The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A genus of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Fusobacteriaceae. Some species cause BACTEREMIA and some intra-amniotic infections.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is found in domestic and wild animals including birds, and fish. In humans it causes GASTROENTERITIS in young children and some adults.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/3917)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review. (2/3917)

The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised.  (+info)

Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii: a case-control study of adult burn patients. (3/3917)

Risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI) were studied in patients with severe thermal injury in a burn intensive care unit where A. baumannii was endemic. Of 367 patients hospitalized for severe thermal injury during the study period, 29 patients with nosocomial A. baumannii BSI were identified (attack rate, 7.9%). Cases were compared with 58 matched controls without A. baumannii BSI. The overall mortality rate was 31% among cases and 14% among controls; only two deaths (7%) were considered directly related to A. baumannii BSI. Molecular typing of A. baumannii blood isolates by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three different strain types. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (P = .027), total body surface area burn of > 50% (P = .016), prior nosocomial colonization with A. baumannii at a distant site (P = .0002), and use of hydrotherapy (P = .037) were independently associated with the acquisition of A. baumannii BSI in burn patients. These data underscore the need for effective infection control measures for this emerging nosocomial problem.  (+info)

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (4/3917)

Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (5/3917)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

Bartonella alsatica sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rabbits. (6/3917)

Bartonella species are considered as emerging human pathogens, with at least six different species pathogenic or possibly pathogenic for humans. However, little is known about Bartonella distribution, species polymorphism and pathogenicity in mammalian species. The objective of this work was to determine the presence, the frequency and the distribution of Bartonella species in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caught in warrens in Alsace, France. Humans may come into contact with wild rabbits when hunting, especially when they are picked up with bare hands and at time of evisceration. Of 30 blood samples collected and cultured from wild rabbits, nine (30%) were positive for organisms morphologically similar to Bartonella spp. The bacteria appeared as small, fastidious, aerobic, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods which could be localized within erythrocytes. Their biochemical properties were similar to those of the genus Bartonella. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from the rabbit isolates was highly related to the sequences of the different Bartonella species (97.8-99.3% similarity). The high DNA hybridization rate (81-90% similarity) between the three strains isolated from rabbit blood confirmed that they belong to the same bacterial species. Hybridization values, obtained with the nuclease-TCA method, when testing type strains of recognized Bartonella species (9-14% similarity), support the creation of a new species for the rabbit isolates. The name Bartonella alsatica is proposed for these strains isolated from the blood of wild rabbits. The type strain is IBS 382T (= CIP 105477T).  (+info)

Central venous catheter exchange by guidewire for treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. (7/3917)

Current guidelines for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) advise against central venous catheter (CVC) exchange because of the potential risk of prolonging infection. However, there are no consistent data proving this recommendation. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of CVC exchange by guidewire for the treatment of CRB in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. CVC exchange was considered when fever and positive blood cultures persisted after 2 days of adequate antimicrobial therapy and no potential source of bacteraemia other than CVC could be identified. The guidewire exchange was preceded and followed by a slow infusion of adequate antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia was confirmed as catheter-related by demonstrating concordance between isolates from the tip and blood cultures by pulsed-field electrophoresis of genomic DNA. This procedure was performed in 19 episodes of bacteraemia during a 1-year period. Fourteen episodes (74%) were catheter-related and 71% of these were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Guidewire replacement was accomplished uneventfully 4 days after development of sepsis (range 3-6). In all cases, clinical signs of sepsis disappeared in less than 24 h after replacement. Definitive catheter withdrawal was carried out a median of 16 days (range 3-42) after guidewire exchange; in all cases, the tip culture was negative. We conclude that CVC replacement by guidewire under adequate antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option for the treatment of CRB when antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama. (8/3917)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed.  (+info)

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

Here are some key points to define sepsis:

1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.

Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:

1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.

Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Causes and risk factors:

The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:

* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis

Symptoms:

The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Joint pain or swelling
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds

Diagnosis:

Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart

Treatment:

The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.

Prevention:

Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.

Incidence:

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.

Complications:

Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)

Prevention:

Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:

* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.

Emerging Trends:

Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:

* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

Future Directions:

Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:

* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.

In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.

The most common types of CRIs include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the catheter and cause an infection in the bladder, kidneys, or ureters.
2. Catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CAB): This occurs when bacteria are present in the urine but do not cause symptoms.
3. Catheter-associated symptomatic urinary tract infections (CAUTI): These occur when bacteria cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, or cloudy urine.
4. Pyelonephritis: This is a type of UTI that affects the kidneys and can be life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Septicemia: This occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause a systemic infection.
6. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs): These occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause an infection.
7. Catheter-associated fungal infections: These occur when fungi grow in the urinary tract or on the catheter, causing an infection.
8. Catheter-associated viral infections: These occur when a virus infects the urinary tract or the catheter.

CRIs can be prevented by using sterile equipment, proper insertion and maintenance techniques, and regularly cleaning and disinfecting the catheter. Early detection and treatment of CRIs are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Types of Pneumococcal Infections:

1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Meningitis: This is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, which can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infection): This is an infection of the blood that can cause fever, chills, and low blood pressure.
4. Sinusitis: This is an infection of the sinuses, which can cause headache, facial pain, and difficulty breathing through the nose.
5. Otitis media (middle ear infection): This is an infection of the middle ear, which can cause ear pain, fever, and hearing loss.

Causes and Risk Factors:

Pneumococcal infections are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria can be spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching or sharing food and drinks. People who are at high risk for developing pneumococcal infections include:

1. Children under the age of 5 and adults over the age of 65.
2. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking medications that suppress the immune system.
3. Smokers and people with chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
4. People who have recently had surgery or have a severe injury.
5. Those who live in long-term care facilities or have limited access to healthcare.

Prevention and Treatment:

Preventing pneumococcal infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals. Here are some ways to prevent and treat pneumococcal infections:

1. Vaccination: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 5 and adults over the age of 65, as well as for people with certain medical conditions.
2. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of pneumococcal bacteria.
3. Good hygiene: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick and regularly cleaning surfaces that may be contaminated with bacteria can also help prevent infection.
4. Antibiotics: Pneumococcal infections can be treated with antibiotics, but overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
5. Supportive care: Those with severe pneumococcal infections may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation.

Conclusion:

Pneumococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially for high-risk individuals. Prevention and prompt treatment are key to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Vaccination, good hygiene practices, and appropriate antibiotic use are all important in preventing and treating pneumococcal infections. If you suspect that you or a loved one has a pneumococcal infection, it is essential to seek medical attention right away. With proper care and support, many people with pneumococcal infections can recover fully and resume their normal lives.

Examples of CAIs include:

1. Respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and influenza.
2. Skin and soft tissue infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, and wound infections.
3. Gastrointestinal infections such as food poisoning, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by bacteria that enter the urinary tract through the urethra or bladder.
5. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
6. Bacterial infections such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae.
7. Viral infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and norovirus.

CAIs can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or other medications depending on the cause of the infection. It's important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated CAIs can lead to serious complications and potentially life-threatening conditions.

Klebsiella Infections can occur in anyone, but certain groups of people are at higher risk, such as premature infants, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic medical conditions like diabetes, liver or kidney disease.

Symptoms of Klebsiella Infections include fever, chills, cough, difficulty breathing, painful urination, redness and swelling in the affected area, and in severe cases, sepsis and death.

Diagnosis of Klebsiella Infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urine cultures.

Treatment of Klebsiella Infections usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent it from spreading. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate care and monitoring.

Prevention of Klebsiella Infections includes good hand hygiene, proper cleaning and disinfection of equipment and surfaces, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection. Vaccines are also available for certain types of Klebsiella Infections, such as pneumonia.

Complications of Klebsiella Infections can include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and sepsis, which can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Recovery from Klebsiella Infections usually occurs within a few days to a week after antibiotic treatment is started, but in severe cases, recovery may take longer and may require hospitalization and close monitoring.

In conclusion, Klebsiella Infections are a type of bacterial infection that can affect various parts of the body, and can be mild or severe. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent complications and ensure a successful recovery. Proper hygiene practices and vaccines are also important for preventing the spread of these infections.

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1. Tuberculosis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause tuberculosis, which is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
2. Leprosy: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause leprosy, which is a chronic infectious disease that affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes.
3. Lung abscess: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause lung abscess, which is a collection of pus in the lungs that can be caused by bacterial infections.
4. Skin infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause skin infections, such as furuncles and carbuncles, which are boils that can be caused by bacterial infections.
5. Bone and joint infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause bone and joint infections, such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, which are infections of the bones and joints.
6. Endocarditis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves.
7. Meningitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
8. Osteomyelitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause osteomyelitis, which is an infection of the bones.
9. Septic arthritis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause septic arthritis, which is an infection of the joints.
10. Soft tissue infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause soft tissue infections, such as abscesses and cellulitis, which are infections of the skin and underlying tissues.

The symptoms of Actinomycetales infections vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth over the affected area. In severe cases, Actinomycetales infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and organ failure.

Actinomycetales bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, making treatment challenging. Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures. In some cases, combination therapy with antibiotics and surgery may be required to effectively treat Actinomycetales infections.

Preventive measures for Actinomycetales infections include proper hand hygiene, sterilization of medical equipment, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are at risk of developing an Actinomycetales infection. Early detection and treatment of Actinomycetales infections are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Symptoms of cellulitis may include:

* Redness and swelling of the affected area
* Warmth and tenderness to the touch
* Pain or discomfort
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Chills

If you suspect you or someone else has cellulitis, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat the infection, and early treatment can help prevent more serious complications.

Complications of untreated cellulitis may include:

* Abscesses: pockets of pus that form in the skin or underlying tissues
* Blood poisoning (sepsis): a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream
* Infection of the bones or joints
* Scarring

Prevention is key to avoiding cellulitis. Some ways to prevent cellulitis include:

* Practicing good wound care, such as keeping wounds clean and covered
* Avoiding piercings or tattoos with unsterilized equipment
* Avoiding scratches or cuts on the skin
* Keeping the skin moisturized to prevent dryness and cracking
* Avoiding tight clothing that can cause friction and irritation

Early recognition and treatment of cellulitis are essential to prevent more serious complications. If you suspect you or someone else has cellulitis, seek medical attention as soon as possible. With prompt treatment, most people with cellulitis can recover fully.

There are different types of fever, including:

1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.

The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Elevated body temperature
* Chills
* Sweating
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite

In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.

Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.

In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:

* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.

Preventive measures for fever include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.

Prevention of Salmonella Infections includes proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking foods to the correct temperature, storing foods at the right refrigerator temperature, and washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of developing severe Salmonella infections.

Complications of a Salmonella Infection can include dehydration, bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, a Salmonella infection can lead to long-term health problems such as irritable bowel syndrome or reactive arthritis.

Overall, prompt treatment and proper prevention measures are important for reducing the risk of complications from a Salmonella infection.

Some common types of Acinetobacter infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections of the bladder, kidneys, or ureters that can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
3. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause widespread inflammation. Symptoms can include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath.
4. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are infections of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.
5. Bacteremia: This is a condition in which bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause an infection.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath.

Acinetobacter infections are often caused by the bacteria entering the body through a wound or surgical incision. They can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment in healthcare settings.

Treatment of Acinetobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which may be administered intravenously or orally. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention of Acinetobacter infections is important for reducing the risk of these infections occurring in healthcare settings. This can include proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and effective cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment.

Overall, Acinetobacter infections are a significant concern in healthcare settings, and prompt recognition and treatment are critical for preventing serious complications and improving patient outcomes.

What are some ways that modern medicine has improved upon the treatment of trench fever from World War I?
Modern medicine has made significant improvements in the treatment of trench fever since World War I. Here are some of the key advancements:

1. Antibiotics: During World War I, sulfonamides were used to treat trench fever, but these drugs were not very effective and often caused allergic reactions. Today, we have a range of more effective antibiotics, such as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, which can effectively treat trench fever.

2. Supportive care: In World War I, supportive care was limited, and patients often had to endure severe symptoms with little relief. Today, supportive care has improved significantly, including the use of pain management techniques, hydration, and nutritional support to help manage symptoms and speed up recovery.

3. Diagnostic advancements: In World War I, trench fever was often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment. Today, we have more sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which can quickly and accurately diagnose trench fever.

4. Better understanding of the disease: We now know more about the bacteria that cause trench fever and how it spreads, which has led to improved prevention and control measures. This includes the use of insecticides to kill body lice and the development of vaccines to protect against Bartonella infections.

5. Improved sanitation and hygiene: Good sanitation and hygiene practices are critical in controlling the spread of trench fever. In World War I, these practices were often lacking, leading to the spread of disease. Today, we have a much greater emphasis on proper handwashing, clean water, and waste disposal, which helps reduce the risk of infection.

In conclusion, while trench fever is still a serious illness today, advances in medicine and public health have significantly improved our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat it. This has saved countless lives and reduced the impact of this disease on military personnel and civilian populations alike.

Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.

Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.

Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.

Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.

Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Epidemiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Incidence: Hib disease was once a major cause of childhood meningitis and sepsis, but the introduction of Hib vaccines in the 1980s has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease. Non-invasive Hib disease, such as otitis media, is still common.
* Prevalence: Hib is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under the age of 5 worldwide. In developed countries, the prevalence of invasive Hib disease has decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines, but it remains a significant public health problem in developing countries.
* Risk factors: young age, poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and poor sanitation and hygiene are risk factors for Hib disease. Children under the age of 5, especially those under the age of 2, are at highest risk for invasive Hib disease.

Pathophysiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Mechanisms of infection: H. influenzae can cause both respiratory and non-respiratory infections by colonizing the nasopharynx and other mucosal surfaces. The bacteria can then disseminate to other parts of the body, causing invasive disease.
* Immune response: the immune response to Hib infection involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Antibodies play a crucial role in protecting against reinfection, while T cells and macrophages help to clear the bacteria from the body.

Clinical Presentation of Haemophilus Infections:

* Respiratory infections: H. influenzae can cause various respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis. Symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
* Non-respiratory infections: Hib can cause a range of non-respiratory infections, including meningitis, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. These infections can have more severe symptoms and may require prompt medical attention.

Diagnosis of Haemophilus Infections:

* Diagnostic tests: diagnosis of Hib disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiologic studies. Blood cultures, lumbar puncture, and chest x-rays may be used to confirm the presence of the bacteria and assess the extent of infection.
* Laboratory testing: identification of Hib is based on its distinctive gram stain appearance and biochemical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing are also used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Prevention of Haemophilus Infections:

* Antibiotics: Hib infections are treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection.
* Vaccination: the Hib vaccine is recommended for children under 5 years old to prevent Hib disease. The vaccine is given in a series of 3-4 doses, with the first dose given at 2 months of age.
* Good hygiene practices: good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and proper cleaning and disinfection, can help prevent the spread of Hib bacteria.

Complications of Haemophilus Infections:

* Meningitis: Hib meningitis can have serious complications, including hearing loss, learning disabilities, and seizures.
* Permanent brain damage: Hib infections can cause permanent brain damage, including cognitive and behavioral impairments.
* Respiratory failure: severe Hib pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
* Death: Hib infections can be life-threatening, especially in young children and those with underlying medical conditions.

In conclusion, Haemophilus infections are a serious public health concern, particularly for young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention through vaccination and good hygiene practices is essential to reduce the risk of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The most common bacteria that cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria can infect the lungs through various routes, including respiratory droplets, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.

Diagnosis of pneumonia typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood cultures. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccines are also available to protect against certain types of bacterial pneumonia, particularly in children and older adults.

Preventative measures for bacterial pneumonia include:

* Getting vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying hydrated and getting enough rest
* Quitting smoking, if applicable
* Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms of pneumonia develop, particularly in high-risk populations. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial pneumonia.

Symptoms of a UTI can include:

* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men

If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.

Preventive measures for UTIs include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.

Symptoms of fungemia may include fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by drawing blood cultures and performing microbiological tests to identify the presence of fungal organisms in the blood. Treatment typically involves administration of antifungal medications, which can be given intravenously or orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

In some cases, fungemia can lead to complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these outcomes.

Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).

Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.

In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.

Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia can include fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause sepsis, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pneumococcal pneumonia is most commonly seen in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive medications. It is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and blood cultures.

Treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and other supportive care. Vaccines are also available to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, particularly in children and older adults.

Prevention measures for pneumococcal pneumonia include:

* Vaccination: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 2 and older adults over the age of 65, as well as for people with certain medical conditions.
* Good hygiene: Regular handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of the infection.
* Avoiding smoking: Smoking can damage the lungs and increase the risk of infection.
* Keeping up-to-date on recommended vaccinations: Staying current on recommended vaccinations, such as the flu shot, can help prevent secondary bacterial infections like pneumococcal pneumonia.
* Managing underlying conditions: People with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or chronic lung disease, should work with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce their risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia.

It's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of abscesses, including:

1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.

The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:

* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)

If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:

* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.

Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death.

There are several types of meningitis, including:

1. Viral meningitis: This is the most common form of the infection and is usually caused by enteroviruses or herpesviruses. It is typically less severe than bacterial meningitis and resolves on its own with supportive care.
2. Bacterial meningitis: This is a more serious form of the infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. It requires prompt antibiotic treatment to prevent long-term complications and death.
3. Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and is caused by fungi that are commonly found in the environment. It can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is rare and is caused by parasites that are typically found in tropical regions. It can be treated with antiparasitic medications.

Diagnosis of meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other conditions and to evaluate the extent of brain damage.

Treatment of meningitis depends on the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal medications, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. In severe cases, meningitis may require hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may result in long-term consequences such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, or cognitive impairment.

Prevention of meningitis includes vaccination against the bacteria or viruses that can cause the infection, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccines are available for certain types of meningitis, such as the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Good hygiene practices include washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items.

In conclusion, meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that can affect people of all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes. Prevention includes vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.



Bacteroides infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the Bacteroides genus of bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the human gut and play an important role in the digestive process, but they can also cause infections in various parts of the body.

Types of Bacteroides Infections:

1. Bacteroides fragilis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides fragilis bacterium and is typically found in the gut, skin, and respiratory tract.
2. Bacteroides vulgatus: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides vulgatus bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
3. Bacteroides caccae: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides caccae bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.
4. Bacteroides distasonis: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides distasonis bacterium and is commonly found in the gut and respiratory tract.
5. Bacteroides eggerthii: This type of infection is caused by the Bacteroides eggerthii bacterium and is typically found in the gut and skin.

Causes and Risk Factors:

Bacteroides infections can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

1. Weakened immune system: People with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs, are more susceptible to Bacteroides infections.
2. Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the skin or gut can provide an entry point for Bacteroides bacteria to enter the body and cause an infection.
3. Surgery: People who have undergone surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, are at risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
4. Contaminated medical devices: Medical devices such as catheters or implantable devices can become contaminated with Bacteroides bacteria and cause an infection.
5. Poor hygiene: Poor hygiene practices, such as not washing hands regularly or not sterilizing medical equipment, can increase the risk of developing a Bacteroides infection.
6. Smoking: Smoking can weaken the immune system and increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections.
7. Diabetes: People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the skin and soft tissues.
8. Obesity: Obesity can increase the risk of developing Bacteroides infections, particularly in the gut and respiratory tract.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of Bacteroides infections vary depending on the location of the infection and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms of Bacteroides infections include:

1. Skin infections: Redness, swelling, warmth, and pain at the site of the infection. Pus-filled abscesses may also develop.
2. Respiratory infections: Coughing, difficulty breathing, chest pain, and fever.
3. Gastrointestinal infections: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
4. Bone and joint infections: Pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb.
5. Urinary tract infections: Painful urination, frequency of urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
6. Sepsis: Fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion or disorientation.

Diagnosis:

Bacteroides infections can be difficult to diagnose because the bacteria can be found on the skin and in the gut of healthy individuals. However, there are several tests that can help healthcare providers diagnose a Bacteroides infection:

1. Blood cultures: Blood cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the bloodstream.
2. Urine cultures: Urine cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the urinary tract.
3. Surgical wound cultures: Surgical wound cultures can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides bacteria in wounds.
4. Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help healthcare providers visualize the location and extent of the infection.
5. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing: PCR testing can be used to detect the presence of Bacteroides DNA in a sample of blood or tissue.

Treatment:

The treatment of Bacteroides infections depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health. Some common treatments for Bacteroides infections include:

1. Antibiotics: Bacteroides bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, but some strains may be susceptible to certain types of antibiotics such as cefoxitin, imipenem-cilastatin, and meropenem.
2. Surgical drainage: If the infection is localized and does not respond to antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage may be necessary to remove the infected tissue or fluid.
3. Supportive care: Patients with severe Bacteroides infections may require hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and monitoring of vital signs.
4. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help restore the balance of gut flora and may be used to treat Bacteroides infections.
5. Enzyme-based therapy: Enzyme-based therapy, such as collagenase, can be used to break down the extracellular matrix that surrounds the bacteria and help eliminate them from the body.

Prevention:

Preventing Bacteroides infections is challenging, but there are some measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. These include:

1. Proper wound care: Wounds should be cleaned and covered with sterile dressings to prevent bacterial growth.
2. Good hygiene: Hands should be washed frequently, especially after contact with wounds or contaminated surfaces.
3. Proper sterilization of medical equipment: All medical equipment should be properly sterilized before use to prevent the spread of infection.
4. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of Bacteroides, such as the Bacteroides fragilis vaccine, which can help prevent infections caused by this bacterium.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Antibiotics should be used judiciously and only when necessary to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Overall, Bacteroides infections can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with appropriate management and prevention strategies, patients can recover fully. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early intervention can improve outcomes.

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S. hyicus is generally considered to not be zoonotic, however it has been shown to be able to cause bacteremia and sepsis in ... It can also cause bacteremia and sepsis in piglets which if they recover can result in poor growth that can affect them for ... Casanova C, Iselin L, von Steiger N, Droz S, Sendi P (December 2011). "Staphylococcus hyicus bacteremia in a farmer". Journal ... Foissac M, Lekaditi M, Loutfi B, Ehrhart A, Dauchy FA (September 2016). "Spondylodiscitis and bacteremia due to Staphylococcus ...
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Strep bovis is a non-enterococci.[citation needed] The main portal of entry for human infection of S. bovis bacteremia is the ... 2012). "Association between Bacteremia Due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis I) and ... White BA, Labhsetwar SA, Mian AN (November 2002). "Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and fetal death". Obstetrics and Gynecology. ...
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... In the period March 19-April 6, 1981, 3 of 5 patients at a Boston ... Clinical onset of infection ranged from 4 days to 2 weeks after surgery; 2 patients had mediastinitis in addition to bacteremia ... Over the past years, cases of bacteremia have occurred as a result of intravascular infusion of solutions contaminated by ... Editorial Note: Mediastinitis and bacteremia are not uncommon complications of cardiac surgery. In one large study, 3.4% of ...
... of the microbiology laboratory of the Imam Khomeini Hospital was reviewed to identify patients who had nosocomial bacteraemia ...
However, diagnosing bacteremia is challenging for clinicians, especially in children presenting with co-infections such as ... There is an urgent need for a rapid method for detecting bacteremia in pediatric patients with co-morbidities to inform ... The early diagnosis of bacteremia and initiation of treatment saves lives, especially in high-disease burden areas. ... and those with Staphylococcal bacteremia (n = 7) with 100% correlation with confirmatory culture. Taken together, these results ...
... with bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection occurring frequently, study data showed. “More than 8,000 allogeneic ...
Bacteremia caused by Francisella tularensis is rare and has been reported mainly in the United States and infrequently in ... Francisella tularensis bacteremia X Haristoy 1 , A Lozniewski, C Tram, D Simeon, L Bevanger, C Lion ... Francisella tularensis bacteremia X Haristoy et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jun. ... holarctica bacteraemia in an immunocompetent male. Schepens N, Verniest T, Verstreken I, Henckaerts L. Schepens N, et al. ...
... bacteremia has begun. The trial will enroll 200 adults hospitalized with complicated S. aureus infection at approximately 20 ... aureus Bacteremia (DOTS)" trial. Patients who have stabilized after initial treatment of their bacteremia will be eligible for ... S. aureus bacteremia-an infection of the blood-often requires inserting a central intravenous (IV) catheter to deliver long ... Trial of Existing Antibiotic for Treating Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Begins. NIH-Supported Trial Will Test Dalbavancin in ...
Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Monomicrobial Bacteremia in a Homeless Man Cite CITE. Title : Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica ... 2015). Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States. 21(7). Simmons, Tristan and Fennelly, Eryn and Loughran ... "Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States" vol. 21, no. 7, 2015. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... Title : Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States Personal Author(s) : Simmons, Tristan;Fennelly, Eryn; ...
Partnerships for Rapid Diagnostics and Phenotypic Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing for Bacteremia or Hospital Acquired ... The proposed diagnostic technologies must detect the target pathogen from a primary blood specimen (bacteremia) or specimens ... Partnerships for Rapid Diagnostics and Phenotypic Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing for Bacteremia or Hospital Acquired ... and corresponding phenotypic antibacterial susceptibility profiles for bacteremia or hospital acquired pneumonia. The primary ...
Methicillin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and meningitis in preterm infants Andi L Shane 1 , ... Methicillin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and meningitis in preterm infants Andi L Shane et al. ... A comparison of long-term outcomes after meticillin-resistant and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: an ... bacteraemia in England. Pearson A, Chronias A, Murray M. Pearson A, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Sep;64 Suppl 1:i11-7. ...
This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless ... Bartonella quintana Bacteremia among homeless people. Clin Infect Dis 35 :684-689. ... Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N Engl J Med 340 :184-189. ... bacteremia in homeless patients. N Engl J Med 340. :. 184. -189.. ), false ...
... in complicated bacteraemia, 60% versus 45% in uncomplicated bacteraemia and 50% versus 50% in right-sided MRSA endocarditis. ... However, in both treatment groups, success rates were lower in the elderly (≥75 years). Persisting or relapsing bacteraemia ... Success was defined as clinical improvement with clearance of bacteraemia among patients who completed adequate therapy, ... Conclusions: Daptomycin was an effective alternative to vancomycin/gentamicin for MRSA bacteraemia or right-sided endocarditis. ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Bacteremia -- epidemiology ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Bacteremia -- epidemiology ... Bacteremia -- epidemiology. Bacteremia -- etiology. Catheter-Related Infections -- epidemiology. Catheter-Related Infections ...
Bacteremia. The risk factors for GAS bacteremia vary with age. Among children younger than 2 years, risk factors include burns ... GAS bacteremia usually results from invasive GAS infection. TSS is characterized by early onset of shock and multiorgan failure ... Among individuals aged 40-60 years, the risk factors for GAS bacteremia include burns, cuts, surgical incisions, childbirth, IV ... Pain, tenderness, swelling and erythema, and systemic toxicity are common, and patients may have associated bacteremia. Careful ...
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We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the ... We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the ... We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the ... We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the ...
Bacteremia. In 46% of patients with M catarrhalis bacteremia, no primary site of infection is found. Bacteremia is rare with M ... 13] The following conditions have been found to predispose to M catarrhalis bacteremia:. * Immunodeficiency or chronic ... Thórsson B, Haraldsdóttir V, Kristjánsson M. Moraxella catarrhalis bacteraemia. A report on 3 cases and a review of the ... bacteremia, or endocarditis). Physical findings in M catarrhalis infections are similar to findings of infections with other ...
nov., a lipophilic Corynebacterium isolated from blood cultures of a patient with bacteremia. / Aravena-Roman, M.; Sproer, C; ... nov., a lipophilic Corynebacterium isolated from blood cultures of a patient with bacteremia. In: Systematic and Applied ... nov., a lipophilic Corynebacterium isolated from blood cultures of a patient with bacteremia. Systematic and Applied ... nov., a lipophilic Corynebacterium isolated from blood cultures of a patient with bacteremia, Systematic and Applied ...
In the multivariate analysis for the risk factors of bacteremia, BMI, bactibilia and age were related with bacteremia (OR: 0.76 ... In the univariate analysis, bacteremia was associated with bactibilia (OR: 4.33, p = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis for ... Association of body mass index (BMI) with bactibilia and bacteremia was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. ... The microbial culture rate of bactibilia and bacteremia were 50.4% and 21.6%, respectively. ...
... bacteremia guidelines, bacteremia guidelines idsa, bacteremia icd 10, bacteremia icd 10 code, bacteremia idsa, bacteremia ... bacteremia symptoms, bacteremia treatment, bacteremia treatment duration, bacteremia treatment guidelines, bacteremia treatment ... guidelines idsa, bacteremia vs sepsis, bacteremia vs septicemia. Background: Accelerating the diagnosis of bacteremia is one of ... bacteremia treatment guidelines idsa Leukocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 8 (LMIR8)/CLM-6 is an FcRγ-coupled receptor ...
Bacteremia following different oral procedures: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bacteremia following different oral ... The secondary outcome was the incidence of bacteremia, measuring the proportion of patients with bacteremia within 5 min after ... Peak bacteremia occurred within 5 min after the procedure and then decreased over time. Dental extractions showed the highest ... antibiotic prophylaxis; bacteraemia; cardiovascular disease; distant site infection; infective endocarditis; invasive dental ...
being the most common isolates (42.4%). Bacteremia was found to occur in a significantly higher proportion of females than ... After the exclusion of contaminant microorganisms, the prevalence of bacteremia was 11.7% in the cohort (n= 506), with ... Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in ...
There are 5 training modules that covers MRSA Bacteremia.. *MRSA 101: Provides background information on the impact MRSA has on ... Reviews conducting a needs assessment using a MRSA GPS to evaluate possible barriers to implementation of MRSA bacteremia ... Explain how the GPS assessment can be used to identify barriers to MRSA bacteremia prevention. ... Describe a tiered approach to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia prevention. ...
MAC bacteremia. In trial 155, 85 patients randomized to receive azithromycin and 89 patients randomized to receive placebo met ... In association with the decreased incidence of bacteremia, patients in the groups randomized to either azithromycin alone or ... 250 mg arm was discontinued after an interim analysis at 12 weeks showed a significantly lower clearance of bacteremia compared ...
Life-threatening bacteraemia in HIV-1 seropositive adults admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya ... Life-threatening bacteraemia in HIV-1 seropositive adults admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya ... Hepcidin regulation in Kenyan children with severe malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia ... The ferroportin Q248H mutation protects from anemia, but not malaria or bacteremia ...
Increase in bacteraemia cases in the East Midlands region of the UK due to MDREscherichia coliST73: high levels of genomic and ... Increase in bacteraemia cases in the East Midlands region of the UK due to MDREscherichia coliST73: high levels of genomic and ... Objectives: To determine the population structure of E. coli ST73 isolated from human bacteraemia and urinary tract infections. ...
Goyal SC, Singh P, Khurana S, Ram S. Bacteraemia in urological surgical procedures. Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology ...
keywords = "hemodialysis access type, renal replacement therapy, Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, Bacteremia/etiology, ... Increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis-A nationwide study. Mavish S. Chaudry*, Gunnar H. Gislason, ... Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a high-risk infection and feared complication related to hemodialysis. ... Increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis-A nationwide study. / Chaudry, Mavish S.; Gislason, Gunnar H ...
  • A clinical trial to test the antibiotic dalbavancin for safety and efficacy in treating complicated Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) bacteremia has begun. (nih.gov)
  • Data are limited on the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on morbidity and mortality among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with S aureus (SA) bacteremia and/or meningitis (B/M). (nih.gov)
  • Objectives: In a prospective, randomized trial, daptomycin was non-inferior to standard therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and right-sided endocarditis. (harvard.edu)
  • Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a high-risk infection and feared complication related to hemodialysis. (regsj.dk)
  • Lack of correlation of virulence gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia isolates with mortality. (siftdesk.org)
  • Clusters of postoperative mediastinitis and bacteremia caused by a single strain of bacteria do sometimes occur, although the source of infection for the clusters is not often identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteremia, the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream, can be either asymptomatic or associated with actively multiplying organisms causing life-threatening infection or sepsis 1 . (nature.com)
  • The antibiotic dalbavancin has strong activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus , which suggests it could be an effective treatment for S. aureus bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • Septicemia is bacteria in the blood ( bacteremia ) that often occurs with severe infections. (nih.gov)
  • Two bacteria from this group (Sphingobacterium multivorum and Sphingobacterium spiritivorum) have been shown to be associated most with bacteremia, peritonitis and respiratory infection in patients with severe underlying diseases [5] , but to our knowledge, there are very few case reports on infections with Sphingobacterium thalpophilum in the immunocompetent host. (ispub.com)
  • The early diagnosis of bacteremia and initiation of treatment saves lives, especially in high-disease burden areas. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate the significance of biochemistry in both our understanding of host-pathogen biology, and development of assay methodology, as well as demonstrate a potential new approach for the rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of bacteremia at the point of need. (nature.com)
  • Background: Accelerating the diagnosis of bacteremia is one of the biggest challenges in clinical microbiology departments. (antibody-tech.com)
  • S. aureus bacteremia-an infection of the blood-often requires inserting a central intravenous (IV) catheter to deliver long courses of antibiotics, an invasive procedure that can involve long-term care in healthcare facilities. (nih.gov)
  • If the two-dose regimen being tested in this trial proves effective, it could lead to a shorter, less invasive treatment for S. aureus bacteremia that does not require an indwelling IV access for daily therapy. (nih.gov)
  • It is called the "Dalbavancin as an Option for Treatment of S. aureus Bacteremia (DOTS)" trial. (nih.gov)
  • Here, virulence genes in S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) isolates were evaluated by WGS, with superantigens (SAgs) further evaluated by conventional PCR and functional assays, and results correlated with mortality. (siftdesk.org)
  • Population-based incidence and etiology of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: an observational study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • S. pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, paranasal sinusitis, bacteremia, and meningitis (16). (keywen.com)
  • Epidemiology and prevention by vaccination of pneumococcal bacteraemia and meningitis in splenectomized children / Freddy Karup Pedersen. (who.int)
  • 2 patients had mediastinitis in addition to bacteremia. (cdc.gov)
  • There is an urgent need for a rapid method for detecting bacteremia in pediatric patients with co-morbidities to inform treatment. (nature.com)
  • In this manuscript, we also demonstrate the application of these methods for the detection of LPS in serum from pediatric patients with invasive Salmonella Typhimurium bacteremia (n = 7) and those with Staphylococcal bacteremia (n = 7) with 100% correlation with confirmatory culture. (nature.com)
  • Patients who have stabilized after initial treatment of their bacteremia will be eligible for enrollment in this study. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. (ajtmh.org)
  • Since rates of infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection are increasing and treatment outcomes for bacteraemia caused by MRSA are generally worse than those observed with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteraemia, clinical characteristics and treatment results in the trial's pre-specified subset of patients with MRSA were analysed. (harvard.edu)
  • Success was defined as clinical improvement with clearance of bacteraemia among patients who completed adequate therapy, received no potentially effective non-study antibiotics and had negative blood cultures 6 weeks after end of therapy. (harvard.edu)
  • In 46% of patients with M catarrhalis bacteremia, no primary site of infection is found. (medscape.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the most common subspecies. (lu.se)
  • We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of bacteraemia, and proportion of patients with IE in bacteraemia with the most common subspecies.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of SBSEC-bacteraemia identified in clinical laboratory databases, in Sk{\aa}ne Region, Sweden, 2003-2018. (lu.se)
  • The secondary outcome was the incidence of bacteremia , measuring the proportion of patients with bacteremia within 5 min after the end of the procedure compared with baseline. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n= 585 patients) were investigated at a rural hospital in western Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • This study presents three cases of Ralstonia bacteraemia among chronic kidney disease patients in a haemodialysis unit in Baguio City, the Philippines. (who.int)
  • 1. Clinical and Microbiological Analysis of Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Comparing the Outcomes of Patients With Carbapenemase-Producing and Non-Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Comparing mortality in patients with carbapenemase-producing carbapenem resistant Enterobacterales and non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem resistant Enterobacterales bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Clinical impact of cefepime breakpoint in patients with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia. (nih.gov)
  • The history typically suggests the type of infection present (eg, upper respiratory tract infection [URTI], lower respiratory tract infection [LRTI], bacteremia, or endocarditis). (medscape.com)
  • To evaluate the timing, duration and incidence of bacteremia following invasive dental procedures (IDPs) or activities of daily living ( ADL ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacteremia is rare with M catarrhalis community-acquired pneumonia . (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of SBSEC-bacteraemia identified in clinical laboratory databases, in Skåne Region, Sweden, 2003-2018. (lu.se)
  • However, diagnosing bacteremia is challenging for clinicians, especially in children presenting with co-infections such as malaria and HIV. (nature.com)
  • Objectives: To determine the population structure of E. coli ST73 isolated from human bacteraemia and urinary tract infections. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • The risk of bias was assessed by RoB 2.0 and ROBINS -I. For the meta-analysis , the primary outcomes were the timing and duration of bacteremia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support research projects focused on development and/or production of medical diagnostics that permit rapid differential species identification, and corresponding phenotypic antibacterial susceptibility profiles for bacteremia or hospital acquired pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • We estimated the incidence and pattern of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pathogens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our study had for aim to determine the part of multiresistant strains in bacteremia cases in the Teaching Hospital of Fann. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leukopenia and low platelet counts characterized the late stage of bacteremia for both strains, but only K. pneumoniae altered renal function. (keywen.com)
  • RESULTS: The incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia was 3.0 per 1000 person-neonatal periods. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: S. aureus was the most common pathogen to cause community-acquired neonatal bacteremia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this manuscript, we have developed and clinically validated a novel method for the direct detection of amphiphilic pathogen biomarkers indicative of bacteremia, directly in aqueous blood, by mimicking innate immune recognition. (nature.com)
  • Success rates for daptomycin versus vancomycin/gentamicin were 45% versus 27% in complicated bacteraemia, 60% versus 45% in uncomplicated bacteraemia and 50% versus 50% in right-sided MRSA endocarditis. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: Daptomycin was an effective alternative to vancomycin/gentamicin for MRSA bacteraemia or right-sided endocarditis. (harvard.edu)
  • 15. Treatment Outcome of Bacteremia Due to Non-Carbapenemase-producing Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia: Role of Carbapenem Combination Therapy. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: The proportion of IE in SBSEC-bacteraemia varies substantially depending on subspecies. (lu.se)
  • Bacteremia was found to occur in a significantly higher proportion of females than males and was associated with elevated blood glucose concentrations and lowered malaria parasite and hemoglobin (Hb) levels compared to those in abacteremic participants. (ac.ke)
  • Bacteremia is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa where childhood mortality rates are the highest in the world. (nature.com)
  • 14. [Bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum betalactamases: mortality and readmission-related factors]. (nih.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Mediastinitis and bacteremia are not uncommon complications of cardiac surgery. (cdc.gov)
  • 12. Comparative effectiveness of flomoxef versus carbapenems in the treatment of bacteraemia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae with emphasis on minimum inhibitory concentration of flomoxef: a retrospective study. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Ceftazidime-Avibactam Is Superior to Other Treatment Regimens against Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • Rothia dentocariosa bacteremia in children: report of two cases and review of the literature. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • We report two cases of R. dentocariosa bacteremia, including an 8-month-old boy with repaired transposition of the great arteries, and a healthy 20-month-old girl with herpangina. (ntu.edu.tw)
  • 3. Appropriate non-carbapenems are not inferior to carbapenems as initial empirical therapy for bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: a propensity score weighted multicenter cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteremia following different oral procedures: Systematic review and meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacteremia caused by Francisella tularensis is rare and has been reported mainly in the United States and infrequently in Europe. (nih.gov)
  • Toothbrushing , flossing, and chewing also caused bacteremia in lower frequency. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental extractions, SRP and OHP, are associated with the highest frequency of bacteremia . (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: In total, 210 episodes of SBSEC-bacteraemia were included. (lu.se)
  • Medical charts were reviewed according to a predetermined protocol, IE was defined by the criteria from European Society of Cardiology.RESULTS: In total, 210 episodes of SBSEC-bacteraemia were included. (lu.se)