One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/19400)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (2/19400)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (3/19400)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (4/19400)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (5/19400)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems. (6/19400)

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (7/19400)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement. (8/19400)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement.  (+info)

Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin (2000): Bacterial activity parameters in sediment core SO129_MC-31. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Boetius, A et al. (2000): Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea in relation to vertical flux. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 47(14), 2835-2875,
Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin (2000): Bacterial activity parameters in sediment core SO118_MC-20. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Boetius, A et al. (2000): Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea in relation to vertical flux. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 47(14), 2835-2875,
Marine microorganisms and their extracellular enzymes (ECEs) play an important role in the remineralization of organic material by hydrolyzing high-molecular-weight substrates to sizes sufficiently small to be transported through cell membrane, yet the diversity of the enzyme-producing bacteria and the types of ECEs involved in the degradation process are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the diversity of cultivable bacteria and their ECEs and the potential activities of aminopeptidase in the water column at eight different depths of the New Britain Trench. There was a great diversity of cultivable bacteria and ECEs, and depth appears an important driver of the diversity. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the cultivable bacteria were affiliated mostly with the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the predominant genera were Pseudoalteromonas (62.7%) and Halomonas (17.3%). Moreover, 70.7% of the isolates were found to produce hydrolytic zone on casein and gelatin plates,
The cell wall also makes Gram staining possible. Gram staining is a method of staining bacteria involving crystal violet dye, iodine, and the counterstain safranin. Many bacteria can be classified into one of two types: gram-positive, which show the stain and appear violet in color under a microscope, and gram-negative, which only show the counterstain, and appear red. Gram-positive bacteria appear violet because they have thick cell walls that trap the crystal violet-iodine complex. The thin cell walls of gram-negative bacteria cannot hold the violet-iodine complex, but they can hold safranin. This makes gram-negative bacteria appear red under Gram staining. Gram staining is used for general identification of bacteria or to detect the presence of certain bacteria; it cannot be used to identify bacteria in any specific way, such as at a species level. Examples of gram-positive bacteria include the genera Listeria, Streptococcus, and Bacillus, while gram-negative bacteria include Proteobacteria, ...
Previous work has explored the use of bacteria as biosensors to report information from their environments. However, these efforts have typically used electrochemical or optical properties of well-characterized strains in response to defined targets that are generally metabolized. In contrast, this study built on previous analyses of the relationships between bacterial communities and their environments (8, 30) to show that, with appropriate training data and analytical models, natural bacterial communities can be used as biosensors for a diverse array of geochemical measurements, including many which are not directly metabolized. There is no need for prior knowledge of the relevant strains or pathways-these are identified as a product of the statistical models employed.. In this effort, we have focused on samples collected from within a single geographic area. Future efforts should prioritize the evaluation of biosensors trained in one environment against data collected from a similar ...
A standardized bacterial taxonomy based on genome ...Development of a robust bacterial taxonomy has been hindered by an inability to obtain most bacteria in pure culture and, to a lesser extent, by the historical use of phenotypes to guid … A standardized bacterial taxonomy based on genome phylogeny substantially revises the tree of life
Beneficial changes in rumen bacterial community profile in sheep and dairy calves as a result of feeding the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ...
Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables can harbor large and diverse populations of bacteria. However, most of the work on produce-associated bacteria has focused on a relatively small number of pathogenic bacteria and, as a result, we know far less about the overall diversity and composition of those bacterial communities found on produce and how the structure of these communities varies across produce types. Moreover, we lack a comprehensive view of the potential effects of differing farming practices on the bacterial communities to which consumers are exposed. We addressed these knowledge gaps by assessing bacterial community structure on conventional and organic analogs of eleven store-bought produce types using a culture-independent approach, 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Our results demonstrated that the fruits and vegetables harbored diverse bacterial communities, and the communities on each produce type were significantly distinct from one another. However, certain produce types (i.e., ...
Abstract : The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to ...
Bacteria help our bodies with digestion and produce needed vitamins. Bacteria also help us by destroying harmful organisms within our bodies.. There are more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells.. Most bacteria reproduce using a process called binary fission. To do this, a single bacterium will grow to twice its normal size and then split into two daughter cells. The two new cells are exact copies of the original bacterium.. Bacteria are used to make cheese, milk, sourdough bread and yogurt.. 99% of all bacteria are helpful.. Dead or weakened bacteria and viruses are used for making helpful vaccines.. Scientists estimate that bacteria produce nearly half the oxygen found in the atmosphere.. Helpful bacteria are used to purify water at sewage treatment plants and to break down oil after oil spills.. One healthy bacterium, given the proper environment, could reproduce into a colony of more than 2 million in just seven hours.. There are more microbes on your body than there ...
Dr. Sayeed Ahmad D. I. Hom. (London). Bacteria are simple organisms that consist of one cell. They are among the smallest living things. Most bacteria measure from 0.3 to 2.0 microns in diameter and can be seen only through a microscope. (One micron equals 0.001 millimeter or 1/25,400 inch.) Scientists classify bacteria as prokaryotes.. Bacteria exist almost everywhere. There are thousands of kinds of bacteria, most of which are harmless to human beings. Large numbers of bacteria live in the human body but cause no harm. Some species cause diseases, but many others are helpful.. The importance of bacteria. Helpful bacteria. Certain kinds of bacteria live in the intestines of human beings and other animals. These bacteria help in digestion and in destroying harmful organisms. Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins needed by the body.. Bacteria in soil and water play a vital role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other chemical elements used by living things. Many bacteria help ...
Many studies on bacterial community composition (BCC) do not distinguish between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria or neglect the PA fraction by pre-filtration removing most particles. Although temporal and spatial gradients in environmental variables are known to shape BCC, it remains unclear how and to what extent PA and FL bacterial diversity responds to such environmental changes. To elucidate the BCC of both bacterial fractions related to different environmental settings, we studied surface samples of three Baltic Sea stations (marine, mesohaline and oligohaline) in two different seasons (summer and fall/winter). Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed significant differences in BCC of both bacterial fractions among stations and seasons, with a particularly high number of PA operational taxonomic units (OTUs at genus-level) at the marine station in both seasons.
What: Academic Seminar, Dr. Emma Allen Vercoe, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph Topic: Understanding gut microbial community dynamics using an in vitro bioreactor model When: Monday, August 14, 10:30-11:30 a.m. Where: Robert B. Schultz Lecture Theatre
This bacterium can be airborne so if you are around someone with TB, then there is a good chance that you will get it as well. When you do, the bacterium enters and if you have a strong immune system, you may not notice the disease right away because your immune is fighting off the bacteria. when the bacteria cant take over, it starts to reproduce more of its kind and sooner or later, your immune system wont stand a chance against the bacteria. As this battle continues, bacteria reproduces its kind to make a large group.When the immune system cannot take anymore, the bacteria invades and since there are so many bacteria cells, it is like an explosion of disease in the body. The macrophage are phagocytic cells and if they cant kill the bacteria, then the bacteria will replicate by cell division until the macrophage bursts. The bacteria are then taken over by the macrophage and soon the bacteria is being eaten by macrophage in the bloodstreams. The bacteria spreads into the bloodstream but the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of conditions for culture of test bacteria used for direct bioautographic TLC detection. 2. Gram-negative test bacterium. T2 - Escherichia coli. AU - Nagy, Sándor. AU - Koszegi, Tamás. AU - Botz, Lajos. AU - Kocsis, Béla. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - Direct bioautography is a potent means of obtaining information about the antimicrobial activity of a compound separated from a complex mixture. In this process the developed TLC plate is dipped into a broth culture of a test bacterium and the bacterium will grow directly on the plate. Optimum experimental conditions must, however, be used for each test bacterium. The main purpose of this study was to find optimum culture conditions for a Gram-negative test bacterium, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) enabling us to establish a direct bioautographic method with the shortest possible performance time. Because the intracellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) level is a direct and sensitive measure of bacterial ...
Bacteria are tiny cells that can enter the human body and cause infections that make humans sick. In order to get better, the body needs to kill or stop the growth of these bacteria. Doctors give medicines called antibiotics to help the body get rid of an infection. Penicillin is a common antibiotic often used to stop bacteria from growing. It does this by preventing the bacteria from building a cell wall, which makes it difficult for it to grow and reproduce. However, bacteria can build resistance, or develop a defense against antibiotics. This makes the antibiotic less effective at killing the bacteria.. Humans are currently overusing antibiotics, and as a result there are more antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Penicillin, and other antibiotics in the same family, are becoming less effective at killing bacteria. Therefore, scientists have to find a new kind of antibiotic that will stop the growth of bacteria in other ways. One current approach is to disrupt cell division, which prevents bacteria ...
Introduction. Experiment 4 Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives: * Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for measuring microbial numbers. * Study the theoretical relationship of one bacterial cell, or clump of cells. * Study the effect of dilution to the bacteria growth. * Determine the cell masses of a culture in order estimates the total cellular protoplasm per milliliter of culture. * To learn both quantitative plating methods which are spread plate and pour plate to measure the number of bacteria. * To understand the measurement for the number bacteria by performing plate and dilution count. Result and Observations: Part I: Spread Plate Unlabelled sample - Dilution factor 10-1 Sample A - Dilution factor 10-2 Sample B - Dilution factor 10-3 Sample C - Dilution factor 10-4 Observation: According to the observation, the result is showed that the colonies of E.coli cultures are too numerous to count via normal visible with density diminish from sample A to ...
In nitritationammox reactors, several bacterial groups contribute to the overall nitrogen conversion. Knowing the activity of the main bacterial groups, especially of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AMX), is extremely helpful to understand the process and optimise its operation. Mass balances of dissolved compounds such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate commonly allow the determination of bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process, but the activity of heterotrophic bacteria (HET) is usually neglected. However, even in wastewater with a low organic substrate content, heterotrophic denitrification can contribute substantially to nitrogen removal. The goal of this study was to critically evaluate the applicability of mass balances for the determination of the relevant bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process with high HET activity. We set up and solved mass balances of different degrees of complexity. Both linear equation systems, with catabolic reactions alone and with ...
This chapter provides a brief summary of a classification system for medically important bacteria, based on a traditional phenotypic approach. The primary focus is on organisms that are significant causes of disease in the tropics and subtropics.
There is no escape, as they follow you everywhere. Your body is riddled with bacteria. There are armpit bacteria, mouth bacteria, nose bacteria, hair bacteria and many more. In fact around 100 trillion bacteria give or take a few call you home. Scientists have now compiled a huge list of bacteria on the human body, and it has revealed that everyone has their own personalized community of bacteria. Find out more about this research and some key bacteria facts in this article.
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Antibiotics are used to kill the growth of bacteria. It is basically used to cure diseases. Antibiotics do not harm us.. Today, people fear that bacteria do not die from antibiotics, because bacteria are too strong. This can happen when antibiotics are used too much. If they are regularly used, some bacteria may develop an immunity to the antibiotic. These bacteria can then reproduce and make a large colony of bacteria immune from the antibiotic. Now, scientists find out that antibiotics losing war against germs. Many bacteria got antibiotic resistance and they love to feast on antibiotics. According to wikipedia, Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called ...
Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Newcastle University. Widespread antibiotic use is largely to blame for the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which is currently one of the biggest threats to global health. Not only does antibiotic resistance already cause an estimated 700,000 deaths a year, its also made numerous infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhoea, harder to treat. Without knowing how to stop bacteria from developing antibiotic resistance, its predicted that preventable diseases could cause 10m deaths a year by 2050. Some of the ways that bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is through changes in the bacterias genome. For example, bacteria can pump the antibiotics out, or they can break the antibiotics down. They can also stop growing and divide, which makes them difficult to spot for the immune system.. However, our research has focused on another little known method that bacteria use to become antibiotic resistant. We have directly shown that bacteria can ...
So what are these key features? First, we showed that bacterial community in the distribution system is highly similar to the community leaving the drinking water treatment plant (~80% shared bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU)). Second, the richness of the bacterial community (i.e., how many different OTUs) is strongly correlated with both temperature and the composition of the source water - with colder months showing lower richness as compared to the warmer months. Third, we detected a strong correlation between the change in drinking water bacterial community and the distance travelled by the water along a linear flow path in the drinking water distribution system. Fourth, the bacterial community changes seasonally and shows annual reproducibility (i.e., bacterial communities are highly similar one year apart). Fifth, we showed that these seasonal changes are driven by specific bacterial clusters - a cluster that dominates in the winter and one that dominates in the summer, with a ...
Antibiotics cant distinguish between the good and the bad bacteria. There is a delicate balance of billions of bacteria inside our digestive tract. Bifido bacteria in the large intestine and acidophilus in the small intestine and vagina protect against infection by yeast and other bad bacteria. Also friendly bacteria found on the skin protect against bad bacteria, yeast and fungal infections. Continued use of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, can seriously disrupt the normal ecology of the body and render anyone more susceptible to pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria, yeast, viral and parasitic infection.. The worst thing one can do is to take only a few of the antibiotic prescribed. Shortened course of antibiotics often wipes out only the most vulnerable bacteria, while allowing relatively resistant bacteria to survive. Naturally, youll begin to feel better quickly. Then most people either forget to take pills, or stop taking them intentionally because they think the ...
Bacteria are living organisms. They come in different shapes and sizes but are only ever one cell. Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two, to produce two bacteria genetically identical to the original. In the right conditions (usually warm, moist conditions), bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes, which means if you start with one bacterium, in one hour you could have 8. Bacteria live all over our skin and right through our alimentary canal. Most bacteria are harmless to us and some can even help us digest food. These harmless bacteria can also help prevent harmful ones from having the opportunity to attack us.. See a video of how bacteria multiply below.. ...
The bacteria produce compounds, called cephalosporinases, which inactivate and destroy certain antibiotics such as penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins, protecting themselves and other beneficial bacteria that live in close proximity. However, they may also give protection from these antibiotics to harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella.. The gut is home to hundreds of trillions of bacteria, which have important roles in maintaining our health. But a side effect of taking antibiotics is that these may also kill off some of our beneficial gut bacteria, allowing harmful bacteria to gain a foothold and cause an infection. Susceptibility to antibiotics isnt uniform in the hundreds of species that colonise our guts, and some of the most common bacteria, the Bacteroides, are among the most resistant.. By scanning the genome of strains of Bacteroides bacteria that live in the gut, the researchers found genes that produce an enzyme called cephalospoprinase, which specifically destroys certain ...
INITIAL-#-BACTERIA-PER-VARIATION is the number of bacteria you start with in each of the six possible variations in flagella number. The overall population of bacteria is determined by multiplying this value by 6.. ENERGY-COST-PER-FLAGELLA determines how much energy is lost for every flagella that a bacteria has, each time step. Bacteria with 6 flagella will lose 6 times this value, whereas bacteria with one flagellum will lose 1 times this value. This energy loss is deducted on top of a base metabolism energy loss for all bacteria each time step.. VISUALIZE-VARIATION helps you apply different visualization cues to see which variation each a bacterium has. When set to flagella and color, the number of flagella will appear on each bacterium and these will flap/twist back and forth as the bacteria moves. The color of the bacteria will correspond to how many flagella it has (red = 6, orange = 5, yellow = 4, green = 3, blue = 2, and violet = 1). When set to either flagella only or color only ...
Drugs that stop bacteria from talking might be new, powerful antibiotics - a much needed weapon in our never-ending struggle against bacterial infections. On the other hand, drugs that make bacteria chat more could boost the production of biofuels and other industrial goods that bacteria make for us. In 1990 a young Bonnie Bassler, mesmerized by glow-in-the-dark bacteria that could talk to their peers to coordinate light production, wondered whether other bacteria could talk too. The answer, she soon found out, was yes - including all the nasty bacteria that cause disease. Today, Bonnie Bassler is a professor in molecular biology at Princeton University and an authority in the field of bacterial communication. Her findings, that all bacteria can talk, revolutionized the way we think of bacteria and opened the doors to important medical and industrial applications. But the discovery of bacterial communication has given us much more than new drugs. It has shown us how bacteria live in the real
Medical News Today explains exactly what bacteria are and what their function is in the body:. Bacteria are single-cell organisms that are neither plants nor animals.. They usually measure a few micrometers in length and exist together in communities of millions. …. There are many different types of bacteria. One way of classifying them is by shape. There are three basic shapes. …. Bacteria are often thought of as bad, but many are helpful. We would not exist without them. The oxygen we breathe was probably created by the activity of bacteria.. The good bacteria in the gut are essential to human survival because they break down nutrients like complex sugars in such a way that they can be used by the body.. These beneficial bacteria also help to prevent disease by occupying spaces that bad, pathogenic bacteria would like to occupy, and in some cases by directly attacking these pathogens.. Bacteria are essential to the survival of plant life because they release nitrogen when they die, and ...
Taking propionate wont do much good if your gut bacteria is infectious and inflammatory - bad bacteria produce highly inflammatory compounds called lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The key to a gut microbiome that promotes heart health is to eat about 25-30 grams of fiber a day. Its also key for that produce to be as diverse as possible; dont eat the same veggies over and over. Also, moderate your intake of fruit (fruits are high in sugar, which is inflammatory). Its the diversity of vegetables that matters most. Studies show a diverse gut microbiome is what lowers risk of disease. Change up the vegetables you eat regularly and shop at different types of ethnic markets to try new types of produce. Even a teaspoon of different veggies each day is enough to help colonize the anti-inflammatory bacteria that will keep your heart healthy. When you eat diverse plant fibers, supplementing with butyrate and propionate will help your gut bacteria their own SCFAs. Also, make sure to stabilize your blood ...
Translation for: neutrophil bacterial activity in English->Croatian dictionary. Search over 14 million words and phrases in more than 490 language pairs.
Most of the around 100 trillion bacteria living in hiding in our intestines - the gut microbiota - are difficult to grow using traditional methods, because they do not tolerate atmospheric oxygen. Within the past few years, new research based on gene technology and advanced bioinformatics has made it possible to analyse the composition and function of intestinal bacteria from their DNA. The bacteria produce many different types of substances that affect our physiology and health in numerous ways.. In the field of disease research, changes in the composition and function of the complex intestinal bacterial communities - so-called dysbioses - have become a focus area. It is, however, a weakness of the studies that researchers have not taken into account the potential effects of drugs on the patients intestinal bacteria. For that reason, it is not possible to determine which dysbiosis is associated with specific diseases and which changes in intestinal bacteria are associated with medical ...
What makes a bad bacteria bad? The worst bacteria (the ugly) either directly destroy tissue by feeding upon it or produce a toxin that destroys tissue. Other bacteria (the bad) react negatively to food, or are poor fermenters of food, creating IBS symptoms like gas and diarrhea. And some species of yeast and bacteria are bad simply because they take up space, thereby crowding out the good bacteria and depriving your body of all the health-giving benefits that friendly bacteria provide, resulting in the poor digestion of food and the poor absorption of nutrients.. The ugly bacteria are never regarded as normal flora within the body. They are not usually considered to be causes of IBS, but they do cause severe, often life-threatening, conditions. Ugly bacteria include Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter, and certain strains of E. coli. Just a tiny amount of the most virulent strains of bacteria in a persons body is enough to begin the process of infestation. The ...
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. For example, some Lactobacillus species are used in cheese making. Professional Version The trusted provider of medical information since 1899. Examples of aerotolerant bacteria include: Streptococcus spp; Clostridium spp like C. perfringens; Characteristics of aerotolerant bacteria include: Anaerobic in nature; Use fermentation (in the presence or absence of oxygen) 0 thank. protozoans, bacteria) or multicellular. Gram-negative bacteria refers to a broad category of bacteria that are unable to retain the crystal violet dye owing to their distinct cell wall structure. Soft tissue damage can also occur due to endotoxins, produced by the bacteria. Throat infections are often accompanied by pain, swelling, choking sensation, fever, and bad breath. Bacteria are of different shapes and are measured in micro-meter (a millionth part of a meter). Types of Anaerobic and Microaerophilic Bacteria. C. tetani, is found as ...
The terms Nus-G [nuss-G] and R-F-A-H probably sound like little more than alphabet mumbo jumbo to most folks. But scientists say these molecules might be the keys to survival for disease-causing bacteria like E. coli.. Nus-G and R-F-A-H help regulate growth and determine how effectively bacteria can infect a host. Understanding how bacteria grow and ward off immune system attacks could lead to drugs that keep infections at bay.. In the molecular world, Nus-G and R-F-A-H act like light switches. They latch on to a cells DNA and turn genes on or off. Found in all bacteria, Nus-G regulates about ninety-seven percent of a bacteriums genetic code. Without it, bacteria would die. Scientists recently discovered that R-F-A-H oversees the remaining three percent of the genome. Its sole purpose? To make bacteria infectious.. Once triggered, R-F-A-H allows bacteria to infect a host, arming them with enough power to resist the immune systems defenses.. Its a delicate balancing act. Too little R-F-A-H ...
Bacteria are tiny one-celled organisms present throughout the environment that require a microscope to be seen. The vast majority of bacteria are not harmful to human beings. Many of them are normally found on or in the human body, and not only do not cause disease, but provide some benefit. For example, the human gut normally contain a complement of intestinal flora which assist digestion. Some food products involve bacteria in their production. Sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt, and some kinds of cheese contain living cultures of live bacteria when eaten. Vinegar is traditionally produced by the growth of the Acetobacter bacterium in wine. (Wine itself is produced, not by bacteria, but by yeast, which is also a microorganism that is classified as a fungi.) While not all bacteria are harmful, some cause disease. The technical term for these is pathogenic bacteria (pathogenic being nothing more than a combination of the Greek roots for disease and causing). Examples of bacterial disease include ...
Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York have uncovered the unique way in which a type of Gram-negative bacterium delivers the toxins that make us sick. Understanding this mechanism may help design better ways to block and eventually control those toxins.
There are bacteria in the soil that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable - these drugs are our versions of natural compounds that bacteria have been assaulted with for millions of years. Of course, they would have evolved resistance.. There are also disease-causing bacteria in our hospitals and clinics that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable too - we expose ourselves, often unnecessarily, to high doses of such drugs. Of course, bacteria would have evolved resistance.. Heres something fascinating though: some of the genes that confer resistance to the harmless soil bacteria are exactly the same as the ones that confer resistance to the devastating clinical ones. Exactly the same, DNA letter for DNA letter.. This new discovery, by Gautam Dantas, suggests that environmental bacteria may be supplying genetic weapons to the ones that kill us (or the other way around). Ive written about this secret arms trade for The Scientist. Check it out.. ...
As our understanding of healthy gut bacteria evolves, so does the information on how to cultivate your own microbiome while inhibiting overgrowth of bad bacteria that are infectious and inflammatory. Initially, fermented foods and probiotics were thought to be the main recourse.. Then we learned eating a diet comprised primarily of vegetables and fruits and continually changing up the produce you eat is a great way to develop a rich and diverse gut bacteria population.. Now, scientists have used both a mouse study and a human study to show regular exercise, independent of diet or other factors, also promotes healthy gut bacteria.. In the first study, researchers transplanted fecal material from both exercised and sedentary mice into mice with sterile guts. The activity level of the mice receiving the transplants clearly mirrored that of their donors, showing that the kind of gut bacteria we have plays a role in how inclined we are to be sedentary or active.. The exercised mice recipients ...
Natural News) A recent study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine has identified a bacterial enzyme called urease that plays a central role in the gut microbiome imbalance commonly associated with Crohns disease. A team of health experts at the Penn Medicine and Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has carried out an analysis of fecal samples from Crohns disease patients ...
Then, in the first decade of the 20th century, German physician Paul Ehrlich noticed that certain chemical dyes coloured some bacteria but not others, meaning that certain bacteria could be selectively targeted, which is pretty important in a medicine. (The selectivity principle, by the way, is how the gram test works. It differentiates between gram positive bacteria, which have a thick cell wall made of a protein called peptidoglycan, and gram negative bacteria, which dont, because a violet stain stays on the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacteria and not on the gram-negatives ones. So you just add the chemicals and check if the bacteria are violet or not.) Anyway, Ehrlich then tested a ton of drugs on rabbits infected with syphilis and eventually came up with Salvarsan, a literal lifesaver for sufferers of syphilis, which was extremely common at the time ...
This happens because bacteria reproduce very quickly, and many generations can come and go in a relatively short amount of time. Combine this with the high level of bacteria that seem to swap genes and you have a recipe for disaster. Currently about 700.000 people a year are dying due to infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Predictions are that the number will reach 10 million a year by the year 2050. Thats, of course, assuming that the level of resistance stays on the same curve and that there are not any unforeseen changes in bacteria behavior.. While these predictions look dire, there is new hope in the form of a new treatment for bacteria by using micro polymers called SNAPPs, which is an acronym for structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers. SNAPPs work by targeting the cellular walls of bacteria and damaging them, which ultimately kills the bacteria. SNAPPs are still in the early phases of testing and thus far have only been tested on lab mice. But ...
What color do Gram + bacteria stain? Gram-? How do bacterial cells differ from other types of cells? How are chickenpox & shingles alike? Why do people get the flu more than once? What scientist discovered that viruses arent cellular? Name several things used to classify viruses. What are the 3 shapes for bacteria & give the name for each shape? Can bacteria survive without oxygen? with oxygen? How does the size of bacterial cells compare to the size of eukaryotic cells? If a virus enters the Lysogenic cycle, can it change to the lytic cycle? Explain. What 2 things make up a virus? Why dont antibiotics kill some bacteria? What is necessary for a virus to reproduce? Are viruses cellular? Which bacteria are least responsive to antibiotics - Gram+ or Gram-? What are prions? What is a capsid? How does forming an endospore help bacteria? Describe the DNA of a bacterium. What are pili? What whiplike projections do some bacteria for movement use? What occurs during conjugation? What are retroviruses ...
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices, said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.. It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can only be seen through a microscope. However, bacteria have evolved ways to gather into ...
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The meeting of International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium , Lactobacillus and related organisms was held within the frame of the FoodMicro 2018 Congress (FoodMicro 2018, 3-6 September 2018, Berlin, Germany). The meeting comprised an open session with a workshop entitled Modern approaches of LAB identification and conservation and a closed session on issues related to ICSP Subcommittee activities.
article{6a5935e7-cef5-41b4-83a4-8e7a5354ed16, abstract = {Bacterial activity was studied in a growth system containing Pinus contorta seedlings inoculated with different mycorrhizal fungi. Nylon nets enabled separation of soil compartments with extramatrical mycorrhizal hyphae from soil compartments with roots and mycelium. In three separate experiments bacterial activity, estimated as thymidine incorporation, was reduced in soils with Paxillus involutus hyphae compared to controls without mycorrhizal hyphae. This effect was found irrespective of compartments with and without roots were compared. Laccaria bicolor only reduced the activity in one of these three experiments. Thelephora terrestris (tested in two experiments), Laccaria proxima, Suillus variegatus and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (one experiment), also reduced the thymidine and leucine incorporation rates of bacteria. The reduction for these fungi varied between 20% and 50% in all experiments. Numbers of viable bacteria appeared to be ...
Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, a thermophilic and obligately chemoautotrophic bacterium, assimilates ammonium using glutamine synthetase (GS). GS was purified using three chromatography steps. The purified GS was found to belong to GS type I on the basis of its subunit composition and molecular …
6,7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine is the biosynthetic precursor of riboflavin, which, as a coenzyme, plays a vital role in the electron transfer process for energy production in all cellular organisms. The enzymes involved in lumazine biosynthesis have been studied in considerable detail. However, the conclusive mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by lumazine synthase has remained unclear. Here, we report four crystal structures of the enzyme from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus in complex with different inhibitor compounds. The structures were refined at resolutions of 1.72 Angstrom, 1.85 Angstrom, 2.05 Angstrom and 2.2 Angstrom, respectively. The inhibitors have been designed in order to mimic the substrate, the putative reaction intermediates and the final product. Structural comparisons of the native enzyme and the inhibitor complexes as well as the kinetic data of singlesite mutants of lumazine synthase from Bacillus subtilis showed that several highly conserved residues at ...
Tindall,B.J. ( 2008 ) Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Bacteria. The type strain of Lactobacillus casei is ATCC 393, ATCC 334 cannot serve as the type because it represents a different taxon, the name Lactobacillus paracasei and its subspecies names are not rejected and the revival of the name Lactobacillus zeae contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 82 International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58 (7) :1764-1765 ...
ABSTRACT: The relationship between bacterial community profile in biofilm and attachment of the acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite was investigated using a double-dish choice larval attachment bioassay and the DNA fingerprinting technique T-RFLP (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism). Biofilms for bioassays were either developed at 3 intertidal heights (i.e. high, mid and low) for 6 d or at the mid-intertidal height for 3 to 12 d. A clear distinction among biofilm communities at the 3 intertidal heights was revealed in the bacterial community profiles (determined by T-RFLP), biomass (determined by total organic carbon analysis), and abundance of bacteria and diatoms. Overall, cyprids of B. amphitrite preferred intertidal biofilms (i.e. 6 d old) over unfilmed surfaces for attachment. Moreover, cyprids also preferred to attach on biofilms of mid-intertidal height over high-intertidal or subtidal heights. There was no correlation between cypris attachment and any of the 3 biofilm ...
A quantitative molecular technique was developed for rapid analysis of microbial community diversity in various environments. The technique employed PCR in which one of the two primers used was fluorescently labeled at the 5 end and was used to amplify a selected region of bacterial genes encoding 16S rRNA from total community DNA. The PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes, and the fluorescently labeled terminal restriction fragment was precisely measured by using an automated DNA sequencer. Computer-simulated analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) for 1,002 eubacterial sequences showed that with proper selection of PCR primers and restriction enzymes, 686 sequences could be PCR amplified and classified into 233 unique terminal restriction fragment lengths or ribotypes. Using T-RFLP, we were able to distinguish all bacterial strains in a model bacterial community, and the pattern was consistent with the predicted outcome. Analysis of complex ...
Bacteria are common single-celled organisms and are a natural component of lakes, rivers, and streams. Most of these bacteria are harmless to humans; however, certain bacteria, some of which normally inhabit the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, have the potential to cause sickness and disease in humans. High numbers of these harmless bacteria often indicate high numbers of harmful bacteria as well as other disease-causing organisms such as viruses and protozoans.. One method of determining bacteria counts is to count the number of bacteria colonies that grow on a prepared medium.. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses.. Total ...
Some taxonomic recommendations and a proposal of neotype strains for nineteen species of Enterobacteriaceae. ICSB Subcommittee on taxonomy of ...
Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) - Science Exchange Lets You Compare Quotes From Leading Service Providers.
By Michael Biamonte CCN. While bacteria are an essential part of a healthy small bowel and perform important functions, the growth of the wrong small intestinal bacteria can lead to leaky gut and a number of other symptoms. This is a different yet similar condition to candida.. The predominant bacteria in the small intestines are from the Lactobacillus family. There are many types. Lactobacillus Acidophilus is the most well know. This is the bacteria found in yogurt and many supplements. It prevents candida growth in the small intestines, or small bowel. The normal small bowel, which connects the stomach to the large bowel, is approximately 20 feet long. Bacteria are normally present throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, but in varied amounts. Relatively few bacteria normally live in the small bowel (less than 10,000 bacteria per milliliter of fluid) when compared with the large bowel, or colon (at least 1,000,000,000 bacteria per milliliter of fluid). And the types of bacteria normally ...
URBANA, Ill. - One in three American adults suffers from high blood pressure, or hypertension. The disease can be passed down in families, and certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, high-sodium diets, and stress can increase the risk. In recent years, scientists have discovered that certain gut bacteria may contribute to hypertension, as well. In a few studies, when gut bacteria were killed off with antibiotics, patients with hypertension saw a drop in blood pressure. And when gut bacteria were transplanted from hypertensive people into normal mice, they developed high blood pressure. The evidence is compelling, but until now, scientists have not identified a mechanism to explain how bacteria increase blood pressure. Researchers from the University of Illinois and Brown University are pursuing a promising lead. Jason Ridlon, an assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences at U of I, first discovered the gene for an enzyme in certain bacteria that changes cortisol, a steroid ...
The composition of bacterial communities in Lake Baikal in different hydrological periods and at different depths (down to 1515 m) has been analyzed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 variable region. Most of the resulting 34 562 reads of the Bacteria domain have clustered into 1693 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified with the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Cyanobacteria. It has been found that their composition at the family level and relative contributions to bacterial communities distributed over the water column vary depending on hydrological period. The number of OTUs and the parameters of taxonomic richness (ACE, Chao1 indices) and diversity (Shannon and inverse Simpson index) reach the highest values in water layers. The composition of bacterial communities in these layers remains relatively constant, whereas that in surface layers differs between hydrological seasons. The dynamics of physicochemical conditions
Introduction to state-of-the-art technologies that are being used to study microbial systems biology Provides step-by-step detail essential for
Paneth cells are like the guardians of the intestine and autophagy is like their armor, said Yarovinsky, associate professor in the Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at URMC. When we removed their armor, the Paneth cells couldnt control the intestinal bacteria and it went wild, causing severe disease.. The study suggests that normal autophagy in Paneth cells is required to regulate bacteria in the gut, keeping it at bay and preventing the gut bacteria from invading host tissue. Paneth cells make up just 2 percent of the cells in the intestine, and the fact that restricting autophagy in these cells led to big problems was an unexpected result.. Gut bacteria play a role in inflammatory bowel disease. Scientists know that gut bacteria play a role in the development of IBD, which includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. But how bacteria in the gut are controlled in these conditions remains elusive. This study and others point to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corrigendum to Rates of susceptibility of carbapenems, ceftobiprole, and colistin against clinically important bacteria collected from intensive care units in 2007. T2 - Results from the Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART) [J Microbiol Immunol Infect 49. AU - Jean, Shio Shin. AU - Lee, Wen Sen. AU - Yu, Kwok Woon. AU - Liao, Chun Hsing. AU - Hsu, Chin Wan. AU - Chang, Feng Yi. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Chen, Ray Jade. AU - Wu, Jiunn Jong. AU - Chen, Yen Hsu. AU - Chen, Yao Shen. AU - Liu, Jien Wei. AU - Lu, Min Chi. AU - Lam, Carlos. AU - Liu, Cheng Yi. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2018/6. Y1 - 2018/6. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.jmii.2017.01.001. DO - 10.1016/j.jmii.2017.01.001. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85015290210. VL - 51. SP - 423. EP - 424. JO - Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and ...
Bacteriophages escaping from a dying bacterial cell (Streptococcus sp.), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This bacteriophage was discovered in freshwater near a sewage outlet. A bacteriophage, also known as a phage, is a virus (virion) that infects a bacterium. It consists of a head (capsid), containing the genetic material (either RNA or DNA) and usually a tail and tail fibres (not seen), which the phage uses to attach to a specific receptor sites on the bacterium. This specific binding means that a bacteriophage can only infect certain bacteria bearing specific receptors. Once attached to the cell surface genetic material is injected into the bacterium, taking over the bacteriums own cellular machinery and forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When sufficient numbers have been produced the phages escape from the bacterium by cellular lysis, killing the bacterium in the process. Magnification: x21,335 when shortest - Stock Image C032/0258
On the basis of Gram staining method bacteria are classified into two types. They are Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. Bacteria are also classified according to their growth and reproduction. Such classification includes Autotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. Autotrophic bacteria take the required carbon from carbon dioxide by itself. Some types of autotrophs will use sunlight to transform carbon dioxide to sugar. While heterotrophic bacteria will take sugar or carbon from the environment they live ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of phylogenetically different bacteria on the fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens in sand microcosms. AU - Tyc, Olaf. AU - Wolf, Alexandra. AU - Garbeva, Paolina. N1 - 5773, ME.; Data archiving: data archived at publisher.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - n most environments many microorganisms live in close vicinity and can interact in various ways. Recent studies suggest that bacteria are able to sense and respond to the presence of neighbouring bacteria in the environment and alter their response accordingly. This ability might be an important strategy in complex habitats such as soils, with great implications for shaping the microbial community structure. Here, we used a sand microcosm approach toinvestigate how Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 responds to the presence of monocultures or mixtures of two phylogenetically different bacteria, a Gram-negative (Pedobacter sp. V48) and a Gram-positive (Bacillus sp. V102) under two nutrient conditions. Results revealed that under ...
Johnson, Leander Floyd, The Effect of Antagonistic Soil Microorganisms on the Severity of Pythium Root Rot of Sugarcane. (1954). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 8087 ...
Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot ...
Newborns delivered by C-section acquire human skin microbes just after birth, but the sources remain unknown. We hypothesized that the operating room (OR) environment contains human skin bacteria that could be seeding C-section born infants. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 11 sites in four operating rooms from three hospitals in two cities. Following a C-section procedure, we swabbed OR floors, walls, ventilation grids, armrests, and lamps. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of 44 samples using Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences were analyzed using the QIIME pipeline. Only 68 % of the samples (30/44, |1000 sequences per site) yielded sufficient DNA reads to be analyzed. The bacterial content of OR dust corresponded to human skin bacteria, with dominance of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Diversity of bacteria was the highest in the ventilation grids and walls but was also present on top of the surgery lamps. Beta diversity analyses showed OR dust bacterial content clustering first
Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polymers forming variable outer layer when growing in their natural environment. (i) Capsule. Capsule forms a well-defined layer closely surrounding the cell. Functions: Capsule plays role in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria by contributing to invasiveness and preventing phagocytosis. Typing of certain bacteria are done on antigenic character of the capsule. Capsulated bacteria form smooth or mucoid colonies, and if they become noncapsulated then form rough colonies, e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extracellular material is polysaccharide except the capsule of Bacillus anthraces which is poly D-glutamic acid, a polypeptide. Capsule is demonstrated by special stain. (2) Glycocalyx. When the polymer forms a loose meshwork of fibrils, it is called glycocalyx. Glycocalyx plays role in adherence of bacteria on surface, e.g. Streptococcus mutans adheres to tooth enamel. (3) If the polymer is detached from the cells then it is called ...
I worked in different labs, and in 2008, at the Wageningen University, I grew my skins bacteria using agar from 30 different parts of my body.. This was aesthetically pleasing to the eye. It was amazing to see my bodys bacteria growing independently of my body in a Petri dish.. In another project, Cartography of the Human Body, I walked outside on one day in Vienna to cultivate bacteria from my own skin. I (came back inside) then collected the bacteria of my temporary skin flora and grew them first on agar plates. The different morphologies, colors and quantities of bacteria on different body areas were examined, analyzed, counted and documented. The bacteria were bred, partially reanimated and stored at -70 degrees C. In the framework of an interaction study, experiments were made to study the bacterias hierarchies. Weak bacteria that didnt seem to grow much at all or grew smaller were applied first to guarantee their unhindered growth and to achieve the desired colors on the bacterias ...
Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key one of Chessmuseum Template Library - free resume template for word education on a resume example ideas, to explore this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key idea you can browse by and . We hope your happy with this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key idea. You can download and please share this Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet New Characteristics Bacteria Worksheet Answer Key ideas to your friends and family via your social media account. Back to 50 Characteristics Of Bacteria Worksheet. ...
In this study, we have revealed novel and important aspects of the role of Nod2 for the development and composition of the mammalian intestinal microbiota. A detailed view into the colonisation process during mouse development highlights that microbial composition is not only influenced by genotype, but also by stage of development. Previous studies based on fingerprinting approaches found that the caecal microbiota in SPF mice changes drastically with age, but stabilises after 4 weeks.45 In our study based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, the microbial community continued to change after week 4b, fluctuating in the proportions of the three most abundant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria; figure 1B) until 10 weeks of age, at which point stable Firmicutes-dominated communities became apparent. Earlier culture-based studies found that the caecal microbiota matures as early as 4-5 weeks of age. These differences likely highlight the limitations of culture-dependent methods.46 Our ...
Modern molecular ecology techniques were used to demonstrate the effects of plant genotype and environmental conditions prior to harvest on the spinach epiphytic bacterial community. Three cultivars of spinach with different leaf topographies were collected at three different periods during the fall growing season. Leaf surface topography had an effect on diversity and number of culturable bacteria on the phylloepiphtyic community of spinach. Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. Bacterial community richness was compared using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), while abundance was quantified using 16s rRNA primers for major phyla. The most diverse communities, both in richness and abundance, were observed during the first sampling period, immediately following a period of
0126] It is another object of the present invention to provide a system 2000 adapted to detect and/or identify specific bacteria within an uncultured sample; said system 2000 comprising: [0127] a. means 100 for obtaining an absorption spectrum (AS) of said uncultured sample; said AS containing water influence; [0128] b. statistical processing means 200 for acquiring the n dimensional volume boundaries for said specific bacteria; said means 200 are characterized by: [0129] i. means 201 for obtaining at least one absorption spectrum (AS2) of known samples containing said specific bacteria; [0130] ii. means 202 for extracting x features from said entire AS2; said x features are selected from a group consisting of Correlation, peaks wavelength, peaks height, peaks width, peaks cross section, peaks area, at least one of the coefficients of a fitted polynomial curve, the total sum of areas under at least two peaks of the signal, linear prediction coefficient (LPC), mean value of the signal, ...
Within the Bacteria domain, there has been less consensus among taxonomists on how to organize bacteria into higher taxa (e.g., Kingdom, Sub-Kingdom, etc.).The Ninth Edition of Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (published in 1994) described three major categories of bacteria and one of archaeobacteria, and then further divided the bacteria categories into thirty different descriptive groups. According to the most current taxonomy (Garrity, et al., 2004), the Bacteria are now divided into twenty-four different phyla. Nearly all of the bacteria important in food fermentations, including lactic acid bacteria, belong to a single phylum, the firmicutes.Beyond the phyla, bacteria can be further divided into classes (and subclasses), orders (and sub-orders), families, and genera. Other details on their taxonomic positions will be described below.. ...
Original publication: McClung LS, McCoy E. Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: Breed RS, Murray EGD, Smith NR (eds), Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1957, p. 634-693. IJSEM list: Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA. Approved lists of bacterial names. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1980; 30:225-420. ...
Effect of microorganisms on rate of liquid extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths | P. G. Crabbe; C. W. Tse; P. A. Munro | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
API 20EIdentification System for Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram Negative Rods.1.The culture that I was given was culture B. The 7-digit numerical profile of my organism was 3604132. This organism is known as citrobater freudndii.2.Escherichia.Escher...
The development of continuously monitored blood culture instruments has led to a decrease in the detection time of bloodstream infections. However, specific identification of bacteria still requires conventional phenotypic methods. DNA probe assays have been developed for a limited number of pathogens that are frequently isolated from blood cultures (3, 13). For fastidious bacteria, subculture of the bacteria from blood culture bottles to solid media may require several days to weeks before phenotypic assays can provide an identification. These organisms are infrequently a cause of infection, and so immunologic or DNA probe assays have not been developed.. Recently, Turenne et al. (23) reported a rapid identification method for bacteria from blood cultures by using multiplex PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and analysis of the amplified fragments using nondenaturing electrophoresis. Their method could not differentiate two important pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PCR primers and probes for the 16S rRNA gene of most species of pathogenic bacteria, including bacteria found in cerebrospinal fluid. AU - Greisen, K.. AU - Loeffelholz, M.. AU - Purohit, A.. AU - Leong, D.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - A set of broad-range PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene in bacteria were tested, along with three series of oligonucleotide probes to detect the PCR product. The first series of probes is broad in range and consists of a universal bacterial probe, a gram-positive probe, a Bacteroides- Flavobacterium probe, and two probes for other gram-negative species. The second series was designed to detect PCR products from seven major bacterial species or groups frequently causing meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. The third series was designed for the detection of DNA from species or genera ...
The bacterial microflora of maple sap and biofilms in collection system tubing were studied through the use of bacterial counts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of surfaces and the analysis of 16S rRNA gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Samples were taken at five times during the 2002 and 2003 seasons in order to follow the changes in the microflora of this complex ecosystem. Bacterial counts showed the growth of bacterial populations as the season advanced. These populations were mainly composed of psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. SEM results confirmed the suspected presence of biofilms on the inner surfaces of tubing samples. Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation progressively increased during the season for both lateral and main line surfaces, and biofilms were mainly composed of rod shape bacteria. The bacterial microflora profiles obtained for sap and corresponding biofilm by DGGE showed up to 12 major bands. The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity ...
Freshwater streams display both temporal (time) and spatial (space) differences. Time variation is a result of seasonal influences and space variation is due to flow regime, substrate type, water solutes, suspended materials and incident light exposure. It is believed that bacterial communities are good indicators due to their rapid life cycle. However, if we cant see them, how do we know that they are present and observe changes? Bacteria can be detected using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) which creates fingerprints of microbial communities. The fingerprint produced is just like a human fingerprint, because it is unique to a bacteria species just like a fingerprint is unique to a person ...
Segmented filamentous bacteria or Candidatus Savagella are members of the gut microbiota of rodents, fish and chickens, and have been shown to potently induce immune responses in mice.[1] They form a distinct lineage within the Clostridiaceae and the name Candidatus Savagella has been proposed for this lineage.[2]. They were previously named Candidatus Arthromitus because of their morphological resemblance to bacterial filaments previously observed in the guts of insects by Joseph Leidy.[3]. Despite the fact that they have been widely referred to as segmented filamentous bacteria, this term is somewhat problematic as it does not allow one to distinguish between bacteria that colonize various hosts or even if segmented filamentous bacteria are actually several different bacterial species. In mice, these bacteria grow primarily in the terminal ileum in close proximity to the intestinal epithelium where they are thought to help induce T helper 17 cell responses.[4]. Intriguingly, Segmented ...
The genetics of bacteria is the study of the reproductive capabilities of bacteria and the mechanisms which they utilize to diversify their genetic composition. Similar to eukaryotic cells, bacterial cells are capable of retaining function and variation, which gets passed on through generations. Despite the fact that the development of bacteria resistant strains is a major issue, bacteria actually do not have a high mutation rate. Rather, bacteria are capable of proliferating rapidly which allows them to increase genetic diversity, along with the effects of genetic recombination. Furthermore, bacteria do not reproduce by meiosis. Instead they use binary fission to replicate themselves, which is a form of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is common of prokaryotic organisms.. Bacteria can alter their genetic information through transformation, transduction and conjugation.. ...
Most of us associate the bacteria E. coli with nasty stomach ailments. But a new study published in Nature magazine suggests E. coli can not just turn stomachs, but could potentially turn the wheels of your car, since a genetically engineered strain of the bacteria has produced clean, road-ready biodiesel.. The bacteria can work on any type of biomass, including wood chip, switchgrass, and the plant parts that are left behind after a harvest-all contain cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of a plants mass. Study coauthor Jay Keasling and his colleagues report engineering E. coli bacteria to synthesize and excrete the enzyme hemicellulase, which breaks down cellulose into sugars. The bacteria can then convert those sugars into a variety of chemicals-diesel fuel among them. The final products are excreted by the bacteria and then float to the top of the fermentation vat before being siphoned off [Technology Review]. E. coli bacteria naturally turn sugars into fatty acids to build ...
Fulltext - Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Water Deficit Stress
Exam Review - Monera, Viruses and Protists 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1) 2) 3) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. List 6 general things bacteria do (from your notes). List 5 characteristics of prokaryotes What are the differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria. Archaebacteria: List properties of Methanogens, Thermoacidophiles, Halophiles. What are these and where are they found? Eubacteria: What are the characteristics of gram positive and gram negative bacteria? Fill in the chart below. Ways that bacteria are helpful Ways that bacteria are harmful 1) 2) 3) Draw the 3 shapes of bacteria (Cocci, Bacilli, Spirilla) Where and under what conditions do bacteria thrive? Compare and contrast the terms: clean, sanitized, and sterile. Define disease, pathology and pathogen. List the 6 types of diseases. (ways in which you might get a disease) What is meant by host to host transmission? ...
In the ongoing war against antibiotic resistant bacteria, a change in battle tactics may prove effective for controlling common scab of potatoes and potentially other toxins that affect humans and animals, according to Canadian Light Source Inc.. Although bacterial toxins cause serious, often deadly diseases, bacteria arent trying to be nasty, said Dr. Rod Merrill, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph. Theyre hungry and looking for food, and were often the food. He added that 99 per cent of bacteria are helpful - like gut flora - so the battle is against the remaining one per cent.. The usual approach is to develop antibiotics that kill the bacteria but not us, or the plant, or the animal, stated Merrill. However, bacteria mutate quickly, as quickly as every 30 minutes, which leads to antibiotic resistance. And unfortunately, the pipeline for new antibiotics is empty.. The approach that Merrill and his research group are pursuing is an anti-virulence ...
We often think of bacteria as something to avoid but there are 100 trillion viable bacteria in the colon comprised of 400-1000 different species. This microbiome is often referred to as the gut flora and we need these bacteria healthy to help keep us disease free.. The bacteria in our digestive system create many benefits. When we have a good balance of bacteria we have a very symbiotic relationship with them. We provide them with food and they provide us with myriad benefits such as the synthesis of biotin, vitamins B12, B6, B5, B2 and vitamin K2. They also synthesize the short chain fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, and acetate).. When our beneficial bacteria have a stable colony count they prevent other pathogens from thriving by using up all available food sources. Bacteria help to control the set point for inflammation, regulate the pH of the intestine, and help maintain the cell integrity of the entire digestive tract. A healthy gut flora also helps our immune system by stimulating the ...
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For my freshman science fair project, my topic is: How effective are different antibacterials and disinfectants on bacteria. I will measure how effective they are by putting the antibacterial/disinfectant in the middle of the petri dish while the bacteria are growing, and see if they spread away from the centerpiece. The more effective the antibacterial/disinfectant is, the further the bacteria will back away. However, I have some questions. 1.) Does this have any glitches/major or minor problems? 2.) How should I go about staining, is Methylene Blue fine? 3.) is 1 oz of this stain enough for 15 full Petri dishes full of bacteria? 4.)My major question is, what bacteria should I use? I thought of E. coli, but the local public Health Center says it could become hazardous and dangerous. Which bacteria would be the best? I great list of pure types of bacteria I could get is at ...
The results shed light on the complicated interaction between humans and the microbes that live on and around us. Mounting evidence suggests that these microscopic, teeming communities play a role in human health and disease treatment and transmission. We know that certain bacteria can make it easier for mice to put on weight, for example, and that others influence brain development in young mice, says Argonne microbiologist Jack Gilbert, who led the study. We want to know where these bacteria come from, and as people spend more and more time indoors, we wanted to map out the microbes that live in our homes and the likelihood that they will settle on us. They are essential for us to understand our health in the 21st century.. The Home Microbiome Project followed seven families, which included 18 people, three dogs and one cat, over the course of six weeks. The participants in the study swabbed their hands, feet and noses daily to collect a sample of the microbial populations living in and on ...
Bacteria in the gut do far more than help digest food in the stomachs of their hosts, they can also tell the genes in their mammalian hosts what to do.. A study published today in Cell describes a form of interspecies communication in which bacteria secrete a specific molecule-nitric oxide-that allows them to communicate with and control their hosts DNA, and suggests that the conversation between the two may broadly influence human health.. The researchers out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School tracked nitric oxide secreted by gut bacteria inside tiny worms (C. elegans, a common mammalian laboratory model). Nitric oxide secreted by gut bacteria attached to thousands of host proteins, completely changing a worms ability to regulate its own gene expression.. The study is the first to show gut bacteria can tap into nitric oxide networks ubiquitous in mammals, including humans. Nitric oxide attaches to ...
Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by some bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.[1][2] The ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ...
Animal gut bacteria[edit]. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of ... Recent research has shown that TU-103, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... "Newsvine - Ecofasa turns waste to biofuels using bacteria". 2008-10-18. Retrieved 2009-10-17.. ...
Iron - Many bacteria contain a form of the enzyme with iron (Fe-SOD); some bacteria contain Fe-SOD, others Mn-SOD, and some ( ... Bacteria[edit]. Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen ... During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves ... Manganese - Nearly all mitochondria, and many bacteria, contain a form with manganese (Mn-SOD): For example, the Mn-SOD found ...
Discovery of bacterium[edit]. After the end of the 17th century, Norway, Iceland, and England were the countries in Western ... By the 1960s, the world's only known anti-leprosy drug became ineffective against resistant bacteria. ... making it the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[2][16] Hansen observed a number of nonrefractile ... This was the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[2] From the 19th century, European nations adopted ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... Epigenetics in bacteria[edit]. While epigenetics is of fundamental importance in eukaryotes, especially metazoans, it plays a ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. ... However, bacteria make widespread use of postreplicative DNA methylation for the epigenetic control of DNA-protein interactions ...
It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ... In gram-negative bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is ... Secretion in gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... T4SS is encoded on Gram-negative conjugative elements in bacteria.T4SS are cell envelope-spanning complexes or in other words ...
Bacteria[edit]. Three species of bacteria, Carnobacterium pleistocenium, as well as Chryseobacterium greenlandensis and ... Most plants, in particular, can safely reach temperatures of −4 °C to −12 °C. Certain bacteria, notably Pseudomonas syringae, ... Besides the effect of lower temperatures on reaction rates, freezing makes water less available for bacteria growth. ... The freezing causes injuries in the epithelia and makes the nutrients in the underlying plant tissues available to the bacteria ...
In bacteria and nature[edit]. The glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a capsule or a slime layer. Item 6 points at the ... It serves to protect the bacterium from harmful phagocytes by creating capsules or allowing the bacterium to attach itself to ... Bacteria growing in natural ecosystems, such as in soil, bovine intestines, or the human urinary tract, are surrounded by some ... TEM micrograph of a B. subtilis bacterium, with the hair-like glycocalyx visible surrounding the cell membrane (scale bar = 200 ...
Providencia is genus of Gram-negative, motile bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was named after Providence, Rhode ... "Biochemical and Antigenic Relationships of the Paracolon Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 45 (2): 101-19. PMC 373720. PMID ... Island, where C. A. Stuart and colleagues studied these bacteria at Brown University.[1] ... Retrieved from "" ...
After consuming petroleum, the bacteria release methane. Around 200 to 300 species of bacteria were newly discovered here.[9] ... Bacteria[edit]. Methane gas escapes from the tar pits, causing bubbles that make the asphalt appear to boil. Asphalt and ... In 2007, researchers from UC Riverside discovered that the bubbles were caused by hardy forms of bacteria embedded in the ...
Bacteria processing of graphene oxide[edit]. Graphene oxide can be converted to graphene using the bacteria Shewanella ... 15 Bacteria processing of graphene oxide. *16 Graphene characterization techniques *16.1 Low-Energy and Photoemission Electron ... 3D Printed Bacteria Could Lead to 3D Printed Electronics in Space, Say TU Delft Researchers ...
Freeze-Drying and Cryopreservation of Bacteria *^ "Addgene: Protocol - How to Create a Bacterial Glycerol Stock". ... Bacteria[edit]. Many common culturable laboratory strains are deep-frozen to preserve genetically and phenotypically stable, ... Bacteria and fungi can be kept short-term (months to about a year, depending) refrigerated, however, cell division and ... Perry SF (1995). "Freeze-drying and cryopreservation of bacteria". Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols. Methods in ...
Bacteria[edit]. Cannabis contaminated with Salmonella muenchen was positively correlated with dozens of cases of salmonellosis ...
They share a common ancestor with bacteria, but are more closely related to eukaryotes in comparison to bacteria.[11] Some ... Another bacterium which has greatly contributed to the field of genetics is Thermus aquaticus, which is a bacterium that ... Bacteria have been on this planet for approximately 3.5 billion years, and are classified by their shape.[5] Bacterial genetics ... Such genetically engineered bacteria can produce pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human growth hormone, interferons and blood ...
Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water inhabited by a symbiosis of Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. It is used in baking to ...
Bacteria[edit]. Bacteria secrete proteases to hydrolyse the peptide bonds in proteins and therefore break the proteins down ... Bacteria contain proteases responsible for general protein quality control (e.g. the AAA+ proteasome) by degrading unfolded or ... Proteases can be found in Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea and viruses. ...
Anoxic bacteria[edit]. Anoxic bacteria could be used as competitors or predators in hypoxic environments within tumors.[118] ... Since bacteria prefer an anoxic environment, they are not efficient at eliminating cells on the periphery of the tumor, where ... According to Jain and Forbes, several requirements have to be met by the cells to qualify as efficient anticancer bacterium:[ ... However, being a living organism, bacteria would coevolve with tumor cells, potentially eliminating the possibility of ...
In bacteria[edit]. Adenine or cytosine methylation is part of the restriction modification system of many bacteria, in which ... The methylation of native DNA acts as a sort of primitive immune system, allowing the bacteria to protect themselves from ... It has been shown that altering Dam activity in bacteria results in increased spontaneous mutation rate. Bacterial viability is ...
Whereas MFS dominates in Gram positive bacteria, the RND family was once thought to be unique to Gram negative bacteria. They ... Bacteria[edit]. Bacterial efflux pumps[edit]. Efflux pumps are proteinaceous transporters localized in the cytoplasmic membrane ...
In bacteria[edit]. Antigenic variation in bacteria is best demonstrated by species of the genus Neisseria (most notably, ... The bacterium carries a plasmid that contains fifteen silent vls cassettes and one functional copy of vlsE. Segments of the ... In the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, the surface lipoprotein VlsE can undergo recombination which ... Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium ...
A log10 reduction between 6 and 7 means that 1 bacterium out of 1 million (106) to 10 million (107) bacteria survive the ... Efficacy against pathogenic bacteria[edit]. During the early 20th century, there was no robust knowledge of what time and ... Milk is an excellent medium for microbial growth,[17] and when it is stored at ambient temperature bacteria and other pathogens ... it also kills the harmful bacteria Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ...
Bacteria[edit]. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.[17] ... Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.[2][3][5] ... The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and ... The bacterium that causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and ...
Bacteria are one of the world's oldest forms of life, and are found virtually everywhere in nature.[8] Many common bacteria ... Bacteria[edit]. Modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia. It can take a century for a stromatolite to grow 5 cm.[9] ... Archaea are generally similar in appearance to bacteria, hence their original classification as bacteria, but have significant ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ...
In bacteria and archaea[edit]. Disulfide bonds play an important protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in particular could severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at low concentrations if not for the ... which could be found in certain bacteria including photogenic strain. A unique intramolecular cysteine disulfide bonds in the ...
Bacteria. Salt-rising bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast. Although the leavening action is ... Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO2 generation is stopped. ...
Bacteria[edit]. *Vibrio cholerae (cholera). *Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous enterocolitis). *Shigella (shigellosis / ...
Bacteria[edit]. In bacteria, the same enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of mRNA and non-coding RNA (ncRNA). ... In bacteria, termination of RNA transcription can be rho-dependent or rho-independent. The former relies on the rho factor, ... In Escherichia coli bacteria, more than 100 transcription factors have been identified, which modify the activity of RNAP.[10] ... Bacteria and archaea only have one RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for ...
Lactic acid producing bacteria have been used to produce silver nanoparticles. The bacteria Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus ... Fungi and bacteria[edit]. A general representation of the synthesis and applications of biogenically synthesized silver ... As the silver nano particles come in contact with the bacteria, they adhere to the cell wall and cell membrane.[78] Once bound ... Bacterium found in silver mines, Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259, were able to construct silver particles in the shapes of triangles ...
Bacteria[edit]. Some sulfate-reducing bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide, which can cause sulfide stress cracking. ... Other bacteria produce various acids, both organic and mineral, or ammonia. In presence of oxygen, aerobic bacteria like ... Acidithiobacillus bacteria produce sulfuric acid; Acidothiobacillus thiooxidans frequently damages sewer pipes. Ferrobacillus ... Layers of anaerobic bacteria can exist in the inner parts of the corrosion deposits, while the outer parts are inhabited by ...
Bacteria[edit]. Main article: Pathogenic bacteria. Many bacteria are parasitic, though they are more generally thought of as ... When only one bacterium could kill the other, the other strain was excluded by the competition. But when caterpillars were ... Vertebrate saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme which breaks down the cell walls of invading bacteria.[90] Should the ... It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail, which attaches to the bacterium's surface. ...
Multiple types of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the human mouth and their intra-family transmission. Arch Oral Biol. ... Berkowitz RJ, Jones P. Mouth-to-mouth transmission of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans between mother and child. Arch Oral ... The infectious and transmissible nature of bacteria that cause early childhood caries and methods of oral health risk ... The overall strategy is to lower the numbers of cariogenic bacteria in the mothers mouth and delay colonization as long as ...
Bacteria (/bækˈtɪəriə/ (. listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a ... Further information: Economic importance of bacteria. Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and ... There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, that classify bacteria into Gram-positive bacteria and ... The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion),[17] ...
Could cyborg bacteria generate clean power in the future? Researchers at UC Berkeley covered bacteria with small... ... Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. The bacteria Mycobacterium... ... Antarctic sea-ice bacteria could be contaminating seafood with a dangerous form of mercury. *by Katie Medlock ... Geologists discover bacteria that turns small bits of gold into solid nuggets. *by Greg Beach ...
Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their ... Then a dish of the bacteria was taken, and a light was focused on one part of the dish, leaving the rest dark. As the bacteria ... One type of purple bacteria, called purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), use sulfide or sulfur as electron donors.[10] Another type, ... They may be divided into two groups - purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales, in part) and purple non-sulfur bacteria ( ...
... its probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick. ... but lots of bacteria actually help our bodies. The good bacteria are good for us, and the bad bacteria can make us sick. They ... Bacteria are so tiny that you cant see them with just your eyes, but there are thousands, millions, even billions of them all ... If youre feeling crummy, its probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick ...
Bacteria Testing Bacteria Testing. Introduction to Unit on Water Testing - Fecal coliform and E. coli Bacteria are found ... Bacteria are also used in environmental recycling and clean-up. Our world would not be able to survive without bacteria. ... When we think about bacteria polluting our rivers and lakes, it is usually fecal coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform is a group ... Even though bacteria have a bad reputation in our society, most types are completely harmless to humans, or even helpful! ...
... are monerans, the simplest single-celled organisms. They are the smallest of all cells, visible only through powerful ... Without bacteria, other life on Earth could not survive. Bacteria in the soil release nitrates, a usable form of the element ... Some bacteria cause diseases, but others are useful. Bacteria recycle nutrients in the soil and aid the human digestive system. ... BACTERIA. RELEASING NITRATES. BIOGRAPHY: LOUIS PASTEUR French, 1822-1895. FIND OUT MORE. ...
Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified ... term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. ... Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified ... Bacteria and Archaea are thought to have evolved separately from a common ancestor early in Earths history. Bacteria and ...
... any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Vibrios are aquatic microorganisms, some species of which ... Vibrio, (genus Vibrio), any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Vibrios are aquatic microorganisms ... an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. and characterized by extreme diarrhea with ...
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Did you know that bacteria talked with each other by using small molecules to coordinate their behavior and decide when its ... signals to interfere with this signal process and that this could lead to new treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. ... Conversations between bacteria. Did you know that bacteria talked with each other by using small molecules to coordinate ... The figure above shows "the quorum sensing systems of several bacteria, V. fischeri, A. tumefaciens, and P. aeruginosa, ...
First evidence that bacteria can acquire human genes has come to light in a new study by US researchers who found a fragment of ... What are bacteria and what do they do?. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that exist in their millions, in every environment ... Common skin bacteria may prevent skin cancer. A new study finds that a friendly bacterium, commonly found on healthy human ... Soil-based bacteria discovered in humans may trigger MS. Researchers have discovered a type B Clostrodium bacteria for the ...
... were talking about bacteria, those squirmy no-see-ems that densely cover just about every surface imaginable here on Earth, ... wed be in a lot of trouble if it werent for bacteria. ... Bacteria could also play a large role in the future of fuel ... Bacteria to the Rescue. See how scientists are learning from the most common form of life on Earth to fight cancer, produce ... One way bacteria can be put to work is by genetically reconfiguring certain types that are normally harmful, making them benign ...
living inside of your gut are 300 to 500 different kinds of bacteria containing nearly 2 million genes. paired with other tiny ... What are gut bacteria?. ANSWER Your body is loaded with trillions of bacteria. Paired with other tiny organisms like viruses ... The mix of bacteria in your body is unique to you. Its determined partly by your mothers microbiota and partly by your diet ... How is gut bacteria linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease? ...
Source for information on Autotrophic Bacteria: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... Autotrophic bacteria An autotroph is an organism able to make its own food. Autotrophic organisms take inorganic substances ... Some of these bacteria were found living near vents and active volcanoes on the lightless ocean floor. The bacteria create ... These bacteria take in carbon dioxide and water and convert the chemical energy in sulfur compounds to run metabolic processes ...
A single apple could harbour as much as 100 million bacteria, but its probably a good thing ... Watch: Scientists discover new plastic-eating bacteria and tested it to see how fast it would... ... We had our earbuds tested for bacteria to find out if its gross to share headphones ... Gauteng mother nearly loses her life to flesh-eating bacteria: I was being eaten alive ...
of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane ... Once considered a part of the plant kingdom, bacteria were eventually placed in a separate kingdom, ... There are more bacteria, as separate individuals, than any other type of organism; there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria ... Bacteria fall into one of two groups, Archaebacteria (ancient forms thought to have evolved separately from other bacteria) and ...
... which had been caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, referred to by the acronym MRSA. ...
These S. aureus bacteria are methicillin-resistant, and are from one of the first isolates in the U.S. that showed increased ... bacteria. See PHIL 617 for a black and white view of this image. ...
Rename your images sequentially, such as bacteria-1.jpg, bacteria-2.jpg, etc. ... NB: Nutrient Broth or Nutrient Agar is a rich agar usually used to cultivate bacteria that do not form their own vitamins. ( ) ... EMB: Eosin Methylene Blue agar is a selective agar for gram negative bacteria with lactose sugars it differentiates between ...
Cranberries fight bacteria. British Dental Journal volume 199, page698(2005)Cite this article ... Perhaps the same is true in the mouth, where bacteria use adhesion molecules to hold onto teeth, Koo said. Koos team also ... Koo found that cranberry juice makes it difficult for the bacteria Streptococcus mutans to cling to tooth surfaces. Scientists ... Koos team found that cranberry juice prevents bacteria from forming plaque by inhibiting the enzyme. In spite of these ...
The bacteria battle. One of the most remarkable advances against disease and death was the invention of antibiotics, which led ... Some of these bacteria, like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, are lethal. ... said the destruction of the bacteria renders it unable to develop resistance to the nanoparticles. The paper says the ...
In the July 6 SN: Celebrating the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11, stone tool dates face scrutiny, ocean plastic goes deep, records of Inca taxation, erosion spurred plate tectonics and more. ...
However, many bacteria have two or more quorum-sensing systems. Use of multiple quorum-sensing systems allows bacteria to ... This process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to monitor their environment for the presence of other bacteria and to ... In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria monitor the presence of other bacteria in their surroundings by producing and ... Because most bacteria reside in mixed-species environments, other examples of bacteria "conspiring" to carry out different ...
Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes. Malaria kills 1.24 million people a year. Mostly ... Gut bacteria do a number of things - out-compete potentially harmful bacteria, help digest stuff, release vitamins we cannot ... In zebra fish, exposure to bacteria is essential. If you try to raise zebra fish bacteria-free you get 100% mortality by ~24 ... Mosquitoes have a symbiotic relationship with their bacteria the same way we do- they need their good bacteria to get all the ...
Seeing bacteria on your food is a different story. All foodborne bacteria are microscopic and cant be seen with the naked eye ... How 26 Percent of Participants Transferred Bacteria from Raw Chicken to Their Salads The debate on whether or not to wash raw ... Millions of Americans with Dirty Hands Are Spreading Dangerous Bacteria Have you ever seen someone handling food in a way that ... Share the Love, not the Bacteria At this time of year, many community groups, volunteer organizations, work places and other ...
BACTERIA ON FRUIT. Br Med J 1932; 2 doi: (Published 19 November 1932) Cite this as: Br ...
Washing the bacteria down the drain once a week is enough to keep pipes from blocking up. The bacteria are non-pathogenic and ... INSTEAD of using bacteria to clean up ground water, one company is using them to keep dangerous chemicals from going down the ... Bio-Care, Inc., in Campbell, Calif., has developed a strain of bacteria that attacks grease, soap, and starches. ``They digest ... A new product uses the bacteria to clean septic tanks. Carpet cleaners and pet-stain removers are in the works. ...
Structure of Bacteria. Br Med J 1950; 2 doi: (Published 22 July 1950) Cite this as: Br ...
Swimmers and those who eat seafood should be careful to avoid infection from this potentially fatal bacteria. ... bacteria -- to thrive, especially in warm Gulf Coast waters. ... Summer is prime season for a bacteria called Vibrio vulnificus ... The bacteria dont actually consume the flesh. The bacteria have toxins that are destroying the cells in the tissue. The cells ... "The bacteria thrive in warm water, so concentrations of the bacteria are higher during the summer months," says Carina ...
  • The fecal coliform group contains many types of bacteria that are not necessarily harmful to human health. (
  • count the unique types of bacteria or fungus you see. (
  • There are many different types of bacteria. (
  • To allow the device to detect certain types of bacteria, the researchers attached peptides - fragments of proteins - to the graphene sensors. (
  • Some types of bacteria are harmless or even beneficial. (
  • But some types of bacteria grow slowly, and it may take several days or longer. (
  • The most common types of bacteria tests and their uses are listed below. (
  • Some types of bacteria are photosynthetic, but most are not. (
  • All told, the 40 homes harbored 7,726 different types of bacteria. (
  • Types of bacteria tended to differ by location: Kitchen environments (cutting boards, counters and shelves) had similar colonies from home to home, as did frequently touched surfaces (toilet seats, pillowcases, door handles) and rarely cleaned surfaces (door trims and television screens). (
  • 4 Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species are considered to be principal indicator organisms of those of aciduric bacteria responsible for caries. (
  • Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor . (
  • For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. (
  • bacteria [pl. of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. (
  • Bacteria are remarkably adaptable to diverse environmental conditions: they are found in the bodies of all living organisms and on all parts of the earth-in land terrains and ocean depths, in arctic ice and glaciers, in hot springs, and even in the stratosphere. (
  • Bacteria are monerans, the simplest single-celled organisms. (
  • Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified in the other two domains of life, Archaea (formerly the Archaebacteria) and Eukarya (the eukaryotes ). (
  • The division of prokaryotic organisms into the Bacteria and Archaea domains was prompted by ribosomal ribonucleic acid (r RNA ) studies of the genetic information of the organisms. (
  • Bacteria are single-celled organisms that exist in their millions, in every environment, inside or outside other organisms. (
  • A unique characteristic of these chemoautotrophic bacteria is that they thrive at temperatures high enough to kill other organisms. (
  • EMB: Eosin Methylene Blue agar is a selective agar for gram negative bacteria with lactose sugars it differentiates between organisms that can use lactose and ones that cannot. (
  • Because quorum sensing allows bacteria to coordinate the behavior of the group, it enables them to take on some of the characteristics of multicellular organisms. (
  • By "fundamental unit of life" I mean that bacteria are the most basic organisms to meet the definition of life , and were the first form of life to exist. (
  • Bacteria are capable of controlling the ecosystem, and are often responsible for the creation of viruses that wipe out over-zealous organisms like humans who fail to see their impact on the biosphere. (
  • Bacterial cells actually outnumber human cells in the body: From an outside perspective, people are not so much individual organisms as symbiotic human-bacteria collectives. (
  • Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. (
  • Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are classified as prokaryotes, which are single-celled organisms with a simple internal structure that lacks a nucleus, and contains DNA that either floats freely in a twisted, thread-like mass called the nucleoid, or in separate, circular pieces called plasmids. (
  • Bacteria usually live off other organisms. (
  • Presumably, this process bestows upon bacteria some of the qualities of higher organisms. (
  • Bacteria are thought to have been the first organisms to appear on earth, about 4 billion years ago. (
  • The oldest known fossils are of bacteria-like organisms. (
  • Bacteria are single-cell organisms that are neither plants nor animals. (
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli, one of the best-studied single-celled organisms around, is a master of industrial efficiency. (
  • Bacteria are a large group of one-celled organisms. (
  • Most disease-causing bacteria will grow enough to be seen within one to two days, but it can take some organisms five days or longer. (
  • We've only recently begun to fully understand these microscopic organisms and their impact on our planet and health, but history suggests our ancestors centuries ago were harnessing the power of bacteria to ferment foods and beverages ( beer and bread, anyone? (
  • Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms capable of rapid growth and division. (
  • Different bacteria (and for that matter, other different micro-organisms i.e. those that are microscopic in size, such a fungi, algae, etc..) are different colors due to the presence of different colored substances in the cells. (
  • Bacteria are tiny one-celled organisms present throughout the environment that require a microscope to be seen. (
  • Putrefying bacteria use amino acids or urea as an energy source to decompose dead organisms. (
  • Vibrio , (genus Vibrio ), any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. (
  • Cholera , an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme diarrhea with rapid and severe depletion of body fluids and salts. (
  • Gram-negative quorumsensing bacteria typically possess proteins homologous to the LuxI and LuxR proteins of Vibrio fischeri , the bacterium in which they were initially discovered ( Fig. 1 A ) ( 4 ). (
  • Aug. 1, 2014 -- Summer is prime season for a bacteria called Vibrio vulnificus -- also known as "flesh-eating" bacteria -- to thrive, especially in warm Gulf Coast waters. (
  • Among these is the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, which forms a partnership with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. (
  • One research team recently showed that warmer ocean temperatures could make you sick through the rise of marine bacteria called Vibrio . (
  • Species of Vibrio bacteria are ubiquitous throughout the oceans. (
  • In areas of warming, data from historic plankton sampling sites (marked on the map with boxes) showed increases in Vibrio bacteria abundance. (
  • According to our study, the observed increase in the number of Vibrio infections in the human population in recent years-including infections from so called 'flesh eating bacteria' such as Vibrio vulnificus -could be a direct consequence of dramatic ocean warming over the last few decades," Vezzulli said. (
  • For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae ), which causes pneumonia , is a Gram-positive bacterium, but Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and Vibrio cholerae , which causes cholera, are Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. (
  • Pasteur was a chemist who showed that food decays because of microorganisms, such as bacteria. (
  • A dense population of microorganisms inhabits the intestinal tract, including bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. (
  • Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms lacking a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. (
  • common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. (
  • Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about 27 percent of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. (
  • Gram positive bacteria are more susceptible to treatment with antibiotics than Gram negative bacteria because they lack an outer membrane, nonetheless certain bacterial strains display antimicrobial resistance. (
  • The connection between gut bacteria and obesity has gained some weight, with new findings demonstrating links in mice among immune-system malfunction, bacterial imbalance and increased appetite. (
  • Although the nature of the chemical signals, the signal relay mechanisms, and the target genes controlled by bacterial quorum sensing systems differ, in every case the ability to communicate with one another allows bacteria to coordinate the gene expression, and therefore the behavior, of the entire community. (
  • Although the bacterial communities of the two plants were similar, the researchers observed a clear preference by these bacteria to colonize their native host. (
  • Your health care provider may order a bacteria culture test if you have symptoms of a bacterial infection . (
  • If enough bacteria is found in your sample, it likely means you have a bacterial infection. (
  • If your bacteria are a Gram negative strain, these agents will remove the stain from the bacterial cell walls. (
  • Spreading Terran bacteria to other worlds is a no-no, for obvious reasons, so spacecraft are routinely sterilized to prevent any bacterial hitch-hikers. (
  • Antibiotics can result in partial removal of our body's natural bacterial communities in addition to the targeted harmful bacteria. (
  • Motors made from bacterial flagella have been used as novel "nano-actuators" before (see Bacteria harnessed as miniature pumps ), but Metin Sitti and Bahareh Behkam of Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania, US, have taken another approach. (
  • Bacteria are robust machines that can easily be integrated with other microscopic components and do not need to be purified or reconstituted, as detached bacterial components must be. (
  • Bacterial disease is becoming a more serious medical problem, particularly in hospitals which tend to harbor a population of drug-resistant bacteria. (
  • However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. (
  • Researchers at UC Berkeley covered bacteria with small. (
  • Researchers have theorized that some purple bacteria are related to the mitochondria , symbiotic bacteria in plant and animal cells today that act as organelles. (
  • To test it against E. faecalis , the researchers first grew the bacteria into a biofilm, which they exposed to the plasma jet. (
  • The researchers think they can now develop artificial signals to interfere with this signal process and that this could lead to new treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (
  • David Spring , Martin Welch , their respective research groups and James T. Hodgkinson "explain that researchers long have known that bacteria communicate with each other. (
  • First evidence that bacteria can acquire human genes has come to light in a new study by US researchers who found a fragment of human DNA in Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the bacterium that causes gonorrhea , one of the oldest recorded human diseases. (
  • The researchers discovered the gene transfer from human to bacteria when the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, sequenced the genomes of 14 gonorrhea clinical isolates and found three of them had a fragment of DNA that had an identical sequence to an L1 DNA element found in humans. (
  • The researchers also examined a close genetic relative of gonorrhea, the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis that causes meningitis . (
  • The computer programme developed by researchers at Stanford University is an exact replica of the Mycoplasma genitalium bacterium, including its DNA and all the other components of its single cell. (
  • The researchers attached nanoparticles to the outside of bacteria and linked DNA to the nanoparticles. (
  • In an article in the Wall Street Journal today describing the technology, James L. Hedrick of International Business Machines Corp., one of the researchers, said the destruction of the bacteria renders it unable to develop resistance to the nanoparticles. (
  • Using an analytical framework, the researchers created the first catalog of human gut bacteria that have "neuroactive" potential. (
  • In a study that focused solely on wipes, researchers concluded that instead of preventing hospital-acquired infections like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) the wipes could actually be spreading bacteria when used improperly by hospital staffers. (
  • But in a study presented today in Boston at the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, researchers from Cardiff University's Welsh School of Pharmacy reported that when used improperly the wipes may spread bacteria rather than remove or kill them. (
  • The researchers used the wipes in this way in laboratory tests designed to measure their ability to remove and kill the bacteria that cause staph infections , including MRSA. (
  • Even some wipes that claimed to kill bacteria were found to transfer live bacteria from one surface to another, the researchers report. (
  • When the researchers transferred bacteria from the stomachs of TLR-5-deficient mice to mice without gut bacteria, the recipients started to eat more, and soon developed metabolic syndrome. (
  • For example, when the researchers shone two separate lights at the cells, they saw two focused bright spots and the bacteria appeared to integrate the information, heading off in an intermediate direction. (
  • The material's unique properties allowed the researchers to construct a small, flexible device able to detect bacteria at a much higher sensitivity level than traditional methods. (
  • In tests, the researchers detected samples of bacteria that can cause surgical infections and others that can lead to stomach ulcers. (
  • Researchers have been experimenting with bacteria that can produce fuels such as hydrogen and methane, as well as those that can remove carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, from the air. (
  • Several years ago, researchers proposed the provocative idea that bacteria living in the human stomach could be responsible for the development of some stomach ulcers. (
  • Several years ago, researchers proposed the provocative idea that bacteria living in the human stomach could be responsible for the development of some stomach ulcers - and the doctors found that treating those bacteria, H. pylori, with antibiotics could reduce ulcer risk. (
  • The cause for the link isn't exactly clear, though the researchers believe that people with the bacteria have more immune cells called regulatory T cells. (
  • But now, U.S. researchers have found a way to use bacteria to steady buildings against earthquakes by turning these sandy soils into rocks. (
  • Interestingly enough, a team of researchers from Northwestern University recently conducted a study with bacteria that was kept aboard the ISS. (
  • Bacteria from the soil were found across the home, but were most common on the exterior door trim, the researchers found. (
  • In their efforts to find new approaches to fighting harmful bacteria without harming the microbiome, researchers are actively studying how our microbial populations protect us and how microbial imbalances cause disease. (
  • Researchers at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities are studying a remarkable species of bacteria, Geobacter sulfurreducens , that produces electric current when attached to a graphite electrode or other conductive surface. (
  • Now, researchers in the US may have found a solution to this problem, by exploiting the natural movement of bacteria to propel micro-objects through water. (
  • Genetically modified bacteria can produce a biodiesel from plant materials, researchers have shown. (
  • The carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, can defeat even last-resort antibiotics and have been dubbed 'nightmare bacteria' by the CDC. (
  • In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills , the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation , the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, [15] as well as in biotechnology , and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. (
  • A new breed of "nightmare" bacteria resists pretty much all of our antibiotics - and it's rapidly spreading across. (
  • Although curable with antibiotics , there is only one drug recommended for treatment because the bacterium has developed resistance to the various antibiotics used to treat it over the last 40 years. (
  • Recent ground-breaking scientific advances are helping NARMS partners to improve their understanding about how some disease-causing bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. (
  • MRSA is an important example of Gram positive bacteria, characterized by its resistance to widely used antibiotics. (
  • The effect of antibiotics on Gram positive bacteria is reduced because of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms such as β-lactamase production and modifications to the target site of the antibiotic. (
  • Even a small scrape or cut could lead to a life-threatening infection before antibiotics, but these compounds have been getting less effective as bacteria evolve to combat the threat. (
  • The only reason certain strains of bacteria are becoming more and more deadly is because of overuse of antibiotics . (
  • The WHO reports that 76% of people surveyed said antibiotic resistance is what happens when the body becomes resistant to antibiotics, when in fact it is the bacteria that becomes resistant and spreads illness. (
  • These are caused by viruses, and antibiotics are used to treat bacteria. (
  • The more antibiotics are used inappropriately, the greater the risk of bacteria growing resistant to them. (
  • Antibiotic resistance allows harmful bacteria to change in a way makes antibiotics less effective or not effective at all. (
  • What has happened over time with increasing exposure to antibiotics the bacteria have developed ways to evade those antibiotics and they become resist to a certain class of antibiotics, said Hsu. (
  • While antibiotics are crucial to protecting patients and communities from the spread of infectious diseases, their misuse and overuse can generate antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (
  • Despite removal of susceptible bacteria initially, unnecessary prescription of antibiotics or heavy use of antibacterial products has a tendency to leave a small population of stronger, antibiotic-resistant mutants behind. (
  • Partial eradication by antibiotics of the biofilm allows other, potentially harmful species of bacteria to move in and colonize the body. (
  • But bacteria gain resistance to certain types of antibiotics, making their continued treatment in a recurrent infection difficult at times. (
  • The roots of land plants associate with a wide range of microbes - including bacteria - that are recruited from the surrounding soil and assemble into structured communities known as the root microbiota. (
  • Acinetobacter bacteria are fairly common microbes that can be found in many parts of the environment. (
  • NASA keeps a close eye on the bacteria inhabiting the International Space Station with a program called the Microbial Observatory (M.O.) The ISS is home to a variety of microbes, some of which pose a threat to the health of astronauts. (
  • These advantageous microbes provide a protective front against harmful germs by creating a layer of bacteria called a "biofilm. (
  • Research shows that reduced exposure to microbes early in life impairs the immune system's ability to identify detrimental bacteria from harmless substances like pollen and peanuts. (
  • Modern pathology and medicine are based on the findings of Louis Pasteur and later Robert Koch and Charles Laveran that bacteria cause many ailments, but most microbes, in agreement with the benevolent nature of the Creator , are actually beneficial to man and nature. (
  • Geologists in Queensland, Australia have discovered a unique type of bacteria that forges small bits of gold into. (
  • It depends entirely on the person's foot, the type of bacteria and the mosquito. (
  • WEDNESDAY, March 5 (HealthDay News) -- A naturally occurring type of bacteria calledOxalobacter formigenesreduces the risk of recurrent kidney stones by about 70 percent, a new study says. (
  • This type of bacteria can also be spread through person-to-person contact or via contact with contaminated surfaces. (
  • An extension of this lesson would be to have the students research the type of bacteria that is growing and create a poster about it. (
  • However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases , including cholera , syphilis , anthrax , leprosy , and bubonic plague . (
  • Doing it correctly is an incredibly complex process, partially because there are so many types-some scientists estimate the number of species of bacteria could be over a billion! (
  • There is also a wide variation in the species of bacteria that are reported from different parts of the world. (
  • According to evidence cited in this paper, of the 1,000 or so gut bacteria we know of, any given individual will have around 160 different species of bacteria colonizing their gut. (
  • There are 19713 species of Bacteria, in 3519 genera and 478 families. (
  • Other species of bacteria may produce just as many electrons as they oxidize available fuels, but their cell membranes act like an insulator for electron transport,' said Daniel Bond, a microbiologist at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. (
  • The problem was that known species of bacteria didn't make a particularly good battery. (
  • common noun bacteria , singular bacterium ) are a type of biological cell . (
  • and spiral bacteria, aptly called spirilla (singular: spirillum). (
  • Tape your petri plate closed after collection and do DO NOT REOPEN IT - you could have collected harmful bacteria. (
  • Total coliforms are not necessarily harmful, but they can indicate contamination by fecal bacteria and are not desirable in drinking water. (
  • One way bacteria can be put to work is by genetically reconfiguring certain types that are normally harmful, making them benign and giving them a new task. (
  • Allen says that some strains of bacteria may be potentially beneficial for some people but harmful to others. (
  • Some bacteria are harmful, but most serve a useful purpose. (
  • A bacteria culture test can help find harmful bacteria in your body. (
  • For example, a number of studies have found obese individuals tend to have a less diverse gut microbiome, 5 in addition to having greater numbers of certain harmful bacteria and fewer beneficial ones. (
  • On the contrary, this use of common bacteria to 'cement' sands has no harmful effects on the environment. (
  • Friendly bacteria may seem like an oxymoron-we have been conditioned to believe that bacteria are harmful and make people sick. (
  • Without differentiating which bacteria are present in the samples, there's no way to know for sure if a sample is harmful. (
  • Without the ability to control the growing environment, outdoor growers are prone to bacteria on their flower, even if none of it is harmful. (
  • The vast majority of bacteria are not harmful to human beings. (
  • While not all bacteria are harmful, some cause disease. (
  • Some bacteria are beneficial to humans (for example, those that live in the stomach and aid digestion ), and some are harmful (for example, those that cause disease). (
  • Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes ("fission fungi"), bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes . (
  • Bacteria make up most of the kingdom of prokaryotes (Monera or Prokaryota), with one group (the archaea or archaebacteria) often classified as a separate kingdom. (
  • Bacteria are prokaryotes, which means they have no nucleus . (
  • All foodborne bacteria are microscopic and can't be seen with the naked eye, making it difficult to know if your foods have been cross-contaminated. (
  • Newser) - Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are 'just about as bad as it gets,' as one study author puts it, are spreading quickly in the Southeast, with a fivefold increase in detected cases between 2008 and 2012, a new study warns. (
  • In an ominous first, last month the CDC said antibiotic-resistant bacteria had been found in food for the first time . (
  • Thus, the presence of a single type of virus reversed many of the defects caused by the lack of bacteria in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice. (
  • To better understand antibiotic resistance (AMR) in bacteria, agencies within USDA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other federal and state partners work collaboratively through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). (
  • By developing a single cell analysis technique, the research team demonstrates rapid classification of the bacteria and determination of their antibiotic resistance profiles. (
  • The genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance are transmitted between bacteria through both vertical and horizontal transfer, with several genes capable of being inserted in an integron leading to the resistance of multiple antimicrobials. (
  • Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MRSA and other antimicrobial resistant bacteria include higher antibiotic dosage, combination treatment with non-conventional drugs and the development of new drugs. (
  • The CDC says about 2 million Americans are infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria every year, and 23,000 of these Americans die. (
  • In September, U.S. government agencies announced the establishment of the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to focus on the growing public health problem. (
  • As part of their monitoring, the M.O. has discovered antibiotic resistant bacteria on the toilet seat on the ISS. (
  • In most cases, resistant bacteria make it harder to treat infections in patients, and negatively impact entire communities should the resistant bacteria population spread--which is likely as antibiotic resistance spreads rapidly between bacteria . (
  • A host of new research shows antibiotic use can negatively impact a patient's microbiome, the collection of benign bacteria that live on the outer and inner surfaces of the human body, and partner with the body to benefit human health. (
  • Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. (
  • It's been called a ''flesh-eating'' bacteria -- is that true? (
  • While this is often referred to as '' flesh-eating bacteria ," Blackmore says, medical experts consider it a misnomer. (
  • Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , [4] and the deep biosphere of the earth's crust . (
  • Our understanding of bacteria and their metabolic processes has been expanded by the discovery of species that can live only deep below the earth's surface and by species that thrive without sunlight in the high temperature and pressure near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. (
  • Bacteria have been found nearly everywhere on earth in a wide variety of environments (soil, hot springs, waste, indoors , water, your skin , and in the earth's crust). (
  • Bacteria and Archaea are thought to have evolved separately from a common ancestor early in Earth's history. (
  • The fact is that without bacteria, the entire Earth's ecosystem would collapse. (
  • The earth is estimated to hold at least 5 nonillion bacteria, and much of the earth's biomass is thought to be made up of bacteria. (
  • Because they release oxygen, certain photosynthetic bacteria (ie, Cyanobacteria, see Blue-green algae ) are thought to have been responsible for the initial production of oxygen in Earth's primitive atmosphere. (
  • Steinbüchel's team created a fuel-refining strain of the common bacteria Escherichia coli by modifying it with genes taken from two other bacteria species. (
  • Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes. (
  • As a first step in this quest, they established a comprehensive collection of root-derived bacteria from the model legume Lotus japonicus, a small proportion of which are symbiotic bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for plant growth. (
  • Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic , that is, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis . (
  • When the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) aren't ravaging livestock or being used in acts of bioterrorism, they spend their lives as dormant spores. (
  • Examples of rod-shaped bacteria include Bacillus anthracis ( B. anthracis ), or anthrax . (
  • The new process, so far tested only at a laboratory scale, takes advantage of a natural soil bacterium, Bacillus pasteurii. (
  • Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) was achieved using the microorganism Bacillus pasteurii , an aerobic bacterium pervasive in natural soil deposits. (
  • The cell shape of most bacteria is spherical or ovoid (coccus), rodlike (bacillus) or spiral (spirillum). (
  • An ability to snatch fragments of host DNA probably helps the bacteria develop new strains, but whether this actually confers a survival advantage is not yet evident, he added. (
  • Some strains of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, have evolved to survive in salty environments. (
  • NDM-1 stands for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, which is an enzyme produced by certain strains of bacteria that have recently acquired the genetic ability to make this compound. (
  • [13] The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system , though many are beneficial , particularly in the gut flora. (
  • The finding that intestinal viruses can substitute for intestinal bacteria to promote the health of their mammalian hosts raises the possibility that viruses in the gut may be beneficial in some circumstances. (
  • Germ-free mice are microbiologically sterile, and because of the absence of beneficial bacteria in their intestines they have abnormal intestinal morphology and defective development of immune cells called lymphocytes 7 . (
  • It is this great ubiquity and diversity that allow scientists to put both natural and modified bacteria to work in a wide range of beneficial modern technologies. (
  • In turn, these commensal bacteria mediate multiple processes that are beneficial to their plant host, such as providing defense against pathogens, improving nutrient mobilization from the soil and positively impacting growth. (
  • These findings indicate that diverse soil-dwelling bacteria associate with and prefer a specific host plant, similar to pathogens or beneficial symbionts of plants. (
  • Bacteria in Agrobiology: Crop Productivity focus on the role of beneficial bacteria in crop growth, increased nutrient uptake and mobilization, and defense against phytopathogens. (
  • Previous research has demonstrated that probiotics - beneficial bacteria found in fermented and cultured foods such as yogurt - have a measurable effect on your metabolism. (
  • Some dispensaries use beneficial bacteria in the soil and throughout the growing process. (
  • Nearly all animal life is dependent on bacteria for survival as only bacteria and some archaea possess the genes and enzymes necessary to synthesize vitamin B 12 , also known as cobalamin , and provide it through the food chain. (
  • Spartan III is modified by inserting the genes of several bacteria species, including those whose job it is to break down cellulose in the stomach of cows, into the corn's own genome. (
  • The model predicts that a bacterium, for instance, should have seven genes for ribosome production. (
  • The German team used two genes from the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis to give E. coli the ability to produce alcohol from the sugar. (
  • The figure above shows "the quorum sensing systems of several bacteria, V. fischeri , A. tumefaciens , and P. aeruginosa , including the structures of the small AHL molecules (also known as N-acylated homoserine lactones) which are used by these bacteria. (
  • 70 known LuxIR quorum-sensing systems in Gram-negative bacteria ( 1 , 12 - 14 ). (
  • The evolution of quorum sensing systems in bacteria could, therefore, have been one of the early steps in the development of multicellularity. (
  • Scientists at MIT and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) have re-engineered E. Coli bacteria to. (
  • Whenever you hear about people getting sick from bacteria in drinking water, or from eating an undercooked hamburger, it is usually E. coli that is causing the illness. (
  • A single E. coli bacteria reproducing without any competition every 20 minutes would create a population in four days that outnumbers the (of course an estimated figure) number of quarks in the Universe. (
  • Image Caption: Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. (
  • A third gene, taken from the bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi , enabled the E. coli to then combine this alcohol with plant oils to produce microdiesel. (
  • The bacteria thrive in warm saltwater. (
  • The bacteria thrive in warm water, so concentrations of the bacteria are higher during the summer months," says Carina Blackmore, PhD, Florida's acting state epidemiologist. (
  • As icky as they may seem, bacteria play a crucial role in helping humanity thrive. (
  • The reason for this, according to the research team, is that the formation of these types of rocks is controlled by a form of ancient and hardy bacteria here on Earth that are able to thrive in conditions similar to what Mars experiences today. (
  • Cite this: Gut Bacteria Tied to Depression - Medscape - Feb 11, 2019. (
  • Photograph depicted a cutaneous abscess on the foot post packing (front view), which had been caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, referred to by the acronym MRSA. (
  • Magnified 20,000X, this colorized scanning electron micrograph (SEM) depicts a grouping of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria. (
  • Some of these bacteria, like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA , are lethal. (
  • A scanning electron microscope image of resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, with false color added. (
  • In other cases, bacteria are destructive, causing diseases like pneumonia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (
  • [5] The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology , a branch of microbiology . (
  • Part of the Wastewater Microbiology series, Wastewater Bacteria eschews technical jargon to deliver a practical, how-to guide for wastewater plant operators and those seeking to_understand the biology and biological conditions at the treatment process. (
  • Spherical: Bacteria shaped like a ball are called cocci, and a single bacterium is a coccus. (
  • Here, we detect a single bacterium. (
  • The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium , which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον ( bakterion ), [17] the diminutive of βακτηρία ( bakteria ), meaning "staff, cane", [18] because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped . (
  • Eubacterium , plural eubacteria , also called bacteria , term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. (
  • 1847, plural of Modern Latin bacterium , from Greek bakterion "small staff," diminutive of baktron "stick, rod," from PIE *bak- "staff used for support. (
  • Plural of bacterium . (
  • It is important to remember that bacteria is the plural of bacterium, and that saying a bacteria is incorrect. (
  • It was found that the bacteria moved quickly away from even the slightest trace of oxygen. (
  • Your lab team will form a question and hypothesis about bacteria found at school and then create an experiment to answer your question. (
  • Bacteria are found everywhere. (
  • Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, including humans and livestock. (
  • Using modified Listeria bacteria that carry chemical tags found in certain cancers, the body then uses the new Frankenstein bacteria to direct the immune system to focus its attack on the cancer. (
  • Recent research has indicated that certain proteins found in the flagella (the tail-like propeller used for locomotion) of the benign Salmonella bacteria can prevent intestinal cells from going through the process of apoptosis, a sort of controlled cell suicide that naturally culls old cells. (
  • Some of these bacteria were found living near vents and active volcanoes on the lightless ocean floor. (
  • In 1993, scientists found many new species of chemoautotrophic bacteria living in fissured rock far below the ocean floor. (
  • Koo found that cranberry juice makes it difficult for the bacteria Streptococcus mutans to cling to tooth surfaces. (
  • Koo's team found that cranberry juice prevents bacteria from forming plaque by inhibiting the enzyme. (
  • In analyzing data from 1054 individuals enrolled in the Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP), investigators found two groups of bacteria - Coprococcus and Dialister - were consistently depleted in people diagnosed with depression, regardless of antidepressant treatment. (
  • They also found that Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus bacteria were consistently associated with higher quality of life indicators. (
  • Some bacteria were found to have a broad range of these functions. (
  • Earlier research had found unusual patterns of bacteria in the guts of those mice. (
  • In Los Angeles, similar bacteria counts failed to materialize, though a few beaches near stream and river mouths where contaminants are found were posted for elevated bacteria counts. (
  • Capsule: A layer found on the outside of the cell wall in some bacteria. (
  • In the United States, the bacteria have been found primarily in healthcare facilities and hospitals and are known to prey on the weak. (
  • Bacteria related to human skin were found most frequently on pillowcases and toilet seats - as were bacteria commonly found in human feces . (
  • Bacteria from leaves and produce were found most often on door trims and also on kitchen surfaces. (
  • Recently, when members of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory found that electrodes in ocean sediments could generate electricity, the possible involvement of bacteria was more obvious. (
  • Wine itself is produced, not by bacteria, but by yeast , which is also a microorganism that is classified as a fungi . (
  • In this lesson students will observe the growth of bacteria over a week's period. (
  • observe and record the growth of bacteria growing in Petri dishes for one week. (
  • Explain that the students are going to swab their Petri dishes with material from different places in the classroom and illustrate the growth of bacteria over the next week. (
  • Salt usually slows or stops the growth of bacteria and sometimes kills existing bacteria. (
  • These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea . (
  • A recently proposed system classifies the Archaebacteria, or Archaea, and the Eubacteria, or Bacteria, as major groupings (sometimes called domains) above the kingdom level. (
  • Bacteria and Archaea differ in important characteristics, such as the number of ribosomal proteins and the size and shape of the ribosomal S unit. (
  • The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion-3.2 billion years ago. (
  • Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. (
  • Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. (
  • a , The intestine of normal mice harbours a diverse microbial population, including commensal bacteria that maintain tissue architecture and promote the development of lymphocytes (T and B cells), which produce antibodies and other immune-stimulatory molecules, thereby promoting host resistance to injury and to pathogenic bacteria. (
  • It's something you might expect Chicken Little to say: bacteria and viruses are falling from the atmosphere. (
  • Viruses and bacteria often act as parasites, infecting a host, reproducing at its expense and causing disease and death. (
  • While it would be impossible to scientifically verify it as of now, it is highly likely that much your DNA actually codes for the creation of bacteria and viruses that are essential for your very survival. (
  • there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria in one gram of fertile soil. (
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, these small molecules are commonly N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). (
  • Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria typically use modified oligopeptides as autoinducers ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • Gram positive bacteria are cells that take up a purple color in the Gram stain procedure. (
  • Gram staining was developed in the 1800s as a quick and simple procedure to distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. (
  • The Gram stain procedure provides a colour contrast for easy observation and helps distinguish cells into Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. (
  • Crystal violet is composed of positive CV ions that can penetrate the cell wall and membrane of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. (
  • The different colored stains that distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are as a result of their different cell wall structures. (
  • Gram negative bacteria do not retain the crystal violet stain because the decolorization step disintegrates their outer membrane. (
  • Gram positive bacteria retain the crystal violet stain and a Gram positive result is indicated by a purple coloration. (
  • The cell wall structure of Gram positive bacteria consists of the periplasmic space enclosed between the plasma membrane and a thick peptidoglycan layer. (
  • In comparison to Gram negative bacteria, the periplasmic space of Gram positive bacteria is smaller in volume and the cell wall is much thicker, ranging from 15 and 80 nanometers. (
  • Another specific characteristic of Gram positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids within the cell wall. (
  • Anionic polymers also have similar functions to the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria by influencing permeability, mediating interactions and acting as a scaffold for extracytoplasmic enzymes during cell-wall growth. (
  • The Gram stain is a test used to identify bacteria by the composition of their cell walls, named for Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique in 1884. (
  • The test stains Gram-positive bacteria, or bacteria that do not have an outer membrane. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria don't pick up the stain. (
  • Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities. (
  • In general, Gram-negative bacteria use acylated homoserine lactones as autoinducers, and Gram-positive bacteria use processed oligo-peptides to communicate. (
  • The cell wall is thicker in some bacteria, called Gram positive bacteria. (
  • Use Gram staining to see if bacteria are Gram positive or Gram negative. (
  • Gram staining is a procedure that allows you to divide bacteria into 2 common types: Gram positive, and Gram negative. (
  • Gram positive bacteria have an extra thick cellular wall (made of a polymer called peptidoglycan) that holds a dye stain better than the thinner cell walls of Gram negative bacteria. (
  • The bacteria and chemicals that you will be handling during a Gram stain procedure are all potentially dangerous. (
  • If you let the decolorizing agent sit on the sample too long, it may strip the stain out of Gram positive bacteria, causing a false Gram negative result. (
  • In humans and most animals, the largest number of bacteria exist in the gut , and a large number on the skin . (
  • Bartonella are bacteria that live inside cells that can infect humans and a wide range of other animals. (
  • Even though bacteria have a bad reputation in our society, most types are completely harmless to humans, or even helpful! (
  • The U.S. drug company Advaxis recently announced a study using neutralized Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, which can cause food-poisoning-like symptoms in humans and animals, to fight certain types of cancer. (
  • As far as I know, no humans are using mosquitoes as a food source, but it might be worthwhile to study the bacteria before we go wholesale with this idea, namely, to see if there's any discernible difference in the output of their excreta or other biological products, and if there are, if those changes would impact their involvement in the food chain. (
  • There are plenty of chemicals that will kill bacteria, but many of them are toxic to humans as well. (
  • Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can cause illness and even death in humans. (
  • Mice used in the research are not considered exact models of bacteria and obesity in humans. (
  • Humans' relationship with bacteria is complex. (
  • For their test case, they chose Enterococcus faecalis , bacteria that commonly infect root canals, living communally in layers called a biofilm. (
  • Did you know that bacteria 'talked' with each other by using small molecules to coordinate their behavior and decide when it's a good time to infect you? (
  • Disease-causing bacteria use this language to decide when to infect a person or other host. (
  • The bacteria can also infect the blood, especially if someone has chronic liver disease or other medical problems that compromise their immune system. (
  • In a 2018 Frontiers in Energy Research [ de ] article, it has been suggested that purple bacteria can be used as a biorefinery . (
  • Scientists have discovered a strange new bacteria in the Antarctic that can survive the planet's most extreme conditions. (
  • As the bacteria cannot survive without light, all the bacteria moved into the circle of light, becoming very crowded. (
  • Our world would not be able to survive without bacteria. (
  • Without bacteria, other life on Earth could not survive. (
  • Mosquitoes have a symbiotic relationship with their bacteria the same way we do-- they need their 'good' bacteria to get all the nutrients they need to survive. (
  • the resulting genetic variation ensures that bacteria can adapt and survive as their environment changes. (
  • Bacteria can use most organic and some inorganic compounds as food, and some can survive extreme conditions. (
  • The truth is that everyone needs bacteria to survive. (
  • A growing interest in the function of the gut microbiome is shedding new light on the roles bacteria play in human health. (
  • Genetically engineered bacteria ward off obesity in mice, showing how the microbiome could be used treat chronic diseases in people. (
  • On the other hand, the population of the other major group of bacteria , Bacteroidetes, increased. (
  • Long-established bacteria are less likely to hurt us, as they "genetically realize" that symbiosis works. (
  • Biologists are genetically modifying the DNA of stomach bacteria so they act like living drugs. (
  • This photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows one form of CRE bacteria, sometimes called "nightmare bacteria. (
  • These S. aureus bacteria are methicillin-resistant, and are from one of the first isolates in the U.S. that showed increased resistance to vancomycin as well. (
  • Make GMO bacteria that make mosquitoes resistant to malaria colonization. (
  • In response to unfavourable environmental conditions, some bacteria form an endospore (thick-walled structure) within the cell, which is resistant to heat, drying and disinfectants, and which can germinate to form another vegetative cell when conditions improve. (
  • A deadly bacteria known as Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, is raising concerns in the medical community. (
  • Contrary to what many suspected, the bacteria did not mutate into a drug-resistant super strain, but instead mutated to adapt to its environment. (
  • However in surface water it is normal to see total coliform bacteria, which simply indicate the presence of soil, sediment, or other sources of coliform. (
  • Bacteria recycle nutrients in the soil and aid the human digestive system. (
  • Bacteria in the soil release nitrates, a usable form of the element nitrogen. (
  • Although it is well known that plants secrete diverse small molecules into the soil via their roots that serve as chemoattractants for root colonization by a subset of soil-dwelling bacteria, the degree of active selection performed by the host and the extent to which root-associated microbial communities are adapted to specific plant species remain largely unknown. (
  • In vulnerable patients with wound infections, the bacteria can create severe tissue damage and skin breakdown -- necrotizing fasciitis -- at the wound site," Blackmore says. (
  • Bacteria culture tests are used to help diagnose certain types of infections. (
  • Used to detect infections caused by bacteria or parasites in the digestive system. (
  • Engineered bacteria can prevent, diagnose, and treat infections. (
  • Rather than being a single type of bacterium Acinetobacter is made up of over 25 varieties. (
  • Acinetobacter bacteria can be an issue for people who have been admitted to hospital. (
  • A person who has become infected with Acinetobacter bacteria may develop pneumonia-like symptoms. (
  • Staff that come into contact with patients infected with Acinetobacter bacteria are encouraged to wear gloves and gowns to reduce the risk of spreading the infection. (
  • [11] Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere . (
  • [12] In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps , extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane , to energy. (
  • From the oxygen we inhale to the nutrients our stomachs pull from food, we have bacteria to thank for thriving on this planet. (
  • Moreover, the bacteria motors work using simple nutrients such as glucose and are naturally sensitive to their environment. (
  • When we think about bacteria polluting our rivers and lakes, it is usually fecal coliform bacteria. (
  • When large concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria are present in water, it indicates that the water is being contaminated by some source of manure or other waste. (
  • In Kansas, the biggest contributors of fecal coliform bacteria to rivers and lakes are livestock operations, especially those that have a large number of animals in a small, confined area. (
  • Rain water washes this manure into our rivers, streams and lakes, carrying with it fecal coliform bacteria. (
  • Other sources of fecal coliform bacteria include wildlife populations, and leaky septic systems that haven't been well-maintained. (
  • Fillmore officials are sampling again for evidence of coliform bacteria and if the test is positive a second time the boil water edict will be issued. (
  • Routine weekly sampling showed that three of four samples tested positive for coliform bacteria, which is associated with sewage contamination, Curphey said. (
  • Pea and bean plants, such as soybeans, use bacteria called Rhizobium which convert nitrogen straight into amino acids. (
  • Not only do "formerly bacteria, now organelles" occupy every nucleated cell on Earth, but true self-sufficient bacteria are required by all plant life to take nitrogen from the atmosphere and put it into the plant's vascular system. (
  • So basically, without bacteria there would be essentially zero oxygen in the atmosphere, and no way to create protein , which requires captured nitrogen to exist. (
  • Nitrifying bacteria then convert this ammonium into nitrate, which can then be used by plants to create more proteins thus completing the nitrogen cycle. (
  • Delivering healthy bacteria in a pill could help patients harboring out-of-balance microbial communities. (
  • Geobacter's current capability already has been harnessed in so-called 'microbial fuel cells' that use bacteria to convert wastewater organic compounds into electricity. (
  • البكتيريا أو الجُرْثُومَة أو الجُرْثُوم (Bacteria وباليونانية القديمة : bakterion عصيات) كائنات حية دقيقة وحيدة الخلية منها المكورات والعصيات و الحلزوني وهي تتجمع مع بعضها وتأخذ أشكالا متعددة مثل عقد أو سبحة فتسمى مكورات عقدية أو على شكل عنقود فتسمى (
  • The plasma flashlight that the scientists created produces a faint light, but enough plasma to be effective against bacteria. (
  • Until recently, scientists held there existed only a few kinds of bacteria that used chemical energy to create their own food. (
  • Some scientists assert that these unique bacteria should be classified in their own new taxonomic kingdom. (
  • Watch: Scientists discover new plastic-eating bacteria and tested it to see how fast it would. (
  • Scientists have created a "virtual bacteria" which mimics the way the organism works, in a breakthrough which could improve our understanding of disease and help find new treatments. (
  • British medical scientists say they have discovered how meningococcal bacteria break through the body's natural defense system to attack the brain. (
  • Writing in the Journal of Infectious Diseases , the scientists report that children between the ages of 3 and 13 are nearly 59 percent less likely to have asthma if they have the bacterium in their gut. (
  • The bacteria create their food using inorganic sulfur compounds gushing out of the vents from the hot interior of the planet. (
  • Cell-cell communication in bacteria is accomplished through the exchange of chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. (
  • Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. (
  • Some bacteria have fine hairs that enable them to stick to surfaces. (
  • While most of the wipes tested did remove large numbers of bacteria from contaminated surfaces, they also commonly transferred live bacteria to uncontaminated surfaces when used in more than one place. (
  • Research headed by Elisabeth Grohmann of Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin shows that a new antimicrobial substance could eliminate bacteria on surfaces. (
  • Whip-like extensions often cover the surfaces of bacteria - long ones called flagella or short ones called pili - that help bacteria to move around and attach to a host. (
  • Many bacteria do not move independently, but some are motile through the action of flagella and others glide over solid surfaces. (
  • Bacteria outnumber human s by a proportion that approaches infinity . (
  • Bacteria fall into one of two groups, Archaebacteria (ancient forms thought to have evolved separately from other bacteria) and Eubacteria. (
  • Some bacteria cause diseases, but others are useful. (
  • How is gut bacteria linked to diseases? (
  • And on the longer term, research led by Luigi Vezzulli of the University of Genoa in Italy, shows that warming sea surface temperatures are also playing a role in the spread of this bacteria and their associated diseases. (
  • Disturbances to internal bacteria have been linked to asthma, cancer and many autoimmune diseases. (
  • He said the system not only has the ability to supply fast results, but is able to detect very small amounts of bacteria - a feature that could prove critical in treating certain diseases. (
  • Which bacteria cause transfusion-transmitted diseases? (
  • This might sound kind of gross, but lots of bacteria actually help our bodies. (
  • The findings are the latest in a growing body of research about the long-unappreciated role of bacteria in our bodies. (
  • It is known that bacteria , like other living things, feed and give off organic waste from their own bodies. (
  • Responding to autoinducers by altering gene expression gives bacteria a means to perform particular behaviors only when living in a community but not when living in isolation. (