters being colorless, and weak fermenters being ...
Most bacteria in the human body are actually good for us and help with carrying out necessary life processes. Gut bacteria in ... Symbiotic bacteria are able to live in or on plant or animal tissue. In digestive systems, symbiotic bacteria help break down ... Symbiotic bacteria are bacteria living in symbiosis with another organism or each other. For example, rhizobia living in root ... Symbiotic bacteria can live near hydrothermal vents. They usually have a mutual relationship with other bacteria. Some live in ...
... are bacteria that do not get colored by gram-staining but rather remain colorless: they are neither Gram- ... Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive bacteria de Souza Luna, Luciano Kleber; Panning, Marcus; Grywna, Klaus; Pfefferle, Susanne ... Spirochetes are also considered atypical bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, ... Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer which does not retain the crystal violet, so when safranin is added ...
... are bacteria that can cause disease. This article focuses on the bacteria that are pathogenic to humans. ... Most pathogenic bacteria can be grown in cultures and identified by Gram stain and other methods. Bacteria grown in this way ... Pathogenic bacteria contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia, which can be caused by bacteria such as ... The symptoms of disease appear as pathogenic bacteria damage host tissues or interfere with their function. The bacteria can ...
Bacteria which live on leaves are referred to as phyllobacteria, and bacteria which live on the root system are referred to as ... Epiphytic bacteria are bacteria which live non-parasitically on the surface of a plant on various organs such as the leaves, ... Because of this, these bacteria have special nutritional requirements. Current studies on epiphytic bacteria are underway for ... Non-pigmented epiphytic bacteria have high a GC content in their genome, a characteristic which protects the bacteria from the ...
... or to the spread of the bacteria in the blood. ... or to the spread of the bacteria in the blood. ...
"But I wondered just how long it took for bacteria to grow in the bags and, importantly, if positive cultures would be found ...
This review emphasizes Candida spp.-bacteria biofilms, the epidemiology of this community, the challenges in the eradication of ... This refractory effect is particularly critical in polymicrobial biofilms involving both fungi and bacteria. ... such as bacteria or fungi. These consortiums can colonize a variety of surfaces, such as host tissues, dentures, and catheters ... and Bacteria Mixed Biofilms. Humans are colonized by diverse populations of bacteria and fungi when in a healthy state and in ...
International networks for laboratory surveillance, preparedness and response are an important tool for laboratory strengthening, because they can serve both as a platform for sharing information and expertise, and as a ...
Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. The bacteria Mycobacterium... ... Geologists discover bacteria that turns small bits of gold into solid nuggets. *Greg Beach ... Parasitic bacteria can teach us a lot, according to scientists who have just discovered a manipulation mechanism... ... Remarkable bacteria survives extremely harsh conditions by eating nothing but air. *Kristine Lofgren ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Aeromonadales; Aeromonadaceae; Aeromonas. Glycoside ...
See Letter p.94 It is widely accepted that commensal bacteria in the human intestine have important physiological and health ... of the gut microbiota can enter symbiotic relationships providing a beneficial effect similar to that provided by the bacteria ... The finding that intestinal viruses can substitute for intestinal bacteria to promote the health of their mammalian hosts ... But on page 94 of this issue, Kernbauer et al.1 show that, in the absence of bacteria, mammalian intestinal viruses promote gut ...
SOS contains 19 species of naturally occurring beneficial bacteria. The microbes contained in SOS will promote stronger and ...
Yeast and bacteria are usually viewed as bad things that no one wants to come into contact with. But they may soon hold the key ... Eau de bacteria Scientists have found a way to grow scents in the lab. ... A report in Chemicals & Engineering News explains how fragrance companies are using lab-engineered bacteria and yeast to make ... Biotech firms like Allylix, Isobionics and Evolva are genetically engineering bacteria and yeast that can produce plant oils by ...
S. aureus bacteria are amongst the populations of bacteria normally found existing on ones skin surface. However, over time, ... various populations of these bacteria have become resistant to a number of antibiotics, which makes them very difficult to ... which had been caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, referred to by the acronym MRSA. ... fight when attempting to treat infections where MRSA bacteria are the responsible pathogens. These antibiotics include ...
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Unknown author (‎1980)‎. Bacteria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58 (‎Suppl)‎, 172 - 174. ...
... and yet gut bacteria is one of the most talked about health topics online. ... Jim Loomis joins the program to reveal how you can alter the conversation and change your gut bacteria to curb those cravings ... Loomis rejoins Chuck to talk about the link between gut bacteria and the immune system. As Loomis explains, there is a strong ... Its not the most glamorous of subjects, and yet gut bacteria is one of the most talked about health topics online. ...
The bacteria that cause most deaths most illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United... ... Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. ... Introduction to Bacteria: Trivia Quiz! Introduction to Bacteria: Trivia Quiz! Bacteria and Virus Disease Function Bacteria and ... DOMINIOS ARCHEA Y BACTERIA DOMINIOS ARCHEA Y BACTERIA What do you know about Bacterial conjugation? Trivia Facts Quiz What do ...
From blogger, Dick: Hand sanitizer has been recommended but the bottles say, Effective against bacteria, with no ... Does hand sanitizer kill bacteria and viruses?. As a new feature of, our team of expert doctors will answer ... Try this on Does hand sanitizer kill bacteria and viruses?. *western panel rugs on FDA recommends lowering Celexas maximum ... Hand sanitizer has been recommended but the bottles say, Effective against bacteria, with no mention of viruses. What gives? ...
Bacteria Biological sciences Coating/Surface Modification Coatings, colorants and finishes Coatings, colorants, and finishes ... Metals such as copper normally have a very smooth surface, which makes it difficult for the metal to kill bacteria by contact. ... A laser treatment method was developed that could potentially turn any metal surface into a rapid bacteria killer just by ... The patterns produce a rugged texture that increases surface area, allowing more opportunity for bacteria to hit the surface ...
Some bacteria swell or grow filaments in response to antibiotics. The changes can look like dividing bacteria, when in fact the ... Bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotic appears in U.S. By Meghan Rosen. May 27, 2016. ... What leech gut bacteria can tell us about drug resistance By Leah Rosenbaum. July 24, 2018. ... Kwon and his colleagues tested the method on infectious bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. The test met the ...
Leprosy bacteria may hold the key to helping the liver regenerate. The bacteria that cause leprosy have been found to reprogram ... "The signature that comes up is related to gut bacteria," says Nicholson. It is not yet clear whether the bacterias metabolic ... Even if bacteria are not actually contributing to the observed metabolic changes, they could still be put to use. "There is ... The finding also adds weight the hypothesis that substances released by gut bacteria are contributing to the onset of the ...
The Aquascape Beneficial Bacteria contains 8 pure strains of concentrated beneficial bacteria, including ... The Aquascape Beneficial Bacteria contains 8 pure strains of concentrated beneficial bacteria, including PSB bacteria and ... PSB (Photo Synthetic Bacteria) help quickly clear pond water by clumping fine debris and allowing it to settle. It is made to ... Beneficial Dry Bacteria Dosage:. Add to the area of the pond with the most circulation or directly into the skimmer opening. ...
Nature selector determines your best Bacteria Selector match. ... Lets see if Bacteria Selector gets your results right. All ... Welcome to the Bacterium selector! It will tell you what your inner-bacterium is. Disclaimer. ... Bacteria Selector Astrophysics and Astronomy Fie Which Planet are you? What kind of plant are you? Favorite Winter ... Bacteria Identification Organelles Rock & Mineral Identification Circulatory system ANOVA Description Flowchart Light driving ...
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An exploratory study of 30 people found differences in the gut bacteria of those with PTSD compared with those who had recently ... Bacteria in the gut are also affected by emotional responses. Stress hormones can alter their growth and damage the lining of ... The researchers point out that they were not able to establish whether low levels of these bacteria were a cause or a result of ... Gut bacteria also influence the biology and function of the brain through the production of hormones or neurotransmitters, ...
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  • Now, the benefits of apple bacteria do not give you a green light to skip the wash before biting in. (
  • CDC) estimates that annually, at least two million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the United States alone.1 If the effectiveness of antibiotics (drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria) is lost, we will no longer be able to reliably and rapidly treat bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonias, foodborne illnesses, and healthcare- associated infections. (
  • As more strains of bacteria become resistant to an ever-larger number of antibiotics, our drug choices have become increasingly limited and more expensive and, in some cases, nonexistent. (
  • A new breed of "nightmare" bacteria resists pretty much all of our antibiotics - and it's rapidly spreading across. (
  • However, over time, various populations of these bacteria have become resistant to a number of antibiotics, which makes them very difficult to fight when attempting to treat infections where MRSA bacteria are the responsible pathogens. (
  • Giving implants an antimicrobial surface would prevent the spread of infection and antibiotic resistance because there wouldn't be a need for antibiotics to kill off bacteria from an implant's surface. (
  • A new test quickly reveals whether bacteria are vulnerable to antibiotics, researchers report in the Dec. 17 Science Translational Medicine . (
  • To choose the right antibiotics to treat a patient with a bacterial infection, doctors must determine which drugs the bacteria are sensitive to. (
  • Using traditional tests, doctors expose a sample of bacteria to antibiotics and wait 16 to 20 hours. (
  • Researchers in South Korea gauged how bacteria respond to antibiotics using a plastic chip with many little wells, each holding bacterial cells immobile in a thick gel. (
  • Some bacteria swell or grow filaments in response to antibiotics. (
  • The changes can look like dividing bacteria, when in fact the antibiotics have damaged the cells. (
  • What's worse is that some of these bacteria appear resistant to common antibiotics. (
  • They are not fed antibiotics, but they are carrying bacteria that are sometimes resistant to them. (
  • The beauty of such approaches in comparison to antibiotics is that such interventions are aimed only at key pathogens, leaving alone good, commensal bacteria, which we need. (
  • Rather than look for new and better antibiotics, Stallings and co-first authors Kelly Flentie, PhD, a former postdoctoral researcher at Washington University, and Gregory Harrison, a graduate student, decided to look for compounds that prevent the bacteria from toughening up. (
  • When put in a low-oxygen environment to mimic the stressful conditions TB bacteria encounter inside the body, the bacteria come together and form a thin film called a biofilm that is resilient to not only low-oxygen conditions but also to antibiotics and other stressors. (
  • Further experiments showed that blocking biofilm formation with C10 made the bacteria easier to kill with antibiotics and even curbed the development of antibiotic resistance. (
  • The researchers then treated stressed mice with broad-spectrum antibiotics that could kill as much as 90 percent of the intestinal bacteria for a short period. (
  • We know now that if we knock the population of bacteria down with antibiotics, we don't have the same innate immune response," said Bailey. (
  • Divers search for novel marine bacteria that could yield new kinds of antibiotics. (
  • Early analysis of the new strains -- published this week in the journal Nature Microbiology -- suggests the bacteria could yield new antibiotics. (
  • Most current antibiotics are natural compounds produced by bacteria. (
  • While bacteria are abundant and extremely diverse, not all strains and species are particularly useful to scientists hunting for antibiotics. (
  • Because most of the antibiotics that are used in Crohn's disease are broad-spectrum antibiotics, you're basically hitting both the beneficial and detrimental bacteria in the process, and maybe that's really not a good idea," said Sartor, who is also the chief medical advisor for the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation, which helped fund the study. (
  • Background/Statement of Problem(s):One of the most critical challenges confronting the application of chemotherapeutic agents in general, and antibiotics in particular, is the development of resistance by target microbes such as bacteria, viruses etc. (
  • Regular low doses of antibiotics that aren't strong enough to destroy or kill bacteria provides a suitable environment for bacteria to develop mechanism of survival or to become resistant. (
  • Every time a person takes antibiotics, sensitive bacteria are killed, but resistant ones may be left to grow stronger and multiply. (
  • And we cannot prescribe antibiotics to all patients as a preventive measure for fear of making the bacteria more resistant. (
  • Antibiotics can be lifesaving medicines, as they kill bad bacteria. (
  • Our study suggests that the pre-modern human microbiota was composed of a greater diversity of bacteria and a greater diversity of bacterial functions when compared to populations impacted by modern practices, such as processed foods and antibiotics," says pathology and immunology professor Gautam Dantas of Washington University in St. Louis. (
  • Even today's most potent antibiotics will diminish in effect as bacteria continue to evolve. (
  • The ability to form biofilms is a common feature of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. (
  • This refractory effect is particularly critical in polymicrobial biofilms involving both fungi and bacteria. (
  • A dense population of microorganisms inhabits the intestinal tract, including bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. (
  • However, microbes can evolve to resist the effects of drugs that prevent and treat a range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. (
  • The term "germs" refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (
  • AMR happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. (
  • From the intestinal samples, Bailey's team could determine the relative proportion of at least 30 types of bacteria residing there. (
  • The 67 types of bacteria growing in your brewer's drip tray. (
  • That's a lot of different types of bacteria, particularly when you consider that caffeine has natural antibacterial qualities. (
  • They're typically produced by two types of bacteria, known as Shiga toxin- producing E. coli and a specific type of Shigella known as Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. (
  • These bacteriophages can transfer the Shiga toxin genes back and forth between different types of bacteria, such as between Shigella and E. coli . (
  • In their study, they used microfluidics to compare various strains of bacteria, each with a different, known electrochemical activity. (
  • What's more, consuming the diversity of strains of bacteria found in apples can provide your gut with diverse microbes, which is essential for gut health, Wassermann said. (
  • Elon Musk's launch of a Tesla toward Mars was considered a stroke of public relations genius, but smart researchers pointed out the car could contaminate the planet with Earthly bacteria. (
  • The researchers point out that they were not able to establish whether low levels of these bacteria were a cause or a result of PTSD. (
  • In a recent study, researchers from the University of Houston found that 40 percent of doorsteps samples were contaminated with C. difficile bacteria, and so were 39 percent of shoe soles. (
  • Orlando, Fla. (April 7, 2019) - Researchers are reporting new findings on how bacteria involved in gum disease can travel throughout the body, exuding toxins connected with Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and aspiration pneumonia. (
  • While previous researchers have noted the presence of P. gingivalis in brain samples from Alzheimer's patients, Potempa's team, in collaboration with Cortexyme, Inc., offers the strongest evidence to date that the bacterium may actually contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The researchers found one compound, called C10, that did not kill the TB bacteria but prevented them from forming a biofilm. (
  • The researchers needed only a fraction of the amount of isoniazid to kill the TB bacteria when C10 was included than with isoniazid alone. (
  • But when the researchers grew TB bacteria with isoniazid and the compound, the drug-resistant mutant bacteria never arose. (
  • But such bacteria die when treated with isoniazid plus the compound, the researchers discovered. (
  • Researchers injected a weakened strain of Clostridium novyi -NT bacteria spores into tumours in six patients. (
  • Now researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US have developed a microfluidic technique they say can quickly process small samples of bacteria and gauge a specific property that's highly correlated with microbes' ability to produce electricity. (
  • A team of researchers have characterized a bacterium composed of a single cell that is 5,000 times larger than other bacteria. (
  • A study published today in the journal Science explains how Gros and other researchers from the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a project run by the US Department of Energy, and the University of the French Antilles in Guadeloupe discovered and identified this category-defying bacteria. (
  • The species's nonconformity is puzzling, even to researchers who've seen bacteria of all forms and functions. (
  • The researchers suspect the Desulfobulbaceae filaments serve to help the bacteria respire and eat, with cells deeper in the sediment collecting and oxidizing hydrogen sulfide and cells closer to the surface gathering and using oxygen from the seafloor. (
  • Researchers simulating this transition to turbulence have now shown how the correlated swimming of many bacteria builds up as the transition is approached. (
  • The researchers also found that the correlations responsible for collective motion are governed almost entirely by mutual rotations of the bacteria. (
  • Genetically engineered bacteria could make cellulosic ethanol cheaper to manufacture, researchers report, in a finding that may unlock more energy from the waste products of farming and forestry. (
  • Researchers discovered that to get the full health benefits of these bacteria, you should eat the whole apple -including the peel, seeds, core, and stem. (
  • In the study , which was published in Frontiers in Microbiology , researchers analyzed the bacteria in apples and compared samples of organic and nonorganic types to see how the breakdown differed. (
  • In total, researchers found that a typical apple contains 100 million bacteria-1,755 different types. (
  • The researchers found that bacteria like Brucella need the protein VirB8 to latch on. (
  • Researchers at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities are studying a remarkable species of bacteria, Geobacter sulfurreducens , that produces electric current when attached to a graphite electrode or other conductive surface. (
  • Although clearly establishing a connection between the presence of these bacteria and mental health is an important step, researchers will now move toward identifying whether a causal relationship is present. (
  • When Olivier Gros, a marine biologist and professor at the University of the French Antilles in Guadeloupe, went looking for microbes in the warm ocean waters of the southern Caribbean, he wasn't trying to find a new bacteria species that would challenge the traditional understanding of how microscopic cells work . (
  • Generally, life categorized by cells is divided into two groups: prokaryotes, which include bacteria and other single-celled microbes called archaea, and eukaryotes, which include everything from algae to humans. (
  • Or maybe the mouse-specific bacteria are better at competing with and controlling the Salmonella in the gut than the human microbes would be. (
  • A new study comparing bodily bacteria between a remote Amazonian tribe and other groups reveals that our bodies are losing beneficial microbes. (
  • Everyone's body is brimming with bacteria, and these microbes do plenty of good things like building the immune system and helping digestion. (
  • A study looking at the gut, mouth and skin microbes in people from a small, isolated tribe in southern Venezuela's Amazonian jungles shows just how much modern life may be altering humankind's bodily bacteria. (
  • I just watched the gut bacteria video and am glad to know the microbes are friendly and helping us. (
  • There are microbes that are bacteria, microbes that are archaea, and microbes that are part of the more complex domain that plants and animals are a part of-the eukaryotes. (
  • Wolbachia is a common bacteria that has the ability to infect up to 70 percent of the world's insect species. (
  • Scientists know that certain species of bacteria living in oxygen-deprived environments (including the human gut ) have evolved a unique form of breathing that involves excreting and pumping out electrons. (
  • From her calculations, she discovered the more electrochemically active bacteria tended to have a higher polarisability, and this correlation occurred across all species tested. (
  • To date, the search for antibiotic compounds has involved just 1 percent of the known bacteria species. (
  • Most bacteria species are too difficult to cultivate in the lab and have been ignored by scientists seeking new drugs. (
  • Perhaps most importantly, the new research suggests many bacteria species dismissed as non-cultivable can in fact be collected and cultured. (
  • The new species, now named Ca. Thiomargarita magnifica , is the largest bacterium ever found. (
  • It belongs to the genus Thiomargarita, also known as the giant bacteria-though this species is 50 times larger than any member of its group. (
  • Their results show that older animals remain active for longer and live longer if they receive the intestinal bacteria of younger members of the species. (
  • As is the case with humans, ageing affects the composition of the microbial community: while many different species of bacteria ensure a healthy gut when young, this diversity not only diminishes in old age but the existing bacteria also contain a larger proportion of pathogens. (
  • The electrical signals are passed through long strands of the bacteria-a new species of the genus Desulfobulbaceae -that serve as transport cables for the community. (
  • Other species of bacteria may produce just as many electrons as they oxidize available fuels, but their cell membranes act like an insulator for electron transport," said Daniel Bond, a microbiologist at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. (
  • The problem was that known species of bacteria didn't make a particularly good battery. (
  • FritzZyme® Live Nitrifying Bacteria provides the species of bacteria proven by professional zoos, aquariums, universities, and aquaculture facilities to rapidly seed biofilters. (
  • They are also extremely abundant-in just a single drop of water there can be over 100 species of bacteria. (
  • and to detect and control newly resistant bacteria that emerge in humans or animals. (
  • Photograph depicted a cutaneous abscess on the hand, which had been caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, referred to by the acronym MRSA. (
  • Bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotic appears in U.S. (
  • Schaffner said it was worrying that these kinds of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have appeared in animals that aren't treated with drugs. (
  • Those antibiotic-resistant bacteria are now capable of spreading to any number of unintended targets," said Schaffner. (
  • Schaffner said that this study shows how important it is for humans to cut down on unnecessary antibiotic use so that antibiotic-resistant bacteria don't develop and spread. (
  • In addition, one out of 1 million TB bacteria spontaneously become resistant to isoniazid when grown under typical laboratory conditions. (
  • Our objectives were to determine the incidence of VAP, isolate multidrug-resistant bacteria, identify the most prevalent resistant strains and identify their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. (
  • I never ever thought that I would end up getting MRSA," said Sandra Jankowski, who was infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria her father contracted during a visit to a local hospital. (
  • 99.98% of all enveloped viruses such as Covid-19 and influenza as well as bacteria (including multi-resistant germs) harmless in a short time. (
  • Where Do We Stand in the Battle Against Resistant Bacteria? (
  • Now more than ever, infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming commonplace. (
  • What advances have been made to combat the rise of resistant bacteria? (
  • What are the clinical implications of resistant bacteria? (
  • Multi- drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria could lead to treatment failure of infectious diseases and could be transferred by non- potable water . (
  • Today, the White House released a comprehensive plan that identifies critical actions to be taken by key Federal departments and agencies to combat the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that drug-resistant bacteria cause 23,000 deaths and 2 million illnesses each year in the United States. (
  • Efforts carried out as part of the Action Plan will help the Federal government curb the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with the goal of saving lives. (
  • How can we ?ght against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the World Health Organization Western Paci?c Region? (
  • Parasitic bacteria can teach us a lot, according to scientists who have just discovered a manipulation mechanism. (
  • Scientists have converted plastic bottles into vanilla flavoring using genetically engineered bacteria. (
  • Scientists have discovered a strange new bacteria in the Antarctic that can survive the planet's most extreme conditions. (
  • Scientists at San Diego-based Genomatica, Inc., have announced success in manipulating the bacteria to directly produce butanediol (BDO), a chemical compound used to make everything from spandex to car bumpers, thereby providing a more energy-efficient way of making it without oil or natural gas. (
  • By using a common bacteria, scientists have figured out a way to potentially sterilize disease-carrying mosquitoes. (
  • Unwrapping some of the mystery from how plants and bacteria communicate in this dance of immunity, hardworking scientists in my laboratory here at the University of California, Davis, have identified the bacterial molecule that matches up with a specific receptor in rice plants to ward off a devastating disease known as bacterial blight of rice. (
  • Using non-pathogenic bacteria found naturally in the intestine and food, scientists from Inserm and Inra have designed modified bacteria to produce Elafin. (
  • Nov. 18 (UPI) -- Scientists in Germany and the Netherlands have successfully cultivated dozens of new marine bacteria in the laboratory. (
  • Tests reveal that the chewing gum can reduce the amount of bacteria in the mouth fifty times, the scientists report. (
  • The movement of bacteria could be used to provide a power source for electronics, according to a team of scientists from Oxford University. (
  • Last week, scientists reported on a 5-year study of all the bacteria that inhabit the human body - 100 trillion of them, weighing 2 to 6 pounds total (in a 200-pound person) - and of 10,000 different types, though not all of them will reside in any one particular person. (
  • The Yanomami villagers, secluded from the outside world until 2009, possessed the most diverse collection of bacteria ever found in people including some never before detected in humans, says scientists whose research was published on April 17 in the journal Science Advances. (
  • The newly engineered bacterium, known as ALK2, ferments cellulose to produce ethanol more efficiently, the scientists write in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science . (
  • Scientists have discovered a molecule that some virulent bacteria need in order to latch onto a host. (
  • The finding that intestinal viruses can substitute for intestinal bacteria to promote the health of their mammalian hosts raises the possibility that viruses in the gut may be beneficial in some circumstances. (
  • Intestinal bacteria benefit the host by aiding nutrition, promoting immune-cell development and protecting from intestinal damage, but it is unclear whether other members of the microbiota have similar roles. (
  • In fact, your stomach can feel just fine while unhealthy bacteria lurking in the intestinal track are wreaking havoc on your overall health. (
  • Nathalie Vergnolle, director of research at Inserm, and her team at the Centre for Physiopathology at Toulouse Purpan (CPTP Inserm / Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier /CNRS), with Philippe Langella director of research at INRA and his team at the Institut Micalis (1), in collaboration with the Institut Pasteur, have recently succeeded in producing "beneficial bacteria" capable of protecting the body against intestinal inflammation. (
  • In different mice models of chronic or acute intestinal inflammation, oral treatment using these Elafin-producing bacteria provided significant protection of the intestine and decreased inflammatory symptoms. (
  • Elafin expressed by these bacteria also protects cultured human intestinal cell lines from inflammatory outbreaks similar to those observed in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. (
  • Overall, patients with Crohn's have less diversity among their intestinal bacteria than healthy individuals. (
  • Bacterial infections can lead to the formation of pus, or to the spread of the bacteria in the blood. (
  • Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. (
  • Test out what you know about bacteria and the infections they cause through the quiz below. (
  • ax21 is also found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a bacterium that causes respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. (
  • This means that infections caused by these bacteria are harder to treat, but that doesn't necessarily mean that they are more harmful or infectious. (
  • But bacteria can cause trouble too, as with cavities, urinary tract infections , ear infections , or strep throat . (
  • The ever-changing resistance patterns of bacteria severely cripple the ability of health care providers to manage and treat infections. (
  • The emergence of drug resistance in bacteria is undermining our ability to treat bacterial infections and perform a range of modern medical procedures, including chemotherapy, surgery, dialysis, and organ transplantation. (
  • You'll learn about the link between gut bacteria and food cravings. (
  • Dr. Loomis rejoins Chuck to talk about the link between gut bacteria and the immune system. (
  • An exploratory study has identified a link between gut bacteria and post-traumatic stress disorder that could bring us closer to fathoming the mechanisms of the complex condition. (
  • The first population-based study to show a link between gut bacteria and mental health was recently released. (
  • It adds another link to the gut bacterial involvement in the onset of disorder," says Glenn Gibson of the University of Reading, UK, who has previously identified abnormally high levels of clostridium bacteria in children with autism. (
  • Meanwhile, Derrick MacFabe of the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, and his colleagues have found that short-chain fatty acids produced by clostridium bacteria can induce reversible autism-like behavioural and biochemical changes in rats. (
  • Compared to the control mice, the stressed animals showed two marked differences: The proportion of one important type of bacteria in the gut - Bacteroides - fell by 20 to 25 percent while another type - Clostridium - increased a similar amount. (
  • Clostridium difficile , often referred to as "C. diff," is a bacterium that can cause diarrhea. (
  • Not only do they protect us from viruses and bacteria, but they also give protection against dust and pollution and, hence, they should be worn at all times. (
  • Geologists in Queensland, Australia have discovered a unique type of bacteria that forges small bits of gold into. (
  • Katherine Lamba] What was unusual was the type of bacteria that were producing the Shiga toxins, rather than the toxins themselves. (
  • Such organisms produce antibiotic compounds and deploy them in the fight against other bacteria for nutrients and habitats. (
  • Bacteria are single-celled minute organisms found inside and outside our bodies. (
  • Bacteria are singled cell micro-organisms. (
  • Bacteria are tiny, single-celled organisms that get nutrients from their environments. (
  • Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. (
  • Bacteria are a type of unicellular organisms that lack any membrane-bound organelle. (
  • Unlike more complex organisms, such as eukaryotes, bacteria lack an enclosed nucleus and instead the DNA floats in a bunched tangle called the nucleoid. (
  • are tickborne obligate intracellular and the 16S rRNA gene was detected in 10% (3/30) bacteria and comprise different pathogenic spe- of samples. (
  • It's easy to imagine that a mutation in the PAMP that would destroy the crucial tyrosines would prevent recognition of ax21 by XA21 would render non-pathogenic bacterium pathogenic. (
  • That's not the case here: The bacteria found in the apples is different, says Wassermann, because there would need to be a high abundance of pathogenic strains to cause a disease, which was not present the samples. (
  • study , published in Frontiers in Microbiology , found that apples contain 100 million bacteria. (
  • Ramin Sabet Azad added his genetically modified bacteria to glycerol. (
  • In most instances, antibiotic resistance, which is a natural phenomenon, occurs when bacteria undergo or acquire mutation to alter the target sites of drugs. (
  • Few studies have investigated occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) among bacteria including Aminoglycoside Modifying Genes (AMGs) from Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) in Nigeria . (
  • A symptom is a throat infection caused by toxins associated with scarlet fever.Which bacteria is it? (
  • One possibility is that the gut bacteria in children with autism are producing toxins that might interfere with brain development. (
  • Gut bacteria also influence the biology and function of the brain through the production of hormones or neurotransmitters, molecules that alter immune function, and toxins. (
  • Stress hormones can alter their growth and damage the lining of the gut, allowing both bacteria and their toxins to get into the bloodstream. (
  • P. gingivalis 's main toxins, the enzymes the bacterium need to exert its devilish tasks, are good targets for potential new medical interventions to counteract a variety of diseases," said Potempa. (
  • The genes that code for Shiga toxins are generally carried by bacteriophages, which are viruses that can infect bacteria. (
  • Aquascape Beneficial Bacteria Dry - 1.1 lbs. (
  • The Aquascape Beneficial Bacteria contains 8 pure strains of concentrated beneficial bacteria, including PSB bacteria and enzymes. (
  • These results may result in a clinical application where Elafin would be administered to patients suffering from IBDs using beneficial bacteria (probiotic), which are already commonly found in food (yoghurt, cheese), thus protecting the patients from inflammatory symptoms. (
  • Chewing gum, toothpaste and deodorant might soon contain beneficial bacteria to fight tooth decay and underarm stench . (
  • And certain types of harmful bacteria appear to be increased in Crohn's patients, while the amounts of beneficial bacteria are decreased, the study found. (
  • Six types of harmful bacteria were elevated in patients with Crohn's compared to those without inflammation, while levels of four varieties of bacteria that are thought to be beneficial to digestion and health were lower in those patients. (
  • Many of them are not harmful, some are beneficial to us but there are also dieses-causing bacteria. (
  • Some of the bacteria found in the Yanomami but not in the others offer beneficial effects like protecting against kidney stones. (
  • The 23-pound satellite will run experiments that involve growing and then starving E. coli bacteria, applying different concentrations of antibiotic agents, and determining the lowest level of antibiotic that could deter the growth of bacteria . (
  • Kwon and his colleagues tested the method on infectious bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli . (
  • When you hear "bacteria" and "produce," the first thing that probably pops into your mind is nasty cases of food poisoning, which are commonly caused by bacteria like E. Coli , Staphylococcus aureus , or Bacillus cerus , as well as by viruses. (
  • 250,000 E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli) bacteria will fit on the head of a pin. (
  • Therefore, Ramin Sabet Azad transferred the genes that contributed to the favourable properties to another bacterium, Escherichia coli , which is both cheaper to cultivate and grows faster than the lactic acid bacterium. (
  • In the United States, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is the most common bacteria that produces Shiga toxin. (
  • Anaerobic bacteria : selected topics / edited by Dwight W. Lambe, Robert J. Genco and K. J. Mayberry-Carson. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Endophthalmitis caused by anaerobic bacteria. (
  • A retrospective analysis of 22 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for endophthalmitis and had culture-proven anaerobic bacteria, was done. (
  • Emerging Tickborne Bacteria & Tissue Kit (, accord- in Cattle from Colombia ing to the manufacturer's instructions. (
  • A new study from the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health published today in the journal mBio has found that New York City mice carry the bacteria responsible for many of the causes of gastroenteritis in humans. (
  • Some of the bacteria found also demonstrated antimicrobial resistance to two classes of antibiotic medications, meaning they could be harder to treat if they lead to infection. (
  • This bacteria is important as it breaks down food so that nutrients can be absorbed and it also helps to fight the bad bacteria that causes infection and disease. (
  • A new bandage accelerates the healing of burns and destroys invading bacteria to prevent infection. (
  • However, when they kill bad bacteria, they also kill good bacteria that help protect you from infection. (
  • More specifically, the three most commonly encountered bacteria accounting for ocular surface infection are Staphylococcus , Streptococcus and Haemophilus . (
  • Now new research finds these furry animals carry bacteria that can cause abdominal pain or gastrointestinal distress in humans. (
  • However, this study didn't find a definitive link between mice carrying bacteria and humans contracting disease. (
  • Katherine Lamba] Shigellae are bacteria that can cause a diarrheal illness in humans. (
  • But I wondered just how long it took for bacteria to grow in the bags and, importantly, if positive cultures would be found even in bags appearing unsoiled. (
  • S. aureus bacteria are amongst the populations of bacteria normally found existing on ones skin surface. (
  • Dr. Malan-Müller and her colleagues found that while the overall diversity of the gut microbe population in the PTSD and the trauma-exposed participants was largely similar, there were differences in the abundance of certain classes of bacteria. (
  • Salmonella enterica was one of the bacteria found in the mice. (
  • Here, we've found a compound that sensitizes bacteria to an antibiotic, prevents drug resistance from arising, and even reverses drug resistance - at least in the lab. (
  • To this end, the human Elafin gene, isolated in collaboration with a team from the Institut Pasteau, was introduced in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei, two food-grade bacteria found in dairy products. (
  • When administered orally to mice, the human Elafin-producing bacteria are found a few hours later on the surface of the intestine where they deliver the anti-inflammatory protein. (
  • The bacteria found in yogurt might come to the rescue. (
  • Strains of the bacteria have been found to cut down on odor-producing bacteria that dwell in underarms and feet. (
  • Gros found this sulfur-oxidizing bacteria attached to the sediment under waterlogged mangrove trees around Guadeloupe. (
  • Most bacteria is very useful and good for us such as the bacteria found in each person's digestive tract. (
  • The organic apples were found to contain a more balanced, diverse makeup of bacteria, than conventional samples, which may be better for your gut. (
  • According to a study recently published in Nature magazine , the drip trays of dozens of Nespresso Inissia espresso machines were studied and found to contain between 35 and 67 different genera of bacteria. (
  • Interestingly, for the first few days, a lot of a different bacteria found their way to the drip tray. (
  • Recently, when members of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory found that electrodes in ocean sediments could generate electricity, the possible involvement of bacteria was more obvious. (
  • A separate study found an association between depleted or elevated gut bacteria and increased risk for dementia. (
  • Likewise, a study from UCLA found that certain gut bacteria mediate the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet. (
  • We found low levels of some metals, volatile organic compounds, bacteria, and particles in our air samples. (
  • Bacteria produce electricity by generating electrons in their cells and then transferring them across their cell membranes via tiny channels formed by surface proteins in a process known as extracellular electron transfer, or EET. (
  • We grow the bacteria on one of the electrodes, to which the bacteria donate electrons resulting from the conversion of methane. (
  • Mingdong Dong, Jie Song and Nils Risgaard-Petersen Bacteria living in sediments at the bottom of Aarhus Bay in Denmark can exchange electrons with other bacteria as far as 1 centimeter away-the equivalent of 12 miles if the bacteria were the size of people, Wired Science reported. (
  • These bacteria exist to oxidize metal and pass electrons to whatever will take them," he said. (
  • The bacteria, Candidatus Methanoperedens, use methane to grow and naturally occur in fresh water such as ditches and lakes. (
  • Naturally occurring bacteria can also ferment cellulose, but they do it at lower temperatures that require the use of an expensive enzyme called cellulase, says study author Professor Lee Lynd of Dartmouth College. (
  • While washing them won't remove the bacteria that is naturally a part of the fruit, it will help minimize you ingesting anything that happened in handling between the orchard, store, and your gym bag, Wassermann said. (
  • Nitrifying bacteria can take weeks to naturally establish colonies in new aquariums while ammonia and nitrite can reach lethal levels in only a few days. (
  • Here we develop cell -based DNA sensors by engineering the naturally competent bacterium Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) to detect specific DNA sequences in the environment . (
  • Botulism, a fatal disease spread through spores in (poisoned) food, is caused by which Gram + bacteria? (
  • In addition to its astounding size and DNA organization, T. magnifica also has three times the amount of genes than most bacteria. (
  • Bacteria can carry traits or genes that allow them to survive exposure to the medicine we currently have. (
  • Simulations and theory indicate that the "synchronized swimming" of bacteria occurs in much sparser suspensions of the microorganisms than expected. (
  • Increase the density of bacteria suspended in a liquid, and the microorganisms will switch from seeming to swim at random to swimming collectively. (
  • House mice have been known to carry bacteria as they burrow their way into homes. (
  • They detected evidence of the bacteria in brain samples from people with Alzheimer's and used mice to show that the bacterium can find its way from the mouth to the brain. (
  • Michael Bailey, an assistant professor of dentistry and member of the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State University and colleagues turned to mice to better understand the roles that bacteria play in immune balance. (
  • But some studies in mice have offered evidence that the bacteria may be the root of the illness. (
  • The most striking differences were observed within a large grouping of bacteria called Firmicutes: Though there were Firmicutes aplenty in both types of mice -- 1,321 different types -- only 20 of the specific types were shared. (
  • Second, there were similar immune system defects in germ-free mice and the mice with human bacteria in them -- such as fewer T cells of various types in the small intestine, improper activation and proliferation of immune cells, different gene activity in immune cells and lowered production of antimicrobial chemicals. (
  • We grow the bacteria in sugar and water to produce the product, then purify and separate that product out of that water. (
  • With practice, the vast majority of bacteria can be removed. (
  • Often regarded as vectors of disease, the majority of bacteria are actually harmless and in fact integral to ecosystems across the globe. (
  • The good bacteria might also be used in new deodorants. (
  • Until the good bacteria in your stomach and intestines can grow back, you can get sick from C. diff. (
  • Some of the bacteria destroyed is "good" bacteria which can cause an increased risk of developing allergies (hygiene hypothesis). (
  • Now there's an LED bulb to fight bacteria. (
  • In fact, they come with antimicrobial properties and help fight bacteria in the mouth. (
  • This Silicibacter is a type of marine bacteria that lives on a specific host dinoflagellate. (
  • Where does it live as a part of the natural fauna of the human body, creating an acidic environment to help fight off the growth of harmful bacteria? (
  • are good for our bodies - they help keep the digestive system in working order and keep harmful bacteria from moving in. (
  • For the study, Jogler and his colleagues deployed both human divers and deep-sea robots to search for Planctomycetes, a unique phylum of aquatic bacteria, at several marine locations in the Mediterranean, North, Baltic and Black seas, as well as the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans. (
  • A new study finds that tiny pests are carrying plenty of bacteria. (
  • This study was conducted on bacteria growing in a lab. (
  • Bacteria may offer a new way to treat cancer , a small, preliminary study suggests. (
  • Five of the six patients are still alive, while one died from unrelated causes several months after receiving the bacteria injection, according to the study to be presented at the annual Symposium on Clinical Interventional Oncology in Hollywood, Florida. (
  • But with further study, Silvina Gonzalez-Rizzo, an associate professor of molecular biology at the University of the French Antilles and an author on the paper, used genetic sequencing to identify it as prokaryotic-and more specifically, a bacteria. (
  • WEDNESDAY, March 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The community of bacteria that typically live in the human gut is radically altered in patients with Crohn's disease , a new study shows. (
  • These sequences acted like barcodes to identify the genetic signatures of the bacteria that were present, explained study researcher Dirk Gevers, a computational biologist at the Broad Institute, a joint project of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Mass. (
  • The study, published yesterday (October 24) in Nature , adds to a growing body of literature on bacteria using electricity to communicate and survive. (
  • Microbial biologist Raquel Peixoto, from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia, led a promising study into the application of bacteria to coral that helps reefs withstand increases in water temperature. (
  • From what I understand, all the bacteria in the study arrived from the environment, not from the capsules of coffee that were used in the brewers. (
  • The study was conducted for a few reasons, including an interest in finding out whether bacteria could be used as part of a coffee decaffeination process. (
  • Thus, a dedicated study was designed to assess the presence of bacteria that can reasonably reduce perchlorate levels. (
  • In the current study, As(III)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. (
  • Thousands of people have gotten sick from water contaminated with bacteria or parasites from other people's diarrhea, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (
  • Bacteria and parasites continue to be recognized as important causes of diarrhea worldwide. (
  • Use of EIAs, tissue culture, molecular probes, and the polymerase chain reaction has improved the diagnosis of diarrhea caused by bacteria, and special concentrating and staining techniques have improved the process of detecting parasites such as Cryptosporidium and I. belli. (
  • The disease is cause by which of the following Gram - cocobacillus bacteria with flagella? (
  • Which bacteria causes this disease? (
  • The association between an exacerbation and the isolation of a new strain of a bacterial pathogen supports the causative role of bacteria in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • We therefore hypothesize that the low levels of those three bacteria may have resulted in immune dysregulation and heightened levels of inflammation in individuals with PTSD, which may have contributed to their disease symptoms. (
  • Bacteria involved in periodontitis have been linked with Alzheimer's disease, aspiration pneumonia, rheumatoid arthritis and other common disorders. (
  • The bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis , is the bad actor involved in periodontitis, the most serious form of gum disease. (
  • A receptor molecule in the plant pairs up with a specific molecule on the invading bacteria and, presto, the immune system swings into action to defend against the invasion of the disease-causing microbe. (
  • TAMPA, Fla. - The Centers for Disease Control has just identified more than 220 strains of what they call "nightmare bacteria" that can kill up to 50 percent of the people who catch them. (
  • A bacterium is a unicellular organism, or prokaryote, with a relatively simple cell structure. (
  • While it is not harmful in most people, if it grows to large numbers the bacteria provoke the body's immune system to create inflammation, leading to redness, swelling, bleeding and the erosion of gum tissue. (
  • Body's bacteria don't outnumber human cells so much after all. (
  • These two bacteria are known to be important for regulating the immune system. (
  • Making matters worse, P. gingivalis even causes benign bacteria in the mouth to change their activities and further increase the immune response. (
  • Stress not only sends the human immune system into overdrive - but it can also wreak havoc on the trillions of bacteria that work and thrive inside our digestive system, says a new research. (
  • That showed that the bacteria are involved in the ability of stress to prime the innate immune system," added Bailey. (
  • This week, an interesting article published in the journal Cell points to just how crucial the correct bacteria may be for developing a robust immune system. (
  • A newly discovered bacteria challenges the rules of cells, puzzling microbiologists. (
  • From glycerol you first get the molecule 3-HPA that bacteria consume and convert into 3-HP, which is a useful platform chemical. (
  • By combining C10, or something like it, with isoniazid we could enhance the potency of the antibiotic and block the TB bacteria from developing drug resistance,' Stallings said. (