The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A genus of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Fusobacteriaceae. Some species cause BACTEREMIA and some intra-amniotic infections.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is found in domestic and wild animals including birds, and fish. In humans it causes GASTROENTERITIS in young children and some adults.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/3917)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (2/3917)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (3/3917)

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (4/3917)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (5/3917)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

Bartonella alsatica sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rabbits. (6/3917)

Bartonella species are considered as emerging human pathogens, with at least six different species pathogenic or possibly pathogenic for humans. However, little is known about Bartonella distribution, species polymorphism and pathogenicity in mammalian species. The objective of this work was to determine the presence, the frequency and the distribution of Bartonella species in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caught in warrens in Alsace, France. Humans may come into contact with wild rabbits when hunting, especially when they are picked up with bare hands and at time of evisceration. Of 30 blood samples collected and cultured from wild rabbits, nine (30%) were positive for organisms morphologically similar to Bartonella spp. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods which could be localized within erythrocytes. Their biochemical properties were similar to those of the genus Bartonella. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from the rabbit isolates was highly related to the sequences of the different Bartonella species (97.8-99.3% similarity). The high DNA hybridization rate (81-90% similarity) between the three strains isolated from rabbit blood confirmed that they belong to the same bacterial species. Hybridization values, obtained with the nuclease-TCA method, when testing type strains of recognized Bartonella species (9-14% similarity), support the creation of a new species for the rabbit isolates. The name Bartonella alsatica is proposed for these strains isolated from the blood of wild rabbits. The type strain is IBS 382T (= CIP 105477T).  (+info)

Central venous catheter exchange by guidewire for treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. (7/3917)

Current guidelines for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) advise against central venous catheter (CVC) exchange because of the potential risk of prolonging infection. However, there are no consistent data proving this recommendation. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of CVC exchange by guidewire for the treatment of CRB in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. CVC exchange was considered when fever and positive blood cultures persisted after 2 days of adequate antimicrobial therapy and no potential source of bacteraemia other than CVC could be identified. The guidewire exchange was preceded and followed by a slow infusion of adequate antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia was confirmed as catheter-related by demonstrating concordance between isolates from the tip and blood cultures by pulsed-field electrophoresis of genomic DNA. This procedure was performed in 19 episodes of bacteraemia during a 1-year period. Fourteen episodes (74%) were catheter-related and 71% of these were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Guidewire replacement was accomplished uneventfully 4 days after development of sepsis (range 3-6). In all cases, clinical signs of sepsis disappeared in less than 24 h after replacement. Definitive catheter withdrawal was carried out a median of 16 days (range 3-42) after guidewire exchange; in all cases, the tip culture was negative. We conclude that CVC replacement by guidewire under adequate antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option for the treatment of CRB when antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama. (8/3917)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for and clinical implications of mixed Candida/bacterial bloodstream infections. AU - Kim, S. H.. AU - Yoon, Y. K.. AU - Kim, M. J.. AU - Sohn, J. W.. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Mixed Candida/bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) have been reported to occur in more than 23% of all episodes of candidaemia. However, the clinical implications of mixed Candida/bacterial BSIs are not well known. We performed a retrospective case-control study of all consecutive patients with candidaemia over a 5-year period to determine the risk factors for and clinical outcomes of mixed Candida/bacterial BSIs (cases) compared with monomicrobial candidaemia (controls). Thirty-seven (29%) out of 126 patients with candidaemia met the criteria for cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria (23%) in cases. In multivariate analysis, duration of previous hospital stay ≥7weeks (odds ratio (OR), 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-7.53), prior antibiotic ...
This MyHospitals web update presents information [email protected] Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections for 677 Australian public hospitals and around 70 private hospitals in [email protected]
Report Publication; Hospital Performance: Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in 2015-16, In Focus ; Released 2017; Golden Staph
Background. Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABSI) arising from a urinary tract source (UTS) is poorly understood. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis in 3 major teaching hospitals in Spain of prospectively collected data of hospitalized patients with SABSI. SABSI-UTS was diagnosed in patients with urinary tract symptoms and/or signs, no evidence of an extra-urinary source of infection, and a urinary S. aureus count of ,= 10(5) cfu/mL. Susceptibility of S. aureus strains and patient mortality were compared between SABSI from UTS (SABSI-UTS) and other sources (SABSI-other). Results. Of 4181 episodes of SABSI, we identified 132 (3.16%) cases of SABSI-UTS that occurred predominantly in patients who were male, had high Charlson comorbidity scores, were dependent for daily life activities, and who had undergone urinary catheterization and/or urinary manipulation before the infection. SABSI-UTS was more often caused by MRSA strains compared with SABSI-other (40.9% vs 17.5%; P , ...
Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream that are alive and capable of reproducing. It is a type of bloodstream infection.[9] Bacteremia is defined as either a primary or secondary process. In primary bacteremia, bacteria have been directly introduced into the bloodstream.[10] Injection drug use may lead to primary bacteremia. In the hospital setting, use of blood vessel catheters contaminated with bacteria may also lead to primary bacteremia.[11] Secondary bacteremia occurs when bacteria have entered the body at another site, such as the cuts in the skin, or the mucous membranes of the lungs (respiratory tract), mouth or intestines (gastrointestinal tract), bladder (urinary tract), or genitals.[12] Bacteria that have infected the body at these sites may then spread into the lymphatic system and gain access to the bloodstream, where further spread can occur.[13]. Bacteremia may also be defined by the timing of bacteria presence in the bloodstream: transient, intermittent, or ...
BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus persistent bacteraemia is only vaguely defined and the effect of different durations of bacteraemia on mortality is not well established. Our primary aim was to analyse mortality according to duration of bacteraemia and to derive a clinically relevant definition for persistent bacteraemia. METHODS:We did a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study at 17 European centres (nine in the UK, six in Spain, and two in Germany), with recruitment between Jan 1, 2013, and April 30, 2015. Adult patients who were consecutively hospitalised with monomicrobial S aureus bacteraemia were included. Patients were excluded if no follow-up blood culture was taken, if the first follow-up blood-culture was after 7 days, or if active antibiotic therapy was started more than 3 days after first blood culture. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Univariable and time-dependent multivariable Cox regression analysis were used to assess predictors of mortality. Duration of
BACKGROUND Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (PAB) is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, but the outcome for patients with PAB has not been recently well evaluated. METHODS Between 1997 and 1999, all episodes of PAB at the Hôtel-Dieu de France University Hospital, Lebanon, were analyzed to evaluate the outcome for patients with PAB. RESULTS Fifty-five episodes of PAB in 53 patients (26 episodes in men and 29 in women) were analyzed. The mean age of the patients in the cohort was 60.7 years (range: 18-89 years). The mean time between the onset of hospitalization and the first episode of PAB was 21 days (range: 0-77 days). Most of the tested isolates showed favorable in vitro susceptibility to ceftazidime (85%), amikacin (77%) and imipenem (67%). The overall in-hospital cumulative survival was 89% at one week and 49% at 2 months. Among the variables analyzed, four were statistically associated with a higher mortality rate: prior use of antimicrobials (85% vs 54%), use of systemic
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection, and these infections still have a high mortality. In certain clinical situations and for the planning of future prophylactic precautions, it is important to identify patients at risk of S. aureus bloodstream infection. Nearly all patients with S. aureus bloodstream...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Performance of processes of care and outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. AU - Rosa, Rossana. AU - Wawrzyniak, Andrew. AU - Sfeir, Maroun. AU - Smith, Laura. AU - Abbo, Lilian M.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized adults. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify current practice patterns in the management of SAB, and to evaluate their association with clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A 1558-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients hospitalized between January 1, 2012 through April 30, 2013, who had at least 1 positive blood culture with S aureus. INTERVENTION: None MEASUREMENTS: Electronic medical records were reviewed and the processes of care in the management of SAB were identified. The main outcome was clinical failure, defined as a composite endpoint of in-hospital mortality and persistent ...
The incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) has remained stable over the last few decades.1-3 Although it is still primarily a nososcomial infection, the number of cases of community-acquired bacteraemia caused by this organism has increased, notably affecting patients with AIDS4,5 and neutropenic patients treated for neoplastic disease who received outpatient management.6 Predisposing conditions for PAB include compromised immunity, neutropenia, intensive care, surgical procedures, central venous and urinary catheters and previous cephalosporin therapy.1,3-5,6 Common factors predictive of a fatal outcome reported in the literature are septic shock, neutropenia, immunocompromised state, severe underlying disease, and in the elderly pneumonia, septic metastases, previous therapy and inappropriate choice of antimicrobial drugs for definitive treatment.1,6,7. P. aeruginosa has also emerged as an important bacteraemic pathogen in immunocompromised children,6,8,9 including ...
The incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) has remained stable over the last few decades.1-3 Although it is still primarily a nososcomial infection, the number of cases of community-acquired bacteraemia caused by this organism has increased, notably affecting patients with AIDS4,5 and neutropenic patients treated for neoplastic disease who received outpatient management.6 Predisposing conditions for PAB include compromised immunity, neutropenia, intensive care, surgical procedures, central venous and urinary catheters and previous cephalosporin therapy.1,3-5,6 Common factors predictive of a fatal outcome reported in the literature are septic shock, neutropenia, immunocompromised state, severe underlying disease, and in the elderly pneumonia, septic metastases, previous therapy and inappropriate choice of antimicrobial drugs for definitive treatment.1,6,7. P. aeruginosa has also emerged as an important bacteraemic pathogen in immunocompromised children,6,8,9 including ...
To assess whether methicillin resistance is a microbial characteristic associated with deleterious clinical outcome, we performed a cohort study on 908 consecutive episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and a case-control study involving 163 pairs of patients matched for preexisting comorbidities, prognosis of the underlying disease, length of hospitalization, and age. Of 908 bacteremic episodes, 225 (24.8%) were due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Multivariate analysis did not reveal that methicillin resistance was an independent predictor for mortality when shock, source of bacteremia, presence of an ultimately or rapidly fatal underlying disease, acquisition of the infection in an intensive care unit (ICU), inappropriate empirical therapy, female sex, and age were taken into account. Nonetheless, methicillin resistance was an independent predictor for shock. The case-control study could not confirm that shock was linked to MRSA when prior antimicrobial therapy, inappropriate ...
All bacteraemic cases, from August 2006 to September 2007 were identified by reviewing all positive blood culture results from the microbiology department of our hospital. One thousand three hundred and sixty six cases were detected in 1336 patients. The rate of true bacteremia which was 13.1 and 10.7% of cultures were contaminated. Of the 1366 episodes of bloodstream infection, 55.3% were community-acquired and 44.7% were health-care associated. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed (58.5%), followed by gram negative bacilli (38.5%). Polymicrobial bacteremia was detected in 2.2% of cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the leading cause (550/1366 = 40.3%), whilst enterococci,Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococci represented 8, 6.4 and 3.8% respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest gram-negative isolate (155/1366 = 11.3%), followed by Escherichia coli (8.2%) and Acinetobactersp. (7.3%). Fungi were isolated in
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia remains a condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a common but little-studied problem outside of Europe and North America. A single-centre retrospective case series profiling all patients with community onset-MSSA bacteraemia presenting between March 2005 and February 2006 to a tertiary acute-care university hospital in Singapore. In addition to epidemiological and clinical data collection, risk factors for complicated bacteremia and attributable mortality were analysed. A total of 100 patients met the case definition. Patients were more likely to be male (65%) and below 65 years of age (69%). Seventeen patients were intravenous drug abusers, while 38 had diabetes mellitus. There were 18 cases of endocarditis, with 11 occurring in intravenous buprenorphine abusers. Attributable mortality was 11%, and 46% of patients developed complicated bacteremia. On multivariate analysis, age | 65 years and
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infections severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: fewer than 1,500 patients have been included in 16 randomised controlled trials investigating S. aureus bacteraemia treatment. It is uncertain which antibiotics are most effective, their route of administration and duration, and whether antibiotic combinations are better than single agents. We hypothesise that adjunctive rifampicin, given in combination with a standard first-line antibiotic, will enhance killing of S. aureus early in the treatment course, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Our aim is to determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces all-cause mortality within
|jats:title|Abstract|/jats:title||jats:sec||jats:title|Background|/jats:title||jats:p|Antibiotic resistance poses a threat to public health and a burden to healthcare systems. |jats:italic|Escherichia coli|/jats:italic| causes more bacteraemia cases in England than any other bacterial species, these infections, in part due to their high incidence, also pose a significant antibiotic resistance burden. The main aim of this study was to estimate the impact of |jats:italic|E. coli|/jats:italic| bacteraemia on patient in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Secondarily, this study also aimed to estimate the effect of antibiotic resistance on these outcomes.|/jats:p||/jats:sec||jats:sec||jats:title|Methods and Findings|/jats:title||jats:p|Case patients were adult |jats:italic|E. coli|/jats:italic| bacteraemia patients infected between July 2011 and June 2012, as reported in an English national mandatory surveillance database, with susceptibility data taken from a national laboratory surveillance database.
The factors related to the occurrence of bacteraemia following urinary tract manipulation were studied in a large community hospital. During a 3-year period, forty-six of 326 episodes of hospital-acquired bacteraemia were associated with urinary tract manipulation. All thirty of forty-six cases felt to be definitely related to urinary tract manipulation (other obvious sources of bacteraemia being absent) had pre-existing urinary tract disease, especially of an obstructive type; only one in this group died from sepsis. The remaining sixteen patients had other possible sources of bacteraemia besides urinary tract manipulation and had disorders associated with defects in host defences; twelve (75%) in this group died from overwhelming sepsis. Thus, if bacteraemia occurs in a patient having had urinary tract manipulation but without any underlying urinary tract abnormality or impairment in host defences, its source should be searched for in other areas of the body.. ...
There were 1632 admissions with 45 nosocomial Gram-negative bacteremias in 44 patients. Infection rates of 28.2/1000 admissions and 12.1/10 000 patient-days remained stable over 5 years. The mean patient age was 55.3 years (range 17-86 years); 27.3% of patients were female, and 72.8% were male. The majority (95.6%) of bloodstream infections were monomicrobial, with only one episode of polymicrobial bacteremia. Common admitting diagnoses included respiratory failure, solid organ transplant, post-surgery, and multi-trauma. Seven bacterial species were identified; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. were most common. Sources of bacteremia included pneumonia (48.9%), followed by central venous catheterization (22.2%). The mean time from admission to hospital to development of bacteremia was 32.9 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-100.9), and time from admission to the ICU was slightly less at 26.0 days (95% CI 0-90.1). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were highest for imipenem, gentamicin, ...
The P. mirabilis is isolated from 1% to 3% of all BSIs (Laupland et al. 2007; Sohn et al. 2011). Our study confirms these data. We also observed Proteus spp. BSIs in 2.5% of all BSIs investigated. Among Enterobacterales, P. mirabilis is the fourth Gram-negative bacteria species after E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. isolated from hospital-acquired BSIs (Sohn et al. 2011). BSIs are well-known cause of high mortality. We found that mortality rate of P. mirabilis BSIs was 28.9%. It is similar value to that obtained by Endimiani et al. (2005). They found that mortality rate attributable to P. mirabilis BSIs was 33.0%.. Laupland et al. (2014) showed that most cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia (18; 72.0%) have no documented sources and were recognized as primary bacteremia. In another seven (28.0%) cases, the urinary tract was confirmed to be the source of bacteremia. The opposite results were reported by Sohn et al. (2011). They detected primary bacteremia caused by Proteus spp. ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is still a major global healthcare problem. Of concern is S. aureus bacteremia, which exhibits high rates of morbidity and mortality and can cause metastatic or complicated infections such as infective endocarditis or sepsis. MRSA is responsible for most global S. aureus bacteremia cases, and compared with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, MRSA infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. S. aureus virulence is affected by the unique combination of toxin and immune-modulatory gene products, which may differ by geographic location and healthcare- or community-associated acquisition. Management of S. aureus bacteremia involves timely identification of the infecting strain and source of infection, proper choice of antibiotic treatment, and robust prevention strategies. Resistance and nonsusceptibility to first-line antimicrobials combined with a lack of equally effective alternatives complicates MRSA bacteremia treatment. This review
Evaluate the safety of ceftaroline fosamil in adult Subjects (≥ 18 years of age) with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia or with MRSA Bacteremia persisting after at least 72 hours of vancomycin and/or daptomycin treatment [ Time Frame: 60 days following completion of antibacterial therapy and discharge from the hospital, anticipated between 74 to 119 days ...
By Stan Deresinski, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Stanford University Dr. Deresinski reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: The addition of rifampin to standard therapy failed to provide significant benefit to patients with bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus. SOURCE: Thwaites GE, Scarborough M, Szubert A, et al; United Kingdom Clinical Infection Research Group (UKCIRG). Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2017 Dec 14. pii: S0140-6736(17)32456-X. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32456-X. [Epub ahead of . . .
S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB take at least a day, and often longer. Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending. In this proof-of-concept study, we describe an inexpensive assay that detects SAB via the detection of micrococcal nuclease (an enzyme secreted by S. aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. 16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB, which is expected to substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity that result from this condition.
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999-2000 (n = 57) and 2004 (n = 116). Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00-2.48), injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88-33.49), community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02-1.92), and symptom duration ,/=48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22-3.61). Uncomplicated disease was associated with the ...
In 2014-15, 1,490 cases of hospital-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) were reported in Australian public hospitals. The national rate of SAB in public hospitals was 0.77 cases per 10,000 days of patient care, and all states and territories had rates below the national benchmark of 2.0 cases per 10,000 days of patient care. Between 2010-11 and 2014-15, rates of SAB decreased from 1.10 cases to 0.77 cases per 10,000 days of patient care.. ...
Clinical questions: What are the trends in patient outcome for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB)? Does the use of evidence-based care processes decrease mo
Additional file 3: of Distinct T-helper cell responses to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia reflect immunologic comorbidities and correlate with mortality
By Achim J. Kaasch, Gavin Barlow, Jonathan D. Edgeworth, Vance G. Fowler, Martin Hellmich, Susan Hopkins, Winfried V. Kern, Martin J. Llewelyn, Siegbert Rieg, Jesús Rodriguez-Baño, Matthew Scarborough, Harald Seifert, Alex Soriano, Robert Tilley, M. Estée Tőrők, Verena Weiß, A.Peter R. Wilson and Guy E. Thwaites ...
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the causes of both community and healthcare-associated bacteremia. The attributable mortality of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is still higher and predictors for mortality and clinical outcomes of this condition are need to be clarified. In this prospective observational study, we aimed to examine the predictive factors for mortality in patients with SAB in eight Turkish tertiary care hospitals. ...
What drug can cause Streptococcal Bacteraemia as their side effect? Check drug and medication side effect reports associated with Streptococcal Bacteraemia
It is generally well established that dental cares cause bacteremia, and that most are due to streptococcal strains [1,2]. It is, consequently, reasonable to think that prescribing antibiotics before dental cares decreases the incidence of such bacteremia. Globally, the discordant results between the different kinds of studies analyzed in the paper by Cahill et al. [1] are clearly insufficient to conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents bacteremia due to streptococci. In our view, this observation can be explained by the fact that dental care is not the only cause of streptococcal bacteremia. Indeed, such bacteremia are extremely common, and it has been demonstrated that they can occur after chewing and after brushing in patients with periodontitis (cumulatively in 25% and 20% of cases, respectively) [2]. It is, therefore, fairly unlikely that bacteremias due to dental cares are more responsible for endocarditis than other kinds of bacteremias. In practice, this implies that the only ...
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia, yet the epidemiology, and predictors of poor outcome remain inadequately defined in childhood. METHODS: ISAIAH is a prospective, cross-sectional study of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), in children hospitalized in Australia and New Zealand, over 24-months (2017-2018). RESULTS: Overall, 552 SABs were identified, (incidence 4.4/100,000/yr [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-8.8]), with methicillin-susceptible (84%), community onset (78%) infection predominating. Indigenous children (8.1/100,000/yr [CI 4.8-14.4]), those from lower-socioeconomic areas (5.5/100,000/yr [CI 2.8-10.2]) and neonates (6.6/100,000/yr (CI 3.4-11.7) were over-represented. Although 90-day mortality was infrequent, one-third experienced the composite of: length of stay ,30 days (26%), ICU admission (20%), relapse (4%), or death (3%).Predictors of mortality included prematurity (aOR 16.8 [CI 1.6-296.9]), multifocal infection (aOR 22.6 [CI 1.4-498.5]), necrotizing ...
An improvement resource to help health and social care economies reduce the number of Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) with an initial focus on Escherichia coli (E.coli).
article{1887963, author = {Reunes, Sofie and Rombaut, Vicky and Vogelaers, Dirk and Brusselaers, Nele and Lizy, Christelle and Cankurtaran, Mustafa and Labeau, Sonia and Petrovic, Mirko and Blot, Stijn}, issn = {0953-6205}, journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE}, keyword = {ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY,HOSPITAL MORTALITY,MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE,OLD PATIENTS,ATTRIBUTABLE MORTALITY,Bloodstream infection,Elderly,Risk factors,Geriatric patient,Mortality,CRITICALLY-ILL PATIENTS,CARE-UNIT PATIENTS,INTENSIVE-CARE,PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA,BACTEREMIA}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {e39--e44}, title = {Risk factors and mortality for nosocomial bloodstream infections in elderly patients}, url = {}, volume = {22}, year = {2011 ...
The results presented above indicate that in our study population IL-6 levels, but not IL-1 and TNF levels, are significantly higher in the children with occult bacteremia than in those with apparent viral infection. Interleukin 6 seems more advantageous in predicting bacteremia than WBC, and equivalent to the ANC. This observation is supported by the equality of the receiver-operator characteristic curves and areas under the curves for IL-6 and ANC and the lower curve and lesser area for WBC as shown Fig 1. However, there is overlap of the IL-6 levels between the bacteremic and nonbacteremic groups. This overlap detracts from the utility of IL-6 in distinguishing bacteremic from nonbacteremic patients and results in the modest sensitivity and specificity presented in Table 3.. From the traditional clinical and laboratory data evaluated in this study, the ANC was found to be the best means of predicting occult bacteremia at the time of the initial visit. The sensitivity and specificity for the ...
The outcome of patients with bacteraemia is influenced by the initial selection of adequate antimicrobial therapy. The objective of our study was to clarify the influence of different crude data correction methods on a) microbial spectrum and ranking of pathogens, and b) cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of blood culture isolates obtained from patients from intensive care units (ICUs) using a computer based tool, MONI. Analysis of 13 ICUs over a period of 7 years yielded 1427 microorganisms from positive results. Three different data correction methods were applied. Raw data method (RDM): Data without further correction, including all positive blood culture results. Duplicate-free method (DFM): Correction of raw data for consecutive patients results yielding same microorganism with similar antibiogram within a two-week period. Contaminant-free method (CFM): Bacteraemia caused by possible contaminants was only assumed as true bloodstream infection, if an organism of the same species was
Bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) are important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Increasing exposure to healthcare, invasive procedures, and prosthetic implants has been associated with a rising incidence of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and IE since the late twentieth century. S. aureus is now the most common cause of bacteremia and IE in industrialized nations worldwide and is associated with excess mortality when compared to other pathogens. Central tenets of management include identification of complicated bacteremia, eradicating foci of infection, and, for many, prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Evolving multidrug resistance and limited therapeutic options highlight the many unanswered clinical questions and urgent need for further high-quality clinical research ...
Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. This historical cohort study was designed to evaluate if different patterns can be observed in either C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WCC) between Gram positive bacteremia (GPB) vs. Gram negative bacteremia (GNB), and to assess the potential benefit of serial measurements of both biomarkers in terms of early antimicrobial therapy initiation. A historical study (2003-2004) was conducted, including all adult intensive care unit patients with a nosocomial bacteremia. CRP and WCC count measurements were recorded daily from two days prior (d-2) until one day after onset of bacteremia (d+1). Delta (Δ) CRP and Δ WCC levels from the level at d-2 onward were calculated. CRP levels and WCC counts were substantially higher in patients with GNB. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated
In Australia, MRSA bacteraemias cause up to 40 per cent of all healthcare-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteraemia [9]. MRSA bacteraemias are associated with increased risk of mortality [10] and contribute a considerable cost to the healthcare system due to the need for prolonged hospital stays, re-admissions and additional diagnostic tests and treatment [11]. National reporting of healthcare acquired S. aureus bacteraemias, including those caused by MRSA, was introduced in Australia in 2008. MRSA bacteraemia incidences and rates also are a key performance indicator for jurisdictions under the National Healthcare Agreement [12]. This section reports inpatient and non-inpatient healthcare-acquired MRSA bacteraemias data. ...
Early administration of appropriate antimicrobials has been correlated with a better prognosis in patients with bacteremia, but the optimum timing of early antibiotic administration as one of the resuscitation strategies for severe bacterial infections remains unclear. In a retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) were analyzed. Effects of different cutoffs of time to appropriate antibiotic (TtAa) administration after arrival at the ED on 28-day mortality were examined, after adjustment for independent predictors of mortality identified by multivariate regression analysis. Among 2349 patients, the mean (interquartile range) TtAa was 2.0 (|1 to 12) hours. All selected cutoffs of TtAa, ranging from 1 to 96 hours, were significantly associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.54-0.65, all P | 0.001), after adjustment of the following prognostic factors: fatal comorbidities (McCabe classification), critical illness (Pitt
Bacteremia. How long to treat? It depends in part the underlying infection, but with the exception of S. aureus, the data suggest that shorter (5-7 days) are no worse than longer courses of antibiotics for bacteremia from a variety of sources. Mostly we treat some multiple of 7 since we have 7 days in the week.. Twenty-four eligible trials were identified, including one trial focusing exclusively on bacteremia, zero in catheter related bloodstream infection, three in intra-abdominal infection, six in pyelonephritis, 13 in pneumonia and one in skin and soft tissue infection. Thirteen studies reported on 227 patients with bacteremia allocated to shorter or longer durations of treatment. Outcome data were available for 155 bacteremic patients: neonatal bacteremia (n=66), intra- abdominal infection (40), pyelonephritis (9), and pneumonia (40). Among bacteremic patients receiving shorter (5-7 days) versus longer (7-21 days) antibiotic therapy, no significant difference was detected with respect ...
The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of catheter-drawn and peripheral blood cultures. Paired blood culture samples collected over a 44-month period from a 280 bed Brisbane metropolitan hospital were analysed, using standard clinical and microbiological criteria, to determine whether blood culture isolates represented true bacteraemias or contamination. Catheter-collected cultures had a specificity of 85% compared with 97% for peripheral cultures. In only two instances (0.2%) was the diagnosis of clinically significant bacteraemia made on the basis of catheter culture alone. This study concluded that cathetercollected samples are not a good test for true bacteraemia, and that peripheral cultures are more reliable when the results of the paired cultures are discordant.. ...
1) The presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteremia is diagnosed by growing organisms from a blood sample and treatment is with antibiotics. See: Infections Associated with Lymphedema (2) The presence of live bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia is analogous to viremia (the presence of a virus in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). Bacteremia, viremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection). The term bacteremia was compounded from bacteria and -emia (in the blood). Also called bacillemia. ...
Background: Improvements in central line placement practices have decreased the rates of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Further progress in reducing infection may rest on processes related to line maintenance and care. Methods: We evaluated the effect of an alcohol disinfection cap on rates of nosocomial bacteremia. The plastic caps fit on the exposed ends of IV needless access devices and contain a pad saturated with 70% isopropyl alcohol for disinfection: we alternated between similar products by two different manufacturers. The caps were placed on all ports of peripheral and central lines when not in use. Four hospital units with higher central line use were chosen for this yearlong intervention (an intensive care unit, a step down unit, and two medical surgical units). Nosocomial bloodstream infections and CLABSI were monitored for these units, along with four units not part of this intervention (to control for changes over time). The year prior to implementation ...
Bacteremia is a bacterial infection that has spread to the bloodstream. This is serious because it can cause a lot of harm to the body. It can spread to other organs, including the kidneys, brain, and lungs. Bacteremia that spreads and harms other parts of the body is called sepsis. You will have lab tests and imaging tests. The lab tests will include blood cultures to check for bacteremia. They will help show the type of bacteria that you have. You will likely be given antibiotics before the results of the blood cultures are known. ...
The probability of at least 1 microorganism being isolated at 6 hours was 13-fold higher with the SeptiFast test than with blood cultures (relative risk, 13.5; 95% CI, 5.05-36.06). Unlike culture results, SeptiFast test results were not associated with previous antibiotic consumption. The median time to the first positive blood culture result was 17 hours; SeptiFast results were available in 6 hours. SeptiFast detected genetic material from potentially multiresistant microorganisms in patients whose blood cultures showed no growth at all. ...
Staphylococcus aureusis a leading cause of both community- and healthcare-associated bacteremia.S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate therapy.The epidemiology and clinical features of SA
The non-hematologic malignancies included esophageal cancer (2) and bladder cancer (1). Seven patients (54%) were neutropenic (defined as Absolute Neutrophil Count , 1500 cells/uL) with an average duration of 14 days. The median age was 60 years. There was no gender predilection. Seven patients had mucositis at the time of diagnosis either due to chemotherapy or graft versus host disease. One patient had gingivitis with a dental abscess. None of the patients developed infective endocarditis. Most patients were on empiric antimicrobial therapy with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or piperacillin/tazobactam at the time of breakthrough bacteremia. Almost all patients received vancomycin as definitive treatment. All the patients had transient bacteremia with an average duration of positive blood cultures of 1 day. The 30-day mortality rate was 16.67%. Mortality was not attributable to NVS bacteremia ...
To describe the rate of response to an antibiotic-lock technique (ALT) in the treatment of venous access port (VAP)-related bacteremia and to analyze the role of the reservoir in the persistence of infection, we reported the data from 12 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 8 oncologic patients with VAP-related bacteremia. The ALT consisted of intracatheter delivery of antibiotics and was associated with a systemic antibiotic infusion. We monitored clinical manifestations and performed qualitative and quantitative blood cultures during and at the end of the treatment. Four patients had catheters removed before antibiotic treatment. Of the 16 patients who were treated with the ALT, 5 (31%) were cured, as determined by negative cultures of blood and of samples from the catheter; 2 (12.5%) were cured but had recurrent infection with another microorganism; and 9 (56%) had persistent positive cultures of blood and of samples from the tip, reservoir, or both of the VAP. Limited efficacy of the ...
|p style=text-align: left;||em|New study published in |/em|Mayo Clinic Proceedings|em| shows that statin use was associated with decreased risk of blood infection with |/em|Staphylococcus aureus|em| acquired outside of a hospital.|/em||/p|
... concluded that MRSA bacteremia is associated with increased mortality as compared with MSSA bacteremia (odds ratio= 1.93; 95% ... Endocarditis and bacteremia[edit]. Evaluation for the replacement of a prosthetic valve is considered. Appropriate antibiotic ... For bacteremia and endocarditis, vancomycin or daptomycin is considered. For children with MRSA-infected bone or joints, ... In the United Kingdom and Ireland, no resistance was found in staphylococci collected from bacteremia cases between 2001 and ...
Roberts GJ, Holzel HS, Sury MR, Simmons NA, Gardner P, Longhurst P (January 1997). "Dental bacteremia in children". Pediatric ...
Relapsing fever borreliosis often occurs with severe bacteremia.[8] B. recurrentis is transmitted by the human body louse; no ...
"Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia and bacteremia following bone marrow transplantation". J Clin Microbiol. 30 (9): 2474-5. ...
"Association between HACEK bacteraemia and endocarditis". Journal of medical microbiology. 63 (Pt 6): 892-5. doi:10.1099/jmm. ... they can also produce other infections such as bacteremia, abscess, peritonitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, ...
"Multiple Liver Abscesses Associated with Bacteremia due to Leuconostoc lactis". Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. 34 ...
"Vivax malaria and bacteraemia: A prospective study in Kolkata, India". Malaria Journal. 12: 176. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-176 ...
"Bacteremia caused by hemolytic, high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ... combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia ...
"Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature. 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ...
Primary bacteraemia, infection without identifiable focal origin, comprises approximately 20% of the reported cases. Recently, ... These properties may explain the tendency of recurrent bacteraemia observed in human SDSE-cases. In order to establish ... Sylvetsky, N; Raveh, D; Schlesinger, Y; Rudensky, B; Yinnon, AM (1 June 2002). "Bacteremia due to beta-hemolytic Streptococcus ... Anonymous (November 2015). "Voluntary surveillance of pyogenic and non-pyogenic streptococcal bacteraemia in England, Wales and ...
October 2011). "Weissella confusa: a rare cause of vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteraemia". Journal of Medical ...
bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (11): 1918- ...
These infections can remain localized or become systemic (i.e. bacteremia). The severity of infection varies depending on the ...
Bacteremia (infection in the blood). *MRSA (which is very difficult to treat because many antibiotics do not kill it) ...
This results in an increase in predisposition to bacteremia (bacteria in the blood). As a result, people suffering from ... Prior treatment with methylprednisolone has been shown to prolong bacteremia in these infections, which enables the progression ... the bacteria was localized to the wound and the dog did not present with bacteremia. There have been a few cases of infection ...
"Bacteremia - Infections - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". The Merck Manuals. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. ... bacteremia if bacteria are present in the blood at abnormal levels and are the causative issue, viremia for viruses, and ...
... these infections can subsequently result in septicemia and bacteremia, which can be fatal if untreated. Repetitive injections, ...
Bacteraemia NOS. (A50-A64) Infections with a predominantly sexual mode of transmission[संपादित करें]. *(A50.) Congenital ...
Therefore, these individuals must take antibiotics for the rest of their life to avoid fatal bacteremia. In the event of ...
"Recovery of a strain of Agrobacterium radiobacter with a mucoid phenotype from an immunocompromised child with bacteremia" ...
bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region Medical publication, North Carolina State ... Cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, endocarditis, bacteremia with fever, neuroretinitis, meningitis ... patients should be treated with antibiotics because they are particularly susceptible to systemic disease and bacteremia. Drugs ...
It is employed to detect infections that are spreading through the bloodstream (such as bacteremia, septicemia amongst others ...
There has been one reported case where a woman possibly had infective endocarditis from bacteremia following the use of a ... Individuals with previous infective endocarditis and high-risk cardiac valves may be at a higher risk from bacteremia.[10] ...
Tertiary care centers (such as hospice care facilities) have 2-4 times the rate of bacteremia than primary care centers, 75% of ... In rough order of increasing severity these are, bacteremia or fungemia; sepsis, severe sepsis or sepsis syndrome; septic shock ... bacteremia, diverticulitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, pancreatitis, necrotizing fasciitis, MRSA and mesenteric ischemia.[6][7 ...
"Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ...
In the bacteremia state, it can spread to any parts of the body and this induces localized infection or it forms abscesses. The ... It can manifest as five clinical patterns: gastrointestinal tract infection, enteric fever, bacteremia, local infection, and ...
GBS LOD affects infants from 7 days to 3 months of age and is more likely to cause bacteremia or meningitis. LOD can be ... bacteremia, osteomyelitis, meningitis and endocarditis. [3] GBS infection in adults can be serious and related with high ...
... and Pseudomonas species are the micro-organisms most commonly responsible for Gram-negative bacteremia and sepsis. The presence ...
... of people with Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus bacteremia have concomitant colorectal tumors.[26] Seroprevalence of ...
Moss, William J.; Sager, Jason A.; Dick, James D.; Ruff, Andrea (February 2003). "Bacteremia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 ...
Bacteremia in neutropenic children.. Siegel JD.. Comment on. *The changing epidemiology of bacteremia in neutropenic children ...
Bacteremia due to Bordetella holmesii.. Morris JT1, Myers M.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, Madigan Army ...
K oxytoca has been implicated in neonatal bacteremia, especially among premature infants and in neonatal intensive care units. ... Which Klebsiella pathogen may cause neonatal bacteremia?. Updated: Jun 10, 2019 * Author: Shahab Qureshi, MD, FACP; Chief ... Bodey GP, Elting LS, Rodriquez S, Hernandez M. Klebsiella bacteremia. A 10-year review in a cancer institution. Cancer. 1989 ... K oxytoca has been implicated in neonatal bacteremia, especially among premature infants and in neonatal intensive care units. ...
In hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, follow-up blood cultures should be obtained until culture results are ... Incidence of occult bacteremia among highly febrile young children in the era of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a study ... In hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, follow-up blood cultures should be obtained until culture results are ... encoded search term (How are hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia monitored?) and How are hospitalized patients ...
We did not include cases of neonatal bacteremia that could not be attributed to either condition. Of 108 boys with urinary ... 1 We stated that we were interested in bacteremia that related to the uncircumcised state or to the circumcision procedure ... tract infections, 37 (34.3%) had concomitant bacteremia (virtually all were due to Escherichia coli). ...
This may or may not have any clinical significance because harmless, transient bacteremia may occur following dental work or ... other minor medical procedures; however, this bacteremia is generally clinically benign and self-resolving in children who do ... Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the circulating blood. ... Occult bacteremia. Fever without localizing signs: the problem of occult bacteremia. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 1993. 4:24-29. ...
Staphylococcus aureusis a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. The annual incidence ofS. ... The annual incidence of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) in the United States is 38.2 to 45.7 per 100,000 person-years [1,2]; ... Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. *Susceptibility to infections in persons with ... Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults. Authors. Thomas Holland, MD. Thomas Holland, MD ...
Elective sclerotherapy for esophageal varices produces bacteremia in 4% to 53% of patients. The clinical importance of this ... Bacteremia appears to be an infrequent and transient event after elective sclerotherapy. Only patients with prosthetic heart ... Camara DS (1986) Bacteremia and injection sclerotherapy. Arch Intern Med 146: 458-459Google Scholar ... Snady H, Korsten MA, Waye JD (1985) The relationship of bacteremia to the length of injection needle in endoscopic variceal ...
... , Fever Without Focus, Fever Without Source, Occult Bacteremia, Streptococcal Bacteremia, Serious ... Bacteremia in Children. Bacteremia in Children Aka: Bacteremia in Children, Fever Without Focus, Fever Without Source, Occult ... Associated Conditions: Occult Bacteremia underlying causes * Risk Factors: High risk conditions for Occult Bacteremia ... Associated Conditions: Occult Bacteremia underlying causes * Risk Factors: High risk conditions for Occult Bacteremia ...
Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending ... aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB ... aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB ...
Reviews and ratings for Amikin when used in the treatment of bacteremia. Share your experience with this medication by writing ... Learn more about Bacteremia. IBM Watson Micromedex. *Bacteremia. ICD-10 CM Clinical Codes (External). *Look up ICD10 codes for ... User Reviews for Amikin to treat Bacteremia. The following information is NOT intended to endorse any particular medication. ...
... Ashish Kataria and Alan S. Multz ...
To view the table of contents and know more details please visit Bacteremia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2013 ... Reportstack has announced a new market research publication on Bacteremia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2013 which ... of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating Bacteremia. This ... provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Bacteremia. It includes an overview of the trial ...
Criteria for uncomplicated bacteremia5. Patients have uncomplicated bacteremia if they satisfy all of the following:. *. ... About 10%-20% of patients with S. aureus bacteremia have infective endocarditis.4 All patients with S. aureus bacteremia should ... Infectious disease consultation for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia - a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect 2016;72: ... Expert consultation is suggested for all patients with S. aureus bacteremia. *Initial antibiotic therapy for S. aureus ...
While a direct comparison of the GABHS bacteremia incidence rate in Denver for 1989 and for previous years is not possible ... The descriptive epidemiology of GABHS bacteremia in the Denver patients is similar to that in previous reports (9,10). Even ... Factors contributing to the apparent recent increase in GABHS bacteremia are unclear. No single serotype, to suggest a common ... Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia -- Colorado, 1989 From January through August ...
ICD-9 790.7 MeSH D016470 Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English) is the presence ... Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. The blood is normally a sterile ... Bacteremia is different to sepsis (so-called blood poisoning or toxemia), which is a condition where bacteremia is associated ... Bacteremia is most commonly diagnosed by blood culture, in which a sample of blood is allowed to incubate with a medium that ...
Blood cultures are used in diagnosis and antibiotics are used to treat bacteremia. ... Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the bloodstream. ... What are the Causes of Bacteremia?. Based on an analysis of bacteremia cases, it has been observed that bacteremia is a result ... How Do You Diagnose Bacteremia?. It is not easy to diagnose bacteremia. Having said this, the diagnosis of bacteremia is based ...
When bacteremia develops into septic shock there are no differences in outcomes based on the gram stain of the pathogen in the ... During intermittent fever spikes, the bacteremia is most prominent 0.5 hours before the spike, and blood taken at this time is ...
... putrefaciens bacteremia have ever been reported in the literature. In this retrospective study we describe 28 cases of S. ... Bacteremia / complications*. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / complications*. Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods / ... Polymicrobial bacteremia was seen in 18 cases. Three syndromes of bacteremic infection with S. putrefaciens appear to exist: ... In this retrospective study we describe 28 cases of S. putrefaciens bacteremia: 16 in premature and 1-day-old neonates, 9 in ...
... and healthcare-associated bacteremia.S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with ... Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Management and outcome. *Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with reduced ... Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both community- and healthcare-associated bacteremia. S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is ... Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Epidemiology and clinical features. Authors. Vance G Fowler, Jr, MD. Vance G ...
Pneumococcal bacteraemia in mother and son. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 287 :529 ... Pneumococcal bacteraemia in mother and son.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 287 doi: ( ...
... quintana and did not have bacteremia; 8 of the 10 patients with bacteremia were afebrile. Five patients had chronic bacteremia ... Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 21;340(3):184-9. doi: 10.1056/ ... An outbreak of bacteremia due to B. quintana has been reported among homeless people in Seattle, and the seroprevalence is high ... The homeless people with B. quintana bacteremia were more likely to have been exposed to lice (P=0.002), were more likely to ...
Catheter-related bacteremia-free survival was significantly greater with minocycline-EDTA, and the two groups had similar rates ... Catheter-related bacteremia represents a major source of morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. For example, one ... A catheter-lock solution of minocycline and EDTA led to a catheter-related bacteremia rate of 1 per 1,000 catheter days, a ... The minocycline-EDTA arm had a 90-day catheter-related bacteremia survival of 91.3% compared with 69.3% in the heparin group. ...
Bacteremia and pneumonia are connected because pneumonia is a major cause of bacteremia. Although bacteremia and pneumonia are ... The primary connection between bacteremia and pneumonia is the fact that pneumonia is a major cause of bacteremia. This is ... Bacteremia and pneumonia are linked because if pneumonia gets out of hand, it can lead to a more serious infection of the blood ... Bacteremia usually does not take place unless the infection of the lungs grows out of control. This can be prevented with ...
Bacteremia, Sepsis Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and location information here. ... bacteremia, sepsis, or other invasive pneumococcal disease ... meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, or other invasive pneumococcal ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia rarely occurs in non-immunocompromised adults and can be difficult to be treated. We report a ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia rarely occurs in non-immunocompromised adults and can be difficult to be treated. We report a ... A. Heydari and M. Mojtabavi, "Bacteremia with Cutaneous Nodules, Due to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa," Advances in Infectious ...
Bacteraemia - A condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream; may occur after minor surgery or infection and may ... Medical Word - Bacteraemia. Ans : A condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream; may occur after minor surgery ... Bacteraemia - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ...
Bacteremia and septicemia occur when the persistent presence of bacterial organisms in a cats bloodstream becomes systemic, ... Sepsis and bacteremia in cats may develop slowly or suddenly. *Signs and symptoms may vary, or they may involve many different ... Bacteremia and septicemia occur when the persistent presence of bacterial organisms in a cats bloodstream becomes systemic, ... There are several signs and symptoms of both septicemia (blood infection) and bacteremia in cats. Remember that septicemia and ...
  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with substantial mortality and complications, including endocarditis and metastatic infection requiring specific investigations and treatment. (
  • 12 patients had presenting manifestations consistent with bacteremia or sepsis (primarily fever, chills, rigors, and a focus of infection). (
  • Two of the seven without identified sources of infection developed GABHS bacteremia following major trauma in motor vehicle crashes. (
  • Some patients with prosthetic heath valves however need antibiotic cover for dental surgery because the bacteremia might lead to endocarditis ( infection of the interior lining of the heart ). (
  • Intravascular infections (e.g. thrombus infection, aneurysm ), infective endocarditis (heart valve infections), and systemic bacterial infections (e.g. typhoid) are examples of persistent bacteremia. (
  • Secondary bacteremia occurs secondary to infection in other sites (e.g. skin and soft tissues), pneumonia , and infection in wounds. (
  • The effectiveness of the body s immune system determines the severity of the bacteremia infection. (
  • A total of 17 patients (24 percent) had evidence of recent infection (bacteremia or seroconversion). (
  • Bacteremia and pneumonia are linked because if pneumonia gets out of hand, it can lead to a more serious infection of the blood, also known as bacteremia. (
  • Bacteremia and pneumonia only occur together when the lung infection is caused by bacteria. (
  • Bacteremia usually does not take place unless the infection of the lungs grows out of control. (
  • There are several signs and symptoms of both septicemia (blood infection) and bacteremia in cats. (
  • Although patients with VRE bacteremia demonstrated higher mortality rates than patients with infection due to susceptible isolates, vancomycin resistance was not an independent predictor of mortality in these patients and likely serves more as a marker of underlying severity of illness. (
  • Bacteremia is a bacterial infection that has spread to the bloodstream. (
  • Bacteremia often starts with an infection in 1 area (local), but it then spreads to the blood. (
  • Almost any type of infection can cause bacteremia. (
  • Gram-negative bacteremia secondary to infection usually originates in the GU or GI tract or in the skin of patients with decubitus ulcers. (
  • If an infection in the abdomen causes bacteremia, the organism is most likely a gram-negative bacillus. (
  • If an infection above the diaphragm causes bacteremia, the organism is most likely gram-positive. (
  • Transient or sustained bacteremia can cause metastatic infection of the meninges or serous cavities, such as the pericardium or larger joints. (
  • Sustained bacteremia may cause metastatic focal infection or sepsis. (
  • Bacteremia is often transient and of no consequence, but sustained bacteremia may cause metastatic focal infection or sepsis. (
  • A staphylococcal blood stream infection carries a high risk of endocarditis and 12-15% of patients can develop bacteraemia after the removal of a colonised CVC (Munoz et al. (
  • aureus bacteraemia is a serious infection with significant associated mortality. (
  • hypothesized that in cases of S. aureus bacteremia, a score based on patient level factors and MRSA colonization could predict the risk of MRSA infection and inform the need for empiric coverage. (
  • The researchers conclude that in an era of community-acquired MRSA, colonization status appears to be the only independent and reliable predictor of MRSA infection in cases of S. aureus bacteremia. (
  • This organism has not previously been reported as a cause of intra-abdominal infection and this is only the eighth reported case of bacteremia. (
  • Bacteremia, viremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection ). (
  • Lessons learnt Dialysis specific surveillance of bacteraemia is critical to infection control in dialysis units and improving quality of care. (
  • Septicemia and bacteremia in dogs happen when a bacterial infection in the bloodstream causes inflammation and illness in the body. (
  • Although the terms are sometimes used to describe the same thing, bacteremia refers to the bloodstream infection, while septicemia, also known as sepsis or blood poisoning, refers to the illness caused by the inflammatory response to the bacterial infection. (
  • Bacteremia is fairly common, but most healthy dogs' immune systems are able to fight off the infection before symptoms can develop. (
  • Madrid, Spain: A seven-day course of antibiotic treatment for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a serious infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream, was shown to offer similar patient outcomes as a 14-day course, according to research presented at the 28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) [1]. (
  • Bacillus cereus is a gram positive microorganism commonly involved in gastrointestinal infection but capable of causing severe infections and bacteremia. (
  • To further investigate the possibility that IL-10 could help with pathogen control at times of high bacteremia, we studied Bt2 infection in RAG2 −/− mice with or without IL-10 deficiency. (
  • Clinical cure: complete resolution of infection symptoms (bacteremia) present at the day on which the assessment is done and patient is alive. (
  • The duration of overall antibiotic treatment and the duration of intravenous treatment will be determined according to clinical criteria depending on status (complicated or uncomplicated bacteremia, source of infection) by responsible clinician according with current guidelines. (
  • For commentary on this data, see MRSA, MSSA and Gram-negative bacteraemia and C. difficile infection: annual epidemiological commentary . (
  • The subsequent findings of this study have massive implications for the current clinical regimes implemented during complex S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly antibiotic treatment choices, and potentially for other cases of bacterial infection where persistence is frequently observed. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. (
  • The 30-day all-cause mortality of S. aureus bacteremia is 20 percent [ 4-6 ]. (
  • See 'Clinical approach to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults' . (
  • In observational and quasi-experimental studies, consultation with infectious disease specialists improved the quality of care in patients with S. aureus bacteremia, including early source control, follow-up blood culture, echocardiography, and appropriate choice and duration of antibiotic therapy. (
  • About 10%-20% of patients with S. aureus bacteremia have infective endocarditis. (
  • 4 All patients with S. aureus bacteremia should undergo echocardiography, because the presence of endocarditis has therapeutic and diagnostic implications including consideration for surgery. (
  • According to consensus guidelines, patients with uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia ( Box 1 ) may be treated with 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy. (
  • S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate therapy. (
  • See 'Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Management and outcome' . (
  • A clinical prediction rule aids in identifying patients with bacteremia from staphylococcus aureus who might develop bacterial endocarditis . (
  • 2011). "Use of a Simple Criteria Set for Guiding Echocardiography in Nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia" . (
  • For patients who were infected with Staphylococcus aureus or with nonenteric Gram-negative rods, delayed removal of the central catheter was associated with complicated bacteremia. (
  • Polyclonal, coagulase-negative staphylococci are common contaminants of blood cultures (1), but polyclonal, coagulase-positive staphylococci ( Staphylococcus aureus ) have yet to be unambiguously identified as a cause of bacteremia. (
  • To describe a patient with simultaneous and persistent bacteremia from 2 strains of S aureus . (
  • Ceftaroline was an effective option for salvage treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia , a literature review in the Annals of Pharmacotherapy has found. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO - Daptomycin plus fosfomycin is more effective than daptomycin alone for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, according to a multicenter, randomized trial from Spain. (
  • What are the trends in patient outcome for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB)? (
  • Association of evidence-based care processes with mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at Veterans Health Administration hospitals, 2003-2014. (
  • To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia after liver transplantation and investigate the drug resistance of S. aureus to frequently used antibiotics to provide evidence for clinical prevention and therapy. (
  • Twenty of 275 (7.3%) liver recipients developed S. aureus bacteremia during the study period. (
  • The median time to the onset of S. aureus bacteremias was 6 days after liver transplantation and all episodes of bacteremias were early onset. (
  • A total of nine (45%) liver recipients died due to S. aureus bacteremias. (
  • Pneumonia as a predominant primary source, a high body temperature, abnormal blood pressure, and decreased platelets, which occurred in the early period after liver transplantation, as well as high morbidity and mortality, were the main characteristics of S. aureus bacteremias. (
  • Background: Despite management improvement in lasts years, S.aureus bacteremia leads to high morbidity and mortality. (
  • For over 50 years, methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) bacteremia standard treatment was cloxacillin. (
  • YONKERS, N.Y., Jan. 07, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- ContraFect Corporation (Nasdaq:CFRX) , a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of protein and antibody therapeutics for life-threatening, drug-resistant infectious diseases, today announced positive topline results from its Phase 2 clinical trial of exebacase (CF-301) for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus) bacteremia including endocarditis. (
  • These data support progression to Phase 3 and the potential to provide superior clinical responder rates for Staph aureus bacteremia including right-sided endocarditis. (
  • Hurley's contention is that hospital length of stay before bacteraemia (LOS) is a surrogate for severity of underlying disease and risk for colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and that these factors explain the higher mortality in patients with MRSA. (
  • 1 They reported a meta-analysis of crude estimates and relative risk of death derived from nine published studies for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. (
  • They concluded that bacteraemia caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is associated with a "real increase in risk of death" compared with bacteraemia caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with a relative risk of 2.12. (
  • This report presents national information on cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) associated with care provided by public hospitals for the period 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2013. (
  • Blood stream infections or bacteraemia caused by S. aureus are further complicated by the phenomenon of bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to the administered antibiotics. (
  • Bacteremia ( Bacteræmia in British English) is the presence of bacteria in the blood . (
  • In the hospital, indwelling catheters are a frequent cause of bacteremia and subsequent nosocomial infections, because they provide a means by which bacteria normally found on the skin can enter the bloodstream. (
  • Bacteremia is typically transient rather than continuous, due to a vigorous immune system response when bacteria are detected in the blood. (
  • As the name suggests, bacteremia is a condition where viable bacteria are present in the bloodstream of an individual. (
  • The physical location, age and health of the individual, the surrounding environment, and the type of bacteria involved, influence how bacteremia is caused. (
  • Gram negative bacteria are more commonly implicated in community acquired bacteremia. (
  • The causes for sepsis and bacteremia in cats are typically caused by pathogens, including gram negative bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae , and salmonella . (
  • Bacteremia ( Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia ) is the presence of bacteria in the blood . (
  • A kind of bacteremia where bacteria is always in the blood. (
  • Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. (
  • Bacteria load of VRE bacteremia will be measured via established real-time PCR. (
  • The outcome and the association of bacteria load of VRE bacteremia will be analyzed. (
  • The term "bacteremia" was compounded from "bacteria" and "-emia" (in the blood). (
  • and for my biology experiment, I am investigating which commonly used and widely available antibiotic can provide maximum protection against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria commonly responsible for bacteremia in humans. (
  • Among a cohort of patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia who underwent echocardiography, more than one-quarter had infective endocarditis, according to data published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . (
  • Bacteremia may cause metastatic infections, including endocarditis, especially in patients with valvular heart abnormalities. (
  • Bacteremia may cause endocarditis , most commonly with enterococcal, streptococcal, or staphylococcal bacteremia and less commonly with gram-negative bacteremia or fungemia. (
  • Enterococcal bacteremia can be complicated by infective endocarditis (IE) and when suspected, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) should be performed. (
  • Ralph Corey, M.D., Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University, remarked, "The strong response rates of exebacase used in addition to antibiotics in patients with bacteremia/right sided endocarditis and the MRSA subgroup are clinically meaningful. (
  • The primary connection between bacteremia and pneumonia is the fact that pneumonia is a major cause of bacteremia. (
  • We describe the isolation of Streptomyces bikiniensis from multiple blood cultures in a single patient over the course of 1 week, further illustrating that Streptomyces is pathogenic and a cause of bacteremia even in the absence of overt clinical symptoms and risk factors. (
  • The Colorado Department of Health was notified of this increase, and in August, the department reviewed these patients' medical charts to describe GABHS bacteremia cases and to determine whether they represented community-acquired disease, nosocomial acquisition, or laboratory artifact. (
  • bacteremia was nosocomial for 7 patients and polymicrobial for 5. (
  • Enterococcus spp is the third most frequent cause of hospital-acquired bacteremia, accounting for 8% of all nosocomial bacteremias in the United States (1). (
  • Note that catheter-related bacteremia remains a serious problem in hemodialysis patients and is a barrier to long-term catheter use as well as a cause of morbidity and mortality. (
  • It is important to point out that a reduction in episodes of catheter-related bacteremia implies less hospitalization, less cost, less morbidity, and less mortality," they added. (
  • Catheter-related bacteremia represents a major source of morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. (
  • To identify risk factors for vancomycin resistance and mortality in enterococcal bacteremia. (
  • Reported mortality rates for patients with GGS bacteremia also vary, ranging from 5% to 30% (1-3). (
  • 3,4) In our previous studies which evaluated the outcome of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia in a group of patients with several immunocompromised conditions including haematological malignancies, we were not able to show the impact of MDR on mortality. (
  • Problem Bacteraemia in dialysis units accounts for major morbidity, mortality, and antibiotic usage. (
  • The current standard for MRSA bacteremia is daptomycin ( Cubicin ) or vancomycin ( Vancocin ) monotherapy on both sides of the Atlantic, but mortality rates are way too high, more than 30% in some reviews. (
  • Relationship between time to positivity of blood culture with clinical characteristics and hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. (
  • Enterococcus spp bacteremia is associated with high mortality and the appearance of high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) created additional challenges for the treatment of these infections. (
  • E. faecalis bacteremia is associated with high mortality and is frequently caused by HLGR isolates at this teaching hospital. (
  • Enterococcal bacteremia is associated with high mortality, which is even further increased when caused by HLGR strains compared with those caused by non_HLGR strains (3-5). (
  • The results showed that IL-10 deficiency resulted in significantly higher bacteremia, higher TNF levels, and early mortality. (
  • Bacteremia leading to sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, with an annual incidence of an estimated 750,000 patients in the United States ( 1 ). (
  • Logistic regression models were performed to identify the risk factors for predicting bacteremia and log-rank analysis were performed to compare with the 30 day mortality between the patients with and without bacteremia. (
  • The Patients with pneumococcal bacteremia had greater 30-day mortality (14.3%) than without bacteremia (2.9%) (p= 0.002). (
  • The changing epidemiology of bacteremia in neutropenic children with cancer. (
  • Bou-Antoun Sabine , Davies John , Guy Rebecca , Johnson Alan P , Sheridan Elizabeth A , Hope Russell J . Descriptive epidemiology of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England, April 2012 to March 2014. (
  • Real-time PCR has been demonstrate good performance in early detection of bacteremia, and theoretically is less affected by antimicrobial usage. (
  • Update on detection of bacteremia and fungemia. (
  • An automated radiometric system (BACTEC, Johnston Laboratories) for detection of bacteremia was evaluated in parallel with a standard blood culture system in use in our laboratory. (
  • The prompt and accurate detection of bacteremia and fungemia is one of the most important functions of clinical microbiology laboratories. (
  • Point out that this study demonstrates that using minocycline-EDTA as a catheter-lock solution was superior to unfractionated heparin in prevention of catheter-related bacteremia during a 90-day period in nontunneled catheters. (
  • The analysis also showed that patients with nontunneled catheters had a significantly higher bacteremia-free survival with the minocycline-EDTA lock (HR 0.25, P =0.01). (
  • Staphylococcal bacteremia is common among injection drug users and patients with IV catheters. (
  • The most common diagnosis was cellulitis (48 cases), followed by primary bacteremia (34 cases). (
  • All 3 patients who died had a diagnosis of the primary bacteremia caused by S. dysgalactiae subsp, equisimilis. (
  • A catheter-lock solution of minocycline and EDTA led to a catheter-related bacteremia rate of 1 per 1,000 catheter days, a three-fold decrease compared with use of a heparin lock. (
  • Catheter-related bacteremia-free survival was significantly greater with minocycline-EDTA, and the two groups had similar rates of catheter removal for dysfunction, as reported online in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology . (
  • Studies of antimicrobial catheter locks demonstrated significant reductions in catheter-related bacteremia. (
  • However, no consensus exists about routine use of antimicrobial catheter-lock solutions to prevent catheter-related bacteremia. (
  • A primary concern relates to the potential promotion of bacterial resistance by use of antibiotics that are routinely used to treat catheter-related bacteremia. (
  • When the study ended, 19 patients in the heparin group had episodes of catheter-related bacteremia (4.3 per 1,000 catheter-days) as compared with five patients in the minocycline-EDTA group (1.1 per 1,000 catheter days, P =0.005). (
  • The minocycline-EDTA arm had a 90-day catheter-related bacteremia survival of 91.3% compared with 69.3% in the heparin group. (
  • recently reported in this journal a case of catheter-related bacteremia attributed to Streptomyces in a patient receiving holistic infusions ( 1 ). (
  • Intra-dialytic instillation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be associated with increased catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). (
  • Factors associated with IE were studied retrospectively in a population-based cohort of patients with monomicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia (MEFsB). (
  • We therefore aimed to improve the NOVA score using easy accessible clinical parameters in a population-based cohort of patients with monomicrobial E. faecalis bacteremia (MEFsB) from southern Sweden and to externally validate the NOVA score and the improved score in another cohort of patients from a tertiary referral center in another part of Sweden. (
  • We identified 145 cases of E. faecalis bacteremia: 66 (45.5%) were caused by HLGR isolates and 79 (54.5%) by non_HLGR. (
  • Patients with E. faecalis bacteremia were identified through a review of blood-culture records at the hospital microbiology laboratory. (
  • In accordance with current guidelines, E. faecalis bacteremia was defined as at least one positive blood culture for this pathogen (9). (
  • Two hundred sixty patients with enterococcal bacteremia, of whom 72 (28%) had VRE. (
  • The previously published NOVA score can identify patients with enterococcal bacteremia at risk for IE and we aimed to improve the score. (
  • Peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization for hospital-acquired enterococcal bacteremia: delivering earlier effective antimicrobial therapy. (
  • How are hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia monitored? (
  • In hospitalized patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, follow-up blood cultures should be obtained until culture results are negative. (
  • A quantitative analysis of the interactions of antipneumococcal antibody and complement in experimental pneumococcal bacteremia. (
  • The mechanism of protection of type-specific antipneumococcal antibody and complement in bacteremia was investigated with purified rabbit antibody and a guinea pig model of pneumococcal bacteremia. (
  • A total of 402 patients were diagnosed pneumococcal pneumonia by sputum culture or urine antigen test and 49 patients were pneumococcal bacteremia. (
  • Early treatment of bacteremia with an appropriate antimicrobial regimen appears to improve survival. (
  • The Antimicrobial Stewardship Team at UW Health in Madison, Wisconsin, has provided the following bacteremias and sepsis information. (
  • We determined the incidence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility associated with Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England over a 24 month period. (
  • Bacteremia appears to be an infrequent and transient event after elective sclerotherapy. (
  • Camara DS, Gruber M, Barde CJ, Montes M, Caruana JA, Chung RS (1983) Transient bacteremia following endoscopic injection sclerotherapy of esophageal varices. (
  • Blood cultures must be repeated at intervals to determine if persistent - rather than transient - bacteremia is present. (
  • Transient bacteremia is often asymptomatic but may cause fever. (
  • Bacteremia may be transient and cause no sequelae, or it may have metastatic or systemic consequences. (
  • Of 108 boys with urinary tract infections, 37 (34.3%) had concomitant bacteremia (virtually all were due to Escherichia coli ). (
  • Editorial Note: During the last half century, the incidence of severe infections with group A Streptococcus (including bacteremia, puerperal sepsis, and scarlet fever) and nonsuppurative sequelae (such as rheumatic fever) has decreased markedly in the United States. (
  • Other causes of bacteremia include dental procedures (occasionally including simple tooth brushing), herpes (including herpetic whitlow), urinary tract infections , intravenous drug use, and colorectal cancer . (
  • Bacteremia is the principal means by which local infections are spread to distant organs (referred to as hematogenous spread ). (
  • Bacteremia can result either from surgical procedures, such as dental surgeries, or activities like brushing teeth, or due to infections. (
  • Gram-negative bacteremia occurs most often due to infections reaching the bloodstream from respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract and liver and biliary tree infections. (
  • Bacteroides bacteremia may develop in patients with infections of the abdomen and the pelvis, particularly the female genital tract. (
  • Central line associated bacteraemia (CLAB) has emerged as the unified term to describe these infections. (
  • The hospital has achieved large reductions in healthcare associated infections in recent years, including reporting only one case of healthcare associated MRSA bloodstream bacteraemia in two years and managing to come under its C diff targets for the 2011/12 financial year. (
  • Since Enterococcus spp is the second most common cause of Gram-positive blood stream infections in Brazil and that approximately 76% of all enterococcal infections are due to Enterococcus faecalis , we evaluated cases of bacteremia caused by this organism at the teaching hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, São Paulo State (8). (
  • Mice deficient in B cells develop persistent high-level bacteremia ( 6 - 11 ) and therefore are a model that can be used to characterize many aspects that influence the host response in infections with a high pathogen load in the blood. (
  • What Is the Connection between Bacteremia and Pneumonia? (
  • Treatment of bacteremia and pneumonia usually involves the use of powerful antibiotic medications. (
  • Bacteremia and pneumonia can both be fatal if not caught and treated early. (
  • Risk factors for predicting bacteremia in community acquired pneumococcal pneumonia are unclear. (
  • The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for predicting bacteremia in pneumococcal pneumonia. (
  • Age, albumin, creatinine, CRP were risk factors of bacteremia in pneumococcal pneumonia, which is related to poor outcomes. (
  • This study was undertaken to re-assess the incidence and clinical relevance of post-sclerotherapy bacteremia. (
  • While a direct comparison of the GABHS bacteremia incidence rate in Denver for 1989 and for previous years is not possible because of incomplete laboratory records, the 1989 rate is more than double the most recent population-based estimate of three cases per 100,000 persons per year from Charleston County, South Carolina (1985-1987) (CDC, unpublished data). (
  • Interventions to reduce the incidence of E. coli bacteraemia will have to target the community setting and UTIs if substantial reductions are to be realised. (
  • Aim: to demonstrate the efficacy of the cloxacillin and fosfomycin combination administered during the first week of treatment, compared with cloxacillin monotherapy in patients with MSSA bacteremia in treatment success. (
  • Adult patients with MSSA bacteremia will be randomized to Combination therapy group: patients will receive intravenous cloxacillin 2g/4h and fosfomycin 3 g/6h for the duration of 7 days treatment, or Standard therapy group: patients will receive intravenous cloxacillin 2g/4h for the duration of 7 days IV treatment. (
  • Discussion: Randomized studies assessing efficacy of different treatment in MSSA bacteremia are lacking. (
  • This study could help to improve knowledge about MSSA bacteremia and whether combined treatment with cloxacillin and fosfomycin could improve outcomes compared with standard treatment. (
  • SAFO trial is a multicentre, superiority, open-label, randomized, phase IV-III, two-armed parallel (1:1) groups clinical trial comparing combination treatment with fosfomycin and cloxacillin with standard therapy with cloxacillin in adult patients with MSSA bacteremia. (
  • The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features of the author's cases of E. Lenta bacteraemia, and further define their microbiological characteristics using modern microbiological techniques. (
  • In this article, we report the largest cohort of patients with E. lenta bacteremia to date and describe in detail their clinical features, microbiologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. (
  • Their lab work showed that daptomycin and fosfomycin ( Monurol ) were synergistic and rapidly bactericidal against MRSA, and anecdotal experience in Spain suggested the drugs improved bacteremia outcomes, so they decided to put the combination to the test. (
  • Patient with complicated bacteremia will receive at least 4-6 week of antibiotic treatment. (
  • We describe here a case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a previously healthy young woman admitted to the intensive care unit following emergency surgery due to a penetrating abdominal stab wound and subsequent hepatic lesion. (
  • In the 41 patients in whom varices were injected, positive cultures were obtained 5 min after sclerotherapy in only 4 patients (10%) and all but 1 patient had other possible causes of bacteremia. (
  • What are the Causes of Bacteremia? (
  • Septicemia is an ill-defined non-scientific term introducing more confusion between sepsis and bacteremia: it suggests that there is something the bloodstream causing sepsis. (
  • Remember that septicemia and bacteremia are not the same thing, although they are similar, and are often used interchangeably. (
  • Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for septicemia and bacteremia in dogs. (
  • The symptoms of septicemia and bacteremia in dogs can appear suddenly or develop slowly over time. (
  • If you see the following signs of septicemia and bacteremia in your dog, get to your veterinarian right away. (
  • Treatment for septicemia and bacteremia in dogs often begins with emergency support, as septicemia can easily be fatal. (
  • The patient's symptoms and laboratory results were consistent with bacteremia as well. (
  • A retrospective cohort study of all neonates who had central venous access and developed bacteremia between July 1, 1995, and July 31, 1999, was conducted in the Duke University neonatal intensive care unit. (
  • Bacteremia is different to sepsis (so-called blood poisoning or toxemia), which is a condition where bacteremia is associated with an inflammatory response from the body (causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome , characterised by rapid breathing , low blood pressure , fever , etc. (
  • Bacteremia is most commonly diagnosed by blood culture , in which a sample of blood is allowed to incubate with a medium that promotes bacterial growth. (
  • Five patients had chronic bacteremia, as indicated by positive blood cultures over a period of several weeks. (
  • Follow-up Blood Cultures in Gram-Negative Bacteremia: Are They Needed? (
  • Recurrence of bacteremia was defined as repeated positive blood culture after complete treatment (at least 14 days) of previous bacteremia. (
  • The lab tests will include blood cultures to check for bacteremia. (
  • Kathleen MacPhee, director of R&D at Pathobiotek: "We developed techniques that allow us to detect continuous bacteremia in the blood of healthy individuals. (
  • If bacteremia, sepsis, or septic shock is suspected, cultures of blood and any other appropriate specimens are obtained. (
  • According to study findings, repeating blood cultures in hospitalized patients with gram-negative (GN) bacteremia may result in which of the following clinical benefits? (
  • Bacteremia is diagnosed by growing organisms from a blood sample and treatment is with antibiotic s. (
  • Bacteremia is analogous to viremia (the presence of a virus in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood ). (
  • Of 1,445 blood cultures from 484 patients with possible bacteremia, 106 sets of cultures (excluding 39 presumed contaminated), representing 56 patients, were positive by both methods. (
  • If bacteremia or fungemia is suspected, 2 sets of blood cultures should be drawn from separate venipuncture sites in adults (1 to 2 sets for children). (
  • During relapsing fever borreliosis, a high pathogen load in the blood occurs at times of peak bacteremia. (
  • RF spirochetes remain predominantly localized in the blood, where they cause recurrent episodes of high-level bacteremia. (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia rarely occurs in non-immunocompromised adults and can be difficult to be treated. (
  • Fatores prognósticos em bacteremias por Streptococcus pneumoniae em pacientes com. (
  • The case involved an infant who was initially treated for early-onset, penicillin-sensitive, clindamycin-intermediate group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) bacteremia shortly after birth. (
  • There were just three cases of MRSA bacteraemia during 2006, two less than in 2005, a 40% reduction. (
  • This study aimed to answer these two clinically relevant, biological questions by characterising multiple persistent and resolved MRSA bacteraemia isolates with the view to identifying persistent isolate associated phenotypic and genotypic traits, and novel mechanism(s) for persistence development. (
  • This study is the first of its kind to investigate multiple persistent MRSA bacteraemia inclusive of numerous temporally spaced infective isolates, in parallel with contemporaneous resolved bacteraemia isolates of the same genetic background. (
  • Kuppermann N. Occult bacteremia in young febrile children. (
  • see Occult Bacteremia and Fever Without Apparent Source in Infants and Young Children . (
  • Selective digestive decontamination reduces bacteremia follo. (
  • Previously, we showed that B cell-deficient mice persistently infected with Borrelia turicatae produce high levels of IL-10 and that exogenous IL-10 reduces bacteremia. (
  • Multiple abscess formation is especially common with staphylococcal bacteremia. (
  • They may also develop bacteremia with gram-positive cocci and anaerobes, and are at risk of fungemia. (
  • PFGE performed with all 13 available isolates from recurrent cases showed that 10 were identical to that of the initial episode, including 1 in a patient with recurrence of S. canis bacteremia. (
  • We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremias caused by HLGR and non_HLGR Enterococcus faecalis isolates at a teaching hospital in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. (
  • During the last 2 decades, Gram-negative rod bacteremia has become the leading infectious disease problem in American hospitals. (
  • In Finland, 90 Lactobacillus bacteremia cases were reported to the National Infectious Disease Register maintained by National Public Health Institute, during 1995-2000. (
  • Septic shock develops in 25 to 40% of patients with significant bacteremia. (
  • Pyogenic hepatic abscess and septic pulmonary emboli associated with Klebsiella ozaenae bacteremia. (
  • We have reported a case of cryptogenic liver abscess with bacteremia and septic pulmonary emboli due to Klebsiella ozaenae. (
  • Citrobacter koseri bacteraemia complicated by paraspinal abscess and spondylodiscitis--a case report. (
  • We report a remarkable case of Citrobacter koseri bacteraemia complicated by paraspinal abscess and spondylodiscitis in a patient who has successfully been treated in our hospital. (
  • The central venous catheter was removed, and the patient received vancomycin intravenously for 6 weeks, without recurrence of Streptomyces bacteremia. (
  • In this retrospective study we describe 28 cases of S. putrefaciens bacteremia: 16 in premature and 1-day-old neonates, 9 in adults, and 3 in children younger than 1 year of age. (
  • Objective To describe clinical and laboratory data for, and to propose pathogenesis and management of, children from impoverished communities with Campylobacter bacteremia. (
  • Retrospective surveys of this and 17 other metropolitan Denver hospital microbiology laboratories identified 73 cases of GABHS bacteremia between January and August--a rate of seven cases per 100,000 per year in the general population of the Denver metropolitan area. (
  • Polymicrobial bacteremia was seen in 18 cases. (
  • Clinicians should be aware of this complication and consider strongyloides hyperinfection in every patient with HIV that presents with polymicrobial bacteremia. (
  • A third patient developed GABHS bacteremia following elective laser hemorrhoidectomy. (
  • The investigators will prospective enroll patient with VRE bacteremia. (
  • Rates of E. coli bacteraemia varied with patient age and sex, with 70.5% (46,883/66,512) of cases seen in patients aged ≥ 65 years and 52.4% (33,969/64,846) of cases in females. (
  • In addition, during 1989, CDC received an increased number of reports of GABHS bacteremia from other areas in the United States and serotyped strains from several Scandinavian countries that have increased rates of GABHS bacteremia. (
  • Which Klebsiella pathogen may cause neonatal bacteremia? (
  • K oxytoca has been implicated in neonatal bacteremia, especially among premature infants and in neonatal intensive care units. (
  • We did not include cases of neonatal bacteremia that could not be attributed to either condition. (