Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/19400)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (2/19400)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (3/19400)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (4/19400)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (5/19400)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems. (6/19400)

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (7/19400)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement. (8/19400)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement.  (+info)

Marine microorganisms and their extracellular enzymes (ECEs) play an important role in the remineralization of organic material by hydrolyzing high-molecular-weight substrates to sizes sufficiently small to be transported through cell membrane, yet the diversity of the enzyme-producing bacteria and the types of ECEs involved in the degradation process are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the diversity of cultivable bacteria and their ECEs and the potential activities of aminopeptidase in the water column at eight different depths of the New Britain Trench. There was a great diversity of cultivable bacteria and ECEs, and depth appears an important driver of the diversity. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the cultivable bacteria were affiliated mostly with the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the predominant genera were Pseudoalteromonas (62.7%) and Halomonas (17.3%). Moreover, 70.7% of the isolates were found to produce hydrolytic zone on casein and gelatin plates,
Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables can harbor large and diverse populations of bacteria. However, most of the work on produce-associated bacteria has focused on a relatively small number of pathogenic bacteria and, as a result, we know far less about the overall diversity and composition of those bacterial communities found on produce and how the structure of these communities varies across produce types. Moreover, we lack a comprehensive view of the potential effects of differing farming practices on the bacterial communities to which consumers are exposed. We addressed these knowledge gaps by assessing bacterial community structure on conventional and organic analogs of eleven store-bought produce types using a culture-independent approach, 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Our results demonstrated that the fruits and vegetables harbored diverse bacterial communities, and the communities on each produce type were significantly distinct from one another. However, certain produce types (i.e., ...
Bacteria help our bodies with digestion and produce needed vitamins. Bacteria also help us by destroying harmful organisms within our bodies.. There are more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells.. Most bacteria reproduce using a process called binary fission. To do this, a single bacterium will grow to twice its normal size and then split into two daughter cells. The two new cells are exact copies of the original bacterium.. Bacteria are used to make cheese, milk, sourdough bread and yogurt.. 99% of all bacteria are helpful.. Dead or weakened bacteria and viruses are used for making helpful vaccines.. Scientists estimate that bacteria produce nearly half the oxygen found in the atmosphere.. Helpful bacteria are used to purify water at sewage treatment plants and to break down oil after oil spills.. One healthy bacterium, given the proper environment, could reproduce into a colony of more than 2 million in just seven hours.. There are more microbes on your body than there ...
Dr. Sayeed Ahmad D. I. Hom. (London). Bacteria are simple organisms that consist of one cell. They are among the smallest living things. Most bacteria measure from 0.3 to 2.0 microns in diameter and can be seen only through a microscope. (One micron equals 0.001 millimeter or 1/25,400 inch.) Scientists classify bacteria as prokaryotes.. Bacteria exist almost everywhere. There are thousands of kinds of bacteria, most of which are harmless to human beings. Large numbers of bacteria live in the human body but cause no harm. Some species cause diseases, but many others are helpful.. The importance of bacteria. Helpful bacteria. Certain kinds of bacteria live in the intestines of human beings and other animals. These bacteria help in digestion and in destroying harmful organisms. Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins needed by the body.. Bacteria in soil and water play a vital role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other chemical elements used by living things. Many bacteria help ...
Many studies on bacterial community composition (BCC) do not distinguish between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria or neglect the PA fraction by pre-filtration removing most particles. Although temporal and spatial gradients in environmental variables are known to shape BCC, it remains unclear how and to what extent PA and FL bacterial diversity responds to such environmental changes. To elucidate the BCC of both bacterial fractions related to different environmental settings, we studied surface samples of three Baltic Sea stations (marine, mesohaline and oligohaline) in two different seasons (summer and fall/winter). Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed significant differences in BCC of both bacterial fractions among stations and seasons, with a particularly high number of PA operational taxonomic units (OTUs at genus-level) at the marine station in both seasons.
What: Academic Seminar, Dr. Emma Allen Vercoe, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph Topic: Understanding gut microbial community dynamics using an in vitro bioreactor model When: Monday, August 14, 10:30-11:30 a.m. Where: Robert B. Schultz Lecture Theatre
This bacterium can be airborne so if you are around someone with TB, then there is a good chance that you will get it as well. When you do, the bacterium enters and if you have a strong immune system, you may not notice the disease right away because your immune is fighting off the bacteria. when the bacteria cant take over, it starts to reproduce more of its kind and sooner or later, your immune system wont stand a chance against the bacteria. As this battle continues, bacteria reproduces its kind to make a large group.When the immune system cannot take anymore, the bacteria invades and since there are so many bacteria cells, it is like an explosion of disease in the body. The macrophage are phagocytic cells and if they cant kill the bacteria, then the bacteria will replicate by cell division until the macrophage bursts. The bacteria are then taken over by the macrophage and soon the bacteria is being eaten by macrophage in the bloodstreams. The bacteria spreads into the bloodstream but the ...
Introduction. Experiment 4 Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives: * Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for measuring microbial numbers. * Study the theoretical relationship of one bacterial cell, or clump of cells. * Study the effect of dilution to the bacteria growth. * Determine the cell masses of a culture in order estimates the total cellular protoplasm per milliliter of culture. * To learn both quantitative plating methods which are spread plate and pour plate to measure the number of bacteria. * To understand the measurement for the number bacteria by performing plate and dilution count. Result and Observations: Part I: Spread Plate Unlabelled sample - Dilution factor 10-1 Sample A - Dilution factor 10-2 Sample B - Dilution factor 10-3 Sample C - Dilution factor 10-4 Observation: According to the observation, the result is showed that the colonies of E.coli cultures are too numerous to count via normal visible with density diminish from sample A to ...
In nitritationammox reactors, several bacterial groups contribute to the overall nitrogen conversion. Knowing the activity of the main bacterial groups, especially of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AMX), is extremely helpful to understand the process and optimise its operation. Mass balances of dissolved compounds such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate commonly allow the determination of bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process, but the activity of heterotrophic bacteria (HET) is usually neglected. However, even in wastewater with a low organic substrate content, heterotrophic denitrification can contribute substantially to nitrogen removal. The goal of this study was to critically evaluate the applicability of mass balances for the determination of the relevant bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process with high HET activity. We set up and solved mass balances of different degrees of complexity. Both linear equation systems, with catabolic reactions alone and with ...
This chapter provides a brief summary of a classification system for medically important bacteria, based on a traditional phenotypic approach. The primary focus is on organisms that are significant causes of disease in the tropics and subtropics.
There is no escape, as they follow you everywhere. Your body is riddled with bacteria. There are armpit bacteria, mouth bacteria, nose bacteria, hair bacteria and many more. In fact around 100 trillion bacteria give or take a few call you home. Scientists have now compiled a huge list of bacteria on the human body, and it has revealed that everyone has their own personalized community of bacteria. Find out more about this research and some key bacteria facts in this article.
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Evolved Bacteria are mainly obtained through Bacteria Evolution at the Research Lab. A player can equip up to 3 Evolved Bacteria at one time, but there are no limitations as to how many Evolved Bacteria can be owned. The Evolved Bacteria that are equipped provide bonuses to production, increased critical strike chance and multiplier, reduced research time, and other positive effects. When entering a Black Hole, there is a default 90% possibility that an Evolved Bacteria will die. Before entering, the player can secure two Bacteria that will definitely survive. When the player destroys the fifth planet after the first Black Hole, Bacteria Irradiation is unlocked. It is accessible from the Research Lab and can increase the black hole survivability of an Evolved Bacteria. Evolved Bacteria can be leveled up through mutation at the Research Lab. ...
Antibiotics are used to kill the growth of bacteria. It is basically used to cure diseases. Antibiotics do not harm us.. Today, people fear that bacteria do not die from antibiotics, because bacteria are too strong. This can happen when antibiotics are used too much. If they are regularly used, some bacteria may develop an immunity to the antibiotic. These bacteria can then reproduce and make a large colony of bacteria immune from the antibiotic. Now, scientists find out that antibiotics losing war against germs. Many bacteria got antibiotic resistance and they love to feast on antibiotics. According to wikipedia, Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called ...
So what are these key features? First, we showed that bacterial community in the distribution system is highly similar to the community leaving the drinking water treatment plant (~80% shared bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU)). Second, the richness of the bacterial community (i.e., how many different OTUs) is strongly correlated with both temperature and the composition of the source water - with colder months showing lower richness as compared to the warmer months. Third, we detected a strong correlation between the change in drinking water bacterial community and the distance travelled by the water along a linear flow path in the drinking water distribution system. Fourth, the bacterial community changes seasonally and shows annual reproducibility (i.e., bacterial communities are highly similar one year apart). Fifth, we showed that these seasonal changes are driven by specific bacterial clusters - a cluster that dominates in the winter and one that dominates in the summer, with a ...
Antibiotics cant distinguish between the "good" and the "bad" bacteria. There is a delicate balance of billions of bacteria inside our digestive tract. Bifido bacteria in the large intestine and acidophilus in the small intestine and vagina protect against infection by yeast and other bad bacteria. Also "friendly" bacteria found on the skin protect against bad bacteria, yeast and fungal infections. Continued use of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, can seriously disrupt the normal ecology of the body and render anyone more susceptible to pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria, yeast, viral and parasitic infection.. The worst thing one can do is to take only a few of the antibiotic prescribed. Shortened course of antibiotics often wipes out only the most vulnerable bacteria, while allowing relatively resistant bacteria to survive. Naturally, youll begin to feel better quickly. Then most people either forget to take pills, or stop taking them intentionally because they think the ...
Bacteria are living organisms. They come in different shapes and sizes but are only ever one cell. Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two, to produce two bacteria genetically identical to the original. In the right conditions (usually warm, moist conditions), bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes, which means if you start with one bacterium, in one hour you could have 8. Bacteria live all over our skin and right through our alimentary canal. Most bacteria are harmless to us and some can even help us digest food. These harmless bacteria can also help prevent harmful ones from having the opportunity to attack us.. See a video of how bacteria multiply below.. ...
The bacteria produce compounds, called cephalosporinases, which inactivate and destroy certain antibiotics such as penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins, protecting themselves and other beneficial bacteria that live in close proximity. However, they may also give protection from these antibiotics to harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella.. The gut is home to hundreds of trillions of bacteria, which have important roles in maintaining our health. But a side effect of taking antibiotics is that these may also kill off some of our beneficial gut bacteria, allowing harmful bacteria to gain a foothold and cause an infection. Susceptibility to antibiotics isnt uniform in the hundreds of species that colonise our guts, and some of the most common bacteria, the Bacteroides, are among the most resistant.. By scanning the genome of strains of Bacteroides bacteria that live in the gut, the researchers found genes that produce an enzyme called cephalospoprinase, which specifically destroys certain ...
INITIAL-#-BACTERIA-PER-VARIATION is the number of bacteria you start with in each of the six possible variations in flagella number. The overall population of bacteria is determined by multiplying this value by 6.. ENERGY-COST-PER-FLAGELLA determines how much energy is lost for every flagella that a bacteria has, each time step. Bacteria with 6 flagella will lose 6 times this value, whereas bacteria with one flagellum will lose 1 times this value. This energy loss is deducted on top of a base metabolism energy loss for all bacteria each time step.. VISUALIZE-VARIATION helps you apply different visualization cues to see which variation each a bacterium has. When set to flagella and color, the number of flagella will appear on each bacterium and these will flap/twist back and forth as the bacteria moves. The color of the bacteria will correspond to how many flagella it has (red = 6, orange = 5, yellow = 4, green = 3, blue = 2, and violet = 1). When set to either flagella only or color only ...
Drugs that stop bacteria from talking might be new, powerful antibiotics - a much needed weapon in our never-ending struggle against bacterial infections. On the other hand, drugs that make bacteria chat more could boost the production of biofuels and other industrial goods that bacteria make for us. In 1990 a young Bonnie Bassler, mesmerized by glow-in-the-dark bacteria that could talk to their peers to coordinate light production, wondered whether other bacteria could talk too. The answer, she soon found out, was yes - including all the nasty bacteria that cause disease. Today, Bonnie Bassler is a professor in molecular biology at Princeton University and an authority in the field of bacterial communication. Her findings, that all bacteria can talk, revolutionized the way we think of bacteria and opened the doors to important medical and industrial applications. But the discovery of bacterial communication has given us much more than new drugs. It has shown us how bacteria live in the real
Medical News Today explains exactly what bacteria are and what their function is in the body:. Bacteria are single-cell organisms that are neither plants nor animals.. They usually measure a few micrometers in length and exist together in communities of millions. …. There are many different types of bacteria. One way of classifying them is by shape. There are three basic shapes. …. Bacteria are often thought of as bad, but many are helpful. We would not exist without them. The oxygen we breathe was probably created by the activity of bacteria.. The good bacteria in the gut are essential to human survival because they break down nutrients like complex sugars in such a way that they can be used by the body.. These beneficial bacteria also help to prevent disease by occupying spaces that bad, pathogenic bacteria would like to occupy, and in some cases by directly attacking these pathogens.. Bacteria are essential to the survival of plant life because they release nitrogen when they die, and ...
Most of the around 100 trillion bacteria living in hiding in our intestines - the gut microbiota - are difficult to grow using traditional methods, because they do not tolerate atmospheric oxygen. Within the past few years, new research based on gene technology and advanced bioinformatics has made it possible to analyse the composition and function of intestinal bacteria from their DNA. The bacteria produce many different types of substances that affect our physiology and health in numerous ways.. In the field of disease research, changes in the composition and function of the complex intestinal bacterial communities - so-called dysbioses - have become a focus area. It is, however, a weakness of the studies that researchers have not taken into account the potential effects of drugs on the patients intestinal bacteria. For that reason, it is not possible to determine which dysbiosis is associated with specific diseases and which changes in intestinal bacteria are associated with medical ...
What makes a bad bacteria bad? The worst bacteria (the ugly) either directly destroy tissue by feeding upon it or produce a toxin that destroys tissue. Other bacteria (the bad) react negatively to food, or are poor fermenters of food, creating IBS symptoms like gas and diarrhea. And some species of yeast and bacteria are bad simply because they take up space, thereby crowding out the good bacteria and depriving your body of all the health-giving benefits that friendly bacteria provide, resulting in the poor digestion of food and the poor absorption of nutrients.. The ugly bacteria are never regarded as normal flora within the body. They are not usually considered to be causes of IBS, but they do cause severe, often life-threatening, conditions. Ugly bacteria include Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter, and certain strains of E. coli. Just a tiny amount of the most virulent strains of bacteria in a persons body is enough to begin the process of infestation. The ...
The terms Nus-G [nuss-G] and R-F-A-H probably sound like little more than alphabet mumbo jumbo to most folks. But scientists say these molecules might be the keys to survival for disease-causing bacteria like E. coli.. Nus-G and R-F-A-H help regulate growth and determine how effectively bacteria can infect a host. Understanding how bacteria grow and ward off immune system attacks could lead to drugs that keep infections at bay.. In the molecular world, Nus-G and R-F-A-H act like light switches. They latch on to a cells DNA and turn genes on or off. Found in all bacteria, Nus-G regulates about ninety-seven percent of a bacteriums genetic code. Without it, bacteria would die. Scientists recently discovered that R-F-A-H oversees the remaining three percent of the genome. Its sole purpose? To make bacteria infectious.. Once triggered, R-F-A-H allows bacteria to infect a host, arming them with enough power to resist the immune systems defenses.. Its a delicate balancing act. Too little R-F-A-H ...
Researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York have uncovered the unique way in which a type of Gram-negative bacterium delivers the toxins that make us sick. Understanding this mechanism may help design better ways to block and eventually control those toxins.
There are bacteria in the soil that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable - these drugs are our versions of natural compounds that bacteria have been assaulted with for millions of years. Of course, they would have evolved resistance.. There are also disease-causing bacteria in our hospitals and clinics that can resist our antibiotics. Thats predictable too - we expose ourselves, often unnecessarily, to high doses of such drugs. Of course, bacteria would have evolved resistance.. Heres something fascinating though: some of the genes that confer resistance to the harmless soil bacteria are exactly the same as the ones that confer resistance to the devastating clinical ones. Exactly the same, DNA letter for DNA letter.. This new discovery, by Gautam Dantas, suggests that environmental bacteria may be supplying genetic weapons to the ones that kill us (or the other way around). Ive written about this secret arms trade for The Scientist. Check it out.. ...
As our understanding of healthy gut bacteria evolves, so does the information on how to cultivate your own "microbiome" while inhibiting overgrowth of "bad" bacteria that are infectious and inflammatory. Initially, fermented foods and probiotics were thought to be the main recourse.. Then we learned eating a diet comprised primarily of vegetables and fruits and continually changing up the produce you eat is a great way to develop a rich and diverse gut bacteria population.. Now, scientists have used both a mouse study and a human study to show regular exercise, independent of diet or other factors, also promotes healthy gut bacteria.. In the first study, researchers transplanted fecal material from both exercised and sedentary mice into mice with sterile guts. The activity level of the mice receiving the transplants clearly mirrored that of their donors, showing that the kind of gut bacteria we have plays a role in how inclined we are to be sedentary or active.. The exercised mice recipients ...
Natural News) A recent study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine has identified a bacterial enzyme called urease that plays a central role in the gut microbiome imbalance commonly associated with Crohns disease. A team of health experts at the Penn Medicine and Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has carried out an analysis of fecal samples from Crohns disease patients ...
Then, in the first decade of the 20th century, German physician Paul Ehrlich noticed that certain chemical dyes coloured some bacteria but not others, meaning that certain bacteria could be selectively targeted, which is pretty important in a medicine. (The selectivity principle, by the way, is how the gram test works. It differentiates between gram positive bacteria, which have a thick cell wall made of a protein called peptidoglycan, and gram negative bacteria, which dont, because a violet stain stays on the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacteria and not on the gram-negatives ones. So you just add the chemicals and check if the bacteria are violet or not.) Anyway, Ehrlich then tested a ton of drugs on rabbits infected with syphilis and eventually came up with Salvarsan, a literal lifesaver for sufferers of syphilis, which was extremely common at the time ...
This happens because bacteria reproduce very quickly, and many generations can come and go in a relatively short amount of time. Combine this with the high level of bacteria that seem to swap genes and you have a recipe for disaster. Currently about 700.000 people a year are dying due to infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Predictions are that the number will reach 10 million a year by the year 2050. Thats, of course, assuming that the level of resistance stays on the same curve and that there are not any unforeseen changes in bacteria behavior.. While these predictions look dire, there is new hope in the form of a new treatment for bacteria by using micro polymers called SNAPPs, which is an acronym for structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers. SNAPPs work by targeting the cellular walls of bacteria and damaging them, which ultimately kills the bacteria. SNAPPs are still in the early phases of testing and thus far have only been tested on lab mice. But ...
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. "Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices," said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. "Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.". It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can only be seen through a microscope. However, bacteria have evolved ways to gather into ...
Buy Clindahexal Online! Clindahexal is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Clindahexal is a perfect remedy in struggle against serious infections caused by certain bacteria.
The water that comes out of the faucet when we turn it on is from either a public system or maybe a private well. Most public systems, and a few private wells, use disinfectant (usually chlorine, which is pretty much like the chlorine bleach you buy at the grocery store) to try to kill disease agents like viruses and certain bacteria. This usually succeeds, though it doesnt take care of Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that got into Milwaukees water in 1993 and made over 400,000 people ill. Even if all the disease agents are killed by disinfection, the water is not sterile there are still bacteria present. These are species that live in the water or on the inside surfaces of water pipes, where some of them build up slimy "biofilms." So, when you turn on the tap, you are getting water with some (hopefully, harmless) bacteria in it. The water may still have some active chlorine in it, but levels are usually very low. What happens next depends on what kind of sink the faucet runs into. If ...
Bacteria Eaters. Scientists from the University of Leicester, UK have identified a strain of bacteria which feeds on the hospital superbug Clostridium difficile (C. diff). The discovery is a major step towards eliminating the usage of antibiotics against the bacterial infections as bacteria are known to eventually outsmart them.. The technique uses naturally occurring bacteriophage (bacteria eaters) against the bug C. diff present in the gut. These bacteriophages kill the C. diff cells by replicating its DNA inside its cells, which ultimately lead to its bursting. Thereafter, the new phages released from the dead cells spread out to kill the other C. diff cells. C. diff is known to kill people and it becomes dangerous when the antibiotic treatments interfere with the balance of good bacteria in the gut. However, these phages generally infect only one strain of bacteria which makes them effective against antibiotics.. Most bacterias growth is resistant to antibiotics and there are grave ...
Basically, what this paper shows is that the types of bacteria that get us started are established very early.. Babies born through the traditional route are very quickly exposed to the bacterial communities of their mothers - both vaginal and gut bacteria (women often defecate when giving birth). Once these bacteria get established, they fill up all the niches, and prevent other bacteria from getting a foothold. By contrast, c-section babies dont have this initial exposure - the womb is fairly sterile, and the conditions of this surgery prevent contact with the mothers other mucosal surfaces. Because of this, the infant is ripe for colonization from the myriad of bacteria found everywhere else, from the nurses and doctors that handle them to the bacteria on the skin on the mothers breast when feeding.. Its important to note that we cant yet draw a distinct causative link between early establishment of bacterial communities and future disease (allergies, asthma etc), right now its just ...
Shapes Of Bacteria | Learn more about Shapes Of Bacteria | Meaning of Shapes Of Bacteria | Description of Shapes Of Bacteria | Details of Shapes Of Bacteria | Article on Shapes Of Bacteria | Essay on Shapes Of Bacteria | Definition of Shapes Of Bacteria | infomers
Anyone whos seen one of those milk-mustache commercials knows that humans need calcium. But scientists Matt Redinbo and Matt Wolfgang discovered that the mineral is vital for microbes as well: without calcium, some bacteria cant move.. Bacteria use different strategies to get from place to place. Redinbo and Wolfgang were interested in a type of movement called twitching motility, in which bacteria use spiky extensions called pili to pull themselves around. "When the pili extend they can grab onto surfaces," Wolfgang says. "They act like little grappling hooks so that when they retract, they can pull the bacteria forward.". One bacterium that uses twitching motility is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. According to Wolfgang, this opportunistic pathogen is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Healthy individuals can live with Pseudomonas twitching around on them, but the bacterium can be deadly for people with weakened immune systems or patients with complicated wounds such as severe ...
Ahlemeyer, J. and Eichenlaub, R. 2001. Genetics of phytopathogenic bacteria. Prog. Bot.62: 98-113. (Gram-negative bacteria).. American Phytopathological Society. 2003. Microbial genomic sequencing. Perspectives of the American Phytopathological Society (revised 2003). 21 pp.. Arnold, D.L., Pitman, A., and Jackson, R.W. 2003. Pathogenicity and other genomic islands in plant pathogenic bacteria. Mol. Plant Pathol. 4:407-420.. Arthur, J.C. 1885. Proof that the disease of trees known as pear blight is directly due to bacteria. N.Y. Agric. Exp. St. Bull. 2 n.s: 1-4.. Burger, A. and Eichenlaub, R. 2003. Genetics of phytopathogenic bacteria. Prog. Bot. 64:98-114. (Gram positive bacteria).. Burrill, Thomas Jonathan. 1878. Pear blight. Trans Ill. State Hort. Soc. 114-116.. Cao, H., Baldini, R.L. and Rahme, L.G. 2001. Common mechanisms for pathogens of plants and animals. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 39:259-284.. Coplin, D.L., Rowan, R.G., Chisholm, D.A. and Whitmoyer, R.E. 1981. Characterization of plasmids ...
RediJect Bacterial Detection Fluorescent Probe Standard Kit contains enough agent for up to 20 mice for in vivo imaging of gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Are we all in immediate danger? The general public is not in immediate danger of contracting an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, there are certain populations that are susceptible. For example, hospitals and facilities where groups of people are often prescribed a lot of antibiotics are at a greater risk for developing a resistant strain. People that have compromised immune systems, such as chemotherapy patients, have a higher susceptibility as well.. What can be done today? First, we must be diligent in our use of antibiotics. They should only be used to fight off bacterial infections and never viruses, such as the cold or flu. Even if every person on Earth followed this rule, bacteria will still find a way to develop resistance to the antibiotics. Bacteria have been on Earth much longer than humans and can mutate and adapt quickly to changing conditions. We must continue the development of new antibiotics to stay ahead of resistant bacteria. Currently, there is little incentive for ...
Dont freak out, but all of us contain millions of bacteria both on the inside and the outside. And scientists tell us that thats a good thing, especially the bacteria in our innards, you know our guts. The health-trend word for all the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other stuff hanging out in our bodies is microbiome, and for most us its whats keeping us healthy. But when that microbiome starts to break down we can become sick, sometimes deathly so.. WebMD tells us that "ongoing research reveals that people with certain diseases often have a very different mix of bacteria in their intestines compared to healthier people. Researchers are working to define the makeup of gut bacteria in a healthy person vs. the gut bacteria that can point to higher risk or presence of certain diseases." ...
The arrival of this new resource (oxygen) lead to a change in the way organisms respired as well. Up until what is sometimes called the Great Oxidation Event most respiration was anoxic, probably similar to anaerobic respiration, or fermentation, in anaerobic bacteria around today. This process, while enough t0 keep life going, is around sixteen times less efficient than aerobic respiration. The proto-bacteria that managed to use the oxygen would therefore have gained a major energy boost.. This energy boost allowed the oxygen-using bacteria to go forth and multiply, leaving the anoxic bacteria clinging to the few environmental niches where no oxygen could penetrate. Some of these oxygen-using bacteria were swallowed up by larger cells who then used them as specialised intracellular breathing compartments. The bacteria became mitochondria, and the cells with mitochondria grew bigger and formed more intracellular compartments. They became eukaryotic cells, the kind of cells that all multicellular ...
In the third phase, the two "good" predator bacteria were injected into live worms from the species Galleria mellonella, which is well established as a suitable model to test the toxicity of various microbes as well as a live organisms innate immunity to those microbes. Where injection the pathogenic bacterium P. aeruginosa as a positive control was one hundred percent fatal to the worms, other worms injected with the two "good" predator bacteria had 11-day survival rates between 93.3 and 100 percent, a strong sign that the "good" bacteria were not toxic to the worms. In addition a lack of change in larval pigmentation following injection suggested that the "good" bacteria also did not provoke an aggressive innate immune response in the worms ...
The exact role of the babys gut bacteria is unclear and it isnt known if these differences at birth will have any effect on later health. The researchers found the differences in gut bacteria between vaginally born and caesarean delivered babies largely evened out by 1 year old, but large follow-up studies are needed to determine if the early differences influence health outcomes. Experts from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists say that these findings should not deter women from having a caesarean birth.. Published in Nature today (18th Sept), this largest ever study of neonatal microbiomes also revealed that the microbiome of vaginally delivered newborns did not come from the mothers vaginal bacteria, but from the mothers gut. This calls into question the controversial practice of swabbing babies born via caesarean with mothers vaginal bacteria. Understanding how the birth process impacts on the babys microbiome will enable future research into bacterial ...
Lee Rannals for RedOrbit.com. Remember when you were a kid and you thought the opposite sex had cooties? Well, they may not have cooties, but if it was a guy he could very well be out-putting more bacteria.. New research has found that mens offices are littered with more bacteria than womens. During the study, researchers identified over 500 bacterial genera in offices in three cities.. The team set out to characterize and identify bacteria in offices in New York, San Francisco and Tucson in order to have a better understanding of what microscopic creatures may be lying around us at work.. Bacteria from different types of sources were found in abundance on chairs and phones, deriving from all different locations of the human body.. A few of the sources, such as skin and soil, seem like obvious hosts for bacteria to have made their way from towards the office floor, but some others seem just a little icky.. The researchers found that most of the bacteria came not just from human skin, but also ...
In a study published in Science, researchers describe findings that certain bacteria can be found inside human pancreatic tumors.
The flora of every locality may be divided into two classes, one useful, the other useless or pernicious.. The group of useful plants comprises food plants, flowers, trees and other plants that may be in some way utilized. The second class is made up of weeds, poisonous or useless plants.. A similar classification may be made of the intestinal flora. Certain species are useful and native to the alimentary tract, the acid formers. These render useful service to the body by pre-venting the growth of the harmful bacteria.. Another class, sometimes known as "wild" bacteria, or "meat bacilli," give rise to various harmful effects through poisons that they pro-duce and in other ways.. The entire alimentary tract harbors multitudes of bacteria. The saliva swarms with bacteria which are ready to develop enormously if favor-able conditions are supplied, and may attack the teeth and the gums, as seen in dental decay and pyorrhea. So long as the blood is maintained in a state of high resistance the saliva ...
Students and faculty from Concordia Universitys science department collaborated on a campus-wide research study during the spring semester that explored the prevalence of a specific bacteria found in humans.. CSP science faculty members Dr. Taylor Mach, Dr. Leanne Bakke, and Dr. Mandy Brosnahan, along with 17 research students, collected nasal swabs from students, faculty, and staff to find the percentage of adults on campus who carry a common bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. Once found, the strain will be studied further to determine if its antibiotic resistant or if it makes specific toxins.. "This bacterium is known to colonize (live on) humans without causing disease, but it also can make a variety of toxins that would allow it to cause disease if given the right circumstances," Dr. Brosnahan said. "We wanted to collect non-invasive swabs from volunteers and culture any bacteria that grows from those swabs.". Of the 412 samples collected nearly half indicated the presence of ...
Friendly bacteria are also referred to as probiotic s and they are found in the digestive system of human beings including the mouth, stomach and esophagus. These bacteria mostly reside in both the small and large intestines. It is essential that you understand that the cleansing as well as the protection of the human body is due to their metabolism. Friendly bacteria assist in regulating other harmful bacteria and fungi. If there are more dangerous bacteria than beneficial in the body, then it will lead to the reduced production of enzymes and vitamins as well as the toxin level. If these toxins increase, then it could possibly lead to kidney and liver diseases, artery disease, poor immune system and cancer. The following are the benefits of bacteria.. ...
I. Simple Staining: Here, only one stain is used. This staining is used to observe shape (cocci, bacilli, vibrio, spirilli) and arrangement (single, pair, tetrad, chain, cluster) of bacteria. It is of two types as follows: A. Basic Staining: In basic staining, a basic stain, like methylene blue, crystal violet or carbol fuchsin, is used to stain the bacteria cells. The stain binds tightly to the bacteria cells and imparts a deep colour of the stain to the cells, while the surrounding medium gets a light colour of the stain. B. Acidic Staining: In acidic staining, an acidic stain, like eosin or nigrosin, is used to stain the bacteria cells negatively. The stain makes the surrounding coloured, while the bacteria cell remain colourless. II. Differential Staining: Here, more than one stains are used. It is performed for the following purposes. A. Separation into Groups: These differential staining methods are performed to differentiate bacteria into different groups based on their staining ...
Bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas produce a slime layer, which sometimes plays a role in diseases caused by Pseudomonas species. Slime layers enable certain bacteria to glide or slide along solid surfaces. The other type of glycocalyx, called a capsule, is highly organized and firmly attached to the cell wall. Capsules usually consist of polysaccharides, which may be combined with lipids and proteins, depending on the bacterial species. Knowledge of the chemical composition of capsules is useful in differentiating among different types of bacteria within a particular species; for example, different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, a cause of meningitis and ear infections in children, are identified by their capsular types. Bacterial generation times range from as short as 10 minutes to as long as 24 hours, or even longer in some cases. Capsule stain. (A) Drawing illustrating the results of the capsule staining technique. (B) Photomicrograph of encapsulated bacteria that have been stained using ...
The study is groundbreaking in that previous research appears to have mostly focused on the idea that being obese negatively impacted gut health rather than realizing that improper gut health could actually drive obesity. As NaturalNews has previously reported, while diet can affect gut flora composition, it has been hypothesized that the gut flora itself can determine what a person decides to eat in the first place. Studies have shown that these bacteria can actually send chemical messages to the brain that cause cravings for both healthy and not-so-healthy foods. Certain microbial imbalances could contribute to eating more sugar, for example. In turn, a high-fat diet has been found to increase negative gut bacteria growth as well ...
Virus - A non-living infectious particle (parasite of a host cell). It is acellular. Capsid - Protein coat Nucleic acid - Either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophage - A virus that only attacks bacteria. DNA Viruses - Cause warts, sore throats, and smallpox, herpes, chicken pox, and mononucleosis. RNA Viruses - Cause flu, mumps, measles and AIDS. Kingdom Monera - Includes all of the prokaryotic individuals - the Bacteria plus the Cyanobacteria (used to be called blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria - The only bacteria that is a photosynthetic bacteria that produces oxygen. Prokaryotic - Cells that lack membranes around their DNA. Therefore, they have no true nucleus. Endospore - A dormant stage that bacteria go "into" during unfavorable conditions. Heterotroph - Get their nutrition from other organisms. Decomposer - Get their nutrition from digesting dead organisms Autotroph - Get their food by producing it themselves using photosynthesis. Binary fission - The process of dividing in half to produce 2 new ...
bacteria - MedHelps bacteria Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for bacteria. Find bacteria information, treatments for bacteria and bacteria symptoms.
The Presto™ Mini RNA Bacteria Kit was designed for total RNA purification from Gram (-) negative bacteria and Gram (+) positive bacteria using an efficient RNA miniprep system. This RNA Kit includes Bacteria Lysis Buffer and Lysozyme to reduce sample preparation time and minimize hands on time.
And what they ate determined whether the good germs could move in and do their job.. Thursdays report raises the possibility of one day turning gut bacteria into personalized fat-fighting therapies, and it may help explain why some people have a harder time losing weight than others do.. "Its an important player," said Dr. David Relman of Stanford University, who also studies how gut bacteria influence health but wasnt involved in the new research. "This paper says that diet and microbes are necessary companions in all of this. They literally and figuratively feed each other.". The research was reported in the journal Science.. We all develop with an essentially sterile digestive tract. Bacteria rapidly move in starting at birth - bugs that we pick up from mom and dad, the environment, first foods. Ultimately, the intestine teems with hundreds of species, populations that differ in people with varying health.. Overweight people harbor different types and amounts of gut bacteria than lean ...
The researchers now plan to expand the application of their tools to different species of Bacteroides. That is because the microbial makeup of the gut varies from person to person, meaning that a particular species might be the dominant bacteria in one patient, but not in others.. "We aim to expand our genetic toolkit to a wide range of bacteria that are important commensal organisms in the human gut," Lu says.. The concept of using microbes to sense and respond to signs of disease could also be used elsewhere in the body, he adds.. In addition, more advanced genetic computing circuits could be built upon this genetic toolkit in Bacteroides to enhance their performance as noninvasive diagnostics and therapeutics.. "For example, we want to have high sensitivity and specificity when diagnosing disease with engineered bacteria," Lu says. "To achieve this, we could engineer bacteria to detect multiple biomarkers, and only trigger a response when they are all present.". Tom Ellis, group leader of the ...
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Advancements in the field of microbial community profiling will be compared and contrasted. Including, how they can be used to make informed decisions.
Could the microbes that inhabit our guts help explain that old idea of "gut feelings?" There's growing evidence that gut bacteria really
Walk among the Arctic ice and youll sometimes encounter distinctive patches of red snow. Theyre caused by a species of bacteria called Colwellia psycherythraea. Its a cold specialist - a cryophile - that can swim and grow in extreme subzero temperatures where most other bacteria would struggle to survive. Colwellias cold-tolerating genes allow it to thrive in the Arctic, but Barry Duplantis from the University of Victoria wants to use them in human medicine, as the basis of the next generation of anti-bacterial vaccines.. Colwellias fondness for cold comes at a price - it dies at temperatures that most other bacteria cope with easily. By shoving Colwellia genes into bacteria that cause human diseases, Duplantis managed to transfer this temperature sensitivity, creating strains that died at human body temperature. When he injected these heat-sensitive bacteria into mice, they perished, but not before alerting the immune system and triggering a defensive response that protected the mice ...
Much to the dislike of germaphobes, bacteria are everywhere, around and inside us. They account for nearly 3% of our body mass and are necessary for healthy digestion or immunity - they are our best weapon to fight their pathogenic cousins. The popular phrase gut feeling may have more scientific basis that we realise as bacteria are linked to health of the nervous system and imbalance of the bacterial composition of our bodies is pointed to having a role in neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.. Among bacteria, there is a unique group of ultimate survivors. Such bacteria can transition into spores - very hard, coated structures, which are widely found in soil, on fruits and vegetables, on any surfaces especially in food containers. Since spores can survive most of the processes used for sterilisation, including heat, radiation, chemical treatment, high pressure, they are an increasing burden in food processing and in hospitals. The most infamous members of the sporulating ...
Antibiotic kill bacteria - As antibiotic kill bacteria and endotoxin is released when bacteria die, wont it worsen fever or cause mild sepsis? Depends. Yes, it can but depends on which bacteria it is and which antibiotic it is. Are you on penicillin? Please let us know as some do.
It is believed by some eminent authorities that the great coal beds, and even the extensive de-posits of petroleum found buried in the earth, are the result of bacterial action. It is certainly known that it is only through the action of bacteria that the dead bodies of plants and animals are returned to the soil through the processes of fermentation and putrefaction. Except for this beneficent action of the bacteria the soil would sooner or later become exhausted and the earth would be encumbered with the desiccated forms of plants and animals which had finished their life history. It is thus only through the action of bacteria that the cycle of organic activity is maintained.. Another and notable example of the utility of micro-organisms was brought to light through the remarkable discovery of Tissier, made known to the world by Metchnikoff, that the acid-forming bacteria which are active in fermentation, may be successfully used to combat the poison-forming bacteria that are active in the ...
Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process ...
We will establish the nature of two novel protein disulfide bond-forming pathways found in certain bacteria and archaea. E. coli and many other bacteria use two...
the best illustration Ive seen for the relationship between different flu strains in people and animals is that Some times humans contract swine flu from close contact with pigs. This years NHS Flu campaign is encouraging all those who are Flu can be a very unpleasant illness in children as they suffer the same symptoms as adults The spells occur especially while suddenly getting up from a sleeping position there will be signs of dehydration "Difference between flu and pregnancy How long do colds and flu last? Severity of the symptoms and length of the infection depends on the individual. Like viruses, certain bacteria may also Flu Germs: How long can they live ...
I learnt on the benefits of bacteria and how deadly it can be. I also learnt how to stain the bacteria to classify them into gram positive and gram negative. If the bacteria is positive, it can be more easily killed by antibiotics, while gram negative bacteria is harder to be killed.- How do you feel about todays activities? o This project taught me about not to abuse antibiotics and the consequences if we abuse them(unfinished course). If we do not complete the course, the bacteria might mutate and build up resistance to the antibiotics that were normally used to treat them. If not for todays activities, I would not have realised that bacteria could build up resistance to a point where even high concentrations of the antibiotics would not kill them. ...
Read more about Learn from hunters how lifestyle affects gut bacteria on Business Standard. Gut bacteria have co-evolved with humans over millions of years and helped them adapt to new environments and foods. For the first time, an international team of researchers has deciphered the intestinal bacteria of present-day hunter-gatherers.
Some organisms breathe gases. But others dont. While it may seem plausible that certain bacteria can inhale solids as part of the respiratory
WHAT CAUSES DISEASES? Certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible for many diseases that affect humans. Below is a brief description of one disease-causing agent from each of the three groups and the name of a disease each agent causes. Using the characteristics given, draw the disease-causing agent in the space provided.. ...
Oral bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of mixed oral bacteria, consisting mostly of rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) and filamentous bacteria. - Stock Image F012/4039
National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. The Obama administration has issued a detailed plan to address the problem of antibiotic resistance, complete with milestones to help ensure the goals are actively addressed. Drug-resistant bacteria cause 23,000 deaths and two million illnesses a year in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control…
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The two research groups have now investigated the assembly and function of the T6SS in Francisella. In their study they have shown that the pathogen recycles its weapon. "After firing the speargun, it is immediately disassembled into its individual components. The bacterium then uses these components again to assemble a new T6SS," says Basler. "With this weapon, the bacteria puncture the vesicle membrane, in which they are enclosed, and deliver toxic proteins into the cytosol of the immune cell.". These so far uncharacterized effectors then disrupt the vesicle. This enables the bacteria to escape from their "imprisonment" and prevent their digestion. If they lack these effector proteins, they have no chance of escape. The T6SS as well as the toxic proteins are important virulence factors, as they are crucial e for the bacteriums success in an infection. Once the bacteria reach the cytosol, the fight is not yet over, as they need to successfully evade recognition and elimination by powerful ...
The General Community Profile is new for the 2016 Census. It replaces the Basic and Expanded Community Profiles and has been created by merging elements of both these profiles. It consists of 59 tables containing key Census characteristics on persons, families and dwellings. The data are based on place of usual residence. The General Community Profile will be released in three phases. First release tables are those containing classifications which are relatively easy to process and will be available on release day. Second release tables contain Labour Force classifications which require more complex processing and will be available on the second release day. In third release the final geography area for Remoteness will be available. ...
The General Community Profile is new for the 2016 Census. It replaces the Basic and Expanded Community Profiles and has been created by merging elements of both these profiles. It consists of 59 tables containing key Census characteristics on persons, families and dwellings. The data are based on place of usual residence. The General Community Profile will be released in three phases. First release tables are those containing classifications which are relatively easy to process and will be available on release day. Second release tables contain Labour Force classifications which require more complex processing and will be available on the second release day. In third release the final geography area for Remoteness will be available. ...
some can even learn to use oxygen when it is there or live without it when it is not Most can hibernate for many years without any ill effects see Article 1 below for news of a bacterium that woke up and grew after being asleep for 8 million years For most bacteria however the temperature and conditions of the average healthy human body is their idea of paradise Bacteria are like all living organisms they need to eat for energy and growth But what do bacteria eat Well many bacteria eat starches and sugars which can be found on more or less all organic matter For other bacteria their diet is not very different from yours because they live in your mouth or digestive system and eat the food you eat Other bacteria eat or dead and decaying matter they are along with fungi the decomposers of organic matter and some even eat waste products or dangerous materials like oil Basically there are lots of different bacteria out there and between them they will eat just about anything Bacteria can make copies ...
Spring mini-course will be offered Spring 2017 on M, T, TH, F from 9:30 am - 12:00 pm.. The goal of the course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis in the 21st century over 2 mini-course modules. The course will have a "hybrid" format. Over the 2 modules, students will learn by a combination of concise short introductory lectures provided by the faculty in conjunction with student-led discussion of 1-2 relevant papers for most sessions. Key aspects of bacterial, fungal, and parasite pathogenesis, as well as innate immunity, are covered. Cross-listed with Biochemistry 210. The students are encouraged to take both modules, but each module can be taken as a stand-alone mini-course.. Enrollment priority is given to first-year graduate students.. ...
Its important to remember that these antibiotic-bacteria are not dangerous in themselves. Unless they move out of the gut for any reason they will remain totally harmless. However they also contain the genes for antibiotic resistance, and if another bacteria manages to survive and get into the gut, they can pass those genes on. As every human carries different gut bacteria, and will take different antibiotics in the course of their lifetime, this study cannot really make any hard and fast rules about what the effect of this might be on any one individual, but it does make the point that many people will be carrying within them a large proportion of bacteria that may have developed a novel form of antibiotic resistance ...
When you consume dietary fibers, it is not your body that breaks them down-its the bacteria in your large intestine! Important molecules produced by this bacterial activity are called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which comprise…. ...
Bacteria research opens way for new antibiotics A target for the development of completely new antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria has been discovered by scientists. The discovery will also be useful in the biotechnology field for the development of a variety of marketable products and processes which rely on coupling biological molecules to cell surfaces. ...
Soil microbes are microscopic organisms including protozoa, bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Microbes are not directly simulated here, but some of the effects they have on the soil are simulated indirectly. So factors that affect the health of microbial populations affect their products. In this simulation microbes do the following: 1) They mineralize N, P and C from organic compounds in the humus (organic matter), which means they break down the organic forms to mineral forms. The "flat residue compartment for decomposing organic matter is assumed to include some microbial biomass, or live microbes. When part of the flat residue decays to organic matter during mineralization, the bodies of the microbes are decomposing. 2) Simulated aerobic bacteria are responsible for nitrifying ammonia to nitrate. 3) Simulated anaerobic bacteria dentrify nitrate to ammonia. 4) Bacteria are also assumed to exist when nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants takes place, and conditions for their survival ...
Click here for acres bacteria pictures! You can also find pictures of ac bacteria, al bacteria, albert bacteria, albicans bacteria.
Microbial Pathogenesis publishes original contributions and reviews about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of infectious diseases. It covers...
Nothing comes from nothing… For bacteria to come out, bacteria must go in. You have to eat bacteria to extrude them by the pound. Each day a single bacterium growing and dividing in your gut once per hour will produce a million daughter bacteria (24 doublings, estimate that doubling two, ten times is about a thousand, and 1000X1000= million.) So if you mixed a milligram (about the size of the period at the end of this sentence) of gut bacteria with ample food, you would have a kilogram (pounds) of bacteria by the end of the day. Similarly, it takes about a day for a single bacterium applied to a petri dish of nutrient agar to produce a colony weighing about 10 milligrams. The point here, is that a single bacterium that makes it through the acid bath of the stomach can be a major player in your colon in a couple of days. This is a very good thing. We want to kiss babies, because babies systematically vacuum up bacteria from the darkest of corners and with shameless generosity present them in an ...
This course focuses on bacteria, the most studied type of microorganism. We will begin this unit by learning how bacteria cells obtain their energy and how they grow. Metabolism varies greatly among bacteria; not all share the same kinds of mechanisms. While most require oxygen to survive, for example, some will actually die in the presence of oxygen. As the microbiology field increasingly involves the artificial cultivation of bacteria, it is important to know the methods and concepts behind their growth and cultures as well.. Bacteria divide and multiply at amazing rates. Under the right conditions, the fastest bacteria can divide every 20 minutes! That means that if you cultured just one single bacteria cell before you went to bed, you could wake up 8 hours later with a plate of more than 16 million bacteria! Much of bacterial reproduction is asexual, occurring through binary fission. In binary fission, one cell literally divides in two. We will conclude this unit by learning about horizontal ...
Siemens recalled two laboratory tests used to identify certain bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and measure how these bacteria respond to antibiotics such as Aztreonam, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, and Ceftriaxone. The tests were recalled because they may produce inaccurate results.
The microbiology of the blood is intimately related to the proposed bacterial cause of cancer. The highly controversial microbiology of cancer was fully explored during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s by four largely ignored women scientists, namely Virginia Livingston MD, microbiologist Eleanor Alexander-Jackson PhD, cell cytologist Irene Diller PhD, and biochemist Florence Siebert PhD. These four remarkable scientists all recognized the extreme importance of bacteria in the blood. Details of their research appear in my book Four Women Against Cancer.. Much of the criticism against bacteria in cancer and in human blood revolves around the inability of scientists to precisely identify the species and/or multiple species of bacteria involved in the process. Human blood is undoubtedly an aquarium for multiple kinds of bacteria, all intimately interacting with each other and presumably passing genetic material back and forth between each other (via "plasmids" and "bacteriophages").. In 2001, a molecular ...
Bacteria are tiny, single-cell creatures that nourish themselves from their environments in order to survive. Sometimes, that environment is the human body. Bacteria reproduce rapidly, both inside and outside the body. There are good bacteria and bad bacteria - our body relies on certain types of bacteria (for example, we all have bacteria in our intestines that aid us in digestion). However, bad bacteria can cause infections and illness. For example, Salmonella breeds in raw or undercooked poultry, meet and eggs, and if ingested can cause the salmonellosis infection, symptoms of which are diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps. Bacteria like this is easy to spread around - If you dont wash a cutting board after cutting raw chicken on it, for example, the bacteria can survive on that surface for hours or even days, and spread to any other food placed on the cutting board. Viruses, by contrast, need to be inside living cells to grow and reproduce - they arent alive in the same way that bacteria ...
Whats the difference between Gram-negative Bacteria and Gram-positive Bacteria? Danish scientist Hans Christian Gram devised a method to differentiate two types of bacteria based on the structural differences in their cell walls. In his test, bacteria that retain the crystal violet dye do so because of a thick layer of peptidoglycan a...
... ! Generic Suprax is used for treating infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Suprax is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive bacteria.
... ! Generic Suprax is used for treating infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Suprax is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by killing sensitive bacteria.
As trees are quite big, and have roots stretching out to long distances, their impact clearly has a large effect on the surrounding microbiome (the set of microbes in the soil) and the general ecosphere. Bacteria that can precipitate minerals in useable form from the soil are encouraged, while those that do not are discouraged from growth. Experimentally, its also been shown that by changing the levels of bacteria in the soil you can change the health of the surrounding trees so my bacterially-inclined mind is starting to think that this might not just be a one way connection. Theres clearly a lot of communication going on in the soil; between different bacterial species, between fungi and bacteria, and between the tree-roots and almost all surrounding life (trees are well known for forming large networks with fungi ...
Aztreonam is an antibiotic that fights severe or life-threatening infection caused by bacteria. Aztreonam inhalation is used to improve breathing symptoms in people who have cystic fibrosis and a certain bacteria in their lungs. This medication is for use in adults and children who are at least 7 years old. Aztreonam...
Scientists found a new species of bacteria in the debris around a Japanese recycling plant. With the help of two plastic-digesting enzymes, it can eat plastic and use it as a main food source.
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are severe diseases associated with a high morbidity and mortality, which increases with the delay until administration of the first appropriate antibiotic (1-8). For this reason, empiric treatments made of broad-range anti-infectious compounds or made of a combination of antimicrobials are started immediately after the sampling of blood bottles. BSIs can be caused by various microorganisms. In the absence of microbiological documentation, physicians suspect a BSI on the basis of clinical symptoms, which trigger the start of empirical treatments. The clinical presentations are multiple and include fever or hypothermia, increases in heart rate, change in inflammatory variable (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and white blood cell count increase), and organ failure (2, 9). These symptoms are generally nonspecific and only suggest bloodstream dissemination. Empirical treatments are made of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the basis of the clinical and epidemiological data, but
Introduction: It has come to be known as a universal fact that bacteria are present and can live, thrive and grow in almost any climate in which man and animals can live except in the far north. When conditions become unfavorable for their growth they form spores which resist the action of heat and cold to a far greater extent than do bacteria. Bacteria are not found in the blood of the normal healthy animal but how many of our domestic, animals are found to be perfectly sound and healthy. Out of almost every herd of cattle there will be found some animals which are diseased. I mention cattle not because they are the only animals which are subject to the infection of path - genic bacteria, for they are not, all animals are more or less subject to their action, but because cattle are such a universal source of seat for food. It is on account of the fact that people are thrown so at the mercy of ignorant and sometimes even dishonest butchers that they (the people) should be extremely careful from ...
The meeting of International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium , Lactobacillus and related organisms was held within the frame of the FoodMicro 2018 Congress (FoodMicro 2018, 3-6 September 2018, Berlin, Germany). The meeting comprised an open session with a workshop entitled Modern approaches of LAB identification and conservation and a closed session on issues related to ICSP Subcommittee activities.
The Bacteriological Code deals with the nomenclature of prokaryotes. This may include existing names (the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names) as well as new names and new combinations. In this sense the Code is also dealing indirectly with taxonomic opinions. However, as with most codes of nomenclature there are no mechanisms for formally recording taxonomic opinions that do not involve the creation of new names or new combinations. In particular, it would be desirable for taxonomic opinions resulting from the creation of synonyms or emended descriptions to be made widely available to the public. In 2004, the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM) agreed unanimously that it was desirable to cover such changes in taxonomic opinions (i.e. the creation of synonyms or the emendation of circumscriptions) previously published outside the IJSEM, and to introduce a List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion [Notification of changes in taxonomic opinion
Agricultural systems rely on healthy soils and their sustainability requires understanding the long-term impacts of agricultural practices on soils, including microbial communities. We examined the impact of 17 years of land management on soil bacterial communities in a New Zealand randomized-block pasture trial. Significant variation in bacterial community structure related to mowing and plant biomass removal, while nitrogen fertilizer had no effect. Changes in soil chemistry and legume abundance described 52% of the observed variation in the bacterial community structure. Legumes (Trifolium species) were absent in unmanaged plots but increased in abundance with management intensity; 11% of the variation in soil bacterial community structure was attributed to this shift in the plant community. Olsen P explained 10% of the observed heterogeneity, which is likely due to persistent biomass removal resulting in P limitation; Olsen P was significantly lower in plots with biomass removed (14 mg ...
Looking for International Committee on Monuments and Sites? Find out information about International Committee on Monuments and Sites. An international, nongovernmental, professional organization composed of 65 national committees and 14 International specialized committees for the study... Explanation of International Committee on Monuments and Sites
The bacterioplankton community structure in Moss Lake, a maritime Antarctic oligotrophic lake, was determined with vertical depth in the water column, during the ice-free period on Signy Island in the South Orkney Islands. Bacterioplankton community structure was determined using a combination of direct counting of 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and in situ hybridization with group-specific, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. Using PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE, the bacterioplankton community composition was shown to be constant with vertical depth in the water column. Specific bacterioplankton species identified through cloning and sequencing the DGGE products obtained were Flavobacterium xinjiangensis (a Flavobacterium), Leptothrix discophora (a beta-Proteo-bacterium), and a number of uncultured groups: two beta-Proteobacteria, an unclassified ...
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, formerly International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (IJSB), is the official journal of record for novel prokaryotic taxa. It is the official publication of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes and the Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology is published by the Microbiology Society, a learned society that promotes microbiology at all levels.. 2016 Impact Factor: 2.134. 2016 5-year Impact Factor: 2.488. Editor-in-Chief: Professor Martha E. Trujillo, University of Salamanca, Spain. ...
POTENTIALLY TOXIC MICROORGANISMS CAN GROW IN ACTIVATED CARBON AND ION EXCHANGE BEDS USED FOR POST-TREATMENT IN SPACECRAFT WATER RECOVERY SYSTEMS. ORDINARY BIOCIDES DISSOLVE IN WATER AND, IF USED, WOULD LEACH FROM THE BEDS. THIS PROJECT INVOLVES BOUND BIOCIDES THAT WOULD NOT LEACH INTO WATER OR AFFECT THE PURIFICATION PROPERTIES OF POST-TREATMENT SYSTEMS. TWO APPROACHES WILL BE TAKEN USING BIOCIDAL AGENTS THAT ARE MADE NON-LEACHABLE BY CHEMICAL OR FREE RADICAL ATTACHMENT TO THE POST-TREATMENT BED: (1) QUATERNARY AMMONIUM MONOMER BIOCIDES ATTACHED TO CARBON OR ION EXCHANGE RESIN SURFACE VIA CHEMICAL REACTION OR BY FREE RADICAL GRAFTING USING CERIUM, OZONE, PEROXIDE, OR UV ACTIVATION AND (2) IN SITU BONDING OF ZINC PEROXIDE WITH CARBON BLACK AND/OR ION EXCHANGE RESIN FORMED BY REACTION OF ZINC ACETATE WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SITU. FOR BED TREATMENTS, TEST METHODS FOR OBSERVING GROWTH OF BACTERIA ON AN ANION EXCHANGE OR ACTIVATED CARBON BED WILL INCLUDE EITHER ASTM G21(22) AND/OR THE DEVELOPMENT ...
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: The nomenclatural types of the orders Acholeplasmatales, Halanaerobiales, Halobacteriales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales, Planctomycetales, Prochlorales, Sulfolobales, Thermococcales, Thermoproteales and Verrucomicrobiales are the genera Acholeplasma, Halanaerobium, Halobacterium, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Planctomyces, Prochloron, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Thermoproteus and Verrucomicrobium, respectively. Opinion 79. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 517-518 ...
Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level

*Endospore

Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by some bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes.[1][2] The ... Bacteria having a centrally placed endospore include Bacillus cereus. Sometimes the endospore can be so large the cell can be ... Endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. The powder found in contaminated postal ...

*Biofuel

Animal gut bacteria[edit]. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of ... Recent research has shown that TU-103, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... "Newsvine - Ecofasa turns waste to biofuels using bacteria". Lele.newsvine.com. 2008-10-18. Retrieved 2009-10-17.. ...

*Superoxide dismutase

Iron - Many bacteria contain a form of the enzyme with iron (Fe-SOD); some bacteria contain Fe-SOD, others Mn-SOD, and some ( ... Bacteria[edit]. Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen ... During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves ... Manganese - Nearly all mitochondria, and many bacteria, contain a form with manganese (Mn-SOD): For example, the Mn-SOD found ...

*History of leprosy

Discovery of bacterium[edit]. After the end of the 17th century, Norway, Iceland, and England were the countries in Western ... By the 1960s, the world's only known anti-leprosy drug became ineffective against resistant bacteria. ... making it the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[2][16] Hansen observed a number of nonrefractile ... This was the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[2] From the 19th century, European nations adopted ...

*Epigenetics

DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... Epigenetics in bacteria[edit]. While epigenetics is of fundamental importance in eukaryotes, especially metazoans, it plays a ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. ... However, bacteria make widespread use of postreplicative DNA methylation for the epigenetic control of DNA-protein interactions ...

*Secretion

It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ... In gram-negative bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is ... Secretion in gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... T4SS is encoded on Gram-negative conjugative elements in bacteria.T4SS are cell envelope-spanning complexes or in other words ...

*Glycocalyx

In bacteria and nature[edit]. The glycocalyx exists in bacteria as either a capsule or a slime layer. Item 6 points at the ... It serves to protect the bacterium from harmful phagocytes by creating capsules or allowing the bacterium to attach itself to ... Bacteria growing in natural ecosystems, such as in soil, bovine intestines, or the human urinary tract, are surrounded by some ... TEM micrograph of a B. subtilis bacterium, with the hair-like glycocalyx visible surrounding the cell membrane (scale bar = 200 ...

*Providencia (bacterium)

Providencia is genus of Gram-negative, motile bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was named after Providence, Rhode ... "Biochemical and Antigenic Relationships of the Paracolon Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 45 (2): 101-19. PMC 373720. PMID ... Island, where C. A. Stuart and colleagues studied these bacteria at Brown University.[1] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Providencia_(bacterium)&oldid=908031782" ...

*La Brea Tar Pits

After consuming petroleum, the bacteria release methane. Around 200 to 300 species of bacteria were newly discovered here.[9] ... Bacteria[edit]. Methane gas escapes from the tar pits, causing bubbles that make the asphalt appear to boil. Asphalt and ... In 2007, researchers from UC Riverside discovered that the bubbles were caused by hardy forms of bacteria embedded in the ...

*Graphene production techniques

Bacteria processing of graphene oxide[edit]. Graphene oxide can be converted to graphene using the bacteria Shewanella ... 15 Bacteria processing of graphene oxide. *16 Graphene characterization techniques *16.1 Low-Energy and Photoemission Electron ... 3D Printed Bacteria Could Lead to 3D Printed Electronics in Space, Say TU Delft Researchers ...

*Effects of cannabis

Bacteria[edit]. Cannabis contaminated with Salmonella muenchen was positively correlated with dozens of cases of salmonellosis ...

*Microbial genetics

They share a common ancestor with bacteria, but are more closely related to eukaryotes in comparison to bacteria.[11] Some ... Another bacterium which has greatly contributed to the field of genetics is Thermus aquaticus, which is a bacterium that ... Bacteria have been on this planet for approximately 3.5 billion years, and are classified by their shape.[5] Bacterial genetics ... Such genetically engineered bacteria can produce pharmaceuticals such as insulin, human growth hormone, interferons and blood ...

*List of microorganisms found in sourdough

Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water inhabited by a symbiosis of Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. It is used in baking to ...

*Protease

Bacteria[edit]. Bacteria secrete proteases to hydrolyse the peptide bonds in proteins and therefore break the proteins down ... Bacteria contain proteases responsible for general protein quality control (e.g. the AAA+ proteasome) by degrading unfolded or ... Proteases can be found in Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea and viruses. ...

*Somatic evolution in cancer

Anoxic bacteria[edit]. Anoxic bacteria could be used as competitors or predators in hypoxic environments within tumors.[118] ... Since bacteria prefer an anoxic environment, they are not efficient at eliminating cells on the periphery of the tumor, where ... According to Jain and Forbes, several requirements have to be met by the cells to qualify as efficient anticancer bacterium:[ ... However, being a living organism, bacteria would coevolve with tumor cells, potentially eliminating the possibility of ...

*DNA methylation

In bacteria[edit]. Adenine or cytosine methylation is part of the restriction modification system of many bacteria, in which ... The methylation of native DNA acts as a sort of primitive immune system, allowing the bacteria to protect themselves from ... It has been shown that altering Dam activity in bacteria results in increased spontaneous mutation rate. Bacterial viability is ...

*Efflux (microbiology)

Whereas MFS dominates in Gram positive bacteria, the RND family was once thought to be unique to Gram negative bacteria. They ... Bacteria[edit]. Bacterial efflux pumps[edit]. Efflux pumps are proteinaceous transporters localized in the cytoplasmic membrane ...

*Antigenic variation

In bacteria[edit]. Antigenic variation in bacteria is best demonstrated by species of the genus Neisseria (most notably, ... The bacterium carries a plasmid that contains fifteen silent vls cassettes and one functional copy of vlsE. Segments of the ... In the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, the surface lipoprotein VlsE can undergo recombination which ... Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium ...

*Typhoid fever

Bacteria[edit]. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.[17] ... Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.[2][3][5] ... The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and ... The bacterium that causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and ...

*Unicellular organism

Bacteria are one of the world's oldest forms of life, and are found virtually everywhere in nature.[8] Many common bacteria ... Bacteria[edit]. Modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia. It can take a century for a stromatolite to grow 5 cm.[9] ... Archaea are generally similar in appearance to bacteria, hence their original classification as bacteria, but have significant ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". www.mapoflife.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ...

*Disulfide

In bacteria and archaea[edit]. Disulfide bonds play an important protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in particular could severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at low concentrations if not for the ...

*Bread

Bacteria. Salt-rising bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast. Although the leavening action is ... Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO2 generation is stopped. ...

*RNA polymerase

Bacteria[edit]. In bacteria, the same enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of mRNA and non-coding RNA (ncRNA). ... In bacteria, termination of RNA transcription can be rho-dependent or rho-independent. The former relies on the rho factor, ... In Escherichia coli bacteria, more than 100 transcription factors have been identified, which modify the activity of RNAP.[10] ... Bacteria and archaea only have one RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for ...

*Silver nanoparticle

Lactic acid producing bacteria have been used to produce silver nanoparticles. The bacteria Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus ... Fungi and bacteria[edit]. A general representation of the synthesis and applications of biogenically synthesized silver ... As the silver nano particles come in contact with the bacteria, they adhere to the cell wall and cell membrane.[78] Once bound ... Bacterium found in silver mines, Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259, were able to construct silver particles in the shapes of triangles ...

*Microbial corrosion

Bacteria[edit]. Some sulfate-reducing bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide, which can cause sulfide stress cracking. ... Other bacteria produce various acids, both organic and mineral, or ammonia. In presence of oxygen, aerobic bacteria like ... Acidithiobacillus bacteria produce sulfuric acid; Acidothiobacillus thiooxidans frequently damages sewer pipes. Ferrobacillus ... Layers of anaerobic bacteria can exist in the inner parts of the corrosion deposits, while the outer parts are inhabited by ...

*Parasitism

Bacteria[edit]. Main article: Pathogenic bacteria. Many bacteria are parasitic, though they are more generally thought of as ... When only one bacterium could kill the other, the other strain was excluded by the competition. But when caterpillars were ... Vertebrate saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme which breaks down the cell walls of invading bacteria.[90] Should the ... It infects its host, Escherichia coli, by injecting its DNA through its tail, which attaches to the bacterium's surface. ...

Antibiotic-Resistant Nightmare Bacteria Rising in SoutheastAntibiotic-Resistant 'Nightmare Bacteria' Rising in Southeast

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are just about as bad as it gets, as one study author puts it, are spreading quickly in ... Newser) - Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are just about as bad as it gets, as one study author puts it, are spreading ... This photo provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows one form of CRE bacteria, sometimes called " ... nightmare bacteria by the CDC. The studys authors say they are trying to sound the alarm, and experts say the findings are ...
more infohttp://www.newser.com/story/191828/antibiotic-resistant-nightmare-bacteria-rising-in-southeast.html

Oral Health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | PediatricsOral Health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics

Multiple types of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the human mouth and their intra-family transmission. Arch Oral Biol. ... Berkowitz RJ, Jones P. Mouth-to-mouth transmission of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans between mother and child. Arch Oral ... The infectious and transmissible nature of bacteria that cause early childhood caries and methods of oral health risk ... The overall strategy is to lower the numbers of cariogenic bacteria in the mothers mouth and delay colonization as long as ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/5/1113.full

Biggest Threats and Data | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDCBiggest Threats and Data | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC

Type: Bacteria. Also known as: TB, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), Mycobacterium ... Type: Bacteria. About: P. aeruginosa infections usually occur in people with weakened immune systems, and can be particularly ... Type: Bacteria. About: Shigella spreads in feces through direct contact or through contaminated surfaces, food, or water. Most ... Type: Bacteria. About: Nontyphoidal Salmonella can spread from animals to people through food, and usually causes diarrhea, ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/biggest-threats.html

bacteriabacteria

Could cyborg bacteria generate clean power in the future? Researchers at UC Berkeley covered bacteria with small... ... Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. The bacteria Mycobacterium... ... Antarctic sea-ice bacteria could be contaminating seafood with a dangerous form of mercury. *by Katie Medlock ... Geologists discover bacteria that turns small bits of gold into solid nuggets. *by Greg Beach ...
more infohttps://inhabitat.com/tag/bacteria/

bacteria | Infopleasebacteria | Infoplease

of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane ... Once considered a part of the plant kingdom, bacteria were eventually placed in a separate kingdom, ... bacteria. Introduction bacteria [pl. of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of ... There are more bacteria, as separate individuals, than any other type of organism; there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/bacteria

Word! BacteriaWord! Bacteria

... its probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick. ... but lots of bacteria actually help our bodies. The good bacteria are good for us, and the bad bacteria can make us sick. They ... Bacteria are so tiny that you cant see them with just your eyes, but there are thousands, millions, even billions of them all ... If youre feeling crummy, its probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/CookChildrens/en/kids/word-bacteria.html?WT.ac=ctg

Segmented filamentous bacteria - WikipediaSegmented filamentous bacteria - Wikipedia

Segmented filamentous bacteria or Candidatus Savagella are members of the gut microbiota of rodents, fish and chickens, and ... In mice, these bacteria grow primarily in the terminal ileum in close proximity to the intestinal epithelium where they are ... Intriguingly, Segmented Filamentous Bacteria were found to expand in AID-deficient mice, which lack the ability to mount an ... Klaasen HL; Koopman JP; Poelma FG; Beynen AC (June 1992). "Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 8 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segmented_filamentous_bacteria

Biology Bacteria Inquiry LabBiology Bacteria Inquiry Lab

Bacteria make-up the group of single celled organisms called prokaryotes. To examine and compare bacteria in our local ... Background: Bacteria have been found nearly everywhere on earth in a wide variety of environments (soil, hot springs, waste, ... You will have 20 minutes to collect bacteria and 2-3 days to allow your culture to grow. (Your experiment therefore must be for ... Tape your petri plate closed after collection and do DO NOT REOPEN IT - you could have collected harmful bacteria. Use bleach ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vRFaL7d06WvpChtMyp2wlX4JGQcf4FJrM6d93uBW64cxWZrml5Ytw7SsQelUe4vtPRy1Jlum9CEXss4/pub

Green sulfur bacteria - WikipediaGreen sulfur bacteria - Wikipedia

The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria. Together with the non ... Photosynthesis in the Green Sulfur Bacteria[edit]. The green sulfur bacteria use PS I for photosynthesis. Thousands of ... Green non-sulfur bacteria. References[edit]. *^ a b c Bryant DA, Frigaard NU (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_sulfur_bacteria

Bacteria Testing - River ScienceBacteria Testing - River Science

Bacteria Testing Bacteria Testing. Introduction to Unit on Water Testing - Fecal coliform and E. coli Bacteria are found ... Bacteria are also used in environmental recycling and clean-up. Our world would not be able to survive without bacteria. ... When we think about bacteria polluting our rivers and lakes, it is usually fecal coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform is a group ... Even though bacteria have a bad reputation in our society, most types are completely harmless to humans, or even helpful! ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/fokhighschoolcurriculum/whats-water/bacteria/bacteria-test

Bacteria on BehanceBacteria on Behance

Projet photo devant illustré une réalité sur nous même Bactéria représente ma phobie dingérer de la nourriture avariée.Sinspirant par lesthétique de la photographie médicale, chaque images a été crée par le mélange de nourriture toujours propre à la …
more infohttps://www.behance.net/gallery/7229617/Bacteria

bacteriabacteria

Filed Under: Homepage Feature, News, Research Tagged With: bacteria, HMP, MBL, microbiome, Susan Huse, Woods Hole ...
more infohttps://www.mbl.edu/blog/tag/bacteria/

BACTERIABACTERIA

... are monerans, the simplest single-celled organisms. They are the smallest of all cells, visible only through powerful ... Without bacteria, other life on Earth could not survive. Bacteria in the soil release nitrates, a usable form of the element ... Some bacteria cause diseases, but others are useful. Bacteria recycle nutrients in the soil and aid the human digestive system. ... BACTERIA. RELEASING NITRATES. BIOGRAPHY: LOUIS PASTEUR French, 1822-1895. FIND OUT MORE. ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/dk/encyclopedia/science/bacteria

Swarming Bacteria - Video - NYTimes.comSwarming Bacteria - Video - NYTimes.com

Swarming Bacteria. By None None , Nov. 3, 2008 , 0:00 Myxococcus xanthus forms rippling swarms by the millions as it devours E ...
more infohttps://www.nytimes.com/video/multimedia/1194831215168/swarming-bacteria.html

Eubacterium | bacteria | Britannica.comEubacterium | bacteria | Britannica.com

Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified ... term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. ... Today, true bacteria form the domain Bacteria. Bacteria are genetically and morphologically distinct from organisms classified ... Bacteria and Archaea are thought to have evolved separately from a common ancestor early in Earths history. Bacteria and ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/eubacterium

Vibrio | bacteria | Britannica.comVibrio | bacteria | Britannica.com

... any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Vibrios are aquatic microorganisms, some species of which ... Vibrio, (genus Vibrio), any of a group of comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Vibrios are aquatic microorganisms ... an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. and characterized by extreme diarrhea with ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/vibrio

Plasma Flashlight Destroys BacteriaPlasma Flashlight Destroys Bacteria

... The latest weapon in the war on germs: a battery-powered handheld plasma flashlight that ... To test it against E. faecalis, the researchers first grew the bacteria into a biofilm, which they exposed to the plasma jet. ... The experiment worked as a test case, and the water remained bacteria-free a week after being exposed to the plasma. Other ... For their test case, they chose Enterococcus faecalis, bacteria that commonly infect root canals, living communally in layers ...
more infohttps://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/a7579/plasma-flashlight-destroys-bacteria-7865901/

Bacteria
        
            
        
    
    
 - Natural History MuseumBacteria - Natural History Museum

We use cookies and similar technologies to optimise your experience when using this site and to help tailor our digital advertising on third party sites. View our Cookie Policy and our new Privacy notice.. ...
more infohttp://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/uk-species/species/bacteria.html

Conversations between bacteria | ZDNetConversations between bacteria | ZDNet

Did you know that bacteria talked with each other by using small molecules to coordinate their behavior and decide when its ... signals to interfere with this signal process and that this could lead to new treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. ... Conversations between bacteria. Did you know that bacteria talked with each other by using small molecules to coordinate ... The figure above shows "the quorum sensing systems of several bacteria, V. fischeri, A. tumefaciens, and P. aeruginosa, ...
more infohttps://www.zdnet.com/article/conversations-between-bacteria/

Bacteria Acquire Human GenesBacteria Acquire Human Genes

First evidence that bacteria can acquire human genes has come to light in a new study by US researchers who found a fragment of ... What are bacteria and what do they do?. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that exist in their millions, in every environment ... Common skin bacteria may prevent skin cancer. A new study finds that a friendly bacterium, commonly found on healthy human ... Soil-based bacteria discovered in humans may trigger MS. Researchers have discovered a type B Clostrodium bacteria for the ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/216442.php

Do bacteria age? | SpringerLinkDo bacteria age? | SpringerLink

Bacteria are thought to be examples of organisms that do not age. They divide by binary fission, which is assumed to be a ... Bacteria asymmetric division aging fitness Souvik Bhattacharyya is pursuing his PhD at IISc, Bangalore. His research interests ... T Nystrom, Aging in bacteria, Curr. Opin. Microbiol., Vol.5, pp.596-601, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... M Watve, S Parab, P Jogdand and S Keni, Aging may be a conditional strategic choice and not an inevitable outcome for bacteria ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12045-012-0037-4

Name That Bacteria - latimesName That Bacteria - latimes

"It depends entirely on the persons foot, the type of bacteria and the mosquito." No harm done: "It didnt really smell too bad ...
more infohttp://articles.latimes.com/1999/jul/25/magazine/tm-59271

Super Bacteria | Popular ScienceSuper Bacteria | Popular Science

Can You Put Up With The Superpower Bacteria?. "The space-grown communities of bacteria, called biofilms, formed a column-and- ...
more infohttps://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-06/so-you-wanna-go-space-can-you-put-superpower-bacteria/?src=SOC&dom=tw

Autotrophic Bacteria | Encyclopedia.comAutotrophic Bacteria | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on Autotrophic Bacteria: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... Autotrophic bacteria An autotroph is an organism able to make its own food. Autotrophic organisms take inorganic substances ... Some of these bacteria were found living near vents and active volcanoes on the lightless ocean floor. The bacteria create ... These bacteria take in carbon dioxide and water and convert the chemical energy in sulfur compounds to run metabolic processes ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/autotrophic-bacteria

bacteria - Articlesbacteria - Articles

Treatments and Tools for bacteria. Find bacteria information, treatments for bacteria and bacteria symptoms. ... bacteria - MedHelps bacteria Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/90/bacteria?section=articles
  • Nickerson's team was the first to evaluate global gene and protein expression (how the bacteria react at the molecular level) and changes in how likely microbes are to cause an infection in response to reduced gravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Acinetobacter bacteria are fairly common microbes that can be found in many parts of the environment. (brighthub.com)
  • NASA keeps a close eye on the bacteria inhabiting the International Space Station with a program called the Microbial Observatory (M.O.) The ISS is home to a variety of microbes, some of which pose a threat to the health of astronauts. (universetoday.com)
  • These advantageous microbes provide a protective front against harmful germs by creating a layer of bacteria called a "biofilm. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Research shows that reduced exposure to microbes early in life impairs the immune system's ability to identify detrimental bacteria from harmless substances like pollen and peanuts. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • They've been experiencing natural selection as they've adapted to this environment, and in one of the twelve lines of these microbes, the bacteria evolved the ability to digest citrate. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Microbes with DNA genomes, which include many viruses and bacteria, have not been considered for this type of treatment because their low intrinsic mutation rates seem difficult to elevate enough to cause extinction. (genetics.org)
  • Researchers at UC Berkeley covered bacteria with small. (inhabitat.com)
  • To test it against E. faecalis , the researchers first grew the bacteria into a biofilm, which they exposed to the plasma jet. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The researchers think they can now develop artificial signals to interfere with this signal process and that this could lead to new treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (zdnet.com)
  • David Spring , Martin Welch , their respective research groups and James T. Hodgkinson "explain that researchers long have known that bacteria communicate with each other. (zdnet.com)
  • First evidence that bacteria can acquire human genes has come to light in a new study by US researchers who found a fragment of human DNA in Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the bacterium that causes gonorrhea , one of the oldest recorded human diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers discovered the gene transfer from human to bacteria when the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, sequenced the genomes of 14 gonorrhea clinical isolates and found three of them had a fragment of DNA that had an identical sequence to an L1 DNA element found in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers also examined a close genetic relative of gonorrhea, the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis that causes meningitis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The computer programme developed by researchers at Stanford University is an exact replica of the Mycoplasma genitalium bacterium, including its DNA and all the other components of its single cell. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The researchers attached nanoparticles to the outside of bacteria and linked DNA to the nanoparticles. (wired.com)
  • In an article in the Wall Street Journal today describing the technology, James L. Hedrick of International Business Machines Corp., one of the researchers, said the destruction of the bacteria renders it unable to develop resistance to the nanoparticles. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Using an analytical framework, the researchers created the first catalog of human gut bacteria that have "neuroactive" potential. (medscape.com)
  • In a study that focused solely on wipes, researchers concluded that instead of preventing hospital-acquired infections like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) the wipes could actually be spreading bacteria when used improperly by hospital staffers. (webmd.com)
  • But in a study presented today in Boston at the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, researchers from Cardiff University's Welsh School of Pharmacy reported that when used improperly the wipes may spread bacteria rather than remove or kill them. (webmd.com)
  • The researchers used the wipes in this way in laboratory tests designed to measure their ability to remove and kill the bacteria that cause staph infections , including MRSA. (webmd.com)
  • Even some wipes that claimed to kill bacteria were found to transfer live bacteria from one surface to another, the researchers report. (webmd.com)
  • For example, when the researchers shone two separate lights at the cells, they saw two focused bright spots and the bacteria appeared to integrate the information, heading off in an intermediate direction. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Researchers have been experimenting with bacteria that can produce fuels such as hydrogen and methane, as well as those that can remove carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, from the air. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers visited 35 U.S. homes, swabbing for bacteria in 32 locations in each home. (webmd.com)
  • But now, U.S. researchers have found a way to use bacteria to steady buildings against earthquakes by turning these sandy soils into rocks. (zdnet.com)
  • Interestingly enough, a team of researchers from Northwestern University recently conducted a study with bacteria that was kept aboard the ISS. (universetoday.com)
  • Bacteria from the soil were found across the home, but were most common on the exterior door trim, the researchers found. (yahoo.com)
  • In their efforts to find new approaches to fighting harmful bacteria without harming the microbiome, researchers are actively studying how our microbial populations protect us and how microbial imbalances cause disease. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Now, researchers in the US may have found a solution to this problem, by exploiting the natural movement of bacteria to propel micro-objects through water. (newscientist.com)
  • A 2007 article in the journal Neuroscience reported that researchers at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom found that mice who were fed rewards containing the bacteria produced more serotonin, the mood-regulating neurotransmitter targeted by common antidepressants such as Prozac. (newsday.com)
  • Through this they made a near-perfect mimic of the children's gut bacteria, allowing the researchers to see how those bacteria react to changes in diet, and to do other experiments, such as faecal transplants, that would be difficult or impossible with the children themselves. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cite this: Gut Bacteria Tied to Depression - Medscape - Feb 11, 2019. (medscape.com)
  • The bacteria thrive in warm saltwater. (medicinenet.com)
  • The bacteria thrive in warm water, so concentrations of the bacteria are higher during the summer months," says Carina Blackmore, PhD, Florida's acting state epidemiologist. (medicinenet.com)
  • As icky as they may seem, bacteria play a crucial role in helping humanity thrive. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The reason for this, according to the research team, is that the formation of these types of rocks is controlled by a form of ancient and hardy bacteria here on Earth that are able to thrive in conditions similar to what Mars experiences today. (universetoday.com)
  • It was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an ominous first, last month the CDC said antibiotic-resistant bacteria had been found in food for the first time . (newser.com)
  • Your lab team will form a question and hypothesis about bacteria found at school and then create an experiment to answer your question. (google.com)
  • Green sulfur bacteria have been found in depths of up to 145m in the Black Sea, with low light availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobium tepidum , a member of green sulfur bacteria was found to be mixotroph due to its ability to use inorganic and organic carbon sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Black Sea, an extremely anoxic environment, was found to house a large population of green sulfur bacteria at about 100 m depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 m in the Pacific Ocean . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria are found everywhere. (google.com)
  • Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, including humans and livestock. (google.com)
  • Some of these bacteria were found living near vents and active volcanoes on the lightless ocean floor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1993, scientists found many new species of chemoautotrophic bacteria living in fissured rock far below the ocean floor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In analyzing data from 1054 individuals enrolled in the Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP), investigators found two groups of bacteria - Coprococcus and Dialister - were consistently depleted in people diagnosed with depression, regardless of antidepressant treatment. (medscape.com)
  • They also found that Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus bacteria were consistently associated with higher quality of life indicators. (medscape.com)
  • Some bacteria were found to have a broad range of these functions. (medscape.com)
  • But as research has progressed, experts now believe the two cooperate in various regards, with gut bacteria now found to be deeply involved in the maintenance of the entire body-something once regarded as the purview of the immune system. (newsweek.com)
  • In Los Angeles, similar bacteria counts failed to materialize, though a few beaches near stream and river mouths where contaminants are found were posted for elevated bacteria counts. (latimes.com)
  • Capsule: A layer found on the outside of the cell wall in some bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, a number of studies have found obese individuals tend to have a less diverse gut microbiome, 5 in addition to having greater numbers of certain harmful bacteria and fewer beneficial ones. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Previous research has demonstrated that probiotics - beneficial bacteria found in fermented and cultured foods such as yogurt - have a measurable effect on your metabolism. (organicconsumers.org)
  • In the United States, the bacteria have been found primarily in healthcare facilities and hospitals and are known to prey on the weak. (freerepublic.com)
  • Bacteria related to human skin were found most frequently on pillowcases and toilet seats - as were bacteria commonly found in human feces . (yahoo.com)
  • Bacteria from leaves and produce were found most often on door trims and also on kitchen surfaces. (yahoo.com)
  • Mycobacterium vaccae, a naturally occurring friendly bacteria found in soil, has been the focus of research in the United States, England and elsewhere for more than a decade, and the findings are impressive. (newsday.com)
  • The bacteria do not match any species found on Earth. (cnn.com)
  • What started as a food that astronauts could grow themselves is showing potential for lowering cholesterol levels around the world: space research has found a bacterium that can reduce cholesterol by half. (esa.int)
  • They found that another bacterium, Paracoccus denitrificans, can also reproduce at about 400,000 G's, though its proliferation -- like that of E. coli -- is stunted in such extreme conditions. (space.com)
  • After all, if Earth bacteria can breed in 400,000 G's, the 10-to-100 G's possibly found on a brown dwarf shouldn't be much of an impediment. (space.com)
  • A study published in April, which I wrote about here , found that Japanese people harbor gut bacteria that digest nori-the seaweed in sushi-but westerners do not, probably because of the Japanese diet (lots of fish and thus marine bacteria, which digest nori). (newsweek.com)
  • In mice, he and his team reported last month in the journal Cell , it's possible to slay obesity-making bacteria and coddle slimming ones: when the animals were given big helpings of the complex carbohydrate inulin (found in garlic and Jerusalem artichokes), the latter became predominant. (newsweek.com)
  • BAUMHOLDER, Germany -- At least 20 buildings in Baumholder , including two family housing units and six barracks, had to be decontaminated after officials found high levels of the water-borne bacteria that causes Legionnaires' disease. (military.com)
  • He is one of the leaders in studying a form of adaptive immunity found in bacteria, called CRISPRs. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • As part of its search for the perfect mix of ingredients, the MELiSSA project tested a bacterium, codenamed Red, for safety at the Dutch TNO research institute. (esa.int)
  • It's something you might expect Chicken Little to say: bacteria and viruses are falling from the atmosphere. (inhabitat.com)
  • Viruses and bacteria often act as parasites, infecting a host, reproducing at its expense and causing disease and death. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While it would be impossible to scientifically verify it as of now, it is highly likely that much your DNA actually codes for the creation of bacteria and viruses that are essential for your very survival. (everything2.com)
  • Most recently, he has focused on undertanding the interactions between bacteria and the viruses, called phages, that kill them. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Whereas much research in recent years has focused on bacteria in the gut, this insight indicates that the bacteria are far from alone: they are engaged in an intimate dance with viruses that affect their activity - and the health of the people in whose intestines and stomachs they reside. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The figure above shows "the quorum sensing systems of several bacteria, V. fischeri , A. tumefaciens , and P. aeruginosa , including the structures of the small AHL molecules (also known as N-acylated homoserine lactones) which are used by these bacteria. (zdnet.com)
  • 70 known LuxIR quorum-sensing systems in Gram-negative bacteria ( 1 , 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The evolution of quorum sensing systems in bacteria could, therefore, have been one of the early steps in the development of multicellularity. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists have discovered a strange new bacteria in the Antarctic that can survive the planet's most extreme conditions. (inhabitat.com)
  • Scientists at MIT and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) have re-engineered E. Coli bacteria to. (inhabitat.com)
  • The plasma flashlight that the scientists created produces a faint light, but enough plasma to be effective against bacteria. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Until recently, scientists held there existed only a few kinds of bacteria that used chemical energy to create their own food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some scientists assert that these unique bacteria should be classified in their own new taxonomic kingdom. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Scientists have created a "virtual bacteria" which mimics the way the organism works, in a breakthrough which could improve our understanding of disease and help find new treatments. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • British medical scientists say they have discovered how meningococcal bacteria break through the body's natural defense system to attack the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • Now, more than four decades later, this same bacterium is central to an important discovery by scientists using human spaceflight research to unlock the mysteries of how disease-causing agents work and can be controlled. (nasa.gov)
  • Scientists studying the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that flew aboard the shuttle en route to the International Space Station, hope to unlock the mysteries of how disease-causing agents work. (nasa.gov)
  • When the scientists plucked bacteria called Firmicutes from obese mice, then put them in the bacteria-free guts of mice raised in a sterile environment, the latter bulked up within 10 to 14 days-even though they ate less. (newsweek.com)
  • The scientists don't know precisely how the bacteria evolved this capacity, but it appears to have involved a series of mutations that happened over several thousand generations. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Since then, Prof. Sorek and his lab team have discovered tens of thousands of such bacteria-killing genes from hundreds of bacteria and catalogued them in the PanDaTox database he shares with fellow scientists around the globe. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can cause illness and even death in humans. (foodsafety.gov)
  • On the other hand, the population of the other major group of bacteria , Bacteroidetes, increased. (dictionary.com)
  • The prime example of that is lactic acid bacteria (LAB), also known as acidophilus. (newsweek.com)
  • However, not all lactic-acid bacteria is equally effective. (newsweek.com)
  • Of all the different types of LAB, one type has captured the attention of academics for the prodigious amounts of polysaccharides it produces: 1073R-1 lactic acid bacteria, or simply R-1. (newsweek.com)
  • and spiral bacteria, aptly called spirilla (singular: spirillum). (livescience.com)
  • Our world would not be able to survive without bacteria. (google.com)
  • Without bacteria, other life on Earth could not survive. (factmonster.com)
  • the resulting genetic variation ensures that bacteria can adapt and survive as their environment changes. (livescience.com)
  • Bacteria can use most organic and some inorganic compounds as food, and some can survive extreme conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The truth is that everyone needs bacteria to survive. (prweb.com)
  • But the bacteria with the advantages can survive and reproduce. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tape your petri plate closed after collection and do DO NOT REOPEN IT - you could have collected harmful bacteria. (google.com)
  • Friendly bacteria may seem like an oxymoron-we have been conditioned to believe that bacteria are harmful and make people sick. (prweb.com)
  • Probiotics work by assisting in establishing healthy amounts of friendly bacteria, which compete with other bacteria that may exist in the GI tract. (prweb.com)
  • For their test case, they chose Enterococcus faecalis , bacteria that commonly infect root canals, living communally in layers called a biofilm. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Did you know that bacteria 'talked' with each other by using small molecules to coordinate their behavior and decide when it's a good time to infect you? (zdnet.com)
  • Disease-causing bacteria use this language to decide when to infect a person or other host. (zdnet.com)
  • The bacteria can also infect the blood, especially if someone has chronic liver disease or other medical problems that compromise their immune system. (medicinenet.com)
  • Prof. Sorek calls it the "microbial arms race": how bacteria fight each other as part of their struggle for survival, and how they defend themselves against phages that infect and kill bacteria. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Eubacterium , plural eubacteria , also called bacteria , term formerly used to describe and differentiate any of a group of prokaryotic true bacteria from the archaebacteria. (britannica.com)
  • The possibility of using the bacterium as a probiotic is currently in the early stages of investigation," he said. (washingtonpost.com)
  • That recognition supports our understanding of Clostridium difficile disease - killing the beneficial bacteria allows C. diff room to surge and produce an overload of toxins - as well as the intense interest in establishing a research program that could demonstrate experimentally whether the vast industry producing probiotic products is doing what it purports to do. (wired.com)
  • The Swanson Health Products' Swanson Ultra line has reformulated FemFlora with a new complex of probiotic bacteria with unique benefits. (prweb.com)
  • This might take the form of a probiotic, a product with live good bacteria, or a prebiotic, which provides food for good bacteria you already have, says Chen. (cancer.org)
  • 1847, plural of Modern Latin bacterium , from Greek bakterion "small staff," diminutive of baktron "stick, rod," from PIE *bak- "staff used for support. (dictionary.com)
  • البكتيريا أو الجُرْثُومَة أو الجُرْثُوم (Bacteria وباليونانية القديمة : bakterion عصيات) كائنات حية دقيقة وحيدة الخلية منها المكورات والعصيات و الحلزوني وهي تتجمع مع بعضها وتأخذ أشكالا متعددة مثل عقد أو سبحة فتسمى مكورات عقدية أو على شكل عنقود فتسمى (dbpedia.org)
  • The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae ) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • The "anaerobic dehalogenating" bacteria called Desulfitobacterium hafniense (microbiologists, feel free to correct me) has been discovered in the last decade and is able to feed on, and clean up, a variety of chlorinated compounds, solvents and there is even some evidence that it could dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, nasty stuff). (treehugger.com)
  • The bacteria create their food using inorganic sulfur compounds gushing out of the vents from the hot interior of the planet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cases of infections from a flesh-eating bacteria seem to be increasing in Australia. (inhabitat.com)
  • In vulnerable patients with wound infections, the bacteria can create severe tissue damage and skin breakdown -- necrotizing fasciitis -- at the wound site," Blackmore says. (medicinenet.com)
  • Engineered bacteria can prevent, diagnose, and treat infections. (technologyreview.com)
  • While infections can happen anywhere, the home has plenty of places were bacteria roost, according to the report. (webmd.com)
  • These long-term changes to the beneficial bacteria within people's bodies may even increase our susceptibility to infections and disease. (wired.com)
  • Cell-cell communication in bacteria is accomplished through the exchange of chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. (pnas.org)
  • Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. (nih.gov)
  • A growing interest in the function of the gut microbiome is shedding new light on the roles bacteria play in human health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Genetically engineered bacteria ward off obesity in mice, showing how the microbiome could be used treat chronic diseases in people. (technologyreview.com)
  • A host of new research shows antibiotic use can negatively impact a patient's microbiome, the collection of benign bacteria that live on the outer and inner surfaces of the human body, and partner with the body to benefit human health. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Many different varieties of bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, but some are more worrying than others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These are just some of the leading bacteria in the resistance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacteria multiply so fast, that even if we had the perfect antibiotic, resistance would still occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you're feeling crummy, it's probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick. (kidshealth.org)
  • M cells are able to transfer the metabolic products and/or dead bodies of gut bacteria into the body, along with various pathogens or germs, without changing their shape or characteristics. (newsweek.com)
  • Most people think bacteria are dangerous invisible "germs" that exist to make life miserable . (everything2.com)
  • Finally, anti-quorumsensing strategies are present in both bacteria and eukaryotes, and these are apparently designed to combat bacteria that rely on cell-cell communication for the successful adaptation to particular niches. (pnas.org)
  • In this lesson students will observe the growth of bacteria over a week's period. (teach-nology.com)
  • observe and record the growth of bacteria growing in Petri dishes for one week. (teach-nology.com)
  • Explain that the students are going to swab their Petri dishes with material from different places in the classroom and illustrate the growth of bacteria over the next week. (teach-nology.com)
  • A few bacteria reproduce by budding or by formation of conidia (asexual spores). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • A big part of the problem is that for part of their life cycle, the bacteria take the form of dormant, but very rugged, spores. (philly.com)
  • However, the capacity of the OTCA cycle is limited because gene that code for enzymes of the OTCA cycle are down-regulated when the bacteria is growing phototrophically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responding to autoinducers by altering gene expression gives bacteria a means to perform particular behaviors only when living in a community but not when living in isolation. (pnas.org)
  • He went on to develop a computerized method that flags these particular bacteria-killing gene sequences. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The team says that its findings probably apply to many species of small bacteria, but more work will be needed to figure out whether - and how - the system works in bugs that are not spherical, such as rod-shaped cyanobacteria. (bbc.co.uk)
  • This artist's image shows spherical bacteria. (livescience.com)
  • From a biological perspective, it is useful to examine the evolutionary basis for flocking behaviour among bacteria, as the connections can increase our understanding of the course of infectious diseases", says Joakim Stenhammar, chemistry researcher at Lund University. (eurekalert.org)
  • Segmented filamentous bacteria or Candidatus Savagella are members of the gut microbiota of rodents, fish and chickens, and have been shown to potently induce immune responses in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, these bacteria grow primarily in the terminal ileum in close proximity to the intestinal epithelium where they are thought to help induce T helper 17 cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • And in 2013, the National Center for Biotechnology Information in Bethesda, Maryland, conducted multiple experiments in which mice were fed live M. vaccae bacteria before and during maze trials. (newsday.com)
  • A study transplanting gut bacteria from human twins into mice could help to explain why some malnourished children develop kwashiorkor -- a condition that triggers swelling in the belly, fatigue and vulnerability to disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To investigate, Smith's team, working in Jeff Gordon's microbe genomics lab at Washington University, took faecal samples from some of the Malawian twins and used them to create a set of gut bacteria for mice raised in a completely clean, germ-free environment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In preliminary results presented at the conference, Smith showed how mice with gut bacteria from one set of twins reacted to a series of timed diet regimes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Chen is studying the relationship between the immune system, inflammation, and gut bacteria and colon cancer in mice. (cancer.org)
  • To test the importance of gut bacteria in all of this, Chen studies how mice with no gut bacteria - called germ-free mice - react to a colon injury compared with how mice with a normal bacteria community react. (cancer.org)
  • When provoked with the same type of injury to the colon, the mice with normal gut bacteria were less likely to develop tumors. (cancer.org)
  • We have developed a cocktail of bacteria that almost completely prevent any tumor development in the germ-free mice," Chen says. (cancer.org)
  • People harbor bacteria from these same two lineages, with the obese among us having more Firmicutes and fewer Bacteroidetes than slim people, exactly as in fat and lean mice. (newsweek.com)
  • One possible explanation for why only some malnourished children fall prey to kwashiorkor is that differences in gut bacteria might affect how susceptible people are. (scientificamerican.com)
  • bacteria were also much more susceptible to change -- some species flourished, while others died down, altering the overall composition of the population. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It's been called a ''flesh-eating'' bacteria -- is that true? (medicinenet.com)
  • While this is often referred to as '' flesh-eating bacteria ," Blackmore says, medical experts consider it a misnomer. (medicinenet.com)
  • While this strain of bacteria is not new, it has become more common in the last 10 years or so and has now become prevalent enough to warrant a higher level of concern. (cnn.com)
  • Surprisingly, models of lethal mutagenesis indicate that bacteria may be candidates for lethal mutagenesis. (genetics.org)
  • This is a first attempt to link the composition of bacteria in the gut with depression in a large population study. (medscape.com)
  • His discoveries suggest that phages contribute to shaping the composition of bacteria in our gut, and therefore may affect our health. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • A single E. coli bacteria reproducing without any competition every 20 minutes would create a population in four days that outnumbers the (of course an estimated figure) number of quarks in the Universe. (everything2.com)
  • Image Caption: Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. (redorbit.com)
  • The propionic bacteria used in cheese manufacturing may have beneficial effects on health and notably local effects in the colon, where they are metabolically active. (inra.fr)
  • This now-beneficial bacterium is on the march. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora. (wikipedia.org)